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GENERATORS.

ELECTRIC

BY

HORACE

FIELD

HENRY

PARSHALL

METCALFE

HOBART.

LONDON
OFFICES

OF

"ENGINEERING,"

35

36,

AND

NEW
JOHN

WILEY

AND

SONS,

BEDFORD

STREET,

YORK:

43,

EAST

NINETEENTH

1900.

[All rights reserved.]

STREET.

STRAND,

W.C.

"x*.

85388

[Fro?n

DR.

JOHN

HOPKINSON,

F.R.S.

photograph

by

Elliott

and

Fry

THIS

THE

BOOK

IS

LATE

THE

OF

FOUNDER

OF

PERMISSION,

HOPKINSON,

JOHN

DR.

SCIENCE

BY

DEDICATED,

DYNAMO

F.R.S.,

THE

DESIGN."

OF

TABLE

CONTENTS.

PAET

I.
PAGE

MATERIALS

1
...

TESTING

...

...

...

MATERIALS

OF

1
...

...

Conductirity
meability

"

Hysteresis

and

Ballistic

...

Method

Ring

"

Conversion

"

of

Units

Fields

Methods

of

Measuring

"

Losses

Hysteresis

"

Rotating

Per

Galvanometer

"

Galvanometer

Other
"

Ballistic

Requiring

not

Loss

Hysteresis

Loss

Testers.

Hysteresis

"

PROPERTIES

...

Tests

Methods
"

of

Alternating

without

...

Permeability

Tests
Methods

Testing

Determination
in

...

MATERIALS

OP

14
...

The

Magnetisation

of

...

and

Iron

Steel

Cast

Iron

Malleable

"

Cast

Iron

"
"

Cast

Steel

Mitis

Iron

Nickel

"

ENERGY

LOSSES

.Steel

"

SHEET

IN

Forgings.

"

IRON

28
...

Annealing

of

...

of

Deterioration

Sheet

Iron

"

Hysteresis

"

Iron

Sheet

Loss

of

Pressure

"

Current

Eddy

"

Effect

Losses

Estimation

of

Armature

Core

"

Losses.

INSULATING

MATERIALS

38
...

Effect

of

Insulation

...

Temperature

for

...

of

of

Description

Test

Methods

of

"
"

of

Description

"

Factories

Method

Tests

...

Resistance

"

Insulation

making

upon

Methods

Testing

...

Insulation

Transformer

for

Coils.

Insulating

WINDINGS

ARMATURE

GO
...

Continuous

...

Current

...

Armature

Windings

Windings

"

Multiple-Circuit

Two-Circuit

Rotary
Motor

FORMULAE

Windings
Converters
"

Single

"

"

Multiple

Current

Windings

Windings

"

Windings

Alternating

Ring

"

Two-Circuit

Windings

Windings

for

Windings

"

for

Windings

Armature

Drum
"

Formula
"

Induction
"

Windings.

FOR

ELECTROMOTIVE

FORCE

78
...

Continuous-Current
E.M.F.
E.M.F.
Phase
in

Assumed
and

Rotary

Transformers.

of

Dynamos
to

Magnetic

be

Sine

"

Alternating-Current
of

Values

Dynamos
K

for

Various

Curve

of

"

Waves

of

"

Flux

Converters

"

Wave

Distribution

Polyphase

in

Gap

"

Rotary

Electromotive

Machines
"

Converters

Three"

Force

and

Flux

Table

viii

Contents.

of

PAGE

THERMAL

LIMIT

90

OUTPUT

OF

Magnets
Losses

C2R

"

due

Useful

to

Hysteresis

Loss

Dynamos,

Constant

"

Cores

in

Internal

and

Currents

in

Potential

Surface
the

and

Heating

"

...

...

...

Armatures

"

Coils

Heat

"

Currents

Foucault

"

Motors,

Railway

Heating

Commutator

"

of

Temperature

Conductors

Efficiency of

Dynamos

"""

"""

"

Arc

Friction

"

Loss.
DESIGN

OF

MAGNETIC

THE

115

CIRCUIT
...

...

Coefficient

Leakage
Reluctance

of

Reluctance

of Core

Field

Shunt-

the
CONSTANT

Wound

Dynamo

Transformer

of

Number

Windings

of

Output

"

for

Circuit

of

Examples.

"

143
...

of the

Reaction

Commutation

in

Coil

Inductance

to

Two

Calculation

of the
COMMUTATING

POTENTIAL,

Extreme
of

Voltage
Constants

the

per
"

Tests

Experimental

Reactance

the

Two-Circuit

"

"

Inductance

of

Description

"

Windings
"

to

Determination

"

Multiple-CircuitWindings

"

...

Considerations

Armature

Two-Circuit

"

Inductance

CONSTANT

Dynamo

Magnetic

"

"

Spool Winding

Motor

Fundamental

of

Related

as

of

MODERN

OF

of

Sparkless

Windings

Illustrations

"

of

DYNAMOS

to

Given

Definition

Inductance
DESCRIPTION

for

Segment

Practical

Circuits

Induction

of the

Influence

"

essential

Multiple

Commutator

of

"

Reluctance

Gap

Circuit

Magnetic

Calculation

to

Application

"

Dynamos

Poles

"

of

...

Reluctance

Gap

...

Reaction

Conditions

"

Circuit

CONTINUOUS-CURRENT

Armature

Proportioning

for

Typical Magnetic

"

Magnetic

"

POTENTIAL,

Cases-

Application

"

Air

"

Estimation

"

Calculation

Projections"

Formula

Winding

Circuit

Magnetic

Complete

...

...

Reluctance

Core

Armature

"

of

Voltage.

DYNAMOS

179
...

1,500-Kilowatt,
200-

GOO-

Volt, Railway

LOSSES

Power

...

190
...

201
...

...

Generator

215

COMMUTATING

...

MACHINES
...

ELECTRIC

TRACTION

...

...

of

of

Horse-

27

of

Draw-Bar

Pull

Miles

at

an

Armature

of

...

Draw-Bar

Pull
233

...

Motor

of 640

Gearless

for

Revolutions

Locomotive

Miles

per

per

Motor

Hour,

on

42-in.

...

Rated

Output

Minute

242
...

for

Rated

Wheels

256
...

GEAR

Resistance

268
of

...

Brushes

"

...

Brushes

of

...

Various

...

Materials, Copper,

Graphite.

PART
ROTARY

...

Rated

...

Railway
Speed

1,840 Ib., at 23.8

for

Hour

per

...

Contact

Carbon,

...

232

...

Motor

Geared

Horse-Power,

BRUSH

AND

Geared

Horse-Power

117

Power

of 11.4

Speed

Horse-Power,

Description

COMMUTATORS

24

Ib. at

Description
of 27

228

...

MOTORS

Description
of 800

...

...

MULTIPOLAR

IN

...

...

125-Volt, Lighting Generator

watt,

250-Kilowatt, 550-Volt,
CORE

179

Generator

Kilowatt, 500-Volt, Railway

300-Kilo

Generator

II.

CONVERTERS
...

C2R

Rotary

Loss

...

Armature

Converters"

Six-Phase

Rotaries

Converters"

Design

in

for

Windings
"

Four-Phase
a

283

...

Conductors
for

Rotary
Rotary Converters

Interconnection

Rotary

...

of

of

Static

Converters

Six-Phase, 400-Kilowatt,

"

Converters
"

Three-Phase

Transformers

Twelve-Phase

"

Single-Phase
Rotaries
and

Rotary
Rotary Converters.

25-Cycle, 600- Volt, Rotary

Converter

311
...

Table

of

Contents.

ix

PAGE

Calculations

Tabulated

Specifications

and

for

900

Three

Kilowatt,

Phase,
-

Converter

Kotary

329
...

The

of

Starting

...

...

...

of

Running

Adjusting
for

Rotary

...

Converter

Rotary

of

Wound

of

...

...

Converters

Rotary

351

...

Wound

...

...

...

363

Rotary
...

...

...

...

...

...

365

Rotary
...

Rotary

...

Curves

...

Series-

...

362
...

Compound-

...

Effect

"

Surging

346

Systems

351

Characteristic

Phase

...

...

Converters
...

"

...

345

in

Ratio

Voltage

Conditions

Predetermination

...

Converters

Rotary

...

Methods

...

340
...

Synchronising

...

Converters

Rotary

Without

Field

...

365

Excitation
...

...

...

367

APPENDIX
...

...

Tables

Iron

at

of

High

...

of

Properties

...

Copper

Wire

of

...

Various

...

Curve

Gauges

for

Sheet

"

Curve

Densities

of

Properties

of

Various

Metallic

Materials.

"

INDEX

373

ERRATA.

Page

1,

Page

201,

Page

230.

For

Page

255.

For

line

For

9.

tenth

"

line

in

the

from

bottom.

Table

"

"

metallic

For

LXIX."

"in

"

heading,

Table

magnetic."

the

190

"Figs.

read

the

read

to

193

"

read

207

"Figs.

to

210."

XLIX."

Horse-Power

"27

Geared

Motor,"

Railway

page

"117

Page

296.

For

the

Winding."

Horse-Power

title

Motor."

Railway

of

Fig.

372,

for

"Two-Circuit

Winding"

read

"Six-Circuit

read

LIST

ILLUSTRATIONS.

OF

PIG.

Permeability

Bridge

Permeability

Bridge

Cyclic

Curve

Sample

for

6
...

...

Sheet

Hysteresis

Hysteresis

...

...

to

...

Magnetic

11

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

12
...

13
...

15
for

Curves

Magnetic

Curves

13

Mixtures

of

Magnetic

Curves

Cast

for

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Iron

19

Malleable

Iron

Steel

and

Cast

21

Iron

21
...

15

...

...

Tester

12

and

...

...

...

...

14

...

Tester

Tester

Hysteresis
11

...

...

...

Tester

Hysteresis

...

Iron
...

...

8
...

of

...

Cast

for

...

...

...

Steel

21
...

16

Magnetic

Curves

for

Cast

Steel

20

Magnetic

Curves

for

Mitis

Iron

21

Magnetic

Curves

for

Nickel

to

19

...

23
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

26

Steel

26
...

22

Magnetic

Curves

for

Wrought-Iron

23

Magnetic

Curves

for

Steel

24

Magnetic

Curves

for

25

Effect

26

"

and

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Forgings

and

26

Iron

Wrought

Forgings

...

Steel

26

Castings

28
...

of

Temperature

Annealing

of

Hysteresis

on

Loss

in

Sheet

...

30

Iron
...

"

Ageing

Curves

for

Open-Hearth

Basic,

Steel

30
...

27

"

28

"

"

Curves

for

Acid,

Open-Hearth

"

Curves

for

Sheet

Iron

Ageing
Ageing

Steel

to

32

"

"

Ageing

Curves

for

Sheet

and

34

Effect

of

Curves

35

Pressure

for

in

Sheet

36

Curves

Characteristic

for

...

Iron

33
...

in

Loss

Hysteresis

Sheet
in

Loss

Eddy-Current

34

Sheet

Resistance

...

Iron

34
...

Insulation

for

Curve

...

and

39

Transformer

for

Insulation

...

Cloth

43
...

38

...

Iron
...

37

...

32
...

Loss

Hysteresis

upon

...

...

Iron
...

33

...

...

30
...

...

29

30

...

Tests

43
...

40

to

44

for

Apparatus

Insulation

Tests

44
...

Circuit

45

Connections

for

Insulation

48

Tests
...

46

to

51

Insulation

Curves

for

"

52

to

57

Insulation

Curves

for

"Mica

58

to

63

Insulation

Curves

for

...

"

Mica-Canvas

Long-cloth

"

...

48

and

49

50

and

51

...

64

to

69

Curves

Insulation

for

"

Shellac'd

"Red

Paper"

54

Paper"

56
...

70

Gramme

71

Multiple-Circuit,

Ring

Winding

with

...

Commutator

Lateral

61
...

72

Six

Circuit,

Double

Drum

...

Winding

64
...

...

...

...

...

...

65

Winding
...

List

xii

Illustrations.

of

PAGE

FIG.

73

Two-Circuit,

Single Winding
Double

74

Two-Circuit,

75

Two-Circuit

76

Six-Circuit

77

Urn-Coil

Winding

74

Single-Phase Winding

79

Multi-Coil

80

Y-Connected,

81

A-Connected,

Three-Phase

82

Three-Phase,

Non-Overlapping,

Three-Phase

Quarter-Phase

84
87

to

Induction
of

Types

88
89
91

Form

74
...

96

to

and

97
99

98
112

to

74

76
84
...

Field

Field

Tests

of

Thermal

Tests

of

Thermal

Tests

of Influence

Slot

of

of Rate

Curve

of

...

...

...

...

125

Diagram
Sheet

126

to

Iron

Tooth

127
128

for

137

of Heat
of

Resistance

Diagrams

Density

for

Correction

and

"""

...

...

Projections

123
...

...

...

...

126
...

...

...

Curves

Saturation

129

Transformer
in Transformer

of

...

137

Motor

Resultant

...

...

Force

Magnetomotive

in

Diagrams
Curves

Induction
and

138
of

of

Distorting

and

Effects

Demagnetising

Distribution

Gap

of

of Armature

with

Flux

Magnetic

Various

147

Current
Leads

of
148

Brushes
...

148

to

160

161
162
167

to

and

Diagrams
Diagram

166
168

and

Curves

...

...

of Armature

...

...

161

Inductance...

to

of

Saturation

IllustratingReactance
1,500
and

Kilowatt

...

Railway

Compounding

175

Calculations
...

181

Generator

to

Curves

of

1,500

Kilowatt

Railway
188

...

to

183

Drawings

184

to

188

Results

189

to

206

Drawings

207

to

210

Curves

of 200-Kilowatt

of Tests

...

Railway

of 200-Kilowatt

of 300-Kilowatt

of Results

185

...

Generator
169

174

...

for

Drawings

139

...

...

146

136

Cores

in Transformer
...

Distribution

136

Cores
...

Loss

Calculating Eddy-Current
of Induction

...

...

...

Loss

Motors
to

134
137

Curves

147

to

...

of

Circuit

...

126

their

140

144

Tem

120

...

of

Various

Curves

Circuits

Calculating Hysteresis

Curves

...

at

...

Curve

Magnetic

110

Resistance

...

of Core

...

Typical Magnetic

for

108

Densities

High

139

143

Copper by
Transformer

Dynamos

Circuit

and

in

...

IllustratingReluctance

Magnetic

142

Armature

...

of

138

141

Motor

Railway

and

106

HO

Curves

for

95
101
105

...

Factor

Leakage

in

to

...

...

...

of Generation

Insulation

96

Rise

Temperature

on

Alternator

Loss

and

...

...

Peripheral Speed

of

...

94

Spool

Core

to

94

Spool

Large

peratures
124

...

87

Thermal

Curves

to

86

Curves
...

118

119

76

...

Characteristic

117

116

76
Coils

of

8 Sets

and

Poles

Curves

Factor

Relating

to

"""

Coils

12

...

10

Windings

Curves

114

Field

Winding

Armature

113

14

with
"""

...

...

and

Poles

10

...

92

Winding,

Pitch

Fractional

Coils

Armature,

Converter

Rotary

and

74
...

Winding

Armature

Motor

...

Winding

Armature,

74

Slots

Parallel

74

Single-Phase Winding

21

72
...

...

with

Uni-Coil

and

...

Converter

Rotary

Single-PhaseWinding

Three-Phase

71

Converter

Rotary

for Three-Phase
for Three-Phase

78

83

90

Winding

Winding

Poles

85

67

of Tests

...

Generator

...

191

to

196

...

Railway

Lighting
of

...

Generator

202
...

Generator

300-Kilowatt

204
...

Lighting

to

213

...

Generator

213
...

List

of

Xlll

PAGE

FIG.

211
234

to

233

to

236

and

237

Drawings

of 250-Kilowatt

Characteristic

216

Curves

of 250-Kilowatt

Electric

Curve

for

Core

to

226

...

Generator

and

227

228

...

238

and

Diagram

to

254

Drawings

255

to

258

Characteristic

259

to

277

Drawings

283

to

319

Drawings

320

to

323

Characteristic

331

Commutators

Corn-

Multipolar

of 24

Horse-

of 27

Curves

of

Power

Geared

117

for Traction

Railway

240

to

250

Motor

240
...

242

Railway

Motor

250

Motor

Railway

and

253

to

251
264

...

Gearless

Horse-Power

to

...

Geared

Gearless

234

Motor

Railway

Horse-Power

...

Motor

Railway

Geared

Horse-Power

of 117

...

...

Geared

Horse-Power

Curves

Characteristic

to

in

229

Horse-Power
Curves

284

Losses

...

of 27

278

Calculating

Machines

of 24

239

to

Generator
...

mutating

324

Electric

Motor

Railway

265
...

Motors

268

and

269

269

and

270

...

332

to

340

Commutators

for Traction

Generators
...

...

341
342

to

346

Curves

347

to

352

Brush

353

and

of

Diagram

354

of

Properties

Holders

for

Brush

Carbon

for

Arrangements

Contact

Measuring

of Commutator

for Small

Holder

for Traction

Launch

275

Motors

to

358

Carbon

Brush

Holder

for

Holders

...

for Generators

liss Reactance

360

and

361

Bay

362

and

363

Brush

and

364

365

Gauze

Copper

Holder

Carbon

for

...

...

Holder

Constructed

of

279
...

Stamped

...

279

Parts
...

...

Brushes

279
...

Curves

Sine

366

of

367

Diagrams

and

369

of

381

371

Two-Circuit
Six-Circuit

373

Six-Circuit

374

Two-Circuit

375

Two-Circuit

376

Six-Circuit

377

Two-Circuit

Current

Values

Line

in

...

Rotary

and

Singly

of

...

Windings

of

Re-Entrant

of Static
"

Double-Delta

Three-Phase

295
...

...

296

Single-Phase Rotary

Six-Phase

of Six-Phase

Connection

and

"

"

299

Rotary

...

...

...

...

301

Rotary

Diametrical

...

for Six-Phase

Three-Phase

and

...

300

Rotary

Transformers

...

298

Rotary

and

...

for Three-Phase

Triple Winding

...

297

Rotary

for Six-Phase

Re-Entrant

...

Rotary

Triple Winding
for

Single.Winding

Inter-Connection

289

...

...

for Three-Phase

Single Winding

380

and

296

Re-Entrant

Comparison

...

288

for

Triple Winding
for

Single Winding

Diagrammatic

Winding

...

Single Winding

Singly

...

Single-Phase Rotary

Single Winding

Singly

...

Converter

for

Single Winding

379

"

Phases
...

287
...

of

Two-Circuit

382

...

Converter

378

and

Three

in

286

Developed Diagrams

372

Values

...

Instantaneous

Two-Circuit

370

Current

...

Rotary
368

Instantaneous

...

Converter

Rotary

278
278

...

...

Holder

and

276
...

Brush
...

Brush

274
276
276

...

359

and

Motor...
...

355

to

...

...

Brushes

271

271

Brushes

Carbon

Radial

of Brushes

Resistance

302

Rotary

...

303

Windings

...

Converter

304
.

Connection

305
...

383

Six-Phase

Switchboard

384

Six-Circuit

307
...

Single Winding

for

Four-Phase

Rotary

386

Two-Circuit

Triple Winding

for

Four-Phase

Rotary

Diagrammatical

394
396

and
to

and
to

389
393
395
398

Connection

Drawings
Curves

Representation

...

for Twelve-Phase

Diagrams
of Six-Phase

400-Kilowatt
400-Kilowatt

of Three-Phase

Conditions

in

...

...

309
...

310
...

Four-Phase

...

Rotary
310

Winding

of Six-Phase

Drawings

of

308

Rotary

Two-Circuit

Converter

390

...

Four-Phase

385

387

388

...

for

Single Winding

...

Converter

Rotary
Rotary

...

...

311
...

...

313
...

Rotary

315

...

316

Rotary

900-Kilowatt

to

...

331

and

332

List

XIV

Illustrations.

of

PAGE

FIG.

399

to

402

Curves

Characteristic

of

Three-Phase

Rotary

900-Kilowatt

333
...

Connections

of

Diagram

403

for

Starting

Converter

Rotary

Compensator

by

Method

341
...

...

404

and

405

of

Methods

Synchronising

Converters

Rotary

343
...

406

to

408

Three-Pole,

2,000

Switch

330-Volt

Ampere,

...

...

Converters

Rotary

for

344

of

Diagram

409

the

for

Connections

Ratio

Voltage

for

of

Diagram

410

Connections

Converter

by

System

the

Controlling

an

Auxiliary

Booster

Controlling

the

...

Voltage

...

Ratio

in

Rotary
348

...

411

Diagram

412

Combined

413

Combined

of

of

for

Connections

System

Converter

Rotary

by

345

347
...

for

and

Controlling

Converters

Rotary

in

Regulators

Induction

Using

Voltage

...

on

Portion

Booster

Auxiliary

an

Ratio

349
...

and

Converter

Rotary

Series

Booster

350
...

Converter

Rotary
Giving

Adjustable

and

Synchronous

Auxiliary

to

418

Curves

Characteristic

Phase

for

Ratio

Voltage

350
...

414

..

Motor

of

...

...

Converters

Rotary

354

to

357

...

419

and

420

of

Distribution

Resultant

Surface

Armature

Magnetomotive

Armature

of

Converter

Rotary

Force

the

over

and

358

359

...

421

Curves

of

422

Curves

of

423

Curve

Series-

Wound

Rotary

363
...

for

without

Rotary

Sheet

Iron

at

Field

High

...

...

...

...

Excitation

Densities

364

372

LIST

OF

TABLES.

TABLE

PAGE

I.

Data

of

Ten

First-Quality

Data

of

Ten

Second-Quality

Data

of

Twelve

of

Samples

Cast

Steel

22
...

II.
III.

of

Samples

of

Samples
Mitis

Cast

24

of

Analyses

of

Samples

Sheet

Iron

Results

of

Tests

"

Ageing

"

on

and

of

VII.

Properties
Preece's

of

Iron

Tests

of

Steel,

and
Annealed

Steel

27
...

Influence

of

Carbon

31

Special

with

Reference

to

Influence

of

Silicon

Influence

of

Manganese

...

Specific

Resistance

36

Wire

Iron

Specific

on

...

...

36
...

...

VIII.

...

Iron
...

VI.

...

...

24

...

V.

...

Iron
...

IV.

...

...

Steel

Resistance

of

...

Steel

37
...

IX.

Specific

on

Resistance

of

Steel

37
...

X.

Specific

on

Resistance

Steel

of

38
...

XI.

Puncturing

Voltage

of

Composite

White

Mica

38
...

...

XII.

Insulation

Tests

Sheets

on

of

Leatheroid

39
...

XIII.

Summary

of

Qualities

of

42
...

...

XIV.

Insulation

Tests

on

Insulation

Tests

on

Mica

"

"Mica

...

"

Canvas

47
...

...

XV.

...

Materials

Insulating

...

...

Long-Cloth"

52
...

XVI.

Insulation

Tests

on

Shellac'd

XVII.

Insulation

Tests

on

Red

XVIII.

Subdivision

of

53

Paper
...

...

...

...

for

Windings

55

XX.

Drum

...

Rotary

...

...

70
80

Constants

Winding

Correction

...

Converters
...

XIX.

...

...

Paper

...

for

Factors

of

Voltage

...

...

81

Windings

Distributed

...

...

XXI.

Values

for

XXII.

Values

XXIII.

Values

for

Various

Calculations

E.M.F.

in

E.M.F.

in

Pole

for

with

Windings,

83

Arcs
...

E.M.F.

in

for

...

...

...

Calculations

Windings

with

Per

Various

Spread

centages
XXIV.

82

Windings

Multi-Coil

for

Calculations

...

for

Multi-Coil

Values

for

Voltage

Ratio

for

Single

XXV.

Values

for

Voltage

Ratio

for

Three-Phase

XXVI.

Values

of

Number

of

Turns

in

and

Quarter-Phase

Series

Rotary

85
85
...

Collector

between

Converters

Converters

Rotary

Rings

in

Rotary
87

Converters
...

XXVII.

for

Values

Form

...

...

Factor

88
...

XXVIII.

Values

for

Form

Factor

89
...

XXIX.

Correction

Temperature

Coefficients

for

102

Copper
...

XXX.

Current

Densities

Generation
XXXI.

Magnetic
of

XXXII.

Current

Flux
Generation
Densities

in
of

Heat

in

Densities
of
in

and

Copper

in
Heat

Various

Watts
Sheet
in

Watts

Types

Corresponding

...

...

Specific

Rates

of
108

Pound

per

...

and

Iron,
per
of

Corresponding

...

...

Specific

Rates
109

Pound

Apparatus

...

...

...

109
...

...

List

xvi

of

Tables.

PAGE
TABLE

of

125

Projections

Calculation

of

XXXIV.

Calculation

of

Reluctance

of

Core

Projections

Calculation

of

Reluctance

of

Core

Projections

XXXV.

Reluctance

Core

XXXIII.

125
125
149

XXXVI.

Test

of

Reaction

Armature

160
Inductance

Tests

Inductance

Tests

Inductance

Tests

Inductance

Tests

Inductance

Tests

Inductance

Tests

XLIII.

Inductance

Tests

XLIV.

Inductance

Tests

Inductance

Tests

XXXVII.

162
XXXVIII.

162
XXXIX.
XL.
XLI.
XLII.

XLV.
XLVI.
VII.

XL
XLVIII.

Inductance

Tests

Inductance

Tests

Inductance

Tests

Core

XLIX.
L.
LI.
LII.
II.

LI
LIV.

LV.

Tests

162
163
164
165
167
167
168
168
171
230

Results

Loss

and

Graphite

on

Carbon

280

Brushes

Output

of

Rotary

Converters

284

Output

of

Rotary

Converters

285

Armature

C2R

Loss

in

Rotary

Converters

290

Armature

C'2R

Loss

in

Rotary

Converters

292

Armature

C-R

Loss

in

Rotary

Converters

294

APPENDIX.

LVI.
LVII.
LVIII.

Table

of

Table

of

Table

of

Properties

of

Copper

Wire

B.

and

Properties

Copper

Wire"

Properties

of

Copper

Wire

S.
B.

W.
W.

"

LIX.

Physical

and

Electrical

S.

"

of

Properties

of

Various

G.
G.

Gauge

367

Gauge

368
369

Gauge

Metals

and

Alloys

370

xviii

Preface.

without

become

alternatina-

and

currents

understand

to

has

deal

to

engineers began

with
How-

self-induction.

effects of

the

commutation

of

theory

electrical

since

understood

better

The

efficiency.

the

diminishing

owing

ever,

obtained

in

this

In

will

work

found

be

with

familiar

certainty,from

the

results, and

such

commutation

of

numerical

with

can,

machines.

comparative

machines

given, design

dimensions

and

designs.

new

representativecommutating

from

theory

values

the

of

statement

preparation of

basis for the

the

experimentallyobtained

values
One

be

practicemust

results, data

final

affectingthe

variables

of

number

the

to

with

satisfactorycommutating properties.
third

The

Output," that

of

Limit

fairlysaid

be

dynamo

of

still a matter

found
from

the

losses

iron

the

made

tests

mechanical

processes

measure

to

to be

greater

If

the

of

current

due

often

side

be

the

in

lines

solid,

considerable,

conductors

in the

is also

armature

considering that

each

the

coil under
of

be

in

the

these

loss

to

the

is

to

therein

commutation.
is

the

to

to

be

in

sub

large

assumption
laminations.
foucault

by

projection type armatures,


densities.

high
be

considered

distortion, and

brought

actual

loss is found

the
the

is

hysteresis

has

of

it

predicted

The

core

can

invariably

be

may

plane

hysteresis and

variables

It

upon

losses

in
at

have

due

relation

eddy-current

the

the

even

run

losses,

greater, owing

based

parallelto

are

C2 R

the

to

It

commutating

Owing, probably,

calculations

by

in

construction.

magnetisation,the

projections from

There

before

Thermal

"

heating.

which

those

material

the

the

predictedlosses.
of

projectionsare

the

what

of construction.

magnetic

armature

thereto.

current

which

determine

excess

including friction,there

loss

loss in the

to

of

generally found

conductors

especiallywhen
losses, not

is

losses

exception

the

material

is indicated

than

may

in

the

process

armature

currents

termed

core

species of

distribution
the

the

safe

with

of all the

theory

are

upon

armature

jected during

be

may

loss in the

of

the

termed

have

we

output

practicalexperienceto

what

to

that

maximum

is,the

while

that

what

to

understood, yet, with

are

losses bear

relates

sub-division

about
It

eddy

Under

foucault

the
the

load

increased

currents

likewise

by

the

is

apparent, therefore,

dependent

upon

reversal

the

of

form

the

of

Preface.

design,

material

the

estimate

approximate
consideration

of

thermal

limit
The

placed

at

which

have

work.

We

and,
it

disposal
formed

Apart

Dynamo

Electric

the

dynamo.

works

the

that

aim

applying

that

from

these

dealt

have

we

only

an

theoretical

the

that

therefore,

which

from

the

con

with

the

in

decided

to

practice

show

contribution

of

papers

Dr.

to

fact,

the

Sylvanus

after

our

considering

imperfectly,
principles

already

in

work

present

which

clearly

the

the

dynamo
on

had

the

of

theory
of

contents

the

on

which

treatise

has

of

the

liberal

render

the

knowledge

treatise

will

Thompson,

own

at

progress

Hopkinsons,

thorough

prepare

however

the

our

this

of

hope

we

technical

to

of

conclusions

the

which

manner

by

forth

kindly

experience,

results

appreciation

our

of

have

technical

the

to

Company

Berlin,

of

amount

setting

disseminating

was,

supply,

of

found

have

we

Electric

addition

by

in

Machinery

to

large

to

arrive,

in

which

General

The

of

policy,

useful

It

we

made

information

substantial

very

to

influence

greatest

work.

results

the

rare,

us

design.

with

give

endeavoured

thoroughly

be

Elektricitiits-Gesellschaft

have

enabled

work

sections

Union

unfortunately

has

can

construction,

believe,

length

designing

the

our

loss

We

the

other

in

and

America,

total

of

output.

various

indispensable

processes

constants.

justify

of

the

the

to

as

the

will

siderations

and

used,

xix

lines

these

with

assist

shall

enunciated

in

in

these

treatises.
We
which
work.

acknowledge
we

have

with

received

pleasure
from

many

the

assistance

valuable
friends

in

the

and

suggestions

preparation

of

the

PART

ELECTRIC

I.

GENERATORS.

ELECTRIC

GENERATORS.

MATERIALS.
CONSIDERABLE

of

used
and

electric

dynamo

shall

materials

varietyof

conform

to rather

it is essential

and

apparatus,

exacting requirements,
well

magnetic conductivity as

with

as

into the

enters

both

that

grades

the

regards electric

as

mechanical

their

to

respect

construction

properties.
TESTING
metallic

The
circuits

in

be of

must

in the

differences
addition

the

iron

sheet

unannealed

having
cent,

exerts

cases

many

almost

the

conductivity.

properties of
subjectedfor

subjectionto
It thus

magnetic

few

this

various

iron.2

weeks,

exerts

Sheet

iron

to such
as

poor

of

stages

for

instance,

drawn

copper

production
final

the

has

when

Cast

copper

only

50

the

upon

temperature

when

deg.

60

as

before

as

purposes

per

magnetic

compositions,

magnetic

also

result.

hysteresisloss

copper,

certain

steel

unity.

of the

upon

great

moderate

slight

permeability of

great influence

for

high temperature.

analysisas

even

times

as

of

conductivityof

influence

twice

over

the

conducting

effect

scarcelygreater than

annealing from

Pressure

several

temperature.3

becomes

tests

during

chemical

sheet

Cent., becomes

after

same

is

preponderating

The

magnetic

the

and

considerable

often

reduces

Again,

frequentlyhas

it has

as

of aluminium

treatment

metallic

the

composition.

of manganese

cent,

per

chemical

18.1

to

100

in

employed

composition is

cent,

mechanical

The

Thus,

chemical

of

containing 12
in

definite

of 3 per

ratio

the

compounds

MATERIALS.

OF

desirable

samples

Electrician,July 3rd,

1896.
3

See

from

Dewar
pages

to

subjectto chemical, physical,and

every

and
30

lot of material

Fleming.
to

32, and

See

Figs. 26

to

intended

page

33, and

for

electro
in the

use

Figs. 33

32.
B

and

34.

Electric

of

construction

of

importance

Generators.

becomes

books

devoted

materials

tivitythan

in

standard

tivity,due

consequently

manufacture.

It

conductivityin

order

electrical

The

alloys varies

to

like accurate

anything

results

properties of

materials,

and

apparatus

and

care

tests

physicaltreatment,

uniformlygood qualityin
been

with

proposed

method,

accurate

sample

is in the

Among

W.

Holman's

Professor

the

form

more

of

an

useful

books

Electrical

also

Electrician, July 3rd, 1896.


A

of the

propertiesof

conductivity

of inferior

conduc

difficulties

the

to

of

its

test

value.
other

each

most
the

lot

resistance

high

imperative,if

are

in

testing the

variabilityin

extreme

in chemical

laborious,

most

the

on

subject

Notes

various

Notes

the

of

(Massachusetts
and

in

with

applicationof

electrical

measurements

Institute

of

the

obtain

to

methods

is that

ring uniformly wound

permitting of

in

composition

order

Various

employed.

magnetic

improvements

recent

indispensablein

tests

the

Laboratory

experi

simplifyingpermeabilitytests, but

annular

former

lessen

on

the

material

Physical Laboratory

Fleming's
Table

to

although

secondary coils, the

S.

view

with

be

to

slightvariations

such

the

apt

necessary

Nevertheless,

render

conduc

TESTS.

are

with

even

magnetic properties,
resultingfrom
and

show

required.3

are

judgment

methods.

text
recent

of Matthiessen's

silver and

PERMEABILITY
Considerable

is

low

German
that

to the

especiallydesirable

becomes

extent

in

copper.

guard againsttoo

an

described

results of which

obtained

often

now

impurities to

conductivityof

such

to

results

diameters,

of

admixture

the

to

is

for pure

to small

drawn

be

may

considerablyhigher

have

the

as

wire

copper

exceeding Matthiessen's
Copper wire,

them

to

those

are

Fleming,2 the

and

great purity

attributed

was

Manufactured

ments.

of

state

the

case,

tests

will suffice to call attention

Dewar

Professors

that

such

TESTS.

conductivitytests

subject.1 It

to the

of
investigations
that

in

used

the

being

apparent.

CONDUCTIVITY
methods

order

in

practicalshop methods,

quickly and accuratelymade,

The

This

dynamo-electric apparatus.

have

the

most

which

the

primary

and

any

are

desired

Professor

Technology), and

Forms.

conducting

materials

is

given

later

in this

volume.

Generators.

Electric

2.00

Reversing

of

simply creating

turns, and

50

would

obtained

been

have

with

2,400 ohms,

of

instead

ohms

100

2400

..

density

the

Therefore

1.10

-f

and

inch

square

Density

still greater magnitude

mixed

Although

terms

into

curves

iron
of

the
force

motive

H.

6.45

The
=

n,

of

number

should

turns

others

equal

amperes

inch

per

14,700

Similarly,fluxes

kilolines.

95.0

of

units

which

the

lines

the

per

number

have

metric

employed
ordinates

the

inch.

square
of

practice.

denoting
used

curves

They

ampere-turns

in

are,

of

in centimetres.

Ampere-turns

per

centimetre

Ampere-turns

per

inch

of

length

2-5^

of

Ampere-turns
ampere-turns

per

inch

per
of

inch

length

of

are

length

2.02

TT

absolute

1Q
;
7T

H.

approximately equal

the

magneto

practice

length.

"

being expressed

absolute

In

the

therefore, equal

inch

per

the

represent the density in

""
=

instance,

system, present

readily convert
in

In

permeability.

of

the

to

to

centimetre, the abscissae

per square
the

the

For

of

lines.

inferior

admittedly

are

plotted,in

p,

we

COS

12,700,000

terms

Therefore

length,

95,000

1 \J L

.'.

of

75.4.

6.45

in

equal
C,

2 H

is,therefore, necessary

number

written

units

are

equals
the

inch

It

S lines

should

abscissae
and

of

curves

B/H

turns

ampere

length

square

per

megalines

use.

C G

to

390.

generallyexpressed in megalines.

are

expressed

saturation

ordinates
B.

the

centimetre.

square

14,700;

of

inch

per

in lines

systems

shop practice requires their

measure,

centimetres,

square

12.7

1.10

was

be reduced

generallybe

would

This

37.7;

Ampere-turns

lines.

was

14,700 lines per

should

this
practice1

lines per

ring

the

was

16,200

result of this observation


H

in

deg.;

was

16,200

But

1,690

of

cross-section

the

as

9.60

sample

in the

9.60

And

there

50

reversed

flux

reversing it,

of

"

100

consequentlythe

40

instead

of

deflection

exploringcoil

instead

flux

the

with

Then

circuit.

in the

turn

one

of
deflection^

gave

secondary

of

total resistance

2,400 ohms

deg. with

40

coil

exciting

the

in

amperes

to

2 H.

to

Letting

Tests.

Permeability

of

rod-shaped

sample, this

in that

the

latter

in

rod

and

the

used

be

may

and

the

where

kinson

and

for all

of

apparatus
of the

those

be

to

are

calculation

the

of

for the

lines

along

PERMEABILITY

MEASURING

OF

is

absolute,

more

methods,

other

Hop

closelysimilar

annular

an

to

ring sample.

BALLISTIC

REQUIRING

NOT

the

electro-magnetism,1

on

of

ring,

whereas

exploring coils

Descriptionsof

case

use

negligibleproportions,

to

text-books
be

and

with

case

for.

would

results

the

annular

an

method

ring

be reduced

in

found

of the

separately wound,

is the

corrected

example already given

METHODS

the
than

either

practicable,or

be

than

magnetising

same

error

must

error

Hopkinson, permits

sample

samples. However,
for

METHODS.

convenient

more

the

less chance

sources

Dr.

by

each

method

yoke

is seldom

which

being

requires that

much

affords

devised

yoke method,

and

bar

The

TESTING

PERMEABILITY

OTHER

GALVANOMETER.
There
of

been

have

permeability

making

galvanometer, and
attending its
Those
of

number

well

which

is

bridge2

the

with

described

by

by
by

Also

Electrical

"An

27th,
4

"The

J.

in

of

the

ballistic

compared

the

trouble

but

it

to

standard

successful.

most

is

rather

between

difference

The

untrust

standard

the

Mr.

Holden

Professor

Hopkinson,
Engineer,

Apparatus

for

in

1895,3
before

Ewing

Phil.

Trans., page

New

York,

March

Determining

Frank

Mr.

Electrical
in

and

also

in

commercial
a

December

instrument
1896.4

455, 1885.
25th, 1891.

Induction

and

Hysteresis Curves,"

Electrical

World,

1896.

Magnetic

Testing of Iron

and

is

apparatus

similar
in

It

Determining
for

World

Royal Society

the

extensively

Holden.
of

Method

embodied

been

in

the

"

used

been

has

by

entitled
"

Curves

principlehas

which

devised

been

article

an

Hysteresis
The

1894.

constructed

June

him

and

Induction

exhibited

accomplishing this,

of

good results, has

very

15th,

great

purpose

test-piece/
method

is

there

be

to

example,

well-known

when
worthy, particularly

and

proved

have

is

tested

be

to

the

calculations.

simplifyingthe

piece

the

permeability

Eickemeyer

as

use

for

generally considerable

the

with

away

the

without

measurements

doing

as

use,

in

known

of

devised

arrangements

or

Steel," Proc.

Inst.

Civil

Engineers, May,

1896.

Electric

method

Holden's

bars

by

about

been

found

about

close

as

long.

magnetometer,
lie at

tending to
of the

bars

Over

the

to

use

right angles to
to

set

it at

the

provided

for

It

rod

one

bars,
a

and

and

is evident
the

this

brought

the
that

fluxes

leakage

which

south

in. in

affect

each

such

other

block

each

in

are

to

in

current
to

get

bar
H

has

diameter, and
is

placed

its needle

with

position.

10*

measuring,

directions

equal, for

variation

parallel,

are

bars, the

two

this

for

influence

Means

are

This

rid

or

of

the

north

effect

the
end

block.

from

the

there

would

be

through

the

air,

no

balanced
both

of

terminal

equal

other

each

the

same

shows

the

one

that

the

if not

magnetometer.
the

ends

practice it

one,

the

their

at

1.

magnetism.
For

of

two

arrangement

sensitive

very

magnetometer

be

must

the

in

the

the

by varying

reversing between

of

terminal

one

would

end

this

right angles to

pass

whenever

in them

from

about

of about

reversing simultaneously,and

magnetising currents,
of

In

length

FIG.

The

.25

in which

rods

windings permit.
portion of

middle

the

joined

fit.

they

rods

necessarilya

not

tending

which

as

convenient

most

7 in.

into

together

arrangement

an

equal lengths, and

over

soft iron

of

essentiallyof

consists

uniformly

blocks

two

and

wound

are

Generators.

of

condition
the

effects

is

bars, and
of

residual

Tests.

Permeability

where
n

number

of

Current

in

distance

between

As

the

be

may

arranged

at

fixed

amperes.
blocks

coils

magnetising

same

turns.

be

always

may

distance

centimetres.

in

used, and

blocks

the

as

apart,

and
H

The

and

mined,
the
at

of

curve

when

found

once

the

of

reference
of

are

the

balance

standard

the

the

to

characteristics
this

test-piece,and

of

means

making
and

quickly done,
of

the

need

Although

two

thus

The
be

it

steel, and

the

standard

hand,

of

cast-iron

quality

most

and

one

like

that

of

of

size

the

compass.

permeability

iron

wrought
the

is

simplicity

manipulating,

of

in

test

pocket

of
in

the

bars

good

care

If

furnishes

whole

by

with

is

standard.

the

extremes

less

takes

of

one

and

use

than

quite opposite

yet

at

delicate

more

of

pieces

are

for

of

method

minimised

are

magnetometer

not

compared,

error

the

The

comparisons,

of

chances

value

gives directly the

described.

as

accurate

very

standards

be

is calculated

the

process.

described

be

and

produced

the

of

the

been

has

deter

previously

calculated,

cross-section,

same

been

have

must

above-described

force

by

bars

two

standard

the

the

magnetomotive

KG.

may

if

two

or

cast

test-piece should

used.
Sheet

about

.5

iron
in.

be

may

wide

and

7 in.

shaped blocks, capable


of

stripswhich

of

the

is

easily accounted

of

be

test-piece and

cross-sections
shown

may

both

the

in

long.

making
about

the

Holden

since

total
and

the

the

with
In

case

induction
are

Ewing

if it

require

contact

this

fluxes

way,

will

This

in. thick.
in

the

same

good

.25

standard

for,

when

tested

the

the

general

will

equal.

are

In

use

in

cut

of

strips

specially-

end

of the

the

cross-sections

be

not

values

is

equal,

bundle

but

inversely
Figs.

permeability bridges.

and

this
the

as

are

Electric

Generators.

Hysteresis Tests.

DETERMINATION

step-by-stepmethod

The
a

is

sample through
employed

with

to

motive

great

is

plottedwith

metre), and

with

such

abscissae

metre1

but

in

cycle per

derived

"

of

means

the

second.

per

results

in terms

relation

The

"

of

be

may

From

cubic

centimetre

per

per

in

commercial
the

two

per

OF

Alternate

Current

be

equal

per

cubic

pound

cycle

complete cyclic curve


7T

second

edition, page

62.

this

centi

by

to

the

"*"

centi

it is

more

of material

expressionsmay

UNITS.

Transformer,

If

square

apparatus

wratts
the

ergs

results

divided

area

planimeter),will

between

Fleming,

is made

plotted.

lines

),its

the

Area

of

CONVERSION

Ergs

(C

(-"

H,

flux.

the

Fig. 3,

to

subsequent calculations

follows

as

in

complete cycle, expressed

one

to have

convenient
per

of

by

to

test

in

in

equal

equal

Such

varying by steps the magneto


noting by the deflection of a ballistic

is shown

as

time.

present

consists

ordinates

(convenientlydetermined
hysteresisloss

the

at

extent

primary coil,and

complete cycle curve,


curve

of

corresponding changes

the

Loss.

determining the hysteresis loss,by carrying


complete cycle,has been used for some
past, and
years

force of the

galvanometer

HYSTERESIS

OF

ring-shaped sample, and

be

Generators.

Electric

10

Watts

centimetre

cubic

per

at

second

cycle per

one

Area
=

Watts

inch

cubic

per

at

10T

7T

Area

16.4

Watts

pound

per

at

107

TT

second

cycleper

one

Area
4

Watts

.-.

pound

per

at

of sheet

inch

cubic

.282

.0000058

Ib.)

.282

weighing

iron

second

cycle per

one

107

TT

16.4

'

(One

second

cycleper

one

cubic

per

ergs

centimetre

per

cycle.

LOSSES

HYSTERESIS

in iron

Hysteresis loss

ALTERNATING

IN

through

other

when

remains

of

core

alternatingfield,but
inch,

the

kilolines

that

further

on

per

square

at

from

and

which,

when

the

becomes,

Royal
"

See

it is
in

inch,

quite

fact, it

magnetism
and

paper

Society, June
Magnetic

"

The

in

the

of

result

with

the
In

pressed beyond
constant

in

Hysteresis

of Iron

4th, 1896.

Hysteresis

has

predicted.

was

is

very

in

See

also

100

small

an

in

with

does

not

in the

Electrician

square

and

rapidly

about

130

indication
other
of

experi

magnetism,

hysteresisloss

decrease

Field,"
of

read

October

as

in the

before

the

2nd, 1896,

Rotating Field," by R. Beattie


and
R.
0. Clinker.
Electrician, August 31st, 1894, F. G. Bailey. Also Wied. Ann., No. 9, 1898, Niethammer.
on

of

alternatingfield,

limit,the

Rotating Magnetic

article

by

theory

per

of

be

of the

that

every

of the

case

certain

than

of

rotating

the

kilolines

verified

molecular

value, but

that

induction

types
cannot

maximum,

an

been

other

cases

greater

about

the

certain
two

the

condition

former

found1

sharply defined

it becomes
This

in

hysteresisloss

the

magnetisation,

the

The

latter

the

induction

an

in accord

remains,

on

direction.

magnetisation,until, at

disappearingaltogether.
menters,

consequently

and

when

one

ways

positiveto negative,and

Bailey has
a

hysteresis loss reaches

diminishes

from

in

same.

inductions

in two

consequently the magnetisation,

hystereris loss

the
necessarily

produces for low

field

varies

transformer,

resultant

The

to be

assumed

value, but

in

constant

apparatus.

changing

magnetising force, and

the

in the

holds

in

value

zero

produced

iron, and

the

magnetising force acting upon


passes

be

may

FIELDS.

ROTATING

AND

Also

the
poles of
placed between
thoroughly analysed. The

rings when

loss3
to

be

rings

The

sample rings

built

are

up

into

FIG.

Surrounding
wire,

the

The

measured

sample, the
and

the

not

terminals

magnet.
and

but

of the

number

constants

deflection

For

lead

which

to

Weston

voltmeter.

of turns
of the

voltmeter,

voltmeter,

electromotive

in the

can

force

be

the

such

as

11).

page

pivoted shaft, around


magnetises

rings.

the

"

in.

high.

5.

to be

tested

force

of the

Knowing

calculations,see

coil of insulated

the

coil is thus

in

corresponding
an

another

obvious

page

of

the

in this

to

manner.1

volume.

the

rectified,

cross-section

angular velocityof

induction

calculated

is

revolving with

commutator

coil,the
the

just

are

pile about
cylindrical

touching the sample


of

enables

(Fig.4,

test

vertical

alternatingelectromotive
by

rings

sheet-iron

electro-magnet which

co-axiallyan

in sheet-iron

loss

the

measures

rotating magnet, and

with

concentric

held

are

revolves

which

It

ordinary ballistic galvanometer

in the

be used

would

satisfactory.

most

the

be

to

appears

The

Generators.

Electric

12

the

magnet,
a

certain

Hysteresis Tests.
The

force

tending to

shaft

spring surrounding the


is fixed

to

torsion

position,and

zero

By varying
by

data

residual

eddy

which

only ones

attached

the

required
from

angular velocityof
of

effect

under

eddy

complete apparatus may


modification
(Fig. 6) of this

the

of

ment

induction

the

for different

into two

of

that

the

of

magnetising
much

motive

force

that

is

the

With

rings on

will be

The
is

lot
there

applied
such

any

of

account

nearly constant,

sample

rotates

proportionalto

applied

for

tions in the

of

in
the

volume

to the

thickness

the

of

of

from

does

air

give

and

the

speed, the
the

purposes,

in

Fig. 4,

12.

with

away

the

adjust-

determination

about

made

that

modified
one-third

small

as

the

flux

in

corresponding variation
total

likelyto

flux

furnished

general
the

is

as

average

the

the

in

this

angle of

correction

same

as

them
in the
in

occur

through

them

manner.

rotation

has

rings do not, owing

pilesof

the

high magneto

very

spiralspring,and

sheets, make

of

is

gap

magnetisation
In

of

electro-magnet is

leakage.

the

cross-section, as
the

for,
low

page

cross-section

The

hysteresisloss.

spring.

is shown

Fig. 5,

the

case

little

at

coil

varying permeability,the
with

their

to

observations

allowed

separate

considerable

variation

loss per

practicallynegligible,and

electro-magnets,so

oppositionto

and

the

this

is very

the

end

6.

rings.

slightlywith

changes only very


current.

In

in

instrument

greater length,and

sample

practicable,so

tests.

be

wire

seen

and

current

few

other

rings

of

helical

The

for all commercial

with

FIG.

scale.

constant

be

The

bring the

to

may

are,

be

over

magnet,

to

of

means

end.

one

by running

or,

sample

test

the

as

conditions

these
A

small

so

the

currents

determined

becomes

loss

to it at

pointermoving

readilycalculated

necessary.

rings is opposed by

deflection

the

hysteresisloss

readings taken
whilst

is

the

current

and

head, with

cycle is proportionalto

the

rotate

13

to

be

to varia

height.

The

Electric

14

magnets

when

made

reading is

iron

sheet

pieces of

seven

poles of

between

the

magnet

carries

pointer which

hysteresispropertiesare used for


ponding to these samples are plottedas a
joiningthe

line

tests, this

has
of

made

be

to

of

thickness

in the

variation

deflections

The

hysteresisloss.

The

PROPERTIES

as

descriptionof
The

tests.

primary

pression.

The

material

the

coolinghas
noticeable

and

by

heating, and
of

rate

permeabilityof
too

permeabilityof high
diminished
mechanical

The

into the

by

however,

effect

on

it

the

composition

; the

Fig.

as

iron,

7.

be

of

physical

basis
specific
essential

an

for

the

part

affected

of

to

composition ; by annealing,
strains

the

for

the

upon

chemical

by

tension

instance, is diminished

flakes

com

the

if the

by annealing,the only
of

also be

wrought

or

magnetic propertiesof

restored

steels may

iron and

in

the

graphite
increased

iron

or

is increased.

by annealing

steel is diminished

permeabilityresultingfrom

mechanical

by annealing.

magnetic properties,of
of

advantages, that

magnetic propertiesare

carbon

be restored

and

which,

size of the

of

depend

steel

and

the

loss

great

correction

no

the

that

and

MATERIALS.

analysisforms

may

tempering, and

strain

is shown

influences

cast

rapid,but

that

apparatus

mechanical

coolingalso

change being that

strain, may,

and

degree accordingto

been

of

material, chemical

the

tempering, continued

indication

physicalstructure
less

greater or

The

iron

magnetic propertiesof

structure

OF

subsequent

with

same,

other

has,

corres

deflections

between

among

It

of

hysteresislosses,

to in the

is referred

so
pile of test-pieces,

the

using easilyprepared samples.

The

of their

practicallythe

are

variation.

such

for

function

existing

relation

the

showing

line

deflections

The

The

standards

Two

reference.

found

pointsthus

two

rotated

are

knife-edges.

on

scale.

of about

up

These

long.

mounted

over

moves

known

and

in.

magnet

permanent

is made

sample

test

and

wide

in.

the

TESTER.

HYSTERESIS

Ewing's apparatus1the

Professor

and

impulse by hand,

an

is obtained.

steady deflection

EWING
In

them

slowly by giving

rotated

are

Generators.

the

different elements

steel,varies according to

Electrician,April 26th,

1895.

the

entering

percentage

of

Composition of
other

be

elements

objectionablemay
influence

the

be

not

for instance, manganese

steel,as

The

present.

in

while
more

oft-set

less

so

when

ordinary

it exerts

degree.

although

some,

harmful
the

in

injuriousinfluence
1

as

for
of

of
is not

others

also

are

present

objectionablein iron

nature

as

modify

the

same

15

which, alone, would

element

an

amounts

carbon, but

of

that

and

7.

elements

themselves

Steel.

and

number

is of the

Some

impurities:

of

presence

FIG.

greatly

Iron

act
objectionable,

instance,

sulphur.

in
The

Electrician, April 26th,

cast

influence
as

amounts

others,

antidote

iron, silicon

relative

1895.

an

of

tends
and

for
to

the

Electric

16

of

sum

in

variations

the

the

make

to

result

approximate
here

forth, as

set

values

magnetic

and

remained

elements
tests

test

varied

of

the

of

The

elements.

with

uniformity of
nificant

to

the

in

effect

it exerts
as

it

other
may

the

on

elements

to

permit

tending

to

first

the

the

of all the

maintain

the

initial
loss

at

of

that

other

the

low

value

iron,
carbon

silicon, phos

that

noticeable

the

the

influence

percentage

However,

carbon

hysteresis loss, and

sig

controllingelement,

impurities;
of

is

iron, and

of

of

also

iron.

percentage

is the

wrought

of

account

hence

grades of

considerable

extremely low

It

amounts

has
ingredients,

as

practice.

ingredients,and

usual

regarded

processes

secondary to

where

be

purer

in

cast

and

the

on

the

within

analysis.

proportions

less

compared

difficult it is to

more

iron, steel

the

the

between

important

impure

most

cast

other

sum

general
in the

the

chemical

the

with

and

of

or

and

the

of

variations

correct

more

principallywith

melting point,may

be

iron,
of

steel, the

or

with

degree

manganese,

present

sometimes
sheet

lesser

one,

determines

in

in the

been

have

found

been

treatment,

grades

forth

magnetic properties. Carbon,

the

on

several

of any

excess

and

that, beginning
the

phorus, sulphur,
an

iron

propertiesaccord

magnetic

present,

compared

constant

economicallyproduced

be

can

the

purer

process

note

and

principal

were

interactions

the

set

have

magnetic propertiesfrom

passing through
the

materials

general,the

predict the

analyses

the

only approximate, since

herein

tests, and

of

which

limits between
In

remained

modify

may

statements

number

great

element

any

is

method

this

that

seen

amount

other

obtained

so

had

that

one

the

proportion.

in

will be

It

results

The

elements

the

all but

of

of

with

the

studying

of

result

the

amounts

constant.

which

in

with

the

when

acting

elements, when

an

conclusions

The

element.

one

any

the

arriving at

before

analyses

various

effect of

the

to

effect of

the

to

as

or

indicate

therefore,

It is necessary,

test.

and

tests

generally present, are

elements

other

of

number

great

more

not

magnetic

in the

the

in

not,

of

account

slight

the

to

singleanalysismay
extreme
fairlyrepresent
cases,

elements,

may

used

sample

the

On

manufacture.

the

quality,and

average

qualityof

of

slightly,according

vary

of

process

diffusion

unequal

less

elements

various

the

Generators.

to

as,

has
exert

of

its influence
for

instance,

been
an

found

influence

during subjection to

pro

longed heating.
The

properties

of

iron

magnetic permeabilityand

and

steel

require separate

magnetic hysteresis.

The

examination

as

permeability is

to
of

Propertiesof

be

then

may

losses

parts

may

laminated.

Thicknesses

found

useful

for

of

is small

On

magnetism
in.

.014

the

permeability. Hysteresis

tends

maximum,

of

have

.036

in.

good

iron

the

percentage

masses

be

finely

generally

are

withstand

to

hysteresis
of

the

electrical

to

minimum,

the

in solid

flux

and

towards

the

as

of

account

in

dimension, and

is reversed

be

must

change

desired

any

impurities affect

rolling process.

there

be

plates,which
Some

17

varying magnetic

to

the

meability towards

which

between

of

Iron.

forged.

the

when

metals, parts subjected

most

in

cast, rolled,or

either

local currents

by

parts

such

hence

magnetisation;

of

in

greatest importance

the

Cast

than

more

and

the

per

elements, other

than

iron, diminishes.
In

it is

of

case

inferred

be

found

been

has

to

hysteresisloss

the

and

there

noticeable

permeabilityis increased

from

the

other

have

the

known

Iron.

with
greater facility

Consideringthe
in the

shown

as

iron

Cast

"

exerts

great
of cast

use

be

curves,

costlyfor

in the

IRON

the

subse

of

account

on

cast

that

cast

result

iron

the

form.

steel,

and

iron

than

castingshas

is,other
steel.

cast

rendered

the

well-designedelectrical

of

construction

and

castingsof complex

given magnetic
steel

such

to

STEEL.

it is evident

of

purity,

final result.

the

purposes

into

made

iron

which

for its

during

upon

AND

magnetic

manufacture

exceptionalin

influence

in

reduced

iron, both

which

purest
iron

remarkable

magnetic propertiesof

and

accompanying

progress
iron

it may

the

nickel,

that

The

hysteresiswas

the

OF

for

relative costs

thingsbeing equal,more
The

great

is used

which

the
of

MAGNETISATION

THE
Cast

why

treatment

manufacture,

beyond

present.

is not

smallest

cause

The

elements

highest permeability,
yet

found

been

extent.

to its

quent

steel,alloyed with

or

the

that

has

no

was

iron

comparatively pure

found, however,

would

the

machines.
The

cast

those

elements

fluxes

and

greatest
present

used

which

fuels used
effect

is

on

for

magnetic

crude

iron

the

4.5

brings with
Of

it from

its influence

in

per cent.; between

0.2

amount
per

of

carbon

cent., and

ore

The

and

from

the

has

the

used,

0.8

varies

per

between
cent,

carbon

of

amount

melting point.

determining the

extent, all

some

the

materials

of the

account

to

elements, carbon

these

magnetic permeability.

good magnetic quality,the

and

contains,

purposes

in its reduction.

necessarily
high, on

employed, and
of

iron

the
In
3

process
cast

cent.

per

being in
D

iron

com-

Electric

18

restricted
0.3

is

carbon

Combined

to

ascertained
In

given

magnetisation,but
of

rather

result

the

The

magnetisation values.
would

be between

Graphite
exertingany

very

limit, there

lower

marked

is

Sulphur

graphiticstate.
An

inferior
and

not

seem

of

amount
2.5

phorus

in

cent,

be

of it

purposes

without

iron.

cast

It

as

annuls

is

its amount

of silicon

amount

is

in the
extent.

carbon, and

influence

casting homogeneous,

The

be

limited

combined
the

and

of carbon

possibleshould
a

is

to the

carbon

percentage

excessive

of

excess

make

low

at

cent,

per

of combined
certain

much

in

carbon.

of

sulphur,

greater
and

than

lessen

to

generallyvaries

in small

castings,and 1.8 in large castings. Phos


inferior magnetic qualityof iron.
Although

an

an

of

excess

carbon, and

effect ; its influence

little

permeabilityof

objectionableuntil

in

Manganese,

cent.

per

as

Silicon

harmless,

of combined

and

amount

indication

being to

denotes

excess

it is

curve,

magnetic

generallypresent, but only to

an

combined

per

itself it may
excess

is

be

to

cent., its effect

between

0.8

sulphur

magnetic quality.

does

2 per

the

of

excess

for

high

to

being especiallybad

cent,

the

in the

that

is

the

by

high

very

8.

per

permeability.

it is desirable

and

necessary,

to

up

percentage of graphite approximates

the

of

correspondingdecrease

Fig.
2

increase

an

of

effect upon

when

also

generallyused

between

vary

that

generallyfound

and

be

may

corresponding

values

result

the

iron

cast

curves

may

iron,

grades

carbon

carried

sample

different

three

accompanying analyses.

the

analysisand

the

by

cast

poor

of

test

obtaining

for

shown

as

with

less than

high magnetic

combined

proportionsof

results

the

of

be

should

having

be

to

analysesof

and

of the

useful

is

It

saturation.

sample

of

irons

generallyfound

are

curves

by comparison
is

Fig. 9

carbon

effect of different

The

iron.

graphitic state.

or

Cast

possible.

as

shows

permeability. Fig. 8
of cast

amount

an

uncombined

an

objectionableingredient,and

most

of combined

cent,

per

the

small

as

in

remainder

the

state,1 and

bined

Generators.

it should
the

becomes

is

phosphorus
be

restricted

accompanied by
to

0.7

in

marked

irons

that

an

cent,

per

has

proportions generally found,


more

in

or

but

low

are

in

carbon.

Figs.
grades A

10

and

Malleable
process

for

Arnold,

and

11

further

show

data

relatingto

irons

in

shown

Fig. 8,

respectively.
Cast

making

"Influence

Iron.

it

"

When

cast

malleable,

of Carbon

on

in

iron

which

Iron," Proc.

is
a

Inst.

decarbonised,

portion

C.E.,

vol.

of

the

as

in

the

graphite

cxxiii.,page

156.

is

Electric

20

however,

the

to

with

Fig.

In

12

Steel.

Cast

steel used

Cast
hearth

of

account

last

the

in the

at the

molten

steel,and

In

suitable

most

the

frequentlyby
the

of

open-hearth process

cast

and

the

metal

the

first

the

change

in

difference

noticeable

process

temperature,

this

greater advantage

pouring

the

likewise

Bessemer

open-

open-hearth process, since, on

the

elapsing between

time

is

magnetic quality.

tained

castingsthan

considerable

castings,there

temperature

the

small

of

to

to

that

small

of

manufacture

the

could, perhaps, be used

process

manufacture

for

frequently used

more

the

by

being

principalreason

the

process,

generallymade

been

has

iron.

steel process.

the

by

where

manufacture

of

made

pig

place,is intended

in this

irons

iron

cast

of steel and

processes

in

as

magnetic purposes

Bessemer

The

in the

of

been

has

ings.

for

to the

not

recarbonisation,

no

Siemens-Martin

or

process

and

been

has

malleable

mixtures

used

steel,"as

cast

irons, and

refer to recarbonised
there

"

term

analysis

permeability.

of the

fraction

magnetic propertiesof

the
The

"

but

iron, has

accom

chemical

iron, of

cast

which

iron

the

magnetic properties of

the

shown

are

1 3 illustrates

Fig.

unmalleable

as

of malleable

that

of

physicalstructure

in the

change

is due,

This

permeability.

in the

increase

marked

decarbonisation,

panies the
identical

is

there

eliminated,

Generators.

composition is

main

be

can

easily

more

regulated.
Cast
which
case

steel is

is in the
of

distinguishedby

combined

iron, the

cast

strains,in which

case

approximately

stated

should

have

not

the

state, there

combined

that

when

good

cast

changes

steel, from

of

greater percentages

present

graphite,as

in the

subjectedto great

castingsare

carbon

of carbon

amount

being generallyno

exceptionbeing
the

small

very

magnetic standpoint,

impuritiesthan

the

following:
Per

Combined

be

It may

graphite.

to

carbon

Cent.

0.25
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Phosphorus

0.08

...

...

...

Silicon

0.20

Manganese

0.50
...

Sulphur

In

with

the

practice,carbon

advantage

results

0.05

of

is the

restricted

great

number

tests

permeabilityis proportioned

conditions

remaining equal ;

the

proportion,

same

and

objectionableimpurity, and

smaller

to
of

most

that
that

to

amounts

than

and

analyses show

the

amount

is,that
the

the

0.25

per

cent.

that

the

decrease

of carbon
other

temperature

in the

elements
of

the

be

may

The
in

steel, other

are

molten

present
steel

in
is

Magnetisation

Curves

of

Iron

and

HONlOS

Steel.

U3d

S3NHOTIM

21

Electric

22

increased

according

would

0.5

steel.

but

has

cent,

per

from

magnetic properties,a
air.

permeability than

silicon is that

steel of
In

magnetic quality.
I.

what

curves

good

represent

the

and

analyses
steel

poor

values

average

blow
steel

the

the

amounts

they generally render

excess

the

given

are

of

formation

and

magnetic

respectively.

In

corresponding to

the

proper

Fig.

these

14,

two

of tests.
The

may

II.

termed

be

may

and

and

in

but

it

objection to

sulphur, in

and

Phosphorus

Tables

densities

higher

hardening effect, rendering

in

magnetisation

The

extent.

it facilitates the

diffused

objectionable;

not

at

greater

economical

low

at

;x but

cent.

5 per

noticeable

machining.

and

all its

nearly

densities

magnetic

carbon,

or

inferior

ties of

sets

of

scarcely having

mixture

the

at

has

manganese,

tool in

are
specified,

to

unequally

when

like

difficult to

Silicon,

deprives steel

it

cent,

per

permeability to

the

and,

12

permeabilityup

the

diminishes

holes

the

objectionablethan

less

practice,is
increases

in amounts

large proportions,however,

In

permeability

lower

low

too

at

less than
analysis. Manganese
the
little effect upon
magnetic propertiesof ordinary

inferred

be

steel

Cast

purity,shows

of

state

purity.

of

degree

consideringthe

temperature
than

the

to

Generators.

be

extent
seen

deleterious

which

to

from

the

effect

of

combined

I.

See

"

DATA

OF

Electrical

Fig.

carbon

steel

of

percentage
of

curves

magnetic propertiesof
TABLE

the

TEN

The

15.

upon

further

are

QUALITY

nalysis.

December

the

affects

of

curves

Fig.

16

result,

the
show

magnetic properties.

illustrated

FIRST

World,

phosphorus

SAMPLES

in

Figs. 17, 18,

OF

10th, 1898, page

CAST

619.

STEEL.

and

the
The
19.

Magnetisation

"H3NI

6S

H3d

S3Nno^l)l

Curves

of

Cast

Steel.

23

Electric

24

II.

TABLE

DATA

"

SAMPLES

QUALITY

SECOND

TEN

OP

Generators.

OP

CAST

STEEL.

Analysis.

Mitis

Iron.

In

"

Table

III.

given analysesand magnetic properties

are

steel, frequently referred

of aluminium

TABLE

III.-

"

DATA

TWELVE

OF

to

SAMPLES

Kilolines

Ampere-Turns

"

as

per

mitis

MITIS

OP

iron."

The

action

IRON.

Square Inch.

per

Analysis.

Not

of
of

aluminium
a

in

steel

softeningnature.

castings having

seen

ranging from

from
0.05

It

somewhat

magnetic qualitythan
It will be

is, like

steel
the

per

determined.

that
to

seems

act

silicon, sulphur,

castingsmade
to 0.2

the

by

or

powerfully than

more

greater degree

analysesthat

cent,

of

of

purity
of

processes

aluminium

per cent., and

that

is

and

silicon,the
a

higher

equal refinement.

present

this

phosphorus,

in amounts

permits of making

Magnetic Propertiesof
about

good castingswith
steel.

ordinary cast
less.

they do

furnish

not

It will be

Mitis
to

iron

The

kilolines

this
impurities,
of

result

magnetic
is

of

with

than

is

homogeneity

is

it
to

up

steel

up

somewhat

densityof

from

obtained

that

impurities.

ordinary

iron

mitis

from

obtained

identical
practically

lack of

densities

high

at

that

shows

good quality.

little better

kilolines,but

100

iron

mitis

denoting a

in those

than

hardness

generally somewhat

there
magnetic qualities

of poor

excess

is, magnetically,a

of

density

inferior.
100

of

excess

in

as

manganese

effect of the various

to the

as

25

and

is

analysesof

in those

that

Steel.

carbon, also,

and

tests

clear indication

greater degree

these

and

silicon

much

as

of

amount

noticed, however,

generallyan
and

The

inspectionof

An

one-half

Iron

wrought-iron

forgings.
A

is

representingthe

curve

able

Steel.

Some

"

of the

propertiesof

are

shown

in

the

of

22

at

inferior

grade

to the

remarkable
For

of

Swedish
find

tions, although

and

vol.
'"

the

For

nickel

xlviii.,page

presence

the

information

Various

iron, in

curve

as

and

to

the

of

of

and

is made
G.

by

Armstrong

illustrates

conditions

Hopkinson,

an

attributable

the

shows

properties

it is somewhat

which

iron and

sheet

taken

sheets

the

J.

Dr.

be

graphite.

for the

remarkable

see

Curve

preferablybe

should

to

iron, nearly

former

Curve

analysis of

the

percentage

composition

iron,

curves

permeabilitybeing

sulphur.

wTought-iron forgingsand

generally used,

alloys of

alloys

excessivelyhigh melting point,

low

its

and

small

its

to

wrought iron,

of

In

Sir W.

Messrs.

exceptionalpurposes.

phosphorus

to
the

practice,found

in

are,

of

Works

owing

of

excess

forging

nickel

magnetic propertiesof wrought

for

manufactured

only

iron

wrought

Elswick

the

Co., Limited, but

it is

analysisof

the

by

steel,

with

magnetic propertiesof

The

generally obtained, respectively. The

as

steel process

and

for

accounted

remark

possess

of nickel

mixture

high magnetic permeability.

the

shown

are

and

the

of

qualityand

Fig.

be

can

nickel

Fig. 2 1.2
"

of uniform

steel with

cent,

per

components.

Forgings. Forgings

pure,

greater permeabilitythan

the

of

alloysof

magnetic properties.1 A

shows

the

III.,

given in Fig. 20.


Xickel

of

Table

samples of

twelve

of the

average

as

will

be

not

controllingthe
Proc.

basis

sheet

steel

calcula

for
that

given

magnetic properties of

Royal Soc.,

vol.

xlvii.,page

23 ;

1.

investigationshave
of chromium

and

shown

that

the

permeability

of steel

is

greatly lessened

tungsten.
E

by

Electric

26

HONI'6S

U3d

Generators.

S3NHOTIU

S3NHOTDI

"6S

H3d

S3NHOTIH

Electric

28

LOSSES

ENERGY
The

loss in

energy

field consists

of

inter-molecular
loss

The
the

increases
the

with

the

is

obtaining in

duced

to

give

practice,and

uniform

those

results, the

"

LOW

STEEL

UNFORCED

CASTING

INTO

FOR

DYNAMO

of

currents.

reversal

of the

increase

of

material

ANNEALED

RING,

of

iron, and

the

of

magnetisa
be

can

by hysteresismay

be

pro

taken

fc TURNED.

MAGNETS.
-

STEEL

the

limits

the
such

loss

of

law

exact

which

FORCED

BAR,

FOROINO

by eddy

thickness

within

energy

MOOR

CD

in

that

the

is no

There

by hysteresisor

that

frequency

the

magnetisation,but

the

being

second

the

entirelyindependent of

magnetisation.

hysteresiswith

tion

first

the
quantities,

by hysteresisis proportionalto
but

rotating magnetic

alternatingor

an

magnetic friction, and

magnetism,

IRON.

SHEET

IN

in

iron

sheet

distinct

two

Generators.

UNFORCED

..

(SIEMENS

CASTINGS

PROCESS)

(KRUPP)

GO

GO

AMPERE

to

increase

first

Professor

tests, found

the

power

the

The

Mr.

Ewing

C.

and

1.48

in

generally met
as

the

as

from

1.6

INCH

14O

OF

1SO

200

LENGTH.

of

power

160

the

magnetisation,as

was

Steinmetz.1

Miss

Klaassen,2 however,
be

to

transformers.

better
Other

from

large number

representative
extensive

the

at

point

tests

of

densities
the

to

1.5

average.3

hysteresis loss

temperature
10

TZO

PER

the

P.

power

working temperatures,
as

TURNS

approximately with

pointed out by

100

per

is

but

independent
from

to

20

of

Elec.

Electrician,April 13th,

Elec.

Eng.,

New

World,

June

York,

temperature
upward

deg. Cent,

700

cent,

per

the

deg. Cent,

200

increases,until at

cent,

of

it has

its initial value.

vol. x., page


1894.

15th, 1895.

the

677.

at

loss

fallen

ordinary
decreases
to

as

Obviously

low
this

decrease

at

Sheet

is of

high temperatures

very

in

Losses

Energy

Iron.

29

commercial

no

importance at

the

present time.1
The
chemical

annealed

has

obtained.

together

of

the

the

deg.
the

iron

sheets

the

Tech.

in

This

In

this

Clinker
4

"

On

Mr.

S.

Properties

this

Beyond
the

of

surfaces

sheets

slight sticking

been

brought
of

danger

the

to

but

soon

injuringthe

been

yet

found
No

been

Elek.

also
and

wide

by

paper

of

Iron

as

from

iron, giving
deterioration

K.

Phil.

also

dependent
a

exceed

an

through

Morris, Ph.D.,

so-

Mag., Septem
the

On

"

Temperature,"

upon

it

which

of

Mag
read

series

of

of

iron, being higher the

tests

hysteresis,

temperatures.

the

upon

D.

depends

amount

temperature

described

are

of

range

somewhat

depends

Its

Zeit., April 5th, 1894;

valuable

hysteresis

the

satisfactoryexplanation

of charcoal

14th, 1897,

May

over

that

given.

the

upon

grades

in two

high temperatures.3

has

has

effected

composition

the

iron.
much

of

authors

and

C.

C.

Slow

Proceedings of
January

the

temperature

improvement

the

heating.4

Resistance

Electrical

resistance,

and

materials, the

results

the

easilyseparated;

are

is

hysteresisloss

Cent.2

having

particularlysubject to

complete

very

temperature
the

pure
3

best

Physical Society, on

permeability, and
'2

The

and

It

"

iron, and

the

Quarterly, July, 1895;

; also

the

Iron.

continued

by

initial loss, are

Properties

before

Sheet

of

annealed.

ber, 1897

show

Fig. 25

of this deterioration

ingly low

by

950

together badly.
the

of
of

relation

iron

sheet

nature

higher the

place;

it insures

of

compositionof

been

and

increases

cause

upon

to

stick

which

at

the

grades of iron, by annealing from

loss in iron

C.

the

the

upon

about

sheets

and

greater degree upon

subjected.

that

take

as

the

temperature

actions

the

upon

great.

Deterioration

more

far

dependent

passing this temperature (950 deg. Cent.),the

different

netic

to

influence

to

up

high temperature,

Curves

has

The

"

annealing, show

desirable,

iron becomes

of

iron is

is somewhat

experiments concerning the

scaled, and

desired

Iron.

deleterious

is

iron, but

the

hysteresisloss

temperature
become

the

preponderating

temperature

after

of

Sheet

Extended

the

hysteresisloss

which

to

Annealing of

lower

the

composition

physicalprocesses

to

of

magnitude

are

following work

Wharton,

Royal

llth, 1895.

Roget,

of

Iron," read

complete experimental

in

Mr.

to

London,

Magnetic

Society,January
A

R.

of

in the

Changes
the

the

indebted

recent

paper
before

data.

very

hysteresisand

Royal

assistance

Permeability
17th, 1895

"Effects

on

the

propertiesof insulating

Coates, of Lynn, Mass., and

for valuable

valuable

entitled
the

on

Jesse

of

; also

contribution
of

Messrs.

to

carrying

Electrician, December
to

this

subject

Heating

12th, 1898.

on

11.

of tests.

out

M.

Iron," by William

Prolonged

Society, May

in the

Mordey,
7th, 1894,

has
the

It contains

been

made

Magnetic
some

very

Electric

called

loss

subjectto

by

lower

Table

case

results

brands

of

brands

of those

rise of

percentage

the

shows

different

several

on

27, but

annealed

of

is

sample

JFt9^J6.BASIC

the

of

tests

invariablygreater

in

that
"

Cent,

deg.

60

hysteresisby

FLg.27.

i'-S

in

noticed

be

the

ageing," the

than

of the

that

ACID

ncLKriouarteiiHG

0- +

at

tests

will

of

increase

"

grade

same

case

more

exceptions.

many

are

It

the

was

ageing

"

iron.

subject to

the

there

the

superiorto

This

temperature.

and

correspondingto Figs. 26
V.

high temperature, although

ageing,"generallyremains

"

from

iron annealed

from

annealed

Iron

ageing."

"

Generators.

of

IRON

TO

t.l

OPEN-HEARTH

STEEL

ANALYSIS

E!

SILICON

"

PHOSPHORUS..

."

MANGANESE

gl

SULPHUR-

"

CARBON.

unannealed

sample, and

than

worse

the

Brands

plottedin

at

even

the
as

more

unannealed

III., V.,

these

when

VI.,

at 60

stable

constructed

temperature

much

29

are

the

brands

with
above

and

of
of

same

056

sample ultimatelybecomes

appears

that

at

deterioration
selected

that
that

iron deteriorate

60

irons whose

"

ageing

"

records

are

respectively.

deg. Cent., but

temperature

relates to avoidance

annealed

the

it
investigations

deteriorate
this

often

026

samples.

and

Figs. 28, 31, and

From
will not

that

0031
oas

can

be

obtained

irons deteriorate

some

temperature of

90

which

rapidly

deg. Cent,

even

gradually. Consequently, so

through

irons, should

deg. Cent.

iron

"

ageing," apparatus,

not

be

allowed

to

far
even

reach

"

V.

TABLE

(From
of

Temperature
The

chemical

Ageing

RESULTS

"

Tests

ageing

analyses

of

OP

by
=

these

"

R.

60

C.

Iron.

of Sheet

TESTS

ON

AGEING

Clinker, London,

deg. Cent., except


samples

are

31

given

1896-7.)

where
in

IRON.

OP

stated.

otherwise

Table

IV.,

Temperature

raised

to

90

deg.

after

600

hours.

Temperature

raised

to

90

deg.

after

650

hours.

Temperature

raised

to

90

deg.

after

670

hours.

on

page

27.

Electric

32
of

examination

An
the most

the

high temperature,

impure

such

that

results indicates
is believed

It

stable result.

Generators.

iron may

annealingfrom

by

that

made

be

impure

rather

to

have

gives

sufficiently

low

as

iron

initial

an

The lower melting


be obtained
with the purest iron.
loss as can
hysteresis
iron cannot, in
such
pointof impure iron, however, imposes a limit ; for
it, be brought to so high a temperature as pure iron,
order to anneal

ss

"
u

2500

3000

xsa

iso

soo

iroo

aso

1000

vso

HOURS

"Saix.

MIT../1*

because
low

the

softens

surface

the

plates stick together

at

comparatively

temperatures.
The

^ageing
annealed

of

curves
"

tests.

sample

Figs. 30, 31,


In

is

Fig. 30

of

when

increase

the

no

32

represent

effect of

Pressure

great magnitude,

hystereticloss.

partlyregainsits

the

and

the

results

of

interesting

higher temperature

upon

the

clearlyshown.

Effectof Pressure."
even

and

former

Even

and
as

all

mechanical

they

decrease

after release

good qualities.

In

the

from
curves

strains

are

injurious

permeability and
the iron only
pressure,
the

of

Fig. 33

is shown

Properties of
the

effect of

applying pressure

having

ments

been

Another
of

it

after

These

show

the

that

results

from

received

was

removal

is

the

Iron.

different

two

the

interestingcase

Fig. 34.

iron,as

made

to

Shwf

of

grades of iron, the


the

the

curves

certain

upon

after

makers,

measure

pressure.

in

shown

of tests

33

it had

been

A, B,

sample

and
of

annealed,

C,

sheet
and

0-9

EFFECT

OF

PRES8UREUPON

HYSTERESIS-LOSS

JRON

SUBSEQUENT

REMOVAL

SILICON

THE

OFSHEETTO

THE

.QC9

PHOSPHORUS"

__;090

MANGANESE,

-4-74

SULPHUR...

-O4-O
_.__

CARBON..

_-O72
"

4OOO

8OOO

1200

PRESSURE

IN

ZOOO

16OO
LBS.

PER

SQ.

24OO
INCH.

:O4"

CARBON

....-II7

PHOSPHORUS
MANGANESE

-368

SILICON

.-202
-I

SULPHUR
.

AMPERE

after

being subjectedto

It will be

that

seen

meability,but

that

meabilitybelow
The

is

value

probably

the

much

TURNS

-JO
PER

annealing in this

14

12
OF

INCH

of 40,000

pressure

subjecting the

its
of

sample

to

16

LENGTH.

Ib. per

case

..

square

inch, respectively.

materiallyincreased

the

per

diminished

the

per

pressure

originalvalue.

the

hysteresislosses

greater.

Mr.

Mordey

while

the

refers to

iron
a

case

is still under
in which

pressure
a

pressure

Electric

34

of

1,500 Ib. per

in the

Re-annealing

value.1
its

accompanied by

was

the

Upon removing

loss.

core

inch

square

Generators.

injuredby

original
to

pressure,

originalcondition.
This

under

be

sheets,

no

HysteresisLoss.
that

The

"

Fig.

of

curves

35

give values

practice.

in actual

be obtained

can

These

should

Ibf. Also niqktr losses


C hascrWHein
tWe

for the

Curve

be increased
I0?.for transfi
50 Ibs of Iron " S/. For those. "ith From 50 U
with Iron' not pruper/y annea/eol
tL~g"
'
ok'
~H- test
iple.,

results
via, less than

100

Orthodox.

is

for

forfcldv

Values

hysteresis
sheet

Lost
Current
F 10 Microhm,

'

losses inTransFormcrs.diie
in excefS
SQ7.txlt"Ofi

should

be

used

transformer

work

transformer

work, iron

and

iron there

is

for armatures

transformer

is

occasion

for

is

no

yet secured

the

in. to

usually.025

plate.013

by

such

in. in

in. thick, rolled from

used

generally used.
Curve

thickness.

Ewing.

Professor

\
tdolyCurre

thtbc values

in

For

Swedish

It

from

was

iron.2

Its

Iron

gives

strip of

analysiswas

Cent.

.02

Silicon

.032

Manganese

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

.020

Sulphur

.003

(by difference)

Slow

Proceedings of

only.

trace

Phosphorus

ier

values.

Per

"On

Sheet

in

exacting requirements,

iron

armature
.036

these

Carbon

Iron

steel

generallyused.

in. thickness

representative of

is

best result

of .014

with

comply

required to

be

bo

of

all iron

construction, and

transformer

for

should

armature

curve

good

'

Actual

For

tem

to

bnprtur

as

im

construction.

mechanical

such

the

to

more

is essential

than

used

relates

as

of considerable

one

transformer

and

should

pressure

is

pressure,

assembling armature

in

far

so
particularly

pressure,

remains

permanent

or

losses

injuryby

iron

the

portance, and
porary

of

matter

while

increase

the

cent,

per

loss fell to its

core

been

has

which

iron

restores

the

pressure,

of 21

increase

an

Changes
the

in

the

the Institution

...

...

...

99.925
...

...

Magnetic

Royal Society,January

Proceedings q/

...

of

Civil

...

...

Permeability

of

Iron,"

by

William

17th, 1895.

Engineers, May

19th,

1896.

M.

Mordey,

Electric

36

The
of little

for

eddy

to

used

irons

and

currents

set

copper

but

constitutes
for

magnetic
given

in

(Munroe

W.
and

dependence

i)

1.

Swedish

Preece

H.

Jameson
of the

charcoal

gives

"

iron, very
,,

PREECE'S

soft and

TESTS

and

given,

for

com

,,

,,

not

suited

for P.

0.
"

specification.

Swedish

5.

Best

6.

Bessemer

Siemens-Martin

puddled

cast

the

composition.

steel 0.10

carbon.

iron.

steel, special soft quality.

,,

Best

values

WIRE.

7.
8.

,,

IRON

4.

,,

of

strikingmanner

chemical

the

upon

ANNEALED

OF

No.

pure,

good for P. 0. speci-

in

shows

of iron

tication.
,,

iron

also

are

resis

the

YI.

Pocket-book), which

VII.

3.
"

in which
pure

very

and

total loss.

of the

Table, reproduced below,

the

resistance
specific

2.
,,

current

sheets,

approximately

VI.

for

eddy

are

TABLE

No.

Table

correspondingvalues

part

have

purposes

TABLE

Mr.

small

the

to

isolated

individual

the
a

only

refer

they

in

up

work, and

for transformer

chieflyuseful

are

density constants

comparison, the

mercial

36

calculation, as

this often

in armatures
The

Fig.

in armature

use

Tosses due

tance

in

curves

Generators.

,,

steel.

hard

quality.

SpecificConductivityof
Although prepared in
of much
of

to
significance

using

reduced

to

low

ately
also

be

nearly

its lower

course

to

this

formers

in America

sition is

more

1, and

like

have

been

Samples

ageing."
property

Reference

should

before

FAcademie

useful

data

of

The

results

sequently reproduced

per

Resistance
Centimetre

of

will

proportion

Transformer
such

to

whose

13th, 1898,

of

the

H.

M.

by

Le

varying percentages
of

influence
of

INFLUENCE

CARBON.

OF

Si.

Mn.

0.05

0.13
..

0.08

0.15

0.05

0.24

14

0.49

16

0.84

0.24

0.13

18

1.21

0.21

0.11

18.4

1.40

0.14

0.09

19

1.61

0.13

0.08

...

...

...

...

Centimetre

INFLUENCE

OF

SILICON.

Composition.

per

Si.

C.

Cube.

0.1

0.2

12.5

...

38.5

0.2

15.8

0.8

2.6
...

0.1
0.7

0.8

26.5

...

...

1.3

0.8

33.5

...

...

0.1

1.0

17.8
...

...

...

32.0

0.6

1.0

25.5

given

1.0

very

of

varying percentages

0.20

"

present,

resistance

...

IX.

very

of carbon, silicon,

especialimportance,and

C.

TABLE

compo

been
be

is

electrical

the

upon

O.OG

in Microhms

trans

Chatelier,read

which

in

...

Resistance

of

have

Composition.

12.5

tem

that

Most

should

to

in

chemical

transformers

paper

in Microhms
Cube.

Of

builders

quality as

ageing."

"

of manganese

followingTables

10

iron will

resistance.
specific

are

"

hysteresis loss

sufficiently
high

by

the

cent,

elements,

VIII.

to

material

6, and

desirability

troublesome, owing

some

troubled

be made

manganese

TABLE

Speci6c

iron

4, 5 and

influence

in the

its

it is

prolonged heating.

annealing.

built from

relating to

carbon, silicon,and

heated

when

much

other

the

to

comparatively impure

it somewhat

Sciences, June

des

telephone work,

points

through

from

raisingthe

here

nickel, and

steels.

Such

least .4 per

At

regarding the

manganese,

loss.

results

been

37

higher specificresistance

together

have

to its

owing

the

generally used

have

No.

of

stick

to

Steel.

by annealing, have

deterioration

good

sample

"

from

builders, and

can,

current

and

telegraph ami

melting point renders

secure

country

free from

eddy

free

platestending

perature

as

value, since

the

with

transformer

iron

impure

as

decrease

the

connection

Iron

1.1

are

con

of

Generators.

Electric

38

X.

TABLE
Resistance

Microhms

in

INFLUENCE

"

MANGANESE.

OF

Composition.

per

Mn.

Si.

0.24

0.1
...

0.1

0.95

...

0.2

0.83
...

0.9

1.8
...

0.3

13.

MATERIALS.

INSULATING

to

the

insulation

in

according
The

nical

part of

one

No

strains.

in

one

still another

in

material

in

withstood.
electrical

high temperatures
to

part

marked

any

to

to

part

greatly,

vary
be

subjectedto high

be

may

in another

pressures

conditions

the

dynamo

construction

dynamo

and

use

temperatures

electrical

moderate

of

method

at moderate

pressures
and

used

insulating materials

The

mecha

severe

degree

possesses

very

largely

all the

qualitiesrequired.
either

Mica,

without

standing high temperatures


the
is
its

absorption of
invaluable.
lack

of

formed

Table
white

so

sheets
to

as

shows

mica

the

of

has

used

however,

use,

has

mica, alternating with

be

moisture

proof, have

of

account

on

coils

armature

entirely satis

been

not

of

armature

and

the

of

sheets
found

been

electrical

properties

of

specially

paper

highly

field-magnet coils.

The

composite

suitable

following
sheets

of

:
"

XI.

Puncturing

...

...

...

7,800

...

...

8,800

0-011
...

another
upon

20th, 1898.

paper
the

by

electric

the

same

resistance

author
of

to

...

0.009
...

3,600

...

0-007

June

mica

its brittleness.
of

roughly

insulate

to

0.005

In

from

pieces cemented

small

numerous

been

TABLE

tempering

on

of with

commutators

is restricted,

however,

Thickness.

of

construction

made

hot,
Its

of

insulation

the

while

account

Composite
for

used

its freedom

deterioration, and

mica,

mica, i.e.,mica

factory,on
prepared

In
of

use

commutators.

as

been

has

flexibility.

together,and
well

moisture.

The

Moulded

as

solid,

or

its property
extremely high insulatingqualities,

of its

account

composite

...

are

steel.

set

forth

Comptes

"

"

11,600

results
Rendus

"

Voltage.

5,860
10,800
11,400
14,600

showing
de

the

I'Academie

influence
des

of

Sciences,

Properties of Insulating Materials.

dried

and

is

which

paper,
shows

be

to

found

is

irregular in

better

been

-used

satisfactory,

soaked

with

insulator

and

baked

less

or

linen

quality

fairlysatisfactorywhen
has

more

are

use,

which

linen,

and
good qualities,

very

been

have

preparation and

shellaced

liable

but

linen,

that

of

method

according to
oil

materials

other

The

39

brittle
press

with

than

oiled

oiled

board,"

"

linseed

satisfaction

bondwhich

insulate

to

field-magnetcoils.
linseed

Where

thoroughly
Red

and

main
far

so

before

They

and

to

absorb

to

necessary

use

waterproof.
good

The

to

thickness, owing

the

inner

is made

according

in this
have

the

leatheroid

Sheet

material
tensile

of

increase

are

made

be

the

thick

qualities,

Baking improves

the

voltage not

in

to

render

thickness,

the

volts

10,000

insu

it is

Whenever

according to

their

thicknesses

increasingwith

difficultyof thoroughly drying

as

processes

of

is

success,

to

substantiallythe

^" in. should

thickness

is

thoroughly painted

puncturing

be

sheets.

same

materials

This

brittle.

withstand

increased

possesses

XIT.-

varying

mechanical
due

substance

should

with

concerned.
air.

should

by chemically treating

decidedlypoor

the

the

material

the

insulators

as

their

from

in., this

to

strength

such
in

to the

TABLE

With

fibres

shrinking are

fibre

the

of

oil.

insulatingquality varies

^ in.

part

the

material, it should

vulcanised

from

varying

being

renders

this

employed,

used

moisture

lating qualities,but

but

been

have

warping

as

be

to

applying

objectionto them

readiness

it

is

vulcanised

white

fibre.

paper
the

dried

oil

5,000
"

TESTS

as

not

vulcanised

safelywithstand
Ib.

ox

per
SHEETS

vulcanised

square
OF

qualities,and

same

fibre.

5,000

thickness

volts, and

should

inch.

LEATHEROID.

fibre

and

leatheroid,

sheet

necessarily accompanied

by

increased

Electric

40

insulation

resistance, owing
the

throughout

is well

This

sheet.

the

obtaining uniformity

difficultyof

the

to

of

thickness

Generators.

in

the

tests

preceding

Table.

shown

of

of

sheets

leatheroid

high insulatingqualities. Its


that

useful, owing

quite flexible,and

it becomes

Cent,

deg.

70

at

the

restricted, however,

is

use

in

sometimes

is

forms

various

in

rubber

Hard

thicknesses, given

various

at

its

to

from

the

deg.

Cent,

80

fact
it

softens.
Hard

bars

and
their

of

hard

is

rubber

should

chief

The

be

slate

moreover,

is

quite

mechanical

and

terminal-board
has

from

take

it is

useless

useful.

the

There

to

faults

and

about

dynamos,

"c.

volts

per

5000

used

of

found

the
to

will

the

greater

will

withstand
As

of

withstand

baking

This

considerable

material

is

proportion being
10,000
of

volts

tests,

per
the

the

its

cases

switchboard

and

bushings.
to

less

extent.

will

and

addition

in

subject to
is

of

one

market,

such

as

other

to

action

the

readily obtainable

is that

deg.

known

Cent,

compound
in.

in

the

most

Insullac,

"c.

asbestos.

be

not

on

315

as

for

used, shellac

value

such

in

should,

and

of varnishes

high

is desirable

in thickness.

purposes

commonly

as

voltages,

frequently used,

are

specialinsulatingmaterials

be

results

Even

ebonite

by

inch

for electrical

number

requires

veins, and

metallic

with

it useful

woods

volts per

20,000

it

moderate

very

slate, though

as

other

varnishes

are

deterioration.

taken

of

it
practicable,

insulator.

an

paint,SterlingVarnish, Armalac,

One

which

times

50

thoroughly impregnated.

re-eriforced

same

maple

10,000

Of

at

even

permeated

as

when

the

varnishes

oils.

been

terminals

Where

place.

withstand
insulatingqualities,

and

of

hygroscopic quality,and

fireproofproperties make

Kiln-dried

radius

diameters.

25

the

otherwise,

often

work,

Marble

is its

slate

paraffinuntil

is,

cases

The

will

leakage

Slate

of

of

Sheets

thickness.

to

baked, withstand

will, when

objectionto

it in

boil

stand

of

radius

mil.

per

bending

stand

insulation

the

kept thoroughly dry

considerable

such

for

to

volts

500

thickness.

in

inch

tubes

used

Ordinarily good

to

stand

thickness, and
Slate

to

should

rubber

of

"

as

that

vulcabeston,"

apparently

with

has

asbestos

and

no

rubber,

\7'ulcabeston, ordinarily good,


of

thickness.

following approximate

values

may

be

"

Red

press-board,.03

in. thick, should

stand

10,000

volts.

It

should

Properties of InsulatingMaterials.
bend

to

radius

strength along
Red

50

Manilla

the

the

rope

of

grain

times
of

grain

Ib. per

inch

of

paper,

.003

in.

Ib.

200

Oiled

per

its thickness, and

thick, having
width, should
thick,

and

stand

TESTS

ON

OILED

cotton

.003

paper

.004

in. thick

the

volts.

tensile

stand

strength along
volts.

400

FABRICS.

stood

from

2500

4500

to

6300

"

tensile

strength along

1000

having

width, should

have

inch.

tensile

of

.007

should

square

inch

cambric

"

Ib. per

GOOD

in.

.01

paper,

of

grain

of five

41

"

"

"

,,

"

"

3400

.010

volts.

7000
4800
"

5000

"

volts.

"

number

of

of

split mica

material.

one

The

consistinggenerally

use,

of

sheets

to

on

other

some

:"

of .005

sheets

two

between

in

are

shellac

are

consistingof

.015

mica

bond-paper

in. thick

being

whole

the

them,

insulation

compound

in. thick.

This

red

shellaced

stands

together

the

on

with

paper,

average

volts.

3,400

Combined

2.

breaking

shellac

to

on

shellaced

canvas

thickness

width,

-g-

in.

Each

point.

.002

of

and

"

beyond,

row

Mica

and

piecesare

in.

so

as

thickness

of .009

in. had

volts.

canvas.

mica

The

about

"

and

of

3,000

of canvas,

sheet

to

2,000

of mica

on.

about

and

every

and

strength of from

Composition

3.

same

principalones
of mica

thickness

into

with

strips pasted with

Insulation

1.

insulations

composite

with

covered

each

lapped over

stripsis lapped

other

double

for

thickness

half

of

their

of mica

preceding row

the

over

sheet

another

approximately the

be of

splitto

to insure

pasted together

stripsare

at

about

i in.
The
The

use.

.013

in.

thus

This

manner

will stand

as

White

5.

about

1,500 volts per

quoted

will

should

be

and

mica

up

taken

and
at

3,000 RM.S.

about

for

baked
about

.048

24

hours

in.,using

before
canvas

volts.

longcloth,made

shellaced

cartridge paper

at

60

of

hung

up

with

shellac

in the

preceding material.

hours

It

prepared are

total thickness

Composition

4.
same

sheets

deg. Cent.

doubtless

for various

The

on

total

thickness

been

observed

both

sides, and

is .012

in., and

baked
it will

for

12

stand

layer.
have

materials

are

not

at

that

the

all consistent.

quantitativeresults
This

is

probably in

Electric

42

part due

to

tinuous

alternatingcurrent

or

maximum

effective

stated

whether

especialimportance

subjectedmay
method

the
The

appreciated,and
is true

that

instructive, and

these

tedious

good working knowledge


XIII.

The

of

resistance

of the

moisture.

apparatus should,

high temperature

Governed
so

to

far

by
as

which

UPON

far

these

that

to

come

be

worth.

are

useful

no

OF

INSULATING

INSULATION

as

and

free

expensive
will

material.

the

RESISTANCE.
very

rapidly as

high temperature
it appears

considerations,

its insulation

give

MATERIALS.

decreases
the

and

simple method

relates to its insulation, be

thoroughly

conditions

results.

more

necessarilyelaborate

are

QUALITY

so

to be

that

they

are

it is

which

to

the

what

It

being investigatedexhaustively as

insulatingmaterials
in

with

is

accomplished

accompanying

for

effect

thoroughly

appears

insulatingpropertiesof

OF

temperature increases, except

expel

made

are

TEMPERATURE

OF

given

it is believed

SUMMARY

"

been

is

only gradually

has

are

been

if this

in connection

to.

interval.

have

It thus

been

referred
often

short

con

form

have

it should

temperature

material

points

tests

out, but

the

case,

stated

materials

various

EFFECT

hand,

regarding the

have

tests

some

to carry

TABLE

other

preceding results

the

practicable. Such

rapidly as
and

of

importance

be

should

of test

for

should

the

detail

every

strain

material

affect the

permanently

by

(E.M.S.) voltage was

the

on

generallybe

thoroughly valuable,

It

the

that

by
the

alternatingcurrent

results, and

the

resist

prior to testing;though
would

tested

whether

as

voltage will, furthermore,

the

samples which

in

by baking, as

and

or

applicationof

Continuous

dried

and

effect the

and

also of

if

periodicitywould

factor

breakdown

of test, such

conditions

different

the

Generators.

run

from

at

acts

that

the
to

the

sufficiently

moisture.

The

Electric

44

2.

in water,

immersed

the

measuring
in

shown

Figs. 40

of

rounded

are

These

the

plates

for
,

transformer.

the
to

pattern

be

tested.

discs ^ in. thick

brass

two

which

sample

the

of

copper

vertical

the

secondary of

holding

off to

and

prevent

an

This,

as

1^ in.

in
of

excess

pressed together against the sample

are

also

strips,which

brass

two

of

edges

points.

these

intensityat
by

for

primary

being adjustable.

one

upper

the

voltage on

43, consists of

to

inside

the

diameter,

the

voltmeter,

electrostatic

effective

the

in

current

glass jar, containing two

positionof

testing board

4.

the

Kelvin

3.

of

consists

This

transformer.

regulatingthe

for

rheostat

water

Generators.

apply

to

serve

the

voltage

to

hold

sample

the

l"J

discs.

The

between

pressure

the

is

discs

just enough

to

the

firmly.
An

5.

consists
should
with
The

for

oven

in

(as shown
be

inch

an

asbestos
tin

board, while
drilled

and

there

clearance

is

beneath
at

the

hole

Adjustment

is

round,

an

in the

top

to

temperature

the

should

front

shelf, which

for

tin

There

case.

doors

the

supports

heating the

It

tightlyfilled

be

where

high potentialleads

the

testing
Holes

oven.

and

are.

lamp leads,

thermometer.

is made

of which
lamp, the amount
generated to keep the temperature at
with

containinga

at the

lamp

the

admit

required temperature.

two, which

except

admit

the

box

the

incandescent
to

at

wooden

horizontallyby

back

of the

between

all

packing

sample

the

Fig. 44) of

is divided

case

are

keeping

can

the

by having
be

adjusted

required

value.

resistance
till enough

in series
heat

is

Transformer for

DESCRIPTION
Core.
of iron

The

"

and
respectively,

total

of

depth

density

Coils.

Primary
bare

an

by 4|-in.,for

other

per

of

sides

allowance

an

in., and

2.92

is built
up
and

plate is japanned,

impressed E.M.F.

and

of form

factor

the
cent.

per

sectional

net

of 10

ends

of

area

1.25, the

inch.

square

secondary
The

"

coils

wound

are

in., the

side

opposite sides

on

of

coils

two

The

Over

in three

turns

of

side.

by

cross-section

of 75

coil consists

consists

primary

in. in diameter.

.092

.103

measures

Each

With

slipped into place

were

S.W.G.

in.

circuit type, and

of the

longer legs.

the

these

Ij

Every

iron

45

TRANSFORMER.

3^ in.,giving with

depth

and

primary

on

is

of

kilolines

is 36.4

The
core

net

inches.

square

in. thick.

.014

Testing.

singlemagnetic

by 7f in.,and

punchings

for lost space,


3.65

in.

punchings lj

STEP-UP

OF

is of the

core

Insulation

form-wound,

double

the

.0066

13

inch.

square

total of 150

layers,giving a

No.

covering it

cotton

being

copper

is

conductor

and

primary

turns.

Coils.

Secondary
reel, with

flanges to separate
is No.

conductor

The
double

silk

.000079

inch.

the

The

core

in.

by

they

.009

in

Figs. 38
of

of

39.

the

being

copper

giving

turns,

1,600

and

Over

diameter.

cross-section

wooden

of

total

great

Connection

The

are

primary

venience
fuses.

also

direct

outside

covered

layer

of

with

"

mica

two

-canvas

tape

being put

"

leg.

the

on

is

which

reel,

layers of black

three

or

rolled

before

wooden

the

on

layer of

shellaced

lapped and

wound

are

with

wrapped

are

in. half

.018

slipped over

coils
are

coils

tape

shellaced.
in.),

secondary on

which

by

are

this

Advantage of
circuit,no

primary

in.

they

secondary

shellaced

The

"

(white webbing)

and

in.

.010

in.,the

coil consists

Each

in

shown

as

on

secondary turns.
Insulation.

(1

bare,
.014

measures

in six sections

wound

sections,

the

S.W.G.

33

covering it

square

9,600

on

secondary is

The

"

Type for Insulation

different
flow

"

placed the
leads

mounted

on

legs,the advantage

of current

Boards.

are

the

Tests.

The

occurs,

because

transformer

top of

to

the

another

gained that,

posts,
teak

transformer.

the

even

primary
on

short

magnetic leakage.

of the

is mounted

secondary connection
brought

is

By having

"

on

shown

as

board,
This

teak

which

board

board,
in

on

Fig. 45.

is for

con

is fitted with

Generators.

Electric

46

is

45.

B, B,

samples

taken

are

the

within

made.

before

test.

The

but,

apparatus

that

made

was

different

of

various

shuffled

samples, measuring
order

in

together,
test, all

samples

baked

were

and

the

voltage

volts,

2,000
and

samples

B,

five seconds, and


and
is

Switch

the

on

if

down

for at least

the

dropping
switch, B

any

broke

back
;

it

to

broke

zero,

being

by liftingswitches
arc.

of

it
to

easy

B,

Table

XIV.

of strain

and
insu

composite

the

B,

down,

as

determine

B,

one

by

and

cut

different
at

well

sheets.

Cent.

deg.

60

testing boards,

was

was

raised

capacity

of

current

the

3,000,

voltage
in
of

admit

to

for

samples

magnetic leakage
interval

open

to

applicationof the

This

to

closed

now

voltage was

of

rheostat

water

Switch

Switch
the

the

the

voltmeter.

the
re

value.
indicated

disconnected

was

of

hours

24

long enough

desired

in., were

clips of

the

down

as

the

to

sample

static

being

not

pressure

between

slightly because

voltage

transformer, five seconds

When

in

one

TEST.

OF

for five seconds.

closed

again

adjusting the

hour

an

investigations

durations

variations

(Fig 45).

sample

no

practicallyonly momentary,

brings

an

by

closed

B, B

by

secondary adjusted by

indicated

as

switches

placed

were

in.

eliminate

to

METHOD
Five

give

disruptive strength

the

on

half

materials.

effect of different

the

for

suitable

we
investigation,

an

for

is

test

specialrequirements;

to suit

found

the

mica-canvas.

as

hundred

Two

Before

used

such

temperatures

known

lation

of

and

been

Five

testingboards

which

at

in. square

together.

the

temperature

modified

be

clipsof

temperature
this

left at

be

determine

to

the

of course,

it has

the

samples

shuffled

well

are

placed between
to

of

number

be tested, and

should

example

an

follows

brought

disruptivevoltage

As

secondary circuit, and

main

the

in

given

five branches.

in the

as

to

may,

described,

as

the

on

and

They

in

switch

random,

at

ovens,

be

to

is

test

material

the

from

cut

are

of

method

The

diagram of connections

the

*"

switches
single-pole

are

in

shown

single-pole

simultaneouslyby connecting the

tested

be

may

as
parallel,

in

testing boards
Fkr.

samples

of

number

which
one,

by
from

sample
till

one

needle

voltmeter

the

circuit

the

had
of

by

broken

them

drew

its

do\vn
out

Insulation
The

remainirg samples

voltage, and

so

until

on

TABLE

twenty

series

of

samples

four
tested

XIV.

"

then

were

all five

Tests.

subjected
had

samples

INSULATION

TESTS

deg.

Temperature

60

deg. Cent.

under

the

above,
same

broken

the

next

higher

down.

Cent.

25

as

to

; MICA-CANVAS.

Temperature

tests,

47

were

taken, making

conditions.

total of

Electric

48

for

constant

for

twenty

minutes,

ten

ditions

The

"

deg.

hour,

of

Cent.

it

which

kept

was

that

as

of

curves

same

left in

were

constant

as

right temperature,

did

test

these
in

the

tests

46

the

51, the

In
and

Figs. 46,

10

Table

effective

different

47,

deg. Cent.,
least

at

before

percentage of samples

ordinates.

temperatures

to

in

con

half

CANVAS

than

more

vary

given

are

Figs.
the

not

three

60

for

ovens

IICA

abscissae, and

voltage

plottedfor

samples

above

the

deg. Cent.,

25

CANVAS

results
as

under

made

was

temperatures"

The

temperature during

plotted

tests

approximately

at

impressed
at

impressed voltage kept

the

with

set, in

another

and

different

three

at

100

The
are

series

complete

MICA

an

tested

samples was

thirty minutes.
A

and

of

set

Generators.

and

being
per

tested.

cent.

above, and

they

(R.M.S.) voltage
broken

not
48

durations, while

curves

in

down
are

Figs. 49,

Insulation
and

50,

they

51

Tests

plotted for

are

of Materials.

different

for

temperatures

the

same

duration.
As

and

form

the

it

of the

electromotive

force

impracticableto keep
being supplied by Thomson-Houston
in

as

various

at

possibleby making
It

tests

is evident

MICA

from

loads,the

and

the

that

moo

aooo

running
much

as

different

on

MICA

as

days.

R.M.S.

volts

CANVAS

3000
tFFECTW

MICA

same,

3000

CANVAS

*"t/j

results,
current

alternators

samples

obtained

results

the
the

eliminated

were

of

sets

affect

the

Brush

effects

different

on

of

account

was

paralleland

would

wave

woo

sow

VOiTAGC.

eooo

7000

BOOO

IHHIES"CD

CANVAS

FCg.5C.

5
^

"

"

mrtiesfD

is

limit of

the

safe-workingvoltage of

this material

under

all conditions

tried.
It

would

with

the

have

time

to

From

this
tive

get

that

is not
curves

material

the

so

strained

between

the

the

in

curves

applicationof
as

the

for

ten-minute

and

Figs. 46, 47,

material

voltage, the

duration

longer
and

48, that

of

does
the

not

applied

thirty-minutedurations

the

marked.

so

in

Figs. 49, 50,

temperature

voltage, although

softened, and

from

appear

momentary

voltage,and
difference

also

at

sample

60

may

and

does

not

deg.
be

and

bent

51,

seems

that

in

much

effect

on

it

have

deg.

100

back

on

the

the
the

shellac

itself without

case

of

disrup
becomes

cracking.
H

Electric

50

'HO

?3~ldlHVS'

JO

Generators.

33VJ.N33U3d

XO
'MO

SJIdWVS

JO

39VJLN33U3d

Electric

52

least
or

double

four

into

four

hours

in

at

oven

an

before

by

XV.

"

MICA

Temperature,

Temperature,

much

the

results
same

again

were

placed for

were

sheets

The

in., and

sheets

the

were

then

baked

for

three

cut

up

twenty-

testing.
TABLE

The

up,

Cent.

deg.

60

4 in.

samples measuring
hours

made

When

thickness.

Generators.

which

are

character

working being about

3,000

given
as

60

in the

those

R.M.S.

25

for

volts

LONG-CLOTH.

deg.

deg.

Table
"

as

Cent.

Cent.

and

plottedas

mica-canvas,"
before.

The

the

show

curves,

limit

results

as

of

safe

plotted

Insulation

in the
of

support

the

former

applicationof

the

voltage, the

curves

the

Tests

by longer applications.As
affect the

of Materials.

conclusion,that
material

tests

"

mica-canvas
the

show

canvas

in.

.025

and
is

total thickness

only

five seconds

is not

much

so

before,also,the temperature

the

material

to be

does

duration

strained
not

as

to

appear

quite as good electrically


as

canvas," nothing being gained by the

but

with

disruptivevoltage.

These

"

53

the

mica

"

so

of

the

for

the

long-cloth"had

thicker

much

than

the

"mica-canvas"

evidentlydue solelyto

"mica
the

TABLE

thickness

extra

"

.048

the

the

long-cloth

to

as

against a

as

The

insulation

mica-

latter.

thickness

same
"

in.,

long-cloth."

of

"

of

The

mica,

make

the

thickness

of

strength

is

mica.

XVI."

SHELLAC'D

PAPER

Temperature,

(Two

25

deg.

Temperature,

60

deg. Cent.

Temperature,

100

Sheets).

Cent.

2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000

deg. Cent.

2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000

In

the

employed,
which
on

following
the

material

consists

both

finished

layersof

of

sides

the

in

.012

then
in.

windings

the

tests

this

cartridge paper

and

is about

of

set

about

thoroughly
This

being

case

.010

baked.

material

of

method

same

so-called
in. thick,
The

is often

of transformers, in thicknesses

as

was

Paper,"

pasted with

shellac

average
used

procedure

Shellac'd

"

thickness

insulation
of from

one

when

between
to

three

54

Electric

Generators.

SSIdlNVS

JO

39VJ.N33U3d

Insulation

sheets, according
test

voltage within
tended

the

applicationof

the

slight but

exert

Cent,

the

shellac

The

higher factor

or

for the

Further

tests

proportionalto
Curves

fibrous

and

the

should

of

case

showed

known

nature,

and

conjunctionwith

mica,

the

thicknesses

of

deg. Cent.,

100

to

up

also

duration

the

seen,

results.

withstands

But

at

employing
allowed

under

abrupt bends

little

deg.

100

and

R.M.S.

1000

over

factor of

good conditions, and

other

unfavourable

disruptivestrength

given
as

to

it for construction,

"

below

Red

of

of this

still

conditions.

material

XVII."

RED

the

obtained

It is .0058

Paper."

strengthen

results

the

mechanically strong

TABLE

will be

to

bring the disruptive

of two

use

convenient

to

be

of sheets.

are

material

in
be

the

number

Tables

to

temperature

upon

this material

that

three

found

quite soft.

singlesheet, although

safety of two

on

becomes

As

55

was

order

The

the

influence

It

in

results.

voltage,and

definite

show

tests

volts per

tests

the

layer.

per

voltmeter.

uniform

more

Materials,

of

together,

of the

range

produce

to

material

of the

sheets

two

voltage

the

to

Tests

hence

especiallyuseful

(Four Sheets).

Temperature,

25

deg.

Cent.

Temperature,

60

deg.

Cent.

Temperature,

100

deg.

Cent.

similar

in. thick, and

latter.

PAPER

in

is of
in

56

Electric

Generators.

Insulation
The

method

of tests

preceding set
in those
the

tests, it

material
An

safe

be

to

other

of the

is 2,500

proportionalto

of 100

been

strengththan

the

such

tests

should

For

to

of

case

forth

set

reasons

the

four sheets

test

of

will show

sheets, or
showed

that

limit of

the

volts for

625

breakdown

the

single

pressure

of sheets.

that

materials

Red

"

"

Paper

has

previouslytested.

uniform

more

in the

As

of the insulation

weakening

one

in favour

of its

is

to

given

be obtained

results.

to

them.

But

designing

material

to

be

they

other

at

of

case

temperature

used

in., and

are

machinery,

similar

hand,

materials

tests

together

and

other

and
properties,

are

often

insulated

given

with

the

insulation

giving

it is often

hence

at

attention

cracking and

and

be

layer.

expensive,and

be

the

on

of

all

insulating
of

factors of

reasonable

still

impracticable

details

with

coil

is

taped
is .014

of the insulation

approved

insulatingvarnish,
deg. cent.
a

number
It has

These

and

with
in.

customary
half

their

safety

in

an

are

oven

that

found

in

required amount

practicethat

coil treated

of

or

is

total
some

temperature

operationsof taping,dipping,and
the

the

dipped in

then
at

linen

of tape

thickness

over-lap,so

coils

The

baked

of times, until
been

with

by serving them

half-lap. A

with

thickness

obtained.

thinner

if due

comparison

that

show

would

would

chances

test

matters.

patented composite

should

coils

tape wound

repeated

volt

and

primary

compositeinsulation

leakage, bending

much

transformer,

test, between

the

"

mica-canvas

"

use

conclu

taken.

Armature

90

to

though

definite

very

2,000 volt

12,000

or

such

with

electrical

mechanical, thermal,
be

inserted

10,000

market

the

on

of

this

would, however,
long-cloth,"

are

better

In

layersof

guarding against surface

strengthcould

use

three

withstanding a

"mica

There

insulation

probably be

bruising of insulation, and


on

desired

were

8,000 volt breakdown

hour,

would

just described,

sets

main

the

an

half

four

instance, if it

of

withstand

be sufficient and

about

Tables

which

curves,

the

as

be drawn.

secondary,for

.007

made

showed

chief constituent

which

cotton

the

deg. Cent.

the

should

in

for the

convenient

case

and

number

the

Paper," it

sions may

tests

and

volts for four

the

From

as

57

employed
"

Paper

curves

from

Shellac'd

that

as

in this

R.M.S.

having

tests

It also appears

"

found

was

same

Shellac'd

"

on

examination

insulation

the

was

of M.iteriftJs.

together.

working

sheet,

of test

Tests

of

drying, are
insulation

in this manner,
i

is

Electric

58

but

with

and

volts.

600

placed in
in

thickness

coil into

forcing the
over-lap,and
of

tion

before

that

parts of

slot

coils

cardboard,

greatest of

should

pounds,

as

acid

in

the

by

and

copper
the

hot

vacuum

Such

in the

90

but

steams,
been

kept

deg. cent.,

current

to

varnished

the

needless

cases

of

already

does
in

and

the
in the

metal

moisture
manner

flanges,and
instances

coils treated

described.

In

one

case,

drying

sweat, and
much

less

much

spools have

is

time.

deep

metal

moisture

simply

cooks

occurred

where

days

further

spoolsmay

at

dried

temperature
with

be treated

coils,thus

spools

doing

of

heavy

with

tape
with

away

saving space.

taping

with

be

armature

as

also

of

to

corrodes

of
and

very

have

for ten

Field

out.

the

cases,

oven

spools had

the

and
field

Cases

out.

come

same

steam,

in such

oven,

ordinary drying

then

further
some

an

not

less

lead
their

requires a

moreover,

oven,

necessity where

ordinary

sweat

and

As

almost

is

oven

an

flanges,for
have

vacuum

temperature, consequently

lower

and

out.

copper

first coat

the

method

coils steam

the

method,

best

in time

moisture

residual

the

far the

By

this

By

oven.

is sucked

all moisture

insulations.

the

rots

the

handling. If, for instance,

unskilful

com

preparations have

excellent

Some

thoroughly dried,

is not

compound

or

coil.

the

impaired by

effectiveness
the

of acetates

formation

the

or

The

worthless

be

which

of copper

formates

oil-

and

corrodes

which

process,

The

them.

insulations.

the

practice to

in

proved

drying

in the

warmed

lined with

slots

of

abrasion

half

evapora

and

into

coils,

one

through

farther

when

the

selectinginsulatingvarnishes

in

have

them

thoroughly
the

strength,

than

dried

in.

.012

of

more

thick

penetrate

prevent

used

not

over

abrasion

treatment

too

paraffinand

hot

to

be

forming

short-circuits

to

of

of

many

vegetable
through

care

in

this

taping be
be

should

of about

from

varnish

become

not

will then

varnish

varnish-treated

In

the

does

dipped

are

slot.
that

see

coils

All

the

dipping,as

to

varnish

the

solvent.

the

armature

taken

be

must

care

the

skin

of

of

generally

are

insulation

the

little to

but

thin

the

protect

to

an

cent,

for not

manner

cardboard

oil-treated

contributes

this

but

rather

serving
great

slots lined with

armature

above

deg.

90

potential test

high

the

in

insulated

coils

Armature

at

sufficient for machines

is considered

volts, which

R.M.S.

5,000

withstands

varnish,

in

dipping

each

after

baked

thoroughly

third, i.e.,five total dippings,and

the

after

twice

second, and

after the

taping,once

first

after the

twice

in varnish

dipped
over-lap),

half

with

(wound

.007-in. tape

layersof

three

Generators.

the
a

and
same

half

be

varnishing, may
kind

of

tape

and

over-lapped covering

cited

varnish
of

the
as

.007-in.

Electric

60

Generators,

WINDINGS.

ARMATURE

the

to

respect

but

the

lightingpurposes,

with
large scale, are constructed
of types of winding. Although

less-used

the

treat

arranged

are

each

includes

turn

pole ;

is

of

coils is

in

arc-lightdynamos,
would

become

coil is

conductors

tator

to

external

surface

of

Gramme
small

winding

Gramme

each

that

magnet

the

windings.
be

can

total

voltage,
coils
On

armature.
in the

of space

amount

windings

volt

the

adjacentarmature

largelyused

drum

is that

of the

fraction

are

the

for

conductors

the

cylinder,so

flux

magnetic

flux from

of the

voltage between

case

total

of

ring winding.

windings

excessive

windings

largelightinggenerators,
are

armature

ductors

less

or

armatures
for

required
is also

There

arranged

that

so

the
each

independently replaceable.

Gramme-ring

the

more

chief classes

voltage generated by

which

that

practicaladvantage

interior

the

of the

the

total

the

or

only

of this feature, Gramme

insulation

number

into two

in which

other,

the

only one-half

armatures

periodically
equal to

account

on

present purpose

the

maximum,

through

advantages

adjacent

as

Gramme,

the

as

in drum-wound

while

numerous

utilised

be

may

our

the

arranged on

windings ;

maximum

chief

of the

between

age

as

this is known

One

drum
threaded

and

on

for

sub-divided

be

are

includes,

turn

pole,termed

each

from

each

that

cylinder,so

types

necessary

may

conductors

the

in which

one,

in the

as

most

now

comparativelysmall

other

many

be

well

as

at

are,

types.

windings generallyused

The
"

the

it will not

particularcases,

in

useful

of

one

some

generators

being commercially

is

electrical energy

where

processes

and

for power

extensivelyused

continuous-current

large

been, and

have

types

with

is

consideration

primary

windings. Many

armature

present employed,

other

machines

design of dynamo

the

In

WINDINGS.

ARMATURE

CONTINUOUS-CURRENT

on

bars

so

are

the

external

is twice

the

designed
used

as

as

have

that

the

of

the

in the

with

in this

radial

commutator

as

used

advantage

surface

great

been

case

ends
and

being that

of each

with

cylinder,the
drum-wound

considerable

turn

given

armature

the
at

armature

one

number

"

an

side of
of

of the

number

in

success

con

commu

important

Continuous-

in

feature

segment

the

commutator

large number

commutator

fested
should

of

segment

by

be too

poles,the

it is necessary

of

machine

ations

Machines
in

an

outline

cases,

while

the

choice
turn

time

permitting
high

of

The

the

to

number

per

mani

poles

number

desired

of

extent.

the

commercial

that

so

of

in this way,

strength

increased,

any

of

voltage

sufficiently
large

the

use

reaction,

armature

be reduced

may

keeps

limits.

distortion,if the

armature

and

it is

been

of the

one

and

armature

lightinggenerator,

have

type

of the

drawing

Gramme-ring
of this

America,

desirably low
entail

commutator

one

of turns

within

to limit the

same

number

01

cost

consider

restriction.

is

400-kilowatt

by

Having

sufficient

low, would

armature

is at the

impose
Fig. 70

but

per

While

the

be

Windings.

currents.

demagnetisation and

small

current

of

in such

to

Armature

large

segment

turns

excessive

of

choice

the

turn,

per

voltageper

generation

Current

of

the
in

extensivelyused
most

successful

field of

12-pole

type just

described.

large central stations


that

types

have

been

ever

built.
In
a

small

machines

coil of several

ring is,on

the

ing ; since, in
and

assembled

between

turns
of

score

the

case

where, instead

afterwards

latter,the

upon

segments,

convenience, inferior

the

be

coils may

armature

core.

the

This

Gramme
wind

drum

to the

wound

is often

there

conductors,

adjacentcommutator

mechanical
of the

of two-face

upon
is

only

form,
made

Electric

62

practicablein
segment of

of

case

laminated

the

These
be

the

"two-circuit"

into

and

the

the

multiple circuit windings,there


as

there

of these

comparison

two-circuit

the

that

only a

This

is

small

or

in

Andrews

of the

when

the

referred

i.e.

This

in

the

armature

the

only

having only

the

in small

have

the

voltage exists

between

with

is

generators,
the

air gap,

of material.

of

either

has

two-circuit

having
that

used

same

saving

armatures

state

small

the

to

fraction

advantage

adjacent coils.
multiple-circuit

winding,

been

of

made

known

as

two-circuit
for

the

sake

multiple-circuitGramme-ring
any

extent

already stated, these

as

the

required

long-connection type

now

for

that

requiredfor insulation.

or

armature

to

ones

capacity; and,

to, of

be

stated

of

reservation

it is sufficient

are

considerable

circuits

be

depth

particulartype

Gramme-ring winding.
windings

the

poles; hence

space

armature

total

Gramme

the

winding,

accuracy,

of

the

is,

would

that

and

of

diameter

certain

conductors

number

the

being

winding

fraction

only true

winding,

of

number

may

frequently of great importance

is

lesseningthe

of

thereby considerablylessening the cost


It has been
stated
that Gramme-ring

and

the

of

labour

in the

last economy

either

two-circuit

the

through

sub-classes, it

number

the

times

winding, N
multiple-circuit
This

circuits

many

two

the

windings

voltage, only 2/N


effected

In

of

as

are

may

interconnectingthe conductors,

poles.

are

Making
in

ring and drum,

poles,there are but two


negative to the positivebrushes

number

the

from

armature

of

method

disadvantages.

windings, Gramme

of

the

obvious

plan has

windings.
"multiple-circuit"1

windings,independently of
through

This

core.

subdivided, according to

ring, by temporarily removing

Gramme

practicalclasses

two

Generators.

of

in machines
the

possess

the

total

of any

advantage

voltage

between

adjacent coils.
DRUM
In
from
not

the

bar

to bar

of drum

windings, it

be

must

made

as
being practicable,

connections
the

case

through

face conductors

in fields of

inside

the

oppositepolarity;
This

term

so

rear

and

that
front

of

Gramme-ring

back

to

front.

sides

of any

two

that

applies to

the

From
one

electromotive

single armature

all the
ends

case

from
the

is obvious

the

upon

in

forming

WINDINGS.
connections

exclusively; it

windings,to bring
this it follows

coil must
forces

windings.

be

that

situated

generated

in

Drum

respectivefields,shall

to

chief

circuit

like

windings,

Drum
or

inherent

this

to

circuit

drum

windings

ring windings,
undesirable
conductors
circuit
the

whereas

Gramme-ring winding

total armature
In

It is

for

arranged

the

commutator

other

end.

The

arrowheads

show

the

the

at

the

armature

the

multiple-

The

the

small

very

multiple-

the

of

fraction

inside

of

the

the

the

it will be found
and

the

the

winding

the

six

order

the

at the

armature,

positionshown,

the

that

in

connections

for convenience.

through

By tracing through

face

the

connections

end

diagrams) being,at

conductors

end

the

commutator
current

convenient

represent

represent

outside

the

on

lines

winding.

proved

has

which

from

the

paths through

given

in the

six

front

end

is

:
"

60

11

13

15

54

52

50

59

48

57

27

18

29

20

31

22

33

24

35

26

16

25

14

23

12

21

10

19

47

38

49

40

51

42

53

44

55

46

36

45

34

43

32

41

30

39

28

37

58

56

In

to

neighbouring

properties of

radial

direction

the

than

drum
multiple-circuit

The

(inother

along

of

inside

brushes.

rather

adjacent conductors.

drawn

positivebrushes,
are

followinglines

the

drum

Grammemultiple-circuit

is but

there

at the

those

are

arrowheads

short-circuited

negative to

is that

windings.

brushes

advantages

possessing, however,

diagramaticplan

end, and

multiple-

peripheralposition of

windings.

the

to

valuable

most

diagram
a

the

potential between

armature

connectinglines

The

without

the

of drum

at the

those

given

according to

study

conductors.

The

is

relating

given voltage,only

type,

Gramme-ring

potentialbetween

Fig. 71

be either

having

relative

short-connection

of the

one

outputs.

section

the

as

desirable

(in adjacent fields),two-circuit

the

full

for

case,

the

to

quite analogous

of

much

as

small

comparatively

multiple-circuitdrum

feature

of

former, and

in the

Owing

to

are

the

machines

coils.

or

generallyfound

now

latter

the

of two-circuit

long-connectiontype

for

turns

output.

conductors

analogous

are

it is

in

the

explained hereafter, in

as

property.

successivelyconnected
windings

but

around

their

through

passage

Gramme-ring windings,may

conductors

many

as

used

even

two-circuit, requiringin

times

cases,

output;

electro-magneticlimit of

to the

2/N

some

for this will be

reasons

direction

same

multipolar generators

employ

The

kilowatts

200

even

or

in

are,

63

their

by

turns,

in the

act

Bipolar windings
100

the

composing

conductors

the

Windings.

making

the

connections,

each

conductor

17

at

the

connected

to

the

eleventh

ahead

of it ; and

at

the

back

to

the

ninth

behind

Electric

64

it.
-

In

other
In

9.

such

either

one,

the

there

conductors,
numbers.

lower
order

two,

be

four

or

to

the

that

end

connections

other

of

be

may

slot.

; then

the

represent

upper

with

conductors

being represented by

ones

in each

the

above

considered

would

conductors

the

conductors

slot, one

pitch is

end

back

the

diagram,

per

could

conductors

the
In

conductors

two

were

odd- numbered

with

11, and

pitch is

practicallyapplying

generallybe arranged
Suppose

end

front

words, the

Generators.

even

ordinary

the

Fig.71.

double-spiral
arrangement
be secured

conductors
been
than

in

on

only one

to

at

the

section

of

conductor
The

two.

intended

sketch

small

indicate

an

of

the

armature.

lower

conductor

There

more

actual

might,

desirable,there

when

with

the

shows

in

conductors

arrangement
it will be

to

Fig. 7 1

; or,

of the

equi-distantly.

mechanical
;

result

will

hence

the

odd.

top
slot

per

grouping

subsequent diagrams

conductors

upper

pitchesbeing chosen

the

best

equivalent,the

by always connecting an

necessityof
The

its

or

two

the

of

to

of the

have

course,

could

diagram

conductors

convenient

location

per

arrange

be

in

more

pairs is

slot.
the

But
face

Circuit
Multiple-

following is

The
circuit

There

be any

may

windings

the

of

summary

singlewindings,such

a.

clad

that

as

number

the

of

65

conditions

shown

number

even

Windings.

governing multiple-

in Fio-. 71

of

in

conductors, except that

conductors

must

also

be

odd,

and

iron

multiple of

the

of slots.

number

b. The

the

therefore
c.

The
of

number

front

back

and

pitch is

average

average

both

pitchesmust

differ

by

c/n when

must

2 ;

even.

pitchy should

conductors, and

be

not

be very

different from

of

For

number

poles.

chord

windings,y

Fig.72.

be smaller

should

permit,or

as

may

than

c/n by

as

great

in the

also be

may

furnishingbut a part of
governing such windings are

the

more

or

each

present
double
with

to

go

fully into

winding.
six circuits

Each

of

through

will

conditions

other

as

the

refer

of the

total current

elaborate, and
In

matter.
two

to

superposed upon

somewhat

the

the

be

Fig.

windings

armature,

so

instead

wound,
multipleWe

instance.

above

singlewindings

two

amount

an

desirable.

be deemed

windings may
Multiple-circuit
single-wound,as

WINDING.

DOUBLE

SIX-CIRCUIT,

is

that

72

in

method

the

The

machine.

is shown

being
which

armature,

same

it is not

of

necessary
a

rules
at

six-circuit

winding,
multiple-circuit

the

arrangement

results in
K

Electric

66

positivebrushes

and

of

twelfth

the

the

through

form

conductors

an

if

are

i.e.,the

whole

the

by

A
and

when

becomes

be

to

traced

of the

in

far

so

as

con
fifty-eight

singlyre-entrant,

before

through

only

half

other

If

traces

the

original

con-

again reached.
double

singlyre-entrant
doubly

The

brushes.

is

re-entered

through.

sixty,the winding

of

has

winding1

ductor

be

will

one-

doubly

1, and

conductor

at

entirely separate conducting system, except

chosen, instead

ductors

traced

put into conducting relation

are

starts

one

conductor

been

have

conductors

is of the

particularwinding

is to say,

conducting system,

the

half of

This

current.
That

variety.

re-entrant

they

total

negative

conductors, consequently,carrying

of the

each

between

series

in

being

sixty conductors

of the

only one-twelfth

Generators.

Thus

arrangements.

we

winding by

double

re-entrant

is

winding

symbolicallydenoted
O.

is

There

thus

(p\

limit for such

no

have

may

Sextuply re-entrant, sextuplewindings,

Triply re-entrant, sextuplewindings,


Doubly re-entrant, sextuplewindings,
Singly re-entrant, sextuplewindings,
suitable

by

choice

of

total

windings beyond double,


windings
the

applicableto

are

of sufficient
of

one-third

points of

three

tending to
as

the

facilitate its

property is
or

copper

that

carbon

winding, and
from

any

the

an

the

does

brush

brush,

is much

less

will

be

such

brushes

four

equivalentsinglewinding.

two

adjacent

likelyto

part of the

be established

on

of

current

has

twice

Another

segments by

commutator

any

and

each

at

of the

winding

at

should

segments,

collected

division

double

short-circuit

not

least

at

on

collected

to be

are

Such

used.

the

armature

commutator

cause.

Two-circuit

drum

always forward,

the

once

of the

DRUM

Two-CmcuiT

is

at

the

as

bridging of

dust
arc

sparklesscollection.

segments

be

triplewinding, the

of

passing from

bearing surface

commutator

many

bear

to

practice,multiple

seldom

large currents

where
case

In

pitch.

triple,would

most

cases

width

current
the

at

in the

Thus,

commutator.

be made

or

and

conductors

windings

instead

of

are

being

multiple-circuit
windings.

WINDINGS.

distinguishedby
alternatelyforward

the

fact

and

that

the

backward,

pitch
as

in

Electric

08

different

the
at

all the

sets of

windings
between

features

no

is any

each

When

be

brushes
different

of
possibility
sometimes

excessive

made

From

the

respect

above
the

to

therefore,

with
the

the

But

in

drop

in

which

the

of

division

the

the

of

case

is

current

from

features

(together with

brushes

as

the

poles

the

shifting of

case

been

has

of the

of

two-circuit

armature

windings, be

different

the

of the

the

poles,and
to

armature

of

sets

current,
the

to

respect

in the

the

windings increase

change

subdivision

action

likewise

any

between

the

of current

statement

two-circuit

the

the
tend

two-circuit
the

to

set

to

prevent

of brushes.
that

prevent

when

the

on

On

when

be

noted
the

account

there
the

are

that

field

in

flow

of

excessive

an

require

armatures

poles as

it will

reaction

armature

consideration

the

generallypreferable,even

are

the

the

multiple-circuit
windings,

generated,

respect

to

of

current.

corresponding
the

correspond

of sets

reason

that

counter

no

each

sets

possibleexcess

positionwith

circuit, likewise

any

adjustment with

is

to

number

this

proper

one

respect to

different

the

prevent the

The

current

in

the

current

latter

concluded

maintain

to

since there

exactness,

unequal

be

poles will, in

with

of

sets

current.

other

the

For

poles.

be maintained

must

armature

with

of

shifting of

accompanied by
brushes

it may

different

multiple-circuit windings.

disadvantages of

number

the

each

in consequence,

and

lead

position of

to

equally

poles,the density at

as

another.

to

increases

the

of the

two-circuit

the

the

proper

difficult to

sparking.

that

proportionto

found

brushes

brushes

of

set

the

in the

as

been

of

set

one

division

respect

same

the

currents

subdivide

to

between

of brushes

otherwise

with

set

in

sign ;

same

of the

sum

are

current

resistance

sets

many

same

of the

unequal

be shifted with

from
one

with

as

practiceit has

current

not

an

intensities,the

In

in

are

the

must

at any

will be

there

pole must

in contact
are

the

cause

of brushes

brushes

other, there

to

the

There

sign.

same

tend

sets

difference

if the

brushes, or

at the

that

different

the

if there

brushes, but depends only upon

brushes

of

sets

Generators.

of these
as

many

nicety

same

of

multiple-circuit
windings),the
additional

the

cost

is

taken

into

consideration.
In
be

the

shown

section

that

the

magnetic

constants

machines

of

"

upon

The

limitations
restrict

relativelysmall

Two-circuit

windings

may

Electro-magnetic Limit
imposed by
the

the

of

use

application of

of

Output,"

it will

practicableelectro

two-circuit

windings

to

output.
be

multipleas

well

as

single-wound.

Thus

Circuit

Two

in

Fig.

74

of two

double

of

be

that

may
The

the

given by

winding

pitch

each

at

17

winding, by making

second

one-half

the

would

the

FORMULA
The

or

CIRCUIT,

as

"_

DOUBLE

the

the

current.

same

conductors.

of

face

of

poles.

average

pitch.

number

of

windings.

two-circuit
end

watt

and

output

WINDINGS.

windings

2m.

number

the
with

winding.

either

where

number
104

An

of face
armature

singlewinding

doubly
19

at

re-entrant

the

other.

WINDING

Two-CmcuiT

number

case

two-circuit

one

where
C

changing

as

at

17

for

FOR

six-polemachine

for two-circuit

general formula
C

of

pitch

twice

and

without

end,

be suitable

voltage

winding, in

be connected

may

TWO

The

double

be obtained

conductors.

by making

convenience

voltages could

conductors,

69

two-circuit, doubly re-entrant, double

of the

illustration
one

have

we

Windings.

is

as

the

but
first,

at

Electric

70

The

windings, equal

that

system, it will be
made

equal to
Also,

(y

the

to

it is desired

where

will consist

windings

that

necessary

y is

an

in the

in double

of

of

of the

case

curious

many

of

number

relates

as

delivered

at

divided

to their
in

"

re-entrant

one

of

y and

these

points.
of

given

be taken

as
alternately,

y.

have

we

have

we

4.

laws

controllingthe
relations

whole

found

are

in the

certain

at

points of

which

such

following Table

being

converter
converter

...

pitches at

...

...

3 and
the

two

instance, it would

...

3, etc., also give

ends
be

would

make

permissible with

above

Multi.

-Circuit

Single
Winding.

use

very

very

Pair

per
Poles.

...

...

figuresapply
systems, but

re-entrant

their

sub

...

converter

the

or

...

converter

multiple windings,

con

XVIII.

Sections

Three-phase rotary

be

con

Sections.

Single-phase rotary

of

received

should

windings

Single
Winding.

Quarter-phase rotary

with

winding,

the

rings,alternatingcurrents
into

consist

converters

Two-Circuit

exist

CONVERTERS.

ROTARY

windings, rotary

sections

Six-phase rotary

subject
to

properties.1

TABLE

For

be

important

which,

to collector

are

to form

singlewindings

other

FOR

made

number

The

and

other

machines

tinuous-current
are

and

WINDINGS

nections

Therefore,

conductors, poles, slots, pitches,"c., and

and

regard to re-entrancy

far

re-entrant

m.

factor

equal to

two-circuit

of these

consequence

the

As

taken

windings (m being equal to 2)

windings,

between

shall combine

greatest common

being

As

y and

of

integerthe pitch must

even

and

factor

common

the

independently

of

1.

when

Thus,

number

windings

l) and (y+ 1),instead

"

of

greatest
the

Generators.

undesirable

large number

the

number

the

great difference

except
of

to

in

conductors

special
per

between

cases

pole.

of

the

thus, for

Converter

Rotary
sections

double

which

the

is

conductor

From

have

two-circuit

until one-third

this

of the

another

to

the

ring the remaining

be found

to lie.

which

is

ductors

in each

of

It is desirable

branch.

conductors

of

thus

pairof

giving an
a

information

resultant
section

distribution
on

"Rotary

equal

should

current

Converters."

in

their

be traced

ring.

connection

which
of

and

the first
would

conductors

half

of conductors,
number

of

be twice

winding

pairs of
is

windings,

used,

multiple of
is

of

con

the

three.

given in Fig. 76.

regarding the propertiesof rotary converters,


of

from

traversed.

which

multiple-circuit
winding
converter

made

WINDING.

number

number

poles should

multiple-circuit
three-phaserotary

Further

the

Fig. 75,

collector

another

ring,between
total

in

been

have

In

poles.
be

winding

SINGLE

TWO-CIRCUIT

the

to

two-circuit

shown

point from

to the

select

to

Where

per

the

made

collector

third

multiple of three,

number
A

CONVERTER,

be

of

should

connection

rings,and

leads

remaining

collector

winding

converter

should

ROTARY

with

pair

per

total face conductors

third,

THREE-PHASE

be made

sections

collector

point, connection

Tracing through

should

3x2

singlewinding,

of the

one

71

three-phase converter

three-phase rotary

to

through

thus,

would

winding
of

case

winding

per

Windings.

is reserved

and

the

for

the

Electric

72

of

general,any
for

alternating current

leading to

the

use

abandon
to

best

adapted
windings specially

use

suited
the

to

it necessary

continuous-

to

to

work, and

current

alternatingcurrent

of

conditions

be

may

considerations

special

the

generally make

alternatingcurrents

styles of winding

the

but

work,

windings

armature

continuous-current

the

employed

of

WINDINGS.

CURRENT

ALTERNATING

In

Generators,

practice.
Attention

should

fact that

be called to the

circuit)continuous-current

flireePftate Rotary Converter

multiple-circuit
windings,
generallydo,
one

circuit per

winding

be

may

words,

non-re-entrant

connected

windings.

the

alternatingcurrent

used
cannot

this

From
for

windings

(or open

of

These

latter

it follows

that

circuit)windings, with

are,

which

armatures

any

work,

may,

are

therefore,

or

continuous-current
but

armatures

the

re-entrant

the

and

windings, i.e.,

an

alternating
work.

for continuous-current

used

alternatingcurrent

polyphase windings,

two-circuit

one-circuit

have

alternating current

generallybe

closed

Winding

practicalconsiderations,

phase.

winding

current

other

from

while

SixCircu/c

(or

re-entrant

necessarilybe

must

windings

all the

essentially

are

exception of
(or

closed

only windings

to alternating-continuous-current
applicable
commutating

In

the

circuit)

which

machines,

ring-

are

Alternator
for

Usually
used

dispositionof

electromotive
the

force.

face

the

various

But,

the

on

utilises

the

used.

of the

where

cases

the

conductors

of

the

most

(as in Fig. 79),

of
in

or,

evenly distributed

more

forces

generated in

total electromotive

the

subdivision

the

in

78),which

the

force

forces induced

latter

electromotive

as

allowance

It is desirable
unicoil

and

will be less at

arranged

in

for insulation

in

unicoil

no

But
reactions

the

when

load

about

There

less extent

high potentials

very
is

also

insulation

greater or

where

cases

the

It

conductors.

subdivision

said to

adopted, are

windings.

entire

play

often

for

involves

construction

will

only very

given total length of

to

great

as

armature

With

and

the

be

would

than

the

extent

an

permit.

the

if

case

which

the

spacing of

the

conductors

of

force at the
had

they

discrepancy will

relative

number

given

electromotive

winding, the

coils into

that

be

been

greater

of conductors

groups

an

is loaded, the

important part

designated

"smooth

core

in

current
in

the

armature

determining

windings,"

as

"

as

opposed

to

causes

will be shown

"slot

in

pole-piece

per

periphery.

the machine

which

Otherwise

multi-coil

of

subdivided, assuming
over

to

construction.

winding ;

number

the

force

multi-coil

terminals

uniform

and

core

bring

to

emphasise the followingpointsregarding the

to

arranged

proportionto

tends

good designs is generallyadopted

conductors

decreases

correspondingnecessary

in

called unicoil

are

conductor, and

of

windings, their

disadvantages.

spread out

face

several

(Fig. 79),as distinguishedfrom the form in


in one
assembled
(Figs.77
group
per pole-piece

are

in

space

of

and

space,

in

conductors

case

attendant

the

sometimes

the

peripheral surface,

multiphase windings,multi-coil

most

proper

the

heating of

necessary

are

of

construction

slight sacrifice of

merits

the

over

voltage and

conductors

the

permits

effective electromotive

elementary groups necessary


such
Windings in which

multi-coil

In

are

the

pole-pieceis

regards generation

as

are

phases, and

winding, with its


completely the available

permit,the

which

this

used

are

coil per

or

electromotive

the

distribution

hand,

distribution

more

fore, in

and

other

of

inductance

have

coils

or

the

of

and

conductors

in different

are

algebraicsum

the

uniform

more

are

slots

armature,

slot

conductors

armature

more

78),

angular positionsper pole,or,

or

from

and

77

73

conductor.

in each

better

If

of the

conductors

is less than

slots

Figs.

the

face windings,1 if the

of

case

over

single-phasealternators,one

represented in

(ns

effective

Winding*.

windings."
L

is

Electric

74

later

voltage

the

"

maintained
often

by

very

as

the

load

comes

considerable

the

conductors

armature

and

this

with

Now,

given current,

are

concentrated

these
in

given

reactions

one

only

may

be

field excitation,

by increasingthe

on,

amount.

conductors, carrying

armature

when

constant

generator terminals

the

at

Generators.

group

number

greatest

are

per

of

pole-piece

Fig.80.

phase Winding n/tft


Single
slots
parallel

Uni Coil

Thre.e Phase
non
overlapping
Fractional pitch minding
i4 Field Poies ZlArmatvrecoi/s

(Figs.

they

77

decrease

subdivided
that

and

78) ;
to

into small

is, they

that

certain
groups

decrease

Consequently, there

is, when

when

may

the

degree

in

distributed
the

be little

unicoil

proportion

no

the

over

multi-coil
or

construction

gain

as

the

entire

construction
in

voltage

is

at

adopted

conductors

and
are

armature

surface,

(Fig. 79)

is used.

full load

by

the

Electric

(j-emrators

Induction

coils

there

as

many

in

concentrated

windings

where

the

is

motor

phase

is

cross-section,

per

and

slot,

windings

rotor

winding
ductors,

generally
The

considered

for

either

represented
replaced
matter

in

the

stator

by
by
of

section

fe\v

of

radial

the

86.

with

rotor

lines,

but

induction

of

being,

gives

87

in

the

three-

of

of

these

useful

of

case

large

stator

of

type
the

motors,

the

The

conductor

one

in

case

each

diagrams
Fig.

the

phase.

per

conductors,

connection

Fig.

or

few

arranged

The

in

of

of

four-pole

pole-piece

per

up

is

horse-power

being

motors

This

as

becomes

smaller

coils.

7^-

slots

made

85.

given

the

capacity

of

This

in

in

instead

each.

turns

conveniently

Fig.

are

on

large

distributed

surface,

the

many

two

generally

most

in

shown

as

into

up

often

of

winding

divided

is

of

comparatively

stator

winding

whose

room

77

generally

are

for

coils

motors

of

Windings.

stator

found

large
in

consist

may

85,

rotor,

can

few

and

rotor

be

importance

especial

Fig.

the

for

both

windings

Motor

the

con

stator,

coils.

induction

devoted

to

will

windings

motor

the

design

of

be

induction

completely

more

motors.

Electric

78

FORMULA

In

this

ELECTROMOTIVE

FOR

will

section, the dynamo

electromotive

force to be

Generators.

generated

FORCE.

considered

be

in the

convenient

most

is

dynamos

current

for

formula

reference

the

to

armature.

DYNAMOS.

CONTINUOUS-CURRENT
The

with

obtaining the

voltage

of continuous-

4.00

TNM

10-8'

in which
V

the

voltage generated
number

of turns
of

the

the

number

the

magnetic
of the

and

integralof

is the

coils

armature

in this case,

all the

and

is unaffected
of the

will

be

may

by

specific

cost

armature

by
and

formula,
be

the

that

lines)included

during
the

excluded

or

each

by

period considered,

any

in the

up

magnetic

field

resultant

the

magnetic

the

shape

flux

may

the

magnetic

and

curve,

since

voltage

vary

for continuous-current
of

different

is

through

dynamos,

the

i.e., by

the

flux.

the

relative

within

wide

considerations

of

magnitudes
limits, their

of

T, N, and

individual

may

magnitudes

heating, electro-magneticreactions,

weight.
if

ring,

correctly interpreted,is applicable


a

drum,

multiple-circuit
windings,
"c.
triple,

considered,

that

say

magnetic

found

controlled

This

positionin

in which

we

brushes.

voltages successivelyset

voltagesare

(fora given voltage) vary


being

of

the

second.

magnetic cycle.

their

manner

any

Therefore

distribution
It

(number
in

turns

only average

coils.

voltage

between

magnetic cycles per

flux

according to

independent of
the

armature.

voltage,is approximately constant

the

V,

in the

in series

and

or

whether

disc

the

likewise

winding

for
be

whether

two-circuit

the
and

single,double,

in

E.M.F.

To

insure, for

be desirable
T

all cases,

to consider

total

turns

on

negative
a

Gramme-ring

For

drum

With
brushes

depend

For

brushes,
divided

total

armature,
total

turns

of

turns

total

the

formula, it will

of

paths through

from

armature

number

of face

number

of face

turns,

the

conductors.

conductors.

in

turns

series

between

winding,

single,two

of the

paths, independently

If

double,

If

triple,six paths, independently

For

number

by

styleof winding, thus

the

two-circuit
If

between

number

upon

in detail

more

armature

armature,

given

terms

79

positivebrushes.

to

For

Dynamos.

of
interpretation

correct

these

in series

turns

Continuous-Current

four

number

of the

paths, independently

of the

of

poles.

of

number

number

of

poles.

poles, "fec.

multiple-circuit
winding,
If

single,as

If

double, twice

If

triple,three

paths

many
as

paths

many

times

as

as

poles.

paths

many

the

poles.

as

of

number

R.P.M.

poles,"c.

as

second

magnetic cycles per


of

number

pairs of poles

60

It

second)
with

been

has

determines
periodicity,

the

loss, and

current

sparking

the

the

at

in

minute, the
M

In

the

case

(M

of the

design

of

rotary

each

of the

the

density,

also

affects

necessarilya

also

converters.

expressed in

N,

Thus

density,tooth

course,

generallyexpressed in

successivelywith

machine,

the

flux

teeth,

thus

flux

from

flux from

one

generated in

one

total

deducting leakage,finallynot
roots

is, of

It

it also

use

revolutions

cycles per

per

second.

turns.

of the

machine,

is not

is

to

it.

upon

and

loss

(cyclesper

term

inductance, and, therefore

armature

the

depends

core

this

it is desirable

practice,
dynamo speeds are

linked

Gramme-ring
Drum

in

periodicityN
flux

the

commutator.

leading consideration
Although

limits

or

of

use

but

much

because

currents,

the

work,

alternating current

to

continuous

eddy

confine

to

customary

only

linking itself

crosses

with

one

pole-piece into

pole-pieoeinto

pole-piece,but
the
the

armature.

armature.

that

air-gap, but

armature

which,
passes

turns.)

to

after
the

Electric

80

Armature

cores

ventilation, and
be, and

are

Gramme-wound

the

of

use

wound

usually are,

of

means

XIX.

CURRENT

dynamos

alternatingcurrent

force is

of electromotive

and,

consider

will

as

the

presentlybe
conditions

actual

electromotive

force

CURVE

OF

to be

sine

for the

the

being

electromotive

force

whose

In order
must

be

that

these

sine curve,

practicableand

with

4.44

of

the

maximum
=

formulae

i.e.,the

affords

windings.

of

to

that

assume

the

frequentlynot
often

assuming

necessary

to

the

of

wave

curve.

ASSUMED

effective no-load

is

This

wave.

it is

FORCE

root

square

drum

convenient

practiceinstead

of

this

confounded

may

DYNAMOS.

it is often

sine

seen,

ELECTROMOTIVE

formula

The

they

CONSTANTS.

DRUM-WINDING

"

ALTERNATING

case

but

of

sake

the

constants

relatingto

rules

the

applying

TABLE

curve

be

not

drum-winding

of

Table

accompanying

convenient

the

material

should

and

for

rings

as

unnecessary

drums,

as

up

rings.

The

For

built

often

very

avoid

to

Generators.

mean

may

is
M

SINE

WAVE.

collector

the

ring is

value

of the

sine

of

wave

10-8.

be used, the

magnetic

10-8,

square

BE

voltage at

value
6.28

TO

flux

must

electromotive
be

so

force

distributed

wave
as

to

in

E.M.F.

result.

this

give

winding

the

over

T
N

of turns
of

number

of C

will

flux

The

of unicoil

case

that

they

words, they
The
will be

be

case

in

"

S lines

when

simultaneously

linked

until,when

at

in

in which

case

the

entire

the

relative

value

be .637

surface,

of the

of the

that

of

the

only in

the

turns.

turns
are

grouped

so

flux ; in other

magnetic

given number

if the

voltage

with

the

for

such

arranged

values

same

for

values, .707, .667,

conductors

the

of turns,

of conductors

relative

in which

winding

number

the

T,

"c. ;

distributed

are

ordinary continuous-current

in

as

alternatingcurrent
number

same

of

voltage

results

have

we

unicoil

winding

will

XX.

Correction

Factor

of Distributed
Unicoil

winding

Two-coil

Four-coil

winding

the
per

conductors

are

forces

.654

conditions

generated in

84, will be of

one,

each

the

are

group

number

assistance

in

winding.

,,

.,

,,

.,

,,

,,

.637

arranged in

combined.

designating these

three-coil, "c.,

they

page

unicoil

...

of
phases, irrespective

on

different

Fig. 88,

.GC7

...

pole-piece. The

electromotive

.707

V
...

winding

uni-, two-,

terms

1.000

V
...

Many-coil winding
The

for Voltage
Winding.

...

winding

Three-coil

are

compared

as

IT/

TABLE

groups

in

arranged

turns

load,

no

the

Tabulating these

whether

at

dynamos,

(which 2).
\

in the

over

in

conductors

the

and

same

load)voltages of

with

the

the

the

respect to

is the

unity,then

with

load, generated by

no

that

to

come

we

distribution

the

with

two-coil," "three-coil," "c., windings will,

N, M, generate (at no

flux

phase.1

same

voltage

representedby

of

magnetic

second.

simultaneouslylinked

all in the

are

the

brushes.

between

magnetic cycles per

be

maximum

in series

similarlysituated

effective

function

windings,i.e.,
windings
all

are

of

81

surface.

armature

number

"

Dynamo*.

distribution

this result, is

number

of

manner

attain

to

necessary

gap,

The

Alternating Current

in

the

Table

above

two, three, "c.,

equivalent
;

beii g

in one,

of resultant

understanding

to

the

indicate

equally-spaced

the

component

two, three, "c.,

windings into

which

employed

nomenclature

windings.
M

Electric

82

given

values

The

Generators.

Table

in the

easilydeduced

be

may

by simple

vector

diagrams.
of

Instead

formula

preceding cases,

the

value

maximum

VALUES

VARIOUS

OF

FOR

exert

great

influence

voltage for given


the

by

being

assumed

pole face, and

the

that

assumption being usually


considered

than

more

of

widths
as

pole

out

the

face

giving the

results are,
in mind

in the

that

flux

along lines

gap
far

and

actual

the

from

results which

they will be modified

normal

would

of

various

in

practicalvalue, provided it

where

which

by

from

face.

the
This

must

be

relative

coil,rather

armature

be observed

armature

are

formula

pole

the

to

arrangements of

crossingthe gap from pole face to


The
followingTable appliesto cases
distributed

the

is shown

uniformly

emanates

extent

in

This

facts, the followingresults

the

various

of much

shapes of

in the

of K

coil

(and maximum)

force.

values

AND

armature

different

the

lightof exhibitingthe tendency

nevertheless,

winding

and

arc

effective

the

to the

total

FORCE

KTNM10-8,

magnetic

the

traverses

pole

of

the

the

curves,

GAP.

IN

electromotive

given

are

it

of

because

induced

where

followingTables,

of

magnitude

T, N, M,

and

distribution

of gap

waves

of

values

wave

ELECTROMOTIVE

OF

arrangement

the

upon

to sine

DISTRIBUTION

FLUX

and

widths

relative

The

WAVES

MAGNETIC

OF

value.)

effective

the

times

1.414

may

XXI.

they apply only

as

will be

ICT8

TABLE

(In all

followingvalues

factors," the

correction

"

in the

for

be substituted

such

using

practice. The
is

the

clearlykept
flux

spreads

face.
the

equi-distantlyover

various
the

components

armature,

of

Electric

84

Generators.

CONVERTERS.

ROTARY
In

have

we

voltage

therefore,

commutator,

same

voltage and

for

rings.

continuous-current

for

both

serves

the

at

The

collector

the

voltage at
alternating-current

continuous-

ordinary distributed

an

winding, supplying continuous-current

current

and

converters

rotary

wii

ding,

alternating

voltage.
M,

and

generates

of

the

For

winding.

the

on

voltage

speed

same

armature

same

with

series,but

in

turns

winding, with

distributed

continuous-current

superposed

Imagine
number

such

that

Suppose

and

vr^s

the

at

assuming

with

sine

T, N,

commutator.

in

concentrated

turns

flux, and

of

values

winding,

these

given

the

same

unicoil
curve

wave

of

-"f.:ja.'Hs

OF

P"an-3Q%oF

?ok

pitch

JU%of

arc

pitch

Four coilwinding

I
vmnnni

uuuuvu

50%ef pitch

FJearc
-

mnmmr-

s.naiisf^g.6oiafpitch
Polearc-W-ofpitch
ofpitch
Spread
ofn'dgIOC?'

In the above-

Slotted
diayraais,th6

aflhe
representedThe application
i cans
to

force, this

electromotive

V,

1.11

this
for

the

of

number

same

speed and

same

in

turns

obtained
.707

V,

the

But

value

of

often
the

the

case

the

Tables

distributed

of

assumption
the

for

single
K,

electromotive

voltage becomes
a

the

or

"

.707

sine

wave

force
function

and

given

rings. But, re-arranging

V.

T turns

series,there will be

of electromotive
is not

curve

below

in

alternating-current
voltage

an

the

are

sine

pole arc.

quarter-phase rotary

results

supply

ring voltage to

curve

of

would

(distributed)winding, would,

collector

voltage V,
of

rslattre

collector

the

winding, with

continuous-current

on

in

: stnr-

superposed winding

the

1.11

many-coil

flux, reduce
.637

Therefore,

"

of

theconductors be supposed

imaginary
to

is

13 the case

the surface cftfis


armatvrrinL

] effective volts

-y

merely
rtj"irsi Uiat

armature

on
begroupeot

type of armature

iltMtrationt

converter

obtained.

force.
and

wave,

the

Thus, examining

by

the

aid

of

E.M.F.

TABLE

XXI\r.

itL

SINGLE

"

Rotary

QUARTER-PHASE

AND

THREE-PHASE
An

examination

conductors

of

belonging

ROTARY

the

to

three
may

CONVERTERS.

CONVERTERS.

phases

be

85

ROTARY

three-phase rotary

periphery, which

armature

Converters.

will

converters

relative

have

represented thus

show

that

positionson

the
the

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Consequently,

it appears

equal

per

to

66.7

that
of

cent,

phase alternatingbranch
collector
tator

rings as

brushes,

we

has

has

each

obtain

the

the

coils of

the

pitch. Observing

two-thirds

branch,

as

considered

following Table

many
with

also

turns

XXV.

"

THREE-PHASE

of values

ROTARY

that
in

reference
:

TABLE

have

phase

one

CONVERTERS.

each

series
to

the

spread
three-

between
commu

Electric

86

last

The

collector

between

the

equal to

This

pitch,up

to .815

driven, unloaded,
as

to

ratio

the
wide

from

are

of the

range

counter-electromotive

be

conditions

of

Three,

phase, evnAnafna

Jteiatuzv

betmrxn,

made

Z5

cen"zrter,

current,

CGntuiu0u4

through

vary

lead

of the

very

current

in

fecand.

Cycles pa-

alttmeutuiy rolts " mnptrw


o*f aimgrj
cirj/(i"te"i
so

ftjdd, taxAJtatijQfis bexsva


at

to

forces

synchronously,

driven

and

lag

electromotive

the

When

unloaded

driven

when

or

say,

forces.

voltages may
the

by varying

is to

is

pole arc

independently

when

converters
source,

That

the

pole arc.

cent,

per

rotary

to

motor.

terminal

10

.495, when

from

mechanical

some

continuous-current

referred

with

is the

voltage at commutator,

varies

ratio

only apply

results

These

alternating-currentvoltage

of

ratio

the

continuous-current

rings,to

interest.

of chief

one

giving

column,

Generators.

the- generator " ccrurrrter


to

Kcire-"5fternusicU4

rofos

jfl

commutator.

Tctrard,

left fto/irfTo*ard
right hand:Strona csnrertfr exaCat^'iStraqp
generator

"

-_jf

Converter

AUpcintt

Mtfr"

the

armature.

very
of

extended

load

and

In

Fig.

range

89

is

this ratio

-*?;,-ujvolts beiuetn, fnUrcfyr rings


JW
390
tOO
JSO
37(J

given
may

be

(e

fielct'zero.

Outrighthare,

ccmrertiJ-fvelaL

neaature

,_

110

"KO

showing through

curve

varied, according

to

the

excitation.

TABLE

XXVI.

Proportion

that

is of Turns

on

Arm.

what

conditions

E.M.F.

In

in

Table

converters,

rotary

of T

value

determining the

Polyphase Apparatus.
XXVI.
of

(number

will
in

turns

87

be

of

series

assistance

between

in

collector

rings).
Machines.

Polyphase
it may

be said that

the

of

case

winding

collector
each

to

one

the

phase,

is

the

Thus

considering the

calculations

the

the

turns

for

the

results

of

of

the

other

collector

rings

will

calculation

should

be

on

interconnectingthe

phases being subsequently considered,

one

the

relations

volts

Thus

volts

T.

per

Then

between

phase lying between

hand,
be

the

phase,for

in series per

general,

phase.

one

calculate

would

one

only the winding

rings). If,

volts between

phase.

make

in

machines

connected, this will give also

is "delta"

pair of collector

volts per

formula

the

rings(sincethere

connected,

to

of

way

three-phase machine,

phase, by placingin
if the

consideringpolyphase

convenient

most

M, is

V, T, N, and

between
in

the

In

"

winding

the

"/3, (1.732) times

carried

out

windings

with
of

the

is Y
the

reference
different

Generators.

Electric

FORCE

ELECTROMOTIVE
In

the

dependent

the

upon

the

to

curve,

the

by

value

electromotive

"form

of

equi-spaced ordinates

equi-spaced ordinates.

letters R.M.S.

the
of

The

mean

square),and

(root mean

is

factor,"

ratio

the

as

flux

force, and

term

factor

of the

of the

the

by

and

voltage

of the

use

form

squares

value

mean

denotes

he

the

of

mean

true

value

square
mean

of the

the

the

defines

He

proposed by Fleming.1

between

applied

the

quantitiesinvolve

of these

root

of

form

wave

TRANSFORMERS.

IN

relation

of transformers, the

case

determinations

square

FLUX

AND

the

(true mean).

letters T.M.

R.M.S.
factor

Form

T.M.

In
and

In

the
this

the

relation

has

high

have

waves

the

R.M.S.

the

form

equal,and

are

factor

form

the

case

rectangularwave,

value

maximum

Peaked
the

of

case

and
voltage,turns, periodicity,

between

becomes

equal to

form

the

Denoting

factors.

form

factor

value
1.

value.

minimum

the

T.M.

value, the

flux

factor
be

may

byy,

expressed

by the equation
V

The

and

the
more

of the

winding

Tables,

the

second
or

of the

extent

generator

less

windings
spread

alternatingwith

unwound

TABLE

may

in which

10-8.

of the

appliesto
the

be

factor

form

upon

from

obtained

the

the

equidistantlydistributed
face

conductors

surface

the

over

NM

4.00/T

dependence

first of which
to

of

the

are

gathered

armature,

"

VALUES

Pole

Arc

FOR

FORM

(Expressed

FACTOR

in Per

Cent,

these

(/).
of Pitch).

Winding.

Alternate

Current

Transformers,

vol.

i.,second

edition, page

following

windings, and

spaces.

XXVII.

proportions

two

583*

in groups
groups

and

E.M.F.

XXVT1I.

TABLE

From

voltageV,

effective

is

This

high.

their

V=

formula

the

is

flux

the

distinct

VALUES

"

4.00

Transformers.
FORM

FOR

fT

may

be low

in

in

FACTOR

s,it

10

advantage

89

(/).

that

appears

proportion

the

case

given
factor

of transformers, since
flux

the

for

the form

as

densityof

the

loss is dependent upon

core

in

Flux

in
circulating

their

given voltagecan be obtained with a small flux,the trans


former
be
can
operated at a higher all-day efficiency. Commercial
as
generators of different types differ often by 25 per cent, and more,
iron

If

cores.

regards the

form

determination
interest

factor
form

of the

in the

the

motive
the

less

have

is

in

more

peaked

electromotive

force

becomes

thus

It

curves

the Tables, and

to

of

Figs.90

The

waves.

pre

of considerable

matter

show

the

extent

core

an

the

87,

transformers

maximum
force

electro
than

generally undesirable

peaked
excessively

91, page
of the

losses for

effective electromotive

is, therefore,

obtain
and

low

disadvantage that
of the

excess

as

insure

waves

the

waves.

proportiona generator
The

factor

peaked

circuits,they
force

their

design of alternating-current
generators.

While, however,
on

of

correspondto

variations

to

for
so

wave.

values

given

obtainable.

.N

in

Electric

90

machine

from

the

maximum

good working.

The

limitingincrease

determined

with

determined

and
efficiency,

the

in square

increase

also,

of

the

of

temperature
inch,

be

may

For

per

per

40

deg.

Cent.

about

The

peripheralvelocityof

deg. Cent,

minute, and

speed

inch

square

remains

is about

le

The

from

various

35

deg.

increase
50

tests

per

Cent,

of

cent,

described

by
-^

per

temperature,
to

with

the

100

in the

per

as

cent,

of

watt

per

oil

excess

following pages.

from
of

these

in

used
in

for

of

iron

inch

resistance
values.

at

ft. per
with

Cent,

of

and

3,000 ft.

peripheral

per

watt

per

surface, but

the

practice.

of

of

rise

the

cases,

resistance

square

determined
in

greater

deg.

temperature

temperature

increased

the

smooth-core

cent,

Cent,

inch

for

15

deg.

12

and

square

peripheralspeed

temperatures
in

between

increase

submerged

measured

as

and

for the

transformers

temperature,

deg. Cent,
The

per

Cent,

per

Thus
25

with

temperature

deg.

30

watt

per

rotated
of

increase

between

about

is

for

somewhat

varies

the

per

cylindrical

ordinarydesign, i.e.,armatures

inch

minute.1

watt

per

but

increase

peripheralvelocityof 3,000

temperature
square

10

fairlyconstant

In

between

6,500 ft. per

of

per

Cent,

nature,

be

is

of

armatures

watt

per

at

radiating

the

magnets,

deg.

is diminished.

ft. than

of

field

minute,

temperature

2,000

increase

interstices, the

per

of

of

same

to

The

surface, its speed,location,

temperature

speed

ventilated

the

radiating

inch

square

placed against the

taken

of

increase

increase

For

be

may

surface

the

the

minute.

of

the

to

radiatingsurface.

per

80

thermometer

be

may

atmosphere, and therefore,

the

about

3,000 ft. per

inch

square

as

armatures

cylindricalsurfaces

watt

increases

by

in watts,

of the

be

to

con

commonly

inch

surfaces

the

as

temperature

temperature

energy

nature

taken

measured

as

peripheralspeed of

20

of

temperature

is

of

above

surface

the

according to

static surfaces, such

For

square

of any

of

used, the

square

per

permissible expenditure

surface.
a

watts
inches,i.e.,

of

electric

an

insulatingmaterials

generated

heat

of the

temperature

surface, varies
"c.

ratio

the

increase

The

regulation.

the

expressedby
surface

respect to durabilityof

with

of

output

increase

by

is

sistent

maximum

standpoint,the

thermal

OUTPUT.

OF

LIMIT

THERMAL

Viewed

Generators.

the

windings,

radiating surface

measurements,
This

is

in

will

of

generally

clearlyshown

in the

Electric

92

and

overheats

dependent

as

of

nature

insulated

are

does

to

it.

preserve

But

insulation, in

of

the

upon

conductors

tend

thus

with

the

large to
being sufficiently

it

as

is

railway motors,

covering,as

asbestos

an

their

of

permit

not

In

insulation.

the

it is

far

so
regards preservation
The
it.
deteriorates
permissible temperature

disadvantageous

motors

and

thoroughly dry,

insulation

Generators.

thus

field

the

location

of the

cool under

run

heavy loads.
MAGNETS.

of

diameter

the

in

ends, which
the

however,

the

surface
cylindrical

generalare

magnets

approximately equals

coil

not

are

short, and

very

radiation

surface

the

which

length, is

the

being taken

account

no

efficient for the

very

in

ordinary design,i.e.,those

of

magnets

magnet

to be the

taken
ordinarily

they

of

radiatingsurface

The

of

of the

of heat
the

when,

ends

large,

be considered.

should

ARMATURES.

parts in which

those
Due

allowance

portions of

of

due

per

two-thirds

large diameter,

very

are

not

the

diameter

very

the

considerablyexceed
for

special

means

In

the

connections

When

long.
of

are

of the

"

of

type

approximately

have

spider.

Here

the

peripheralspeed,and
The

varying

radiation
the

surface

of

entire

is in the

winding,
in

the

heat

of the

armature

best

from

at

the

ends,

difference

of armatures
becomes

ends
the

armatures

length approaching half

ends

ends

the

of the armatures,

largely used,

now

may

unless

as

cylindricalextension

winding

revolves

the

at

end
the

from
same

regards ventilation.
is not

armature

within
pole-pieces,

the

cylindricalsurface

same

position as
an

type of

the

case

the

air.

to.

peripheralconductors, being supported upon


the

the

emissivity at

the

resorted

ventilatingare

In

of

of different

at
eniissivity,

surface,
cylindrical

thermal

between

midway

thermal

cylindrical
portion when

the

to the

ordinarySiemens

in the

emissivity

armatures

surface

the

velocities

linear

speed.

thermal

the

that

the

at

surface

armature,

barrel

"

the

that

approximately equal to

that
in

different
Thus

to be

taken

directlyexposed

are

inch, or

square

difference

the

general,is

for the

windings.

armature

radiation

to

in

generated,that

be made

only about

averages

being

the

is

heat

should

the

armature

of armatures

surface

Radiating

the

affected

limits attained

greatly by
in

ordinary

Estimation

practice. If, however,

the

considerablyrestricted.
each

respect to
of

that

the

other

magnets

of

Further,

that

the

values

and

the

two

mentioned

above

given

will not

EXAMPLE
of

Diameter

certain

ironclad

the

magnets

Such

for

18

...

...

...

25
360
18

min.

per

sq. in.

2750.

1420.

revs,

in.

...

25

in.

...

...

TT

as

...

=
...

last

...

25

(252-182)

35

...

to,

the

...

diameter
x

resorted

RISE.

TT

with

to be

...

placed

independently of

have

TEMPERATURE

OF

...

Internal
x

so

general practice.

Speed
35

off

armature

...

be

constructions

...

Length, overwinding

are

placed
may

armature

is carried

hold.

ESTIMATION

OF

93

the

ventilatingwill

recommended

not

are

from

of each

for

others, specialmeans

heat

unless

heat

Rise.

rectangular in section, and

are

radiation

the

closely together,

of Temperature

470.

"
...

"

Total

radiation

surface

4640.

=
...

,,

...

35

ventilated

If well
22

deg.

rise of

Cent,

360.

temperature

min.

be

should

watt

per

ft. per

3300.

it

ducts,

internal

by

IT

Peripheral speed

per

safe

very

take

to

inch.

square

Watt*.

5000

loss

Core

C2

Armature

2600

7600

loss

Total

7600
=

1.64

watts

per

sq.

in.

4640

.'.

1.64

22

36

deg. Cent,

INTERNAL

The

importance

resistance
thermometer

of

placed upon
An

of

temperature

determining
instead
the

the

of

surface,

end

is well

No.

B.W.G.,

turns

from

pair of which, separate

21

the
leads

of

temperature

upon

shown

the

by
was

brought

coils, by
of

indications
the

wound

out,

of

results

winding consistingin
were

full load.

at

run

COILS.

OF

internal

relying

hours'

of 10

experimental field-magnetcoil

2,646 total
every

at

TEMPERATURE

SURFACE

AND

measurements,

following test.

rise of

to

with

up
38

the

layers,

enable

the

94

Electric

Generators.

Experimental
of

temperature

all parts

of

the

Heat

coil

Tests.

95

be

determined

the

armature

to

by

resistance

measurements.

Two
other

distinct

with

minute.

the

minutes

reading was

giving

record

dimensional
and

the

and

96.

at

of

sketch

results

For

the

one

of the

on

throughout

in

as

and
coil,pole-piece,

tests

armature

at

in

plotted

are

(Fig. 93)

rest

each

pair of
is

the

shows

being

Every

ten

layers,thus

given

of

curves

coil

progressed.

test

armature

the

the

tests.

the

the

2,000 ft. per

both

across

resistance

of

through

current

voltmeter

change

of the

the

rest, and

at

peripheralspeed

ampere

taken
the

at

hours,

two

with

one

running

lasted

test

constant
a

made,

were

armature

Each

maintained

tests

in

Fig. 92,

Figs. 93, 94, 95,


rise

ultimate

of

Time

temperature

in the

layers;

Fig.

and

layers,the
The

middle

up

by

as

effective

rotation

the

surface

in

of the

revolutions

Figs.

95

coil

air

set

96.

up

by

is maintained

the

is

of

the

the

much

cooler

interior

of

of

the

at

which

that

inner

Figs.
of

93

and

coil may

air set
is

core

the

bathes

peripheralspeed of

with
the

surface

significantconclusion

by

layer

air

armature,

is the

field -magnet

plotted in

are

of

circulation

the

is the

as

running

than
most

shown

metal

figure shows

rotation

that

of the

results

the

latter

the

heat,

innermost

the

layers,plotted against time.

aid

armature

the

But

tests

temperature

For

The

the

armature,

in

temperature

the

without

the

of

outside

the

minute,

per

field-magnet core.
from

of the

spool.

and

that

carrying away

2,000

of

layers, and
well

show

curves

rise

the

shows

94

those

layers plottedagainst the positionsof

different

of

the

curves

the

circulation
of

outside

the

adjoining the
to

be

drawn

that

the

considerablyexceed

the

95, namely,

Electric

96

corresponding

temperature

Generators.

the

to

of

resistance

of

rise

average

total

the

winding.
In
and

spool of

which
time

and

Figs. 97
the

The

for

the
of

temperature

average

of

means

influence

constants

and

of

of

the

field

heat

of the
of

the

the

field

armature

of field

increase

temperature

it, in

upon

from

determined

spools was

peripheral speed

field-magnet

taken

test

measurements

resistance

the

determining

result

of the

sketch

given respectivelya

are

machine,

time, by

to

98

winding.
the

upon

well

spools,as

Fig. 99

as

effect of

the

are

clearly shown

field

spoolsof

The

tests

on

made

In

Figs.
The

100

curves

Fig.
to

of

90
99

with

results

for
is

111

Fig.

with
of

final

wide

afford

of

range

both

upon

the

given

are

112

given

of

curves

summarise

the

of

results

average

of

and

rise of
the

the

resistance

general

more

the

results

output.

excitation, and

field

sketch

the

upon

rated

kilowatts

35

predetermining the temperature


dimensional

made

thermometric

by
check

serving of protectingcord,

following test

the

generator of

determined

were

The
page

results

the

continuous-current

measurements.

given

by

were

temperatures

wire

covering the

values

spools.

machine,

various

obtained.

heat

and
runs.

in

Influenceof Peripheral Speed


of the

Out
the

taken

On

two.

top

oft",and

on

the

these

of

the

of the
made

the

of the

uncorded

outside

four

being kept

spools

this

armature

was

reaching a

the

it

raised

the

outside

spool

from

of
the

temperature

thermometer.

of

Two

spoolsby

series,

remained

resistance.

the

spools noted.

and
stationary,
results

These

input

amperes

four

the

revolved

tests

results
forth

set

are

were

in

.75

to

.75,

the

ampere,

and

On

the

test

Results

test

value,

value

above

forth

set

are

the

on,

constant

reached

this

of

amperes.

temperature

carried

was

ft.

2000

1.25

the

again, after reaching a

go.

in

107.

carried

were

to

108

at

adopted.

was

of

peripheralspeed

observed

rises

out

lines, at

similar

on

of

minute, results

4,800 ft. per

Fi^s.

at

point the temperature

and

Figs. 10G

of

across

1, and

this

speeds of 3,500 ft. and


curves

volts

with

advisable

further

in

drop

,,

four

connected

procedure

to

At

not

was

curves

in the

one

three

Thus,

spool,by

the

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then

value

constant

amperes.

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the

105.

different

being

amperes

temperature

of

armature

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to

case,

the

the

.5, .75

minute, and

were

and

Figs. 100

The

1.25

series.

outside

determined

,,

temperature

first case,

with
of

of

constant,

the

obtained

to

spool on
was

,,

Increase

The

In

remaining
the

corded

3rd.

per

other

was

:"

,,

curves

the

measuring

measurement

spools in

insulation

placed,for

were

four

2nd.

In

purpose

97

observation, ie.,
and

air ;

the

of

for the

temperature

cording

directlyto

the

winding, and

third

were

On

For

under

were

spools the

two

spools, thermometers

increase

measurements

only

winding exposed

the

cording; the

1st.

spools,two

corded.

outside

resistance

of

the

of

temperature

field

one

remained

spools

the

four

Rise.

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on

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set

are

forth

111.

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tests

above

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the

results

on

as

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the

Fig. 112,
it will

ft. per

rise to any

of

each

and

remain

but

2,000

temperature

data,

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curves

summarised,

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speed
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are

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resistance

at

in

would
20

great

derived
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from

results of all these

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that

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table

figured from

noted

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very

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this

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given, setting forth

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as

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tests.

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on

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between

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than

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resistance

each

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centrifugally,

USEFUL

TO

the

to

factors.

temperature,

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temperature

thermometric

HOURS

spider.

armature

two

IN

ventilatingducts,

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thrown

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"

directly from
determine

corded
;

therefore, in figuring

spools.

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open

by

noted

TIME

The

case

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spools differ,owing

two

one

the

are

rise

be

thermometric

from

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the

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the

101

is taken.

radiatingsurface
It

of

of

temperature

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in the

measurements

of

measurements

the

removed

respective radiating

their

of

Dissipated in

the

CURRENTS

The

resistance,

and

current

resistances

measurements

measurements.

convenientlydetermined

should

attain

conductors

resistance

CONDUCTORS.

THE

IN

For

in
are

standard

is

calculated

be

taken

practice.
much

sizes

by ascertainingfrom

to

To

more

of

wire,
tables,

Electric

102

the
of

ohms

wire

in

ft. of

1000

per
the

computed

from

The

resistance

total
The

B.

namely,

other

purposes.
also

the

section

No.

Total
in

in

useful

the

They

serve

certain

"

B.

design

and

length -2.

Appendix),

S.

33

at

primary

resistance

at

full load

current

=13

20

for

the

of

turn

one

No.

2.8

do

they

wiring

and

calculations,and
considered

as

in

.497

the

S.

and

primary

C2

(see

Therefore
ohms.

1.40

.R

ft.

2.33

has

ft.

turns

1200

in.

28

1000

per
x

Then

especial

but

primary,

B.

ohms

.497

gauges,

circuit.

has/ in

2800ft.

thermal

give

B.W.G.

with

exterior

spool windings,

length

deg. Cent.

of commercial

Table
the

Suppose
169

1.40

per

cubic

centimetre.

.00000063

ohms

per

cubic

inch.

unit.

The

of

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nection

with

about

changes
where

factors

than

them

per

greater

by

which

obtain

to

the

cubical

be

cent,

accuracy

the

of

standard

it should

.39

deg. Cent.

ohms

opposite faces

when

at

copper

.00000160

i.e.,between

order

turn.

one

and

Trade);

arranged

for

magnetic

amperes.

Specificresistance

and

be

watts.

237

use

of

been

basis

of

of the

==

should

standard

three

arranged
a

as

Mean

length

description,which

(Board

Tables

deg. Cent.,

20

of

length

mean

for

have

transformer

1200

be,

may

designing-electrical apparatus,

calculation

the

the

on

Example.
of

from

greatly

are

S.W.G.

They

in

convenience

to

differ

not

Gauge).

case

this

wire

copper

(American);

Wire

(Birmingham
reference

S.

and

the

of

Tables

commercial

the

the

obtained.

be

contains

Then

question.

as

and

turns

then

can

Appendix

properties of

the

armature,

or

of

number

the

in

wire

size of

the

spool

magnet

Generators.

sizes

is

resistance

deg.

resistance

at

TABLE

deg.

the

constants

the

resistance

Where
be made

of

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should

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the

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multiplied in

employed

"

XXIX.

1.000

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1.160

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100

con

of copper

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are

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temperature

In

employed.

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at

wire

in mind

kept

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"

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.30

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Therefore, length

=50.

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800.

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load

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of

current
Then

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by

60

at

the

propertiesof

in

propertiesof
with

C2

of

Table

the

the

deg. Cent.

and

metals

various

of

"c., of various

alloys.

often

conductors,

if

fields

magnetic

in

magnetic fields,except
these

magnetic
In

from

loss in the

with

the

In

be

cannot

and

loss

of wire

twistingthese
can

be

of

the

moved

are

losses

due
solid

when

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through

solid conductors

constant
from

shielded

are

be

may

loss has

insulatingthem

and

bars

in

The

cable.
this

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last

winding

method
of

is
certain

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armature

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foucault

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to

in the

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by

amount

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not

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considerable

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loss

into

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density of magnetism

and

windings,by using conductors

lessened

followingexample

there
This

currents.

distribution

the

the

accuratelypredetermined.
small
is kept as
as
possible;

practicethis

case

influence

construction,

foucault

windings,by laminating the


in the

connection

are

currents,

they

where

there

foucault

magnetic field,consequently

conductors, from

air-gap,and

or

the

to

whenever

smooth-core

greatly,according to

vary

in

used

influences.

armatures

screened

Table,

conductors,

eddy,

exposed

cases

This

electrical

CURRENTS.

termed

and

physical

supplemented
and

materials.

losses in the

stationary,are

the

is

readily determining resistances, weights,

conducting

C2

to the

addition

parasiticcurrents,

from

.000655

wire

copper

giving

FOUCAULT

to

40002

commercial

Appendix,

others, permits

dimensions,

In

conductors

armature

watts.

Tables

The

heats

amperes

armature

13,100

4000

current

by

the

of

four

Electric

104

parallel,each

in

wires

replacedby

total loss of the

the

iron-clad

In

currents

losses

depends

teeth

the

Fig.

plane

of

set

currents

of

from

with
in

20

of

the

The

necessary.

objectionsof

per

cent,

sometimes

cited the

teeth.

of

case

in

first used,

at

were

from

the

the

eddy

should

twist

the

be

first cost,

higher resistance

for

entirely due

given
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in

them

No

originallymaking
first

place,

precautions, such

of the

surface

suffices

resistance

contact

the

to

required rectangularsection,

pressure.

the

given

conductors, but also partly to

conductor, constructed, in the

coating

mere

increased

is not

component

by

stranded

otherwise

oxidising,or

must

conductors

the

resistance

operated by hydraulic

press

the

resulted

Stranded

cross-section, is pressed to

circular

to

increased

length,caused
The

to

open

cent,

per

This

conductor.

the

through

perpendicular to

was

heating

conductors.

are

cross-section

their increased
up

15

dimensions.
total

lesser

solid

the

conductors

having

outside

excessive

and

lines

proportions shown

the

current

the

upon

case.

Stranded
and

in

up

in such

used

armature

by

up

of

such

along
be

may

proportionsshown

the

set

slot

of the

conductors,

the

with

armature

from

and

of the

conductors

instance,

an

solid conductors

cross-flux

the

but

Here

113.

As

armatures.

alternatingcurrent

an

overhang,

all to be transmitted
stranded

and

protected from

exemption

high density throwing part

density is low,

tooth

This

teeth

the

which

to

of copper,

less

or

more

are

were

one-third.

by

in. slots.

permitting them

in iron-clad

be used

diminished

embedded
extent

cross-section

same

conductors

the

very

of

the

where

Even

the

upon

the

having

was

dynamos,

slots,instead

the

armature

by being

eddy

density in

of cable

conductors

These

diameter.

in

in.

0.165

strands

19

Generators.

wires,

component
break

to

as

the

up

are

cross

currents.

Closely related
in

all solid metal

in

pole-faces
;

in

passing the

varied, eddy
entire

in the

case

in

made
In

if

but

the

proportions

will

currents

reluctance

be

circuit.
the

has
of

just described,

parts subjectedto inductive

magnetic

construction

losses

the
pole-pieces,

but
pole-pieces,
a

the

to

uni-slot

and
efficiency

continuous-current

magnetic

used

in

the

of

the

in

yoke,

very

This

such

circuit

solid

cases,

should

be

the

chiefly

occurs

magnetic
all

losses

current

are

such

marked

eddy

armature

throughout

alternators,with

armatures,
in

influences.

of

Consequently,

entire

been

found

the

are

that,

is much

parts of

the

only

the

not

laminated.

result that,

improvement

Such

especially
has

been

heating.
machines,

the

surface

of the

armature

is broken

Foucault

up

by

of

the

Nevertheless,
be

gap

as

in small

J in.,

in such

where

slots

Pole-faces
sometimes

with

frequently

type of construction
it into

the

solid

In

the

neighbourhood

remaining
the

the
of

of

unchano-ed.

the

pole-face
of the

depth
have

such

steel.

greater losses

while
projections,

if the

the

the

which

For

this

reason

losses

in

of

square

the

the

of the

square

the

slots

are

eliminated.
practically
of

laminated

portion of

upper

laminatingthe

of

structure,

the

magnet

entire

and

conductors

magnet

in,

cast

or

Another

core.

core

coils which

spool flangescould

avoid

insulation,and

are

more

sheets
of

the

of the

thickness

insulated

millingand

makes

conductors.

the

density

laminations

important to

copper

in

and

casting

the

seat

yoke.

Eddy-current
and

to

are

also

well

be

should
as

of
be

man

made

of

steel.

manganese

upon

J-in.

pole-facelosses,

high magneto-motive forces,solid supports, shields, and the like,


avoided, unless of high resistance, non-magnetic material, such
ganese

air-

occurred

air-gapfrom

much

course,

105

mainly local,the

Instances

of

magnitude

consist

consists in

is

neighbourhood

depth

give, of

loss is

to the

on,

whole,

opening.

overhanging

the

over,

bolted

slot

the

slots

disturbance

increasingthe

Straight-sidedarmature
completely closed

the

modified

greatly

as

of Dynamos.

depend chiefly
upon

to

of

Parts

the

loss in the

be found
width

to the

pole-facethan

Laminated

slots,and

the

cases,

will

machines,
has

Non-

magnetic circuit,

large,and
related

in

of small

large number

reluctance

may

Currents

of

armature

flux, the

square

sheets.

Also

from

each

filingin slots,as
or

less

Consequently, the

continuous

of

this tends

the

with

destroy

the

parallelto

the

to

is

care

is, therefore,

It

conductor

eddy-current loss

periodicity,

the

upon

other.

dependent

are

cores

quite largely

Electric

106

dependent
length of
volts

the

armature

the
to

(seepage
millingor

Even

riling. Cases

the

these

from

on

are

loss

core

is due

cases,

less continuous

In

loss

Fig.

be
the

the

smooth-core
in the

anticipated from

are

safetyfactor applied

the

of

curves

to

114

modern
at

the

and

Figs. 35

represent
Curve

stages
the

was

of

average
taken

2
11

,,

3
11

,,

4
"

without

where

the

milling of

three

times

its

originalvalue,

thin

loss

layer from

by

of the

there

36

this

results

after

from

was

of

tests

the

wedged

were

winding.

studied

manufacture.

teeth
slots

metal

of the

of the
a

slot.

increase,
or

more

slight increase

assembling
were

Most

the

due

to

shock.

matter

process

sides

any

slots

armature

edges making

is also

mechanical

the

the

considerably.

burring

railway motor,

various

assembled

record

to the

iron

be
possible,

when

conductor, although

injuringthe qualityof

of

derived

as

by millingbeing merely
increases the core
lightfiling

in both

core

should

work,

in

parasiticcurrents

currents

and

turns,

quantities depends

machine

from

eddy

of

parasiticcurrents

up

of

greater

punchings should,

increased

removed

design,the
loss

set

free

be

to

these

upon

to

number

flux,

34).

Armature

has

shaft, as

from

losses

core

of

less amount

apt

such

of the

value

the

to

more

of the

nature
the

much

more

the

length tending

Owing

are

The

core.

of

unit

core.

armatures

magnitudes

parallelto

armature
per

relative

the

upon

Generators.

of two

punchings.
straight.

slightlyfiled.

by testing the
The
armatures.

curves

Electric

108

direction

plane

of

In

sheets.

the

for

favourable

very

of

setting up

the

Figs.

and

139

140,

on

in

convenience

arranged for
especially

curves

Generators.

eddy

in

currents

136, will

page

be

the

found

determining transformer core

losses.

addition

In

degrees

of

of

temperature
certain

in

useful

is

it

surface,

of

rise

per

the

generation
given

in

manner

in

of

Fig.

which

117

showing

curves

of

Figs. 35

the

rate

the

inch

it

the

pound

per

from

square

consider

in watts

curves

per

by hysteresis and

iron

in

heat

the

watt
to

cases

generationof heat, expressed

to

subject of heating

consideringthe

to

on

of

and

motor

core

36

give

of these
of the

heat

rate

there

of
are

in copper,

Uaarrnealeet Iron

Amperes

ohmic

One's

resistance.

quantitiesin
values

given

and

copper

in Tables

Rate

Density

in

conception

of Generation

of

iron is rendered

XXX.

TABLE

Current

the

tots

,,.

to

of rate

Similarly

eddy currents,

(W76)

due

radiating

basis

Piq.116. Rai/noy Armature.


Railway

of

material.

generation of

of

standpoint

and

XXX."

of Heat

definite

more

XXXI.

magnitudes

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by

:"

COPPER.

by

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Watts

per

Pound.

study

SpecificRate
TABLE

should

XXXI.

Table

Generation

of
XXXI.

also

SHEET

"

109

IRON.

in

be used

Heat.

of

losses

iron

calculating

high

at

it extends

densities, as

Smooth-core
iron-clad

iron-clad

with

wise

designed

into

is subdivided
Table

In
densities

smaller

many

XXXII.
in

used

densities

current

various

cases

few

than

coils have

which

in

36.

densities

large

those

rough figures

some

the

than

Like
to

be

winding

for

the

current

:"

XXXII.

TABLE

Small

Figs.35

coils.

given

are

curves

and

opportunity for cooling.

with

those

of

higher current

at

run

better

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to

armatures,

lower

with

be

can

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armatures,

the range

beyond

armatures

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high-speed armatures

Large

"

,,

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low-speed

Large

armatures

"

"

Large

in oil

immersed

transformers

of oil

circulation

forced

with

Transformers

or

air

or

air

Small

In

the

much

case

higher

formers

would

current

full load

have

them

up

pages

29

to

32

are

so

to

above

both

should

deg. Cent,
See

from

of
be

100

aimed

at,

considerations.

thermal

that

deg. Cent.,

even

of deterioration

hand,

regulationthan

better

and

rise,but

other

the

poorly designed

insulation

for discussion

On

of
with

be

density could

current

temperature

regulation.

poor

deterioration

60

excessive

density being limited

heats

causes

than

causing

large transformers

many

it

without

the

transformers

properlydesigned,have

formers, when
the

small

of

this

iron.1

few
is bad
A

trans

large

trans

is necessary,

Although
hours'

at

run

at

as
practice,

rise of not

large transformers.

of iron

very

such

high temperatures.

more

Electric

110

The

of

curve

insulation

the

resistance

Fig.

shows

118

resistance

when

of
In

cold.

was

immersed
the

in

oil with

which

and

of

have
the

very

insulating

transformer

the

its

being

thoroughly impregnated,

was

between

reduces

percentage

where

case,

cloth,

insulation

coefficient

small

this

In

mica

the

cleg.Cent,

60

insulating substances

coefficient.

temperature

average

to

words,

of

of

rise

even

transformer

composition

that

other

large negative temperature


material

Generators.

deg.

20

Cent,

and

80

deg.

per

cent,

per

2600
2100
1200
eooo
isoo
1600
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1100

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600
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200

133TI
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rkANSFORHEH
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withstand

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transformer

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20

SI

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13

"

resistance
But

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80

ability of

of

the

its

increased

the

effects

measured
to

13

in 'C

abilityto withstand

megohms

IS

by Res

Consequently,

as

17

Coila

disruptive

resistance,

If

Volts

measured

temperature.
the

practicallyunimpaired.
carefullybetween

insulation

IS

"

to 100

former

Temperature

II

V^sf
testing

For
20

13

IS

INSULATION

used

From
ranges
f Temperature

Cent,

II

very

this

insulating

high potentials is

important

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distinguish

applicationof high voltages


megohms.

The

original high

value

insulation
when

the

and

Heating

Efficiencyof Electric

Machines

RAILWAY

necessityin

The

lightloads (which

is the

greater part of

the

curve
efficiency

which

at

operated for

In

is

matter

high temperature
section

the

dynamos

large number

run

As

cooler
Such

point.

both

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of

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of

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compactness

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much

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pull,without
need

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also

long-sustained

railway motors,

would

machine

be

this

to be

at

run

properly designed

at

all necessary

from

obtain

to

low-current

very

will

dynamo

arc

the

large and

course,

requires a

in order

and

of

partly,and

current,

armature,

have

be,

must

constant

self-regulation.This

field and

on

consequence,
than

maintain

conductors

the
efficiency,

much

drawbar

inherent

entirely,by

of turns

densities.

falls off very

DYNAMOS.

designed to

are

almost

reasonable

and

with

fullyconsidered.

more

sometimes

designed

good railway

under

relatingto

be

maximum,

periodsat its full rated

at

Ill

at
having high efficiency
railway motors
operate the

shall

they

its

consequence,

ARC
Arc

which

dangerous temperature.

requiresrunning
full load.

under

quickly reaches
a

of

apparatus

condition

As

long

and

excessive

class of

Purposes.

MOTORS.

time), requires that

loads.

larger

this

for Various

thermal

stand

expensive

for

its

output.
apparent contradiction

In

all

almost

is because

arc

machines

almost

particularlyat
wasteful

all

arc

in

present

machines

as

less than

anything

continue

to

at

the

to

them

above

operation run
in

now

installing
well-designedapparatus, the saving in
cover

the

incurred

expenses

by

the

In

constant

potential dynamos

electromagnetic and
Centigrade
considered
and

other

machines

rise

in

limits

thermal

temperature

the

work

is
efficiency

so

are

would

and

quickly

DYNAMOS.

it should

be

coincide.

during

continuous

entirelysatisfactory,
although the
Government

out

change.

POTENTIAL

CONSTANT

this

extremely

all

them

maintenance

that

efficiencies,
it

render

throwing

By

fact

But

low

such
to

as

the

warm.

very

have

use

full load,

service.

in

stands

statement

usuallymore

the

aim

Forty

or

have

to

the

fiftydegrees

running

is

generally

for

Admiralty
requirements
rigid. In constant-potential

when
high (especially

compared

with

the

engine

Electric

112

when
efficiency)

should

seldom

magnetic

is

reached

by

the

in

but

Cent.

deg.

should
it

run

factor.

determining

constants

perature
hours'

be

be

to

machine

Nothing

thermal

Proper
the

quote
end

the

at

of

case

the

efficiency

and

electro

limiting considerations.

the

customary

the

that
satisfactory,

is

limit

temperature

dynamos

In

20

the

Generators.

efficiencyat

of

several

it is

transformers,

the

tem

(generallyten)

generally quoted

prevailing practice justifiesthese

except

at

con

tradictorymethods.

HEATING.

COMMUTATOR
of

heating

The

the

from

arises

commutator

three

causes

the

useful

the

"

mechanical

caused

Copper
200

per

and

by sparking.

exceed

case

of

oz.

per

per

jarringto

inch

square

this has

which

the

to

seldom

exceed

radiating

surface

20

be

figure may
should

ture
at

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considerablyincreased,

40

amperes

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per

square

commutators

need

pressure

and

deg.

total

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upon.

50

In

the

because

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the

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commutator

inch

of

and

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centrifugal flow

upon

considerablyimproved

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where,

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temperature

watt

per

2,500 ft. per

of

of

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subjected.

are

depending

preferably not

above

used.

in

higher

of

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rise

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special

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of

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continuous

running

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be

unventilated

ventilating arrangements

density

machines,

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correspondsto good practice.

rise

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brush-bearing surface,

of commutator

deg.

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of

brushes

corresponds to good practice,the


will

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square

peripheralspeed

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up

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railway motors

excessive
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of contact
should

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2 Ib.

of 20

pressure

brushes

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good conditions,
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current

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square

to

to

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machines.

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due

brushes

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brushes,

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currents

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friction

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resistance

contact
per

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brushes

at

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.03

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square

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surface, the resistance

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-

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per

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In

with

and

equal to
To

illustrate
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generator

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shaft, is

in.,and

of

set
x

tive
the

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case

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brushes

in

ohms,

.003

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standard

condition

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capacity of

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ohms

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is

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the

of

in.

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posi
for

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square

density is 36

current

resistance

the

of

each

estimating the

six-pole120-kilowatt

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13.5

of

whose

having

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x

be taken

at

in

constants

commutator,

is furnished

square

these

may

in. diameter

carbon

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quently,the
contact

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twelve

current

exceed

not

coefficient of friction at the

applicationof

30

1.13

and

the

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four

in.

.75

with

loss,the

commutator

need

.3.

heating of

friction

the

brushes

copper

surface, and

contact

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pressure,

taken

of

of

480

amperes

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volts

250

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square

inch,

square

at

amperes

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Taking

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.03
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to

A.
"

minals.
sure

13.5

the

34

C2 E

about

.3

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positive

.0045

to

negative

ter-

revolutions

Therefore,

foot

pounds

horse-power

Peripheral

minute.

per

1.25

pressure

foot-pounds

.73

Total

Pres

watts.

1050

inch.

square

300

minute.

24,000

loss is 4802

1^

Speed

ft. per

2360

from

J. O

"

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34

ohms

.0045

-L

XN

adjusted to
2

speed
2360

Therefore

is

"

per

minute

watts.

545

Watts.

C2

1050
545

Friction
...

Allow

for

100

losses

stray

Total

Radiating
Watts

Figuring
obtained

the

rise

at

20

...

...

...

surface
per

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loss

commutator
=

...

...

=
...

30

1695

TT

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-r

per

760
=

watt

1695

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sq. in.
2.2.

per

square

inch,

there

:"

Total

rise

temperature

2.2

20

44

deg. Cent.
Q

is

Electric

114

Careful
of

contact

inch,

does

nor

at

it

change

least

not

necessarily

rough

stood

when

C2

that
and

show

to

increasing

on

densities

fail

tests

brush

enough

be

to

worth

loss

dependent

upon

When

armature

the

and

engine
the

the

with

provided

is

sometimes

properly

ascribable

furnished

with

the

advantage

friction
loss
the

loss.

being

the

400

one

sizes,
and

The

Large
less

than

and

over

friction
2

per

per

should

cent,
have

the

from

or

belt-driven

ranging

slow-speed

friction
friction

loss,

from

less,

rather

and

losses

for

minute

in

.8

the

well

losses,

per

will

machines
within

the

J-

per

kilowatts

however,
for

500

rather
kilo

sizes.

have

for

in

cent,

for

kilowatt

500

are

kilowatts.

60

in

cent,

not

minute

per

the

is

friction

per

generators,

generators
such

the

60

revolutions

360

per

to

belt

the

beyond

increased

three

to

both

arrangements,

designed,

up

not

spider

involves

kilowatts

400

from

current

cent.,

thus

is

by

and

necessarily

sizes

and

friction

ventilating

belt-driven,

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to

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bearing

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other

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losses

under

is

shared

third

due

alternators

being

1500

the

friction,

of

shaft,
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to
a

the

gained

being

speeds

direct-coupled
1

in

be

method

engine

has

loss
If

high-speed
cent,

the

dynamos

flues,

thereby

continuous-

had
to

to

up

similar

up

and

machines

the

speeds,

fans

range

included.

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dynamo.

of

in

account

necessarily

the

loss

the

The

the

per

the

kilowatt,

sizes

line

current

condition,

friction

from

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a

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small

not

watt

In

ranged

capacity,

lower

internal
in

driven

necessary.
to

and

course,

poor

and

design

bearing,

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of

square

increase.

bearing

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directly

outboard

dynamo.

pulley

of

nature
is

an

and

windage

through

per

Loss.

FRICTION

The

in

are

greatly

to

into

will,

It

resistance

oz.

speeds

taking

commutator

certain

20

different

calculations.

or

are

beyond

for

in

decrease

pressure

greatly

very

approximate

losses,

stray

considerable

any

the

brushes

Generators.

considerably
1000

cent.

kilowatts

Electric

116

in

Tnis

secondary member.

in tho

in

member

secondary

the

two

acting
of

distribution

magnetic potentialand

first

ways,

forces

resultant

the

circuit

magnetic

magnetic

flux

magnetic

by reducing

the

on

the

change

to

acts

and,

differences

magnetic leakage by altering the

secondly, by affectingthe
of

reaction

force

magneto-motive

effective

Generators.

around

the

mag

circuit.

netic

In

the

of

case

is such

reaction

generator with

as

to

of

brushes

field

the

demagnetise

with

set

forward

and

magnets

the

lead,

increase

the

leakage.
In

the

case

is such

reaction

force

magneto-motive
In

of

case

current

increase

to

In

the

diminish

the

effect

increase

this

effect.

flux

in

force

divided

in the
be

flux.
transformer

of

the

the

by

design of

effective

These
flux

the

for

reactions

density and
total

given

efficiencyand
and

copper

ing

of

ing

in

the

given

with

of

amount

minimum

in the

to

at

field

force

by

of

fixed

no

consideration

produce

then

be

given

expended
material

means

magnets

of

certain

and
a

should

in

said

cases

vary

effective
the

between

magnetic
to

be

the

in

the

Obviously,
widely

very

the

as

The

design

of

magnetic flux,

to

of

amount

question

on

conditions

flux.

of

produc

and

with

primary magnetic coils, and

labour

and

the

most

series of trial calculations.

not, in

to

reaction.

armature

subsequently.
in all

ratio

have

reaction

maximum

may

effective

field-magnet circuit

into

discussed

according

The

reactions

armature

taken

to

Obviously, then,

these

the

the

definite

be

is

may

member

energy

cost

of

to

magneto- motive

Therefore, fulfilling
equivalent

circuit

secondary

result is arrived
wasted

required

magnetic

will

heating, there

iron

be

may

of

is

current

affected

circuit.
of

leading

effect

the

leading

resultant

the

with

or

points.

two

effects

influence

magnetising

flux.

to

design

certain

with

and

is such

reaction

lagging current,

magnetic

the

the

force

by assuming

equal

circuit

the

alternators,

armature

the

current,

any

of the

In

magneto-motive

calculations

is

the

added

by

armature

leakage in general is

between

reluctance

carefully calculated.
and

with

the

circuit

magnetic

armature

primary current,

force

magnetic

any

dynamos

the

magneto-motive

the

to

with

above, however,

stated

As

the

through

lead,

leakage.

lagging

flux

forward

alternating-current generator,

of

case

with

set

flux

diminished

and

an

the

diminish

to

as

the

brushes

the

increase

to

as

with

motor

the

case

of

economical
The

energy

continuous-current

Armature

exceed

machinery, generally
permissible

values

In

there

all

shall

cases

be
In

is

the

of

amount

Transformers

load

mean

of

full load
seldom

the

of the

circuit

stated

output,

iron

the

both

In

the

factor

in

tance

now

reduced
been

in

Thus

the

much

output

Taking

the

through

the

from

at full load

so

long

greater than
turns

time

the

It is found

motive

force

from

This

18

force

in

Mr.

H.

there

is

of

the

in

30

corresponds

from

the

field

lead

of

the

labour,

which
of the

to

full

field

has

sparking.
a

magnets.

line

integral
examples

In

magnets.
have

of

force

several
been

now

in

satisfactory
operation,
load

50

was

and

the

per

the

cent,

number

potential was

initial

armature

magnetisa
magneto

demagnetising component,
magnetomotive

armature
from

has

greatly

field

numerous

give the
of

so

brushes, and

constant

coils to

of

dynamos

the

magnets

component

brushes

of

the

which

maintain

total

of
as

field

at

has

armature

magnetomotive

question as
of the

as

naturally become

are

the

Parshall,

shunt

the

for

reaction

carbon

force

magnets, i.e.,the

of

cent,

the

has

brush,

F.

the

and

standpoint of

the

there

coils to

in the

circuit

and
efficiency

commutation,

armature

that

force

practicethat

per
to

that

of

the

in

no

"

day

the

consist,

to

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of

in

armature

series

the

the

armature

of
to

time,

with

magnetic

said

ventilation

the

equal to

that

opposing
to

is

the

loss.

of

consistent

is

magnets, is of greater impor

magnetomotive

magnetomotive

required

field

actions

force

total

length

standpoint the output

of

load

considered.

the

the

brush

designed by

approximately equal to
tion.

of

There

no

the

of material

cost

dynamos,

good comnmtating dynamos

magnetomotive

of

the

magnetomotive

large dynamos

the

being

force

of

factor

armature

armature

for

minimum

at

of

all

satisfactory

this

of

coils

any

be
"

good operation

magnetomotive

greater

very

for

then

general introduction

thorough knowledge
the

made

may

Thorough

The

be

should

coils

hysteresis. The

to

general design of

for

from

heating,that

the

increased

is

The

heretofore.

different.

fraction
for

speed

limit.

becomes

load

and

magnetising

safe

the

output,

size

the

beyond

full

at

determining the design


than

that

considerable

losses

rated

the

magnetising

of continuous-current

case

greatly increased.

more

use

the

securing

copper

the

upon

condition

losses

conditions

and

117

magnetic circuit,due

in

transformer.

thermal
satisfactory

the

heat

worked

open

mainly

the

it is

of

condition

to

in the

Force.

cent,

per

alternating-currenttransformer

an

given

of

not

as

consumed

are

consequently

the

transformers

energy

negligible. At

1^

or

course,

loss of energy

constant

is,of

of

case

being dependent

proportioned

so

Magnetomotive

to

15

per

cent,

force.
of

the

Electric

118

total

angular distance

lead

of

from

The
the

deg.,the

27

south) being taken

(north and

required in

of material

practicehas
total

the

not

required
working

give

to

ventilation
in

tendency

The

of

laid

designed

been

has

output

conditions

down

work

to

frequently designed
in the

in

of

case

full

inductive

with

one-half

of

discussion

becomes

with

being

the

great

an

magnetic
of

respect

the

of
of

amplitude

as

possible,

the
the

thermal

with

the

Alternators
are

purposes

reaction

of

output

conform

power

armature

substantial

reaction

of

value

very

would

that

be

upon

the

pole-face;

hence

make

it

iron, otherwise

loss of energy
in

multi-slot

alternators, it should

be

of

variation

important
the

to

of

the

is

armature

undergoes
armature,

of

so

and

entire

the

becomes

the

Although

currents.

single-phasealternators
considered

uni-slot

generally

construct

be

magnetic

the

field frame

through eddy

carefully

the

reluctance

revolution

per

of

position

in

that

here,

the

will

alternators

reluctance

the

field-poles. The
to

of

stated

be

may

cycles

of laminated

this loss is less serious

phase

limit

to

been

vastly increased.

inductance.

for

armature

It

the

to

number

very

the

been
to

determined

lines

dependent

very

circuit

the

section.

later

over

become

regulation,and

of inherent

regulation and

to

as

been

has

lightingmachines.

periodic variation

seat

are

whole

introduction

the

have

has

armature

generally

single-phase alternators,
slot

as

the

output

By

armatures

practice has

recent

of

limit

machines.

shorter

of the

standpoint

the

from

alternators

thermal

commutating

in

of air passages,

consequently natural

circuit

potential over

constant

alternators, the

of

case

general system

given

course,

general
armature

compound dynamos

of such

case

approximately

an

by ventilation, as

increased

used

in the

in

the

to

which

armature

considered,

limit, of

The

member.

beyond

increasing the

therefore, be

there

yet, however,

limit

the

reach

increased, by

may,

As

core

range.

the

In

limit

magnet

is frequentlyreached

reaction

is

dynamo

subservient

practice,a

the

magnetic

the

circuit.

field-

the

magnetic leakage,and

magnetic

of

cross-section

field

The

reaction.

the

developed to
sufficiently

been
of

cost

length of

economical

in

and

field-magnetcoils

to increase

tends

turn

requiregreater

fore to

of

in

coils,which

practicegreatlyincreases

in modern

the

magnetic circuit,by increasingthe


and

deg.

360

as

reaction, therefore,

armature

amount

points,i.e.,to an angular
angular span of two magnetic fields
neutral

successive

between

deg. to

16

Generators.

and

in

poly

it will often

be

of Magnetic Leakage.
Coefficient
found

in such

desirable

field frame.

entire

wider

the
pole-piece,
in

face, and

of the

the

requiresthat

periodic variations
of

inductor

type

varieties

of this

in

the

flux

the

reluctance,

the

alternator, and

constitute

linked

derive

with

and
coefficient,"
evident
since

that

the

of flux

component

Fig.

122

are

of

above

the

values
for

given results both


to

thermal
at

which

with

the

in

extent

to
the

most

conditions,
core

should

multipliedin

to

raise

the

than

of

It

and

without

is

It

load,

the

magnetic potential
tend

armature

cases.

to

leakage

unity.

to

will

current

increase

the

the

surface

conductors.

The

over

leakage coefficients

the

several
with

the

order
"

with

adjacent pole tips and


level of

the

as

increase

and

armature

determined

as

be

noted

in

the

that

in

armature.

124.)

reluctance

the

"

serve

leakingbetween
the

be

must

the

and
adjacent pole-faces,

of
which

is run,

permissiblecore

the

armature

core

reluctance

loss.

proper

upon

the

being

chosen

dependent

are

the

RELUCTANCE.

CORE

ARMATURE

The

entire

objectionsto

reaches

considerablygreater

coefficient

the

measurements

(See Figs. 119

for the

field coils,is known

the

turns

ampere

which

turns

is

cases

leakage

diagrams give
actual

flux

the

armature

most
"

teeth

armature

from

practice

present

COEFFICIENT.

generated by

surfaces

the

annexed

the

armature

between

of the

in

the

which

by

total flux

the

pole-

pole-facesonly.

greatest

of the

one

the

to

type of alternator.

coefficient

becomes

the

But

magnetic circuit,due

the

their

reach

per

slots

vicinityof

armatures,

throughout

slots

always enough

laminate

may

air gap.

the

the

the

loss

the

least, shall be laminated

at

LEAKAGE
The

shorter

multi-slot

with

the

fewer

the

almost

are

practice to

cores,

pulsationsof

The

length.

there

the

of

construction

machines,

magnetic pulsationsto

even

magnet

and

openings

it is often

hence

all alternators,

in

But

laminated

continuous-current

machines,

restriction

the

slot

the

continuous-current

insure

in

Even

adopt

to

considerable, being of greater value,

be

sometimes

machines

119

is

generally fixed by

density
as

and

high

as

periodicity
is consistent

120

Electric

Generators.

Reluctance

of Magnetic

AIR
The

reluctance

piecesis
the

between

determined

mechanical

necessary

the

the

by

GAP

Circuit.

RELUCTANCE.

armature

and

core

the

requiredby

space

clearance

121

between

the

faces

the

pole-

conductors

armature

the

of

surface

armature

and

and

the

pole-faces.1
RELUCTANCE
reluctance

The
that

combined

the

minimum.
what

The

iron is

length of

conditions, that

In

air gap.

But

diminished
to

the

the

into

the

certain
the

limit, since

now

mechanical

reaction

density in

The

the

in

distortion

the

air

gap

the

worked

of

case

the

in

the

inductance

circuit

of

surrounding

broadly by saying
in

the

air

gap,

the

nature
to

the

armature

of

the

the

without

coils

the
that

for

and

It

the

distortion
to

given output
both

the

collecting brushes.

to
to

be

smaller

and

All

there

is
and

considered
of

the

the
as

of

pointed

magnetic

the

conditions

not

made

only

the

the

As

visible

that
in

also

reluctance

to the

in
or

the

included

be

will be shown

sparking,

of

case

armature

reluctance
may

in its relation

reversing field,but

greatly
machine

limiting minimum

self-induction.

high

coils,it appears

armature

these

greater

smooth-core
in

being

that, with

out

be

may

the

are

with

it

alone,

proportionalto

certain

Generally speaking,

brushes, is least injuriousto the

In

permissible

pole-face,the

air gap

gap.

sparking

(which

reaction; whereas

of

inductance

distortion

strength

the

in

armature.

the

condition

been

has, however,

in

in the

high value,

very
the

satisfy this

armature

increased.

at

is greatly less than

smaller

becomes

has
to

the

to

have

is consistent

as

the

magnetic

the

armatures

small

as

density

To

distortion

magnetic

becomes

coils

having regard
coils

magnetic

sparking.

toothed

carried

projections is
the

necessary.

relation

made

good practice is

the

on

of

been
of

necessary

to

that

has

appreciably

magnetism

such

flux

brushes

is not

of

becomes

case

the

relation

no

thermal

it

is not

where

of

depth

the

deleteriously

acts

gap

the

of

commutation

has

copper

proper

armature,

distribution

air gap

in the
In

proportional to

however, sparkless commutation


of

in

out,

is

with
the

flux

the

function

amount

fixed

pole-tip,which

the

well-designed smooth-core

gap

Considered

is

under

the

the

small.

greater

possible

highly magnetised projectionsthe


reaction.

magnetic

projections becomes

the

of

alter
of

depth

is very

that

is

smooth-core

except in machines

air gap,

it may

as

density in

projection normally

less than
the

of

commutation

safety.

armature

far

so

distribution

generally recognised

the

in

practice),the

common

of

generator

neighbourhood

near

limit, increasing the

of

range

will maintain

is

of the

give, under

such

that, with

that

that

be

copper

such

cost

to

coils when

the

be

is meant

Therefore, the depth of the air gap

sparking output, except


a

of

should

coils

should

magnetising

copper

output
of

armature

by increasing the depth

set

angular

of the

of

limit

circuit

densities,the

force

limit

sparking

inductance

forward

economical

magnetising

sparking

that

CIRCUIT.

and

circuit

magnetic

most

the

well-designed generators.
Beyond

the

By magnetising

the

discussing

iron

magnetic

magnetomotive

frequently asserted

be

the

required by

copper

of

minimum.

MAGNETIC

given length of magnetic

cost

be termed

may

and

for

COMPLETE

OF

later,

inductance

respect

to

the

external

that

commutator.
R

Electric

122

the

through

correspond with
tions

of the

For
if too
the

be

taken

The

correspond

to

be

taken

The

armature.

coils should
be excessive

iron will

the

the

of

depth

otherwise,

should

with

the

to

propor

magneto

full load.

excessive, since

will be

restricted.

restricted

should

of the

cost

the

voltagegenerated by

requiredat

long,the

densities

The

load.

given density the magnet

copper

too

full

the

magnets

force

motive

full

at

armature

Generators.

the

be
;

of

if too

short,

radiatingsurface
coil

magnet
of

temperature

of

length ;

the

of

cost

coil will

the

be

practice, be
layers will become
in

must,

inner

the

certain

excessive.1

ESTIMATION

magnetomotive

The

maintaining
length

follows

flux

of

(expressedin

force

GAP

OF

RELUCTANCE.

(expressed in

lines

per

inch,

square

inches)is.313

turns) expended in

ampere

L.

across

The

air

an

proof

of

gap

of this

is

as

lines

per

sq. in.

lines

per

centimetre.

square

6.45

B=
6.45

For

air
H

B.

D.

H=

6.45

But

nC

it

=
7

1fl

(number

turns

ampere

being length expressed in centimetres,


of turns

and

being

current).

1"
n

=
_

u
H

10
"

in

is very
be

not
at

The

their

increase

of

resistance.

shallow, is
so

hot

as

temperature

Placing
not
to

the

of

the

the

resistance

given voltage is greatly diminished.

of

coils

on

satisfactoryindication

increase

magnet

thermometer

L.

6.45

TT

.313

2.54

".

TT

as

the

the
to

coil

L.

should
external
whether
so

much

determined

be

by

surface, unless
or

not

that

the
its

inner

the
the

increase

winding

layers

magnetomotive

may

force

Electric

1 "24

If in any
calculations

new

to

breadth

.33

there

of the

25

of

cent,

per

itself

tooth

It will be

k.

of the

magnitude

the

is

from

proportion varies

this

made, if

Moreover,

in the

.25

be

may

it.

warrant

insulation

be

particulardesign

Generators.

The

convenient

25

variation

is sufficient

ventilatingducts

cross-section
add

to

this

to

and

of this

the

_-

will

slots,and

./

denote

cent.,

per

total

the

air

the

as

Cross^section

path.

of air

path

.33

=
-

1.34

b k

4-

.33

k.

.75

air rath,

This

Let

I
X

thereioie,

lines

to

in all

and

of tooth

depth

takes

Let

the

permeability

lines

of iron

divide

so

in tooth,

that

at

and

path,

density

slot,and

and

tooth

density.

true

shall be

there

in iron

combined

the

by

"

lamination.

slot.

transmitted

be

iron

the

jaths except

in air

in iron

path.

path.

at

and
X

b k

Conductivity

Xow.
tional

to

the
the

fluxes

and

path

path

b k

1.34

air

respective conductivities

iron

in

"

.33

of

Conductivity

path.

"

of iron

f,

.03

in air

density

"

1.34

will

air

and

be

directlypropor

aku

b k

1.34

.33

1.34

.33

~~i~
1.34

(1.34

.33

Let

assumption
X

that

true

the

(the total lines) to

density in
iron

1.34

a"

.33a
b

iron,

transmits

(those in

a"tX

.33a

and

the

"

")
+

B1

"*

"

entire

iron*, i.e.

density

flux.

will

"

calculated

Therefore,

equal

the

the

ratio

the

on

ratio

of

of

B1

Reluctance

(the density figured on

that

assumption

B1

1.34

XXXIII.

Table

In

Projections.
all the

125

lines

in

are

iron), to

density in iron).

actual

(the

the

Core

of

.33a

ft

calculated

are

ft

values

some

of

TY

for

different

values

of
TABLE

XXXIII.
f

1.

(i.e.,width

tooth

width

"'-

slot)
B

"-

2.

.75

2.12

B1
3.

.50

Fig.

126.

next

From

"

3.00

-1-

_
~~

T"~

The

-D

step

in

these

this
curves

process

requires

Table

XXXIV.

TABLE

XXXIV.

reference

"

to

is derived

the
:

iron

curves

of

Electric

126

In
Tables

the

been

have

available

thus

in

consists

flux

in

it

30

transposedinto

for

in

use

force.

has
of

to

be

to

the

"

sa

of

HO

eo

HO

tot

uoc

IIM

not

aoo

ittt

for

be

taken

by judgment,

and

is

figuringthe
transmitting

as

influenced
the

one,

entire

the

in

are

simply

process

use

to

teeth

Generally, increasing by

34

the

value

corrected

the

inch, and

square

transmitted

iron

in

densities

the

density per

if the

as

determined

gap.

to

re

curves

number

The

of

calculations, where

density

the

values

the

kilolines

dynamo

iron

figuringthe

magnetomotive
length

Fig. 127,

obtainingfrom

flux, and

the

of

curves

Generators.

by

number

the

lying

aa

Fuf.126.

= :

xteeot

ran

KM

directlyunder
small

air

the

gaps,

"M 'KM

imatt

results

pole-facegives good

while

two

three

or

for

should

teeth

extra

machines

with

be

added

very

for

larger gaps.

CALCULATION
The
as

lines
and
The
50

following example

giving
A

idea

some

certain

(per
in

MAGNETIC

FOR

ironclad

tooth

dynamo

magnet

yoke

method

density

is

110

has

of

the

kilolines.

DYNAMO.

case

be

may

handling

such

air-gap density

an

density in
80

OF

simple

very

general

inch),the

square

the

of the

of

CIRCUIT

magnet
The

kilolines, and

the

is

of

interest,

problems
of

40

is 90

core

frame

of

in.

"

"

of gap

magnet

.25
core

(as related

yoke (correspondingto

to
one

the

magnetic circuit)

spool)

armature
,,

10
6

tooth

1.5

,,

(correspondingto

one

spool)

4
...

steel.

density

kilolines.

Length

kilo-

kilolines,

cast

armature

is

Field

number

Required

of

for gap

Ampere-turns

for magnet

47

Calculation.

ampere-turns

Ampere-turns

--

Winding

.313

(from

core

spool at

per

40,000

127

load

no

.25

curve

3130

of

Fig. 14,

21)

page

10

470

Ampere-turns

for

Ampere-turns

for teeth

Ampere-turns

for armature

yoke

29

170
...

(from
core

...

...

curve

of

Fig. 22)

150

==

230

1.5=

6x4

20

Total

Therefore

ampere-turns

It thus

tion of the

total reluctance

above

permeabilityand

making

of the

other

field

than

example,

to

4020.

it is much

through

go

direct

more

laborious

described

WINDING

in many

to

calcula

magnetic circuit,incidentally
bringing

factors,as

FIELD
In

load

no

that, for practicalpurposes,

appears

proceed as
the

pole-pieceat

per

in

the

4020

in

text-books.

FORMULA.

winding calculations, the followingformula

is of great

service.

Lb.

=-

watts

in

which
Lb.

Ampere-feet
Watts

This

.00000068
If

formula

Resistance
=

length

Pounds

of copper

Ampere-turns

is derived

between

opposite

length

of

spool at

20

mean

consumed

watts

spool.

per

in the

follows

as

faces

of

one

expressed

turn,

deg.

inch

cubic

of

commercial

copper

ohms.
in inches

L, and

cross-section

in square

inches

.00000068

.00000068

L2

S, then

T,

-l\i

Li

"

"

Let

mean

number

It

length

.00000068
O

Ju

of

one

of turns.

L.

/-'f2

.00000068

C2

e-

in feet.

Cent.

F P

turn

in inches.

at

20

deg.

Cent.

Electric

128

Generators.

Git

ampere-feet (ampere-turns

Git
G-

P?

C2

12

144

length

mean

of

in

turn

one

feet).

ampere-feet.

(ampere-feet)2.

watts.

/ampere-feet

.68
b

Li

x!44

( ^00

"

watts

ampere-feet

.32
Lb.

S L

.32

.68

144

^^

"

watts

feet

/ampere

(
Lb.

\'

1000-

watts

APPLICATION

CALCULATION

TO

OF

WOUND

that

the

Thus,

suppose

5,000

ampere-turns

length of

mean

ft.

1000

The
600

inches.

square

ventilation, it
per

of

inch

square

increasingto

be

may

due

of

assumed

higher

value

watts

600

surface

This

illustrates the

proceed further

to

determine

250

allow

volt
for

per

In

order

probable

lack

of

values, it

under

normal

is desirable

conditions

to

of

that

the

have

winding

(it, of

Cent,

watts

.40

course

up).

=52

Ib.

it will

but

for

room

for

of

interest

volts

This

is

at

separate

to

excitation

adjustment, as

between

agreement
220

be

be used.

to

designed

have

operation.

permit

for

4
400

formula,

but

been

have

spool.

"

to

to

opportunities

to

deg.

~-j7j
~240~

taken,

the

decided

warms

240

the

be

exciter.

actual

spool.

spool

the

will

Assume

supposed
of

20

machine

.40

applicationof

six-pole machine

A
from

and

per

be

may

at

31
Ib. copper

determined

been

have

the

as

been

4\2_

consideration

to

radiating

required.

1000

spool

the

After

it had

which

be

/5000

radiating surface

SHUNT-

Then

/ampere-feetV
V

for

machine

FOR

DYNAMO.

spool would

per
is 4.0

turn

one

of

case

WINDING

SPOOL

the
the

220/6

calculated

winding
=

well

36.7

as

and

terminals
volts

per

Typical Magnetic

/?/

Circuits.

129

-3

"3^Od

O73"

HOV3

HOUJ

HOYS
suruvHUV

ONuajLN?

xmj

JUniVWUV

MOUJ

130

Electric

Generators.

(O

O
tt

i
o

TJOd

O13IJ

H3V3

NOVJ
SJW/7V03JT

-J

0
c.

nod

cnau
ONIUSJLNS

HOYS
xrnj

132

Electric

Generators.

31Od
H3V3

3NIU3J.N3

HOUJ

MU

013IJ
ZU/UVNUV

S3NI1V03H

'"

Field

The
in the
Then

conditions

as

the

watts

spoolwinding

spool are

per

Calculation.

ventilation

regards

of the

temperature

Winding

1.17

indicate
under

rise of 30

the

conditions

of

deg. Cent,
operation.

240

133

280

at

watts

50

deg.

Cent.

280

Amperes

7.6

36.7
5000
rp

lurns

per

spool,

655

7.6

MAGNETIC

TYPICAL

CIRCUITS.

Rg.186.

depth

-4

of armature

POLE.

ARMATURE

IN

FIELD
FLUX

PER
NES

And

as

winding

the
is

mean

length

of

one

is

turn

PIECE

4.0

1Z

13

14

+/03

ft.,

the

total

length

of

wire,

it will

be

655.
Pounds

From

POLE

PER

TURNS

AMPERE

10

46

the

Table

of

per

1000

properties

ft.

of

2620

ft,
=19.8

commercial

copper

Electric

134

found

size.

proper
not

the

smaller

B.

12

and

the

the

Suppose
then,
From

the

to

take

the

of

propertiesof

probably

commercial

t
.

be

4 ""

X-J

'

double

that

Therefore
100

per

warm,

No.
it

given later,after

curves

now

B.

12

105

to have

as

will

S., and

wire,

one

Generally,however

it

have

been

wire

10

for

it

in.

long,

winding.
be

will

found

scale

SOOO

and

S.

turns

per

has

of .091

diameter

layer.

Plan

to take

in.

only

margin.

layers

consist

655/100
of

6.G

6.6

layers.

layers of

will

require 220

the

compounding

turns

100

volts at

each, of

its terminals

when

amperes.

relatingto
theory

proposed
for several

4000

9.5/.091.

winding

the

3000

No.

of

carrying 7.6

It is

2000

Number

B. and

12

Calculations

tion

have

layer,so

Therefore,
D.C.C.

1000

cotton-covered

it should

turns

"""".;/

such

A IIessentialparts

to
substanba/fy

'"

of

available

copper

'

sizes

In

size of wire.

spool flangesto

in. would

insulating,9^

Table

the

size.

standard

nearest

inside

space

desired

the

ft. does

1,000

per

size of wire.

different

two

is,therefore, the

pounds

standard

of

up

largerthan

other

exact
sufficiently

of any

that

1,000 ft.,and

for the

value

made

be

may

Ib. per

19.8

desired

nearly like

very

winding

after

S. has

and

Generally,the

out

come

case,

is

No.

that

Generators.

to

of armature

reaction

coils of
has

been

machines

types

of

machines,

be

developed.

give experimentally determined

different

will

together

no-load
with

satura

sufficient

Magnetic Circuit of
of

the

leading

dimensions
and

profitablystudied
In

the

C,

D,

and

Fig. 128,
slots

The

taken

was

the

of

case

the

to

The
reluctance

data

of

cannot,

transformer

example
will

will

give

illustrate

the

former

is to

force.

The

be

E
used

"form

factor"
F

A.

the
for

same

total

the

two

given, the

are

the

with

later

until

the

is

sine

in

the

volts.

2,000

==

and

curves

shown

periodicity80
that

Assume

following

current

2,340,

10~8.

rs

eddy

of

matter

involved,

voltage

turns

having
wave

But

circuit

transformers

whole

the

section.

Primary

of

case

considerations

the

Primary

sine

in

the

trans

of electromotive

wave

hence

1.11

1.11

of

cross-section

lines

2340
=

80
.24

magnetic

1Q-8

megalines.

circuit

3.13

3.13

.901

8.8

inches.

First
B

show

examples

magnetic

138).

240,000

Density

curve

corre

for

1.11
4

square

of

2000

Effective

The

circuit

on

have

employed.

results and

hysteresisand

F.T.N.M.

1.11.

as

used

that

form

"

TRANSFORMER.

circuit

of

and

volts.

=100

taken

the
substantially

idea

(Fig.

the

probably

at

in slots A

of A,
was

not

other

shown

as

those

from

were

fields,but

other

case

would

the

THE

in

"

second.

exhibit

OF

up

Transformer.

Secondary voltage

be

to

figures.

B-H

of

the

factor"

completely dealt

general

sketch

accompanying

results

Same

were

factor"

slots B

magnetic

taken

use

Ten-kilowatt

the

of the

is

form

CIRCUIT

be at all

form

inclusive,nine

to 137,

design

cyclesper

and

accompanying

course,

the

the

tests

in

results

circuit to be

magnetic

calculation

in the

"

the
"

B, and

flux

the

in the

MAGNETIC
The

C,
B,

at

curves

Figs. 129

necessary

For

winding

of the

In

cases.

figuring the

1.25.

saturation

and

coils used

coils contained

the

135

tested.

were

at

appreciablydifferent

an

tests

enable

to

machines

shown

armature

as

machines

two

as

respectively. For

sponded
In

E.

"

factor
In

and

the

Transformer.

compared.

having

armature

one

of

case

of

the

calculate
of

Ninety

being japan

Fig.
per

varnish

cent,
or

27.3

kilolines

per

magnetising component

22

of
paper

find

(page 26), we
the

total

for

depth

of

insulating the

inch.

square

that

laminations
laminations

of

leakage

at

in

density

iron, the

from

each

From

current.
of

remaining
other.

27.3

10

per

kilo-

cent,

Electric

136

inch

per

required about

is

lines, there

length

.-.

There

of

three

circuit.

Mean

of

length

of

ampere-turns

magnetic

circuit

magnetic
force

Require magnetomotive

of 59.5

59.5

in.

179

force

magnetomotive

turns.

ampere

turns.

2,340

are

Generators.

179
.".

Require

maximum

of

current

.077

2340

amperes.

.077
R.M.S.

current

.054

amperes.

1234

Watts

per

pound

100

at

Sec.

Cyclesper

Fig14(j.

''Loss decreases-Si* per

degree

oF

Centegraote,increase
temperature.
Thickness

i"

4S1SR

-4-0

-20

Next

estimate

iron

sheet

59.5

lines,Fig.

139

watts

pound.

per
T7

U
Volts

per

loss

core

shows

8.8

that

turn

per

per

1-00

at

1-20

there

will

of

be

inch

square

t-BO

Z-00

leakage
At

80

cycles and
x

.8

.097.

per

From

Fig.

140

the

eddy

.48

to

be

.21

8.8

watts

pound.
Consequently hysteresisand eddy

watts

is found

loss

current

2"000
=

2,340
=

of

kilo-

27.3

of .6

4.'
cross-section

iron

Weight

current.

hysteresisloss

01

1-60

1-40

Ib.

148

OI4'.

Centigrade.

20'

component

.282

-80

pound

-60

Watts

pF plate*

per

component

pound.
of

Total

leakage

iron

current

loss
=

102

current
148

-=-

2,000

loss will be
.69
=

.051

102

.48

watts.

JR.M.S.

-I- .21

Core
amperes.

.69

loss

Circuit

Magnetic
Resultant
i

load A

leakage current

Induction

the

of

/y/.0542
+

Motor.

.05 12

13;

.074

Full

amperes.

10,000

current

5.0

amperes.

2,000

Consequently
Core

current.

loss

Example.
former

with

resultant
1.02

Find

"

the

leakage
loss

and

leakage

when

winding

same

1.4

of full-load

cent,

per

core

current

rated

for

on

the

trans

same

2,200-volt

full-load

output.

current

running

of

cent,

per

cycles

60

circuit.

CIRCUIT

MAGNETIC
In

Fig.

is

141

phase induction

OF

INDUCTION

THE

representedthe magnetic
The

motor.

MOTOR.
of

structure

is located

primary winding

six-polethree-

in

external

the

JKgMI.
Fuj.138.

CIRCUIT

MAGNETIC

MOTOR.

INDUCTION

Of

",""

12

per

54

The

phase.

face

There

connected.

turns

tn

64

slots,delta
per phase, for

per

and

turns,

324

and

from

run

has

series

conductors

volts,

100

When

(primary],
108

12

are

conductors,

is for

motor

are

slots.

54

total

648

windings

has

stater

minding,with

dphase

stator, which

Poles,

110 volts

at

sine

60

Cycles.

slot, consequently
108

in

turns

cycles,and

60
a

connected

its

series

primary

circuit,we

wave

have

110
M

Before
termination

induction

.38

proceeding
of

the

to

1.11

force

will

and

108

60

10~s

megalines.

the

be

directly concerned

calculations

magnetising
it

motor,

magnetomotive
and

current

necessary

flux distribution

for
to

the

in this

the

type

relations
of

the

de

of

this

circuit

magnetic

study

in

between

magnetic

circuit

winding.
In

along

Fig 142,
a

portion

straightline, and

of

the

the

slots

gap

face

of the

occupied by

the

primary
three

is

developed

windings

are

Electric

138

lettered

B, and

A,

in the

indicated

are

is that

chosen

by 1,

the

by points and

manner

in

density is at each
magnetomotive forces at

conceived

be

itself,may

the

to

the

magnetic

the

cross

assumption

the

on

gap

the

shows

diagram

this

Thus

point.

that

denoted

.5.

point directlyproportionalto

gap

closing upon

value

this instant,

at

instant

The

its maximum,

the

above

currents

of these

crosses.

is at

having

then

and

phase

the

given numerically

are

directions

relative

the

current
B

in

consideration

in

currents

of the

magnitudes

plotted immediately
magnetic flux in the gap,

curve

the

of the
in

under

which

at

distribution of
that

instant

customary

currents

The

relative

letters,and

the

under

immediately

The

C.
the

at

windings

three

Generators.

at

total

sum

line

which,

points

the

JNDtJCTIQN
Di"trib

and

instantaneous
C

6, and
In

appears
at
one

for the

total

slot,the

the

the
that

points M

Moreover,
1.6

times

as

particularcase.
would

vary,

the

This
an

ampere

is

other
of the

resultant
and

alone.

is two

as

With

phase

is

the

ordinates

be

line
this

the

curve

point

maximum

ordinate.

numbers
to

the

is 3

with

But

this

of the

three

increased

6.

it

curve

phases
force

of

three-phasewinding.
this

of slots per

x.5

value

the

From

maximum

the

per
G

magnetomotive

of such

and

phases
conductor

one

are

shows

in

but

plotted.
magnetomotive forces

average

partly

to

the

general property

different

and, owing

with

1, and

as

the

Taking

turns.

ampere

plotted at

times

analysisof the

great

of

turns

ordinate

way

the

maximum

the

consideringthere

monent

linkage of

same

titan

of Res

in conductors

maximum

the

phase

with

current

.5,and

as

linked

is

N,

it/an

ordinate
is

only

to

in

this
pole-piece,

reluctance

in

the

be

this
value

high

Electric

140

Generators.

In.

Sq.
air gap

per

exposed

iron

Cross-section

A.

of

area

pole-pieceat
of

stator, i.e.,surface

of

face

21

projections

...

21

face...

for rotor

B.

Ditto

C.

Cross-section

at

narrowest

D.

Cross-section

at

narrowest

E.

Cross-section

in laminations

back

of slots in

F.

Cross

in laminations

back

of slots

...

section

part

of

projectionsin

stator

part

of

projections in

rotor

10
...

8
...

...

10

stator
...

...

in rotor

8
...

...

DENSITY.

FLUX

Maximum.

Average.
kilolines

18

A.
...

...

...

25

kilolines

...

18

B.

25
,

...

38

C.

54
"

...

48

D.

68
"

E.

38

F.

48
"

The
air

the

.313

For

25.000

allow

.047

about

magnetic circuit, which,

of the
9

iron, should

the

-g-%in. (.047 in.),and

the

ampere-turns

for

to

amount

gap

is

air gap

of the

depth

370.

ampere-turns

the

through

inch

per

of

length

teeth, is about

high density

in.
for iron

Ampere-turns
Total

ampere-turns

force

Magnetomotive
maximum

ampere-turns

pole-pieceper
we

phase,

of

per

per

pole-piece

the

three

370

phases

pole-pieceper

9
+

72

is

R.

442.

equal

to

There

phase.

therefore, lettingC

72

M.

S.

two

times

the

turns

per

18

are

amperes

per

phase,

have
1.41

18

442.

442
C

=
.11

1.41

8.7

amperes

"

18

magnetising

current

per

phase.

w*)R
the

Taking
C2

loss

500

watts,

per

phase

loss at

core

running light,at
or

167

watts

per

watts, the

300
50

watts,

phase.

167
=

1.5

amperes.

gives a

friction
total

at

power,

Energy component

volts, and

150

the

running light,of
of

leakage

current

Examples.
Resultant
Ditto

leakage

line

per

current

leading to

Letting power

phase

per

motor

141

A/

/"/3

8.72 +

15.6

factor, running light,equal P,


P

110

168

.17.

1.52

amperes.

amperes.
have

we

EXAMPLES.

The

sections

Volts

of

in

the

minute

the

armature,

force

be

to

sine

wave

collector

foregoing

the

assuming
of

(For type

is

conductors

20

rings

What

3500.

slots,

poles, 36

24

between

per

pole-piece into

motive

at

the

flux

of

curve

winding,

load

no

from

electro

Fig. 82,

see

74.)

page

continuous-current

2.

Its

connection.

revolutions

500

each

treated

matters

has

three-phase generator

slot, Y

and

to

1.

per

relate

followingexamples

is

output

kilowatts

100

is

conductors

armature

conductors.

Mean

What

is the
is

What
brushes

at

The

60

1200

six

the

from

armature

has

the
face

668

in.

conductors

armature

the

It

inch.

is 75

turn

in

density

current

square

armature

of

The

per

of the

singlewinding (drum).

two-circuit

positive to

negative

has

is

volts.

550

one

resistance

deg. Cent.

has

amperes

cross-section

the

what

at

length of

dynamo

minute,

dynamo

If

poles.

flux

magnetic

the

is

speed
the

entering

revolutions

200

per

from

armature

each

?
pole-piece

six-pole continuous-current

3.

winding, gives
are

face

560

is

winding

minute

oft' at

would

rings connected

4.

the

conductors

be

these

to

armature

arranged

two-circuit, single

field excitation

certain

arranged

two

slot

per

in

speed.

280

slots.

If

this

reference

to

the

voltage

alternatingcurrent

There

and

points,equi-distantwith

two

the

at

two

collector

points ?

pole arc

100-kilowatt
;

with

conductors,

tapped

winding, what
Assume

volts

600

with

generator

to

be

dynamo,
wound
in 201

60

per

volts,

250

with

slots.

cent,

of the

polarpitch.

poles;

500

revolutions

two-circuit, triple-winding
;
Therefore

201

total

402

per
face

turns.

Electric

142

Generators.

500

in

turns

33.5

brushes.

between

series

cycles

16.7

per

second.
250
M

.-.

in

Flux
of

magnet
and

steel,

cast

cores

16.7

1.20

of

Magnet

megs.

per

"

cores

inch, therefore

square

i
inches.

square

1.20.

13.5

kilolines

95

=142

Diameter

factor

13,500,000

,.

cross-section

10~8.

leakage

Take

11.2

density

at

run

33.5

megalines.

11.2

r"Circular

cross-section.

i.-

in.

13.5
"

Length
solid

the

by

gap

density

in

of

10

in.

section

per

of

in.

24

ducts

Diameter

magnet

Tooth

cores

the

30

in.

Yoke

iron

in.

Length

of

cast

kilolines.

=120

of

space

12

density
depth

and

is

in.

12

armature

pole-piece.

per

which

under

iron

Core
teeth

"

0.7

70,000

by venlilating

Therefore,

11,200,000
2

Length

in., of

16

sheets.

kilolines.

35

kilolines.

70

iron

about

shaft

to

occupied

the

in.

yoke

density

at

run

of

circuit

magnetic

being

japanning

air

Length

parallel

core

remainder

the

iron,

lost

and

armature

Length

in.

.,

circuit

magnetic

armature

in

pole-piece.

Pole

pole-face

16

measured

arc

in.

in.

17.5

along

the

280

arc

17.5

in.

inches.

square

11,200.000
Pole-face

density

=
-

40

kilolines.

2bO

Ampere-turns

per

Ampere-turns
netic

per

pole-piece

for

yoke...

for

pole-piece

24

12

Ampere-turns

per
per

pole-piece
pole-piece

for
for

teeth...

1.5

==

10
...
...

Total

per

pole piece

ampere-turns

50

600

350

525

12

...

for

per

1400

arma

core

Ampere-turns

60

mag

core

Ampere-turns

ture

12

air

gap

pole-piece

.25

at

no

load

40,000

and

250

.313

volts

120
3130

5775

Cross-

Potential, Continuous-

Constant

CONSTANT

POTENTIAL,

Current

Dynamos.

143

CONTINUOUS-CURRENT

DYNAMOS.

THE
those

are

the

problems peculiarto
relating

commutation.

to

the continuous-current

design of
The

and

considerations

and

to

relatingto

factoryresult, are
they

the

design

will

Under

the

nals

for

all

maintain

latter

values

the

current

of

output,
in

the

efficiency

to

obtaining

question of

incidentallyto

satis

commutation

the

of

treatment

potentialdynamos

maintain

distant

some

also

point

generator terminals

the

for the

compensate

loss of

included

are

potentialat

constant

output, but

current

potential at

to

of

importance

of constant

to

the

voltage at

output,

considered

circuit,

limit

secondary to

general class

constant
case

magnetic

commutating standpoint.

only dynamos designed

not

of

matters

consequently be
the

thermal

the

nevertheless

from

the

regulation,although

and

of

design

dynamo

those

their

termi

designed

points, in

or

increase

must

potentialin

to

which

with

the

transmission

the

system.
In
the

the

last few

current

in

years

in

output,
sary

by

operate
that

with

constant

the

conditions

and

of the

matter

the

forward

course.

The

of

of

the

of

to

the

data

most

high-resistance

resorted

but

brushes

acquisitionof
of

service

in

under
of

change

machines

years

ago,

the

has

been

is in
in

load

brought

satisfactory

the

use

only for specialpurposes.

has
of

been
copper

the

very

brushes

made

about

have

neces

must

contrast

to

necessityof

the

was

and

rated

machines

marked

which

constants

important factors

been

of these

many

of, its

excess

has

during commutation,

which

brushes,

which

proportion to

occurrences

from

such

few

This

brushes.

the

deliver, without

to

considerablyin

to, and

up

performance
of

requirethe dynamo

to

positionof

dynamos

understanding
One

load

of

in

sparklesscollection of the commutated


which, the commutator
undergoes very little

customary

sparking, any

shiftingthe
a

it is

made

of

matter

of

consequence

deterioration; and
harmful

the

been

has

commutating dynamo, great improvement

looked

by
to

upon

the
the

been

as

better

gradual
deduced.

general introduction
now

generallybeing

although they

increased

justifythe

sidered

to

brushes

have

copper,

and

grades

different

ment

of the

construction

by mica,

longer give
whereby

Of

concern.

durabilityof

of the

the

in

large commutators.

various

types

the

careful

has

been

choice

in

portions,has

enabled

use

of

accompanied by

when

manufacturers

various

and

devices'

standing

the

not
to

have

appear

them,

and

the

the

stage of development
field is reached

Further

it

careful

alreadybrought

disturbance

employed

much

which

dynamos

illustrations

of

design and

in

mechanical

holders, and
the

commutators,
in

improvement

corn-

electro-magnetic
pro

correct

arranged

the

ingenious

many

modify sparking by

to

additions.

other

their

purpose

will

be

very
in

where

that

output

rendering

limit

application,it

their

methods

where

of

to

of

resort
to

more

to

that

armature

sparking
use

does

appears

dynamo

output

harmful

permissible

non-

notwith

commercially profitable to

thermal

it

these

effectively
; but,

potentialcommutating

the

of

Some

applicationof ordinary
constant

below

improvement

no

without

found

dispense with

ingenuity displayed

likely that
since

now

electro-magnetic principlesrequiring auxiliary

accomplish

care

to

devices

windings, subsidiarypoles, and


sparking

days

construction

of modern

in the

responsiblefor

complicated windings

making

up,

for brushes, brush

measure

mutating dynamos, and,

stage

of

method

be

copper

greatly increased

modes

as

construction.

of material

small

no

is

examples

brieflysummed

thus

advance

The

the

to

design, will

of

earlier

the

segments
the

reached

now

renewed

This
the

matters

of commutator

be

and

In

the

rate

of

the

are

and

grain

coarser

same

has

importance, owing

may

of

to insulate

trouble

commutator,

carbon

corresponding develop

taken

of

of

types

brush-holdingdevices.

now

commutator.

of

commutator

sources

Amongst

discussion

the

of

between

con

high-resistance
grades

possiblethe

as

of the

commutator

of the

remainder

to

follow

near

less

modern

the

sectors

as

other

and

bars

uneven

at

wear

is

care

construction

the

and

design

commutator,

shall

which

segments
where

takingplacein the

been

has

extended

Various

grades

to

not

advantages being

brushes, from

of carbon

grain for high potentialmachines,


for low potentialmachines.
resistance

lower

the

would

been

has

use

in resistance

developed,intermediate

been

their

commutator.

fine

with

but

of the

cost

collected

be

to

current

fairlylarge output,

of

low-voltage machines

to

of

extensively,and

very

applicableonly to high poten

expensive a commutator,

and

large

require too

be

to

quantity

the

where

used

now

are

first considered

at

were

machines,

tial

brushes

bearing carbon

Radial

and

Generators.

Electric

144

occurs.

highly

Armature

brushes

conducting
in

in

saving

such

without

improvement

effected

the

at

than

more

windings

of the

may

appear.

and

the

by

But

increased

devices

of

cost

of the

the

study

be considered

and

illustrated

of

commutating

by descriptionsof
When
of the
to

formula
been
of

when

for

given.

the

giving T,

fulfil

The

coil

is

in

other, consist

positionof
a

magnetic

to

become

to

it

is

in

distort

the

the

will

But,

the

turns

magnetic

brushes, and

also

such

propor

to

case,

side

build
in

field

armature,

so

the

to

to

the
the

to

the

arrived

in
the

reverse

current

it is

of which

circuit

no

spark

when

under

the

brush.

be

the

from

in

reverse

position in advance
the magnetic flux.

load.
in

reversed

of

presence

the

reaches

just

to

as

of

brush
coil

the

magnetises

necessity

values

current

have

will

already

varying

the

circuit

short

The

collection

the

the

there

unfortunately, the

weaken

of

up

relating

has

10~8,

relative

when

design

conclusions

imposed by
such

delivered

current

reversing the

that

the

the

voltage, with

current
a

and

intensitynecessary

stronger

field into
to

the

now

consideration.

sparkless

one

and

the

the

on

or

position of

as

require

current.

current

In
the

plain that,

increased, it

stronger

from

out

the

of

brushes, it shall

the

of the

that

to

will

considerations

flux,

brushes

the

obtain

carrying, and

been

itself down

upon

force

out

however,

from

direction

part.

coil passes

Now

to

under

the

strength equal

about
the

field of

left

commutating

placing

so

just

auxiliary

which

modify

to

the

M,

transferred

short-circuit

it has

current

be

to

be

to

windings, and, finally,

of

that

out

are

are,

necessary

for

resolves

its influence

necessary

force

and

turns,

requirements

that

it

satisfactoryregulation of

and

current,

not

of the

armature,

choice

pointed

wTas

conditions

conditions

the

amount

any

electromotive

for

phenomena

Additional

to

the

formula)

electromotive

the

in

be

dynamos.

make

these

of the

relation

modern

some

reaction

at

sufficient

resortingto

reaction

with

magnetic circuit, it

arrived

other

or

REACTION.

dynamos,

discussingthe

armature

source

apparently only

problems relatingto sparking

to
principally

tioning

result

course

yet proposed.

of the

study

of

some

saving can

be

not

ARMATURE
The

the

as

from

and

commutator,

it will

commutator,

offset

145

encountering sparking, would

cost

the

Reaction.

the

the

this

The

this

coil

stronger

armature

of the

is

machine

as

to

positionof

brushes

must

Electric

146

is

armature

it

to

an

the

intensified.

Finally,

current

nowhere

equal negative value


These

distorting and

made

in

which

and

reverse

any

moved

are

build

up

time

the

current, during

armature

effects

into

of the

in

diagrams given

the

is divided

winding

impossible at

brushes

of field to

strength
strong

be

the

time

the

by

output will be reached

will

current

demagnetising

quite plain by
the

of the

brush.

the

passing

the

"

the

under

coil is

are

of

sufficient

place with

any

"

the

being

position, there
to

whereupon

sparkless collection

which

at

again

demagnetising effect

still further,

be shifted

therefore

Generators.

armature

Figs. 144,

and

145

146,

distortingbelts

and

demagnetising

current

of conductors.
In

is
a

Fig.

distributed
flux

in

be

toward

the

set

field.

the

the

is

armature

brushes

position,current

(the

this

position of

be

purely demagnetising, there

the

field

and

instance, as
armature

and

due

drawn

in

that

current

to the

ampere

the

the
and

zone,

being
In

the

this

armature

generator

the

passing through

other

component

the

conditions

limitingcases,
connection,
under

17-kilowatt

singlewinding, was

tested

its

for

results

certain

with

regard

would
distort

to

two

actual

of

lines
force

position of

the

(a a)
of

the

lying

turns

ampere

of

demagnetising,

one

by

tendency.

the
two

outside

of course,

Fig. 146,

practice,
Figs. 144

and

explanatory purposes.
will

of

be

conditions.

capacity,

armature,

brushes, such, for

magnetomotive

the

occurringin

shown

the

in

the

if in

and

armature

the

forward

the

until

deg.

90

tending

defined

of the

to

electro

Similarly,if, as

the

components,
zone

due

direction

electromagnetic effect

the

in the

direction

purely distortional

reaction
of

lying

turns

the

being incapable

of

position of

into two

to

into

component

no

Fig. 146,

be resolved

may

represents roughly
145

in

shown

perpendicularlyto

brushes, and

being

intermediate

any

impressed field, and


of

electromagnetic effect

current,

pole faces,

brushes

the

up

distorted

through
the

set

be

brushes, the

brushes

the

through

sent

generating current),the

the

of

middle

to

will

reference

forward

moved

were

current

carrying no
flux

distortional.

purely

were

with

armature

with

the

tend

to

as

armature

position of

this

at

so

resultant

The

they occupied positionsopposite the


this

the

and

zone,

conductors,

pole tip, considered

of

the

Fig. 145,

of

neutral

the

which,

that

to

Therefore,

effect

magnetic

in

are

sets

two

by

up

forward

rotation.

in

the

right angles

at

would

of

brushes

the

144

at

250

to

the

interest

small

of

test

of

four-poleiron-clad

volts, with
distribution

four-circuit

of the

magnetic

only by

not

the

last

This

in the

depth
Dr.

the

of

the

dynamos,

the

calculations

flux

similar

analysis of

armature

reaction.

"

Whittaker

has

Original Papers
and

in

results

with

corresponding

pole face, should

possibly being

symmetry

is

distortion.

any

distribution
the

which

area

due

to

have

variation

gap.

Hopldnson1

magnetic

of

lack

of

longer

no

flux

middle

the

at

is

there

but

its total

by

but

curve,

flux,

brushes

the

symmetrical, its

been

of

total

the

(curve E), representingthe

curve

positionof

the

of

shape
the

proportional to
to

Generators.

Electric

148

the
of

reference
the

on

air

to

1893.

gap

of

two

influence

Fig.

147

Siemens

and

Allied

very

closely

armature

also

confirms
upon

Subjects."

distribution

Brothers'

of

experimented

Machinery

the

upon

correspond

the
of

machine

Dynamo

experiments

which

curves

The

Co., London,

made

bipolar
with

reaction.
the

had

By

John

theory

his
A
of

four-circuit

Hopkinson.

Experimental Investigationsof
drum-

with

winding,

coils

79

of

six

Armature

Reaction.

in

each,

turns

149

slots

79

in

the

79x6

periphery.
the

on

There

The

armature.

71.5-1-4

18

turns

amperes

proportionalto

are

armature

the

on

flux

the
A.

49

B.

49

centimetres

square

E.

in

being, however,
been

have

piece.
In

the
This

tabulated

as

of

due

"

of

strength
follows

E,

the

the

2,140

with
is

the

explainedby

percentage
the

there

zero,

which

would

density

gap

field ampere

to

as

turns

per

of the

armature

pole

case.

C, f

at

turns

ampere

2,140

==

1,420

at

E.

These

(41 per cent.),as

at

results

D,
can

and

be

large percentage
small

maximum

3,000

710

TABLE

The

is

distortion,

demagnetising component

2,140

the

the

to

maximum

B,

increase

so

flux

"

demagnetising component

not, however,

to

))

41

"

case

to

C, D, and

rose

full

the

total

was

curves

strength
to

expected

down

cut

the

,,

j"

the

follows

55

B.

which

curves,

74

"

20

and

A.

ampere

"

,,

"

as

2140

were

cent.

per

"

there

100

"

18

of the
are

pole piece

per

amperes,
x

area

=100

27
-1

71.5

enteringthe armature,

"

curves

The

armature.

36

"*-'"

For

being

turns

consequently,lly

"

C.

119

current

turn;

per

pole piece

per

therefore,

were,

fact that

of

flux

of
with

XXXVI.

in

curve

resultant
the

brush

ampere
at

the

turns

middle

(29
of

the

compared
per

cent.),

pole face,

Electric

150

as

the

was

in

be

cannot
turns

placed

is

of the

armature

of

flux

resultant

to

APPLICATION

OF

for

coil

this

non-

positionsof

the

and

proportion

the

D,

close.

is very

CONSIDERATIONS

THESE

with

in
of

extent

but

B, C

A,

curves

turns

ampere

concentrated

The

arc,

armature

fullyeffective.

be

would

that

being

the

practice,the demagnetising component

in

turns

observed

pole

the

occur

ampere

will be

It

would

of

situated

so

consequently

words,

other

In

are

flux, and

entire

field coils.

the

turns

armature

the

instead

proportional to

which

brushes

the

demagnetisation.

in

fully oppose

to

as

so

effectiveness
the

with

uniformly distributed,

are

of

many

linked

be

effective

so

E,

curve

to

not

as

space

in

case

Generators.

TO

PROPORTIONING

THE

OF

DYNAMOS.
it

If

of

the

into

10~8, which

desired

iron

the

Then

250,000,000

lines.

than

100,000

the

the

of

have

equally

the

be

need

calculations

alone,

the

Then

lines.

for

any

is

hand,

suppose

500

Necessary

flux.

diameter.

to

have

cost

of

material, give
of

could

for

The

winding
M

least.

It

and

diameter

be

would

apparent that,

be

at

run

that

appears
50

in.

long, or
would

high,

very

regards cost

as

Without

turns.

ampere

lO"8, M

field turns

The

density

thus

face

10

cross-section

Therefore, the

at

current

with

properly

not

Thus

500-volt

minute.

10

and

copper

heating.

design

be

there

carrying
of materials

poorly designed.

cross-section

transmittingthe
But

field

be

gap

many

would

other
1000

very

dimensions.

air

the

per

in. in

50

extreme

farther,it

machine

the

On

as

inches

be

formula

best

the

inch.

square

to

the

excessive

from

iron

square

in

two-pole drum

10 ; 500

per

2,500

would

try

us

itself

revolutions

600

armature

lines

great length, and

would

at

5 ;N

==

The

other

some

arise, of

resolve

cross-section

suitable

should
run

and

minimum

immunity

would

dynamos

of
a

voltage ;

Let

armature

armature

else

with

amperes.

conductors.

more

would,

generator, to

is 200

output

values

secure

to

problem

100-kilowatt

those

and

current

being chosen,

suppose

of

of

electromagneticreaction

to the

of

proportioning

determination

KTNM

effects, due

these

the

armature,

the

for

not

were

the

1000
=

Therefore,
on

the

12.5

the

had

armature
10

10~8,

inches

square

magnet

armature

2000

.'.

as

far

would

cores

face

conductors.

face

2000

1,250,000

regards

as

be

conductors,

in. in
each

Influence of
carrying
large

as

100

diameter

question

of

the

look

of

score

into

material

found

INFLUENCE
In

the

first

have

been

of
flux

be

the

be

200

size

relates

we

that

to

nevertheless,
of

of

if

much,

cost

than

the

on

conductors

EXTREME

TWO

with

only

turns

ampere

reaction

relates

as

would

CASES.

five

there

turns,

of

the

commutator

the

on

would

concerned,

are

collection

between

pole-piece

per

effects

the

to

volts

average

"

THESE

armature

armature

as

entirelynegligible; but,

would

not

But,

the

large weight

very

copper

was

100

far

number

IN

=250

as

it

then

result.

REACTION
of

but

probably

determined

would

intermediate

some

but

which,

have

load.

no

case

flux, which

field

at

armature,

former

material

matter

that

case,
5

would

the

ARMATURE

OF

the

1 5 1

large armature,

very

should

economical

more

in

we

required

alone,

give

to

case

the

the

Reaction.

large magnetic

otherwise

but

obtain

to

require

necessary

this

In

further

no

was

carrying

of

copper,

necessary

be

as

armature.

armature

would

amperes,

Armature

there

current,

and

segments,

Zi. 0

this
to

would

have

have

rendered

In

would

the

construction
indeed

one

volt

would

there

reversal

would

the

on

100

and

armature

which,

with

to

armature

brushes.

turns),there
the

very

as

times

20

amperes,

1000

coil

per

commutator

correspond

been

have

of

value

inductance

of

with

machine

turn,

per

generally employed,

but

of the

(that

case

been

the

high

ordinary arrangement

any

other

have

such

to

quite impossible

with

second,

per

corresponded

methods

low

of

inductance

50,000

"t

turns

ampere

excitation, and
We
is

is

the

design

find, therefore,

small,

second

pole-piece,which

per

case

the

altogether

would

have

turns

would

to

inductance
too

give

per

sought
a

of the

in

case

the

for

fairlygood

both

but

first

segment

commutator

With

completely

entirely out

commutator

per

strong.

be

be

while

that

inductance

the

would

would

segment
two

poles, some

question.
the

armature

is

excessive.

is small

the

intermediate

quantities; probably something

result.

field

the

overpower

reaction
In

the

armature
value

like

100

Electric

152

CONDITIONS
As

but

(at full

amount

load

and

distribution

It is furthermore
commutator

the

best

should

definite

method

proportionsto
the

Suppose
conclude

OF

limit

to

the

piece,and
Amperes

output

NUMBER

of

commutator

125

these
fulfilling

400-volt

GIVEN

lead

3,000

reference

to

OUTPUT.

turns

ampere

volts

16

(a very

We

pole-

per

high limit).
conductor

each

Therefore,

amperes.

to

up

bipolar generator.

125
carries

conditions,

FOR

to

the

electromagnetic

poles.

segment

by

reluctance

the

particularlywith

strength to

armature

and

desirable

POLES

OF

50-kilowatt

volts per

the

number

proper

brushes

most

of

complete

commutating

which
followingillustrations,
the

adjacent

flux is determined

the

method

the

assigning

THE

want

we

positionof

the

magnet spools.

in the

flux

residual

the

an

with

of the

permit

to

not

such

to

coil between

armature
as

the

by

up

of this residual
the

strength

greatly interfere

set

potentialdynamos,

of the

DETERMINATION

each

of

to the

for

constant

determination

too

means

and

given

not

inductance

understand

be

shall

make

amount

armature,

To

gap.

attention
very

and

armature

low

so

by

current

location

The

the

of

the

flux

it becomes

inductance,

limit

magnetic

to

necessary

of the

strength of
of

of the

segments

reversal
field.

current)as

amount

and

reaction

to

necessary

COMMUTATION.

SPARKLESS

TO

of armature

consequence

desirable

only

ESSENTIAL

Generators.

3,000
62.5

"
_

Turns

amperes.

pole-piece

per

total turns.

^-

commutator

segments between

commutator

=25

"

Therefore

segments.

'-

about

brushes,
turns

two

48,

r9
()_..'

per

total

50

or

coil

96

i.e.,

(i.e.,
per

o u

commutator

In

segment).
the

strength
must

For

segment
What
200

of

have

have

we

if the
turn

the

per
of

in the

type
per

for the

case

of

voltage,to

same

volts

same

retain

commutator

per

the

same

segment,

we

coil.

the
of

volts

limitingoutput,
a

machine

winding

commutator

and

strength

armature

reached

now

be done

kilowatts,
one

turn

one

values

these

machine
and

armature,

only

shall

less than

kilowatt

100

remains

segment,

of

twice

the
so

and

same

we

the
the
?

find

per

commutator

problem

arises

size,in this
We
that

cannot

in

case

have

bipolar

Determination

it will be

machine
which

case

we

double

can

of

strength

voltage per

the

would

would

be

made

adopted

passableat

Therefore

amperes

16.6

-=

volts per

can

is that

result

it could

arise with

400-volt

paths through

the

Amperes output

have, also,

We

24.

four

the

though

even

we

plan

But

we

armature
or

latter

bipolar design.

200-kilowatt

our

conductor

per

This

questionwould

same

the

keep

or

be

the next

is entirely
multipolardesign,the difficulty

total current.

of the

quarter

of

let

will be

there

Then

poles.

the

segment,

previous cases

less extent.

153

strength, in

armature

and

regards sparking,and

use

we

in the

retain

to

output, the

the

by

Suppose

overcome.

giving

But

this

used

Windings.

commutator

segment,

limits to

as
unsatisfactory

largersize.

be

the

voltage per

value

compromise by raisingboth
which

double

commutator

low

same

low

the

for Multiple Circuit

either

to

necessary

retain

can

the

of Poles

Number

of

The

commutator

24

commutator

turns

amperes.

pole-piece

per

segments

carrying

500

four

have

each

armature,

=-

125.

machine,

pole-piece,

per

segment.

24

A
as

machine

regardssparking,by designingit

number
are

that

be

4,000

may

be reduced

of

poles. Thus,

commutator
as

with

follows

to any

desired

suppose

number

proper

extent

poles.

certain

the

case

armature

conditions

segments

pole-piece

per

"

--

be

be

15

volts

Full

load

40

100

turns

per

40.

"

current

pole piece.
armature

per

amperes

5"~^

833

branch.

amperes.

000

833
Therefore

we

want

shall
per

determined

10

Therefore

given

generator

Commutator

volts

the

by sufficiently
increasingthe

600-volt
strength of a 500-kilowatt
and
there
that
may
ampere-turns per pole-piece,
of
would
number
Then
the
poles
segment.

the

of

strength and

armature

in

that

operate entirelysatisfactorily,

WINDINGS.

windings, the
multiple-circuit

With
bar

to

CIRCUIT

MULTIPLE

per

made

consequentlybe

can

poles.
X

Electric

154

But

only

have

should

it

suppose

8 volts

but

have

advisable

considered

were

ampere-turns

3000

Generators.

this

the

pole-pieceon

per

commutator

per

that

segment,

and

armature,

then

should

generator

turns

it

that

pole-piece

per

600
/a.

3000
A
Amperes

j
conductor

armature

per

40

-=

75
QOO

Therefore

number

of

Two-CmcuiT
But

in

the

adjusted by changing
into

divides
of

of

poles,instead
Suppose,

in

for

Then

segment.

into

dividing

it

poles,for

armature,

as

example, that

500-kilowatt, 600-volt

the

paths through

two

windings,

of

number

the

=20.

WINDINGS.

two-circuit

of

case

poles

the

the

current

independently of

the

number

generator,

and

to

use

have

to

reason

there

as

desired

were

be

cannot

that

paths

many

values

these

poles.

are

two-circuit

volts per

15

winding

commutator

of

Number

segments

per

pole-piece

40.

"

i o

T?
m
Full

loadA

Amperes

Therefore,
=

ampere-turns

500,000
'

amperes

per

turn

=417.

pole-piece on

per

833.

armature

would

have

turns

be

to

40

be

impracticable. To

14

and

reduced,

reduce

consequently the

pole-piece. There

per

this to 6000

would

ampere-turns,

commutator

then

be

to

this

high

so

reactance

voltage in

not

method,

windings.

are

which, with

be

to

Such

methods

windings
used,

by

or

are

in such

ordinary construction,
the

short-circuited

permissible.

commutator
by interpolating

well-known

circuit

segment,

output) as

obtained

they

43

to

volts

14

commutator

pond

the

segments,

16,700

of

417

16,700.
This

per

40

the

Moderate

segments
use

of

in

coil
values

would

corres

(in a

machine

accordance

double, triple,or

only

can

with
other

cases,

used

for

machines

exceptional

care

has

and

of

large output.

to

be taken

to

some

multiple

generally give unsatisfactoryresults,

seldom

be

two-

When

counteract

Electric

156

Generators.

machines

out

volts

certain

commutator

100-volt

generator,

desired

segment

may

poles, but
with

with

and
pole-piece,

volts

of

use

for

commutator

per

strength

by

not, however,

number

instance,
of

follows

It

armature

suitable

strength

armature

an

of

of turns

10-kilowatt

2,000

to

chosen,

are

segment.

per

obtained

Suppose,

segments.

constants

values
be

the

by

good

turns

any

properly applied

very

when

more

or

ranges,

of

choice

between

per

one

commutator

per

suitable

have

to

be

can

capacity,that,

small

such

within

that,
and

of

work

they

single windings

two-circuit

But

WINDINGS.

"CoiL"

TWO-CIRCUIT

turns

ampere

segment.

Then
100
o

Segments

pole-piece

per

20

"

"

10,000
Full

load

'

current

Amperes

per

conductor

Turns

per

pole-piece

100

50.

=
_

amperes.

2000
"

40.

"

50

Therefore,

turns

two

"

commutator

per

segment.

20

If

had

ampere-turns

3,000

been

should

permissible,we

have

used

built

multi-

3,000
27)7)0"

turns

Finally,it

be

may

large outputs except


Aside
of

whenever
of

from
it

output,

the

brushes

brushes

be

may

the

carrying for
becoming

so

the

heated.

of

brushes, and

said

to

be

inverselv

the

as

the

should

be

not

the

used

of

of

trouble

is

the

number

of

for

current

the

total

greater

of

this

set
the

of

sets

in

of
of

brushes
brushes

number

windings

If, however,

sets

property
of

set

two

reasonable

all the

greater

two-circuit

poles.

the

among

current
the

than

within

one

limit

unsatisfactory

more

commutator

occurs,

of
practicability
the

use

magnetic

are

windings lacking

commutation

large part
the

of

cost

subdivision

This

sets

are

windings

requirethe

to

two-circuit

Selective
time

two-circuit

that

large as

keep

to

equal

used.

and

cost,

dependent strictlyupon

said

output is

of

of

armatures

specialcases.

reasons

(inorder

compelling

two-circuit

that

stated

in

the

limits),because

segment.

considerations

from

polar mainly

commutator

per

may

of

be

multiple

circuit

windings

should

tend

the

and

it

although

is

specialcases,
different

in

if the

be
to

segment
be

be

If

the

well

as

as

this

There

in

has

For,

for coils of

commutator

per

inductance

the

In

latter case,

this

commutator

per

the

with

construction
low.

are

high, and

very

open,

core

current.

times

lately been

as

segment

it is

in combination

and

field ; and

perhaps
with

feel

reversing of
that

while

of still

more

the

copper

designers

some

but

inclined

that

to

current,

the

carbon

importance

hold

commutator

in

aids

virtue

segments

of
which

an

to

the

the

other

important part,

building
main

the

in

still

attribute

to

and

density in

the

is attributable
brush

permitted
without

they play
that

brushes,

accelerating the

in

the

commutator

of the

injury

to

brushes

be

may

copper

ot

short-circuited

copper

increase

to

resistance

subject

with

or

correctly

less

the

so

or

maintain

to

in

with

carbon

high

segment

brushes

amongst

much

the

case

of the

current,

would

one

the

as

even

be

not

are

desirable

and

whether

current

great

tendency

to

to

commutator

found

short-circuit

the

However,

commutating

may

due

of

be

volts per

average

this, it is

limiting

according

brushes

would

high-resistancebrushes,

original current,
inertness

coil.

in

used

conductors

the

will be

are

volts

brushes

the

as

commutating, i.e.,stopping
residual

is

care

value

same

which

is very

variation

because

four

or

of

account

reversed

smooth

Carbon1

extreme

cause,

three

only

segments,

of

voltage

slots

sparklesscommutation,

limiting

propertiesto
not

in

the

varies

endangering the durabilityeither

the

average

average

also

used.

are

consequently,the

on

if

inductance

inductance

the

inductance

the

for

value

still have

be

the
have

the

in

and

possible value

through
to

surface,

value.

surface,

the

brush

coil,

of

armature

an

limit

to

lower,

brushes

and

the

commutator

used.

The

set

the

low

very

higher

copper

INDUCTANCE.

TO

give good results,

criterion

is for

necessary
a

on

much

could

RELATED

AS

expression may

design

somewhat

winding
a

this

equilibrium, this

restore

voltage between

to

upon

true

beneath

in holes

would

will

not

types,

Thus,

it

SEGMENT

average

relied

to

increased

the

current,

inductances.

different

located

be

can

tends

the

pole-piece

one

any

157

advantage.

great

already stated, the

As

of

Inductance

to

winding opposite

drop

COMMUTATOR

PER

Related

as

its share

CR

property constitutinga

VOLTAGE

the

than

more

reaction

armature

of

part

take

to

Segment,

Commutator

Voltage per

up

element
influence

of

the

in

the

of the

promptly arresting
its

possessing
renders

the

the

certain

sparking

Electric

158

air

with

coiTespond

to

gap

Generators.

this

between

inductance

higher

commutator

segments.
We

have

machine

commutating
armature

for

necessary
commutator

coil

the

ultimate

field, so

that

circuit around

which

The

and

dissipationof

from

less destructive
the

The
the

Also

"Sparking
"

Sur

in

des

Electr., May,

Dick

die

Ueber

Arnold;

rhohung
Kapp

vol. xx.,

page

Arnold
Stromes

eines

in

the

the

magnetic

one

wattless

due

coil, and

to
firstly

secondly
and

conductors,

copper

the

is determined

current,

to

in the

der

"

Ueber

die

Kollektors."

"Die

Funkengrenze

contributions

Am.

Inst.

Elec.

Electrician,February

les

page

has

the

property

the

to

discussion

of

Engrs.;

December

15th,

Dynamos

18th, 1898.

Courant

Continue.'"'

Bull,

de

bei

Gleich-

la

183.
Kollektor

an

1st, 1898, vol. xix., page

von

bei

It

1898.

Funkenbildung

Elek.

There

currents.

segments.

copper

recent

Funkenbildung

Kontactwiderstand

"Die

the

in

29th, 1898, vol. xix., pages

eines

and

of

load

the

refractory surface.

most

The

xv.,

increasingwith

Commutators."

llth,

Zeit., December

and

the

dans

1898, vol.

loss

commutation

Effects;"

Dynamos."

Ursachen

Elek.

Fischer-Hitmen
22nd

components
energy

the

lustrous

and

Cause

Commutation

la

Girault
Int.

December

an

dynamos

Electrician, February

strom-dynamos."

ture

it

and

Armatures
Its

Thomas;

"

speed.

brushes

copper

giving

commutating

Drum

"

The

commutator

is

the

to

between

in

"Sparking;

Reid;

reversal

loss

there

following bibliography comprises

Weymouth

Soc.

than

due

commutator,

subject of sparking

1897.

that

this

machines

commutating

burnishing

of

from

of metal.

It follows

much

C2

by

energy

calculated

frequency of

other

inductance

feeblymagnetised

reluctance

of two

generated internallyin

currents

surrounding mass

of

the

coil is in

the

the

consists

current

magnetising component,
eddy

and

brush

of the

com

bars.

approximately

The

coils act.

the

commutated

be

the

regards

as

commutator

coils, and

the

the
of

thickness

the

of

force

when

can

in terms

pair of

occurs

inductance

the

magnetomotive

the

between

coils included

or

be

expression must

pole

per

between

voltage

expression

for

permissible

segments

average

ultimate

the

not

general,commutation

In

from

is

maximum

the

commutator

the

commutation,

good

The

of

preliminary design

from

at

number

the

segments

mutation.
of

may

and

reaction

arrived

be

the

although

that

shown

now

850

Biirsten

Gleichstrom-maschinen."

an

and

Kohlen

Zeit., January

und
802.

Elek.

Zeit.,

867.
und

vol. xx.,

5th, 1899,

Gleichstrom-maschinen."

und

Kupferbiirsten

Elek.

die

Tempera

5.

page

Zeit., January 5th, 1899,

32.
and

Mie

"

Ueber

Gleichstromankers.

den
Elek.

Kurzschluss

der

Zeit., February

Spulen

und

2nd, 1899.

die

Kom

vol. xx.,

mutation

page

97.

des

Inductance

are

also

the

distortion

load

other

and

hysteresisand
the

also

been

the

armatures

of

losses

The

in

effect

cycles per

700

reference

of

therefore, best

are,

good

out

according
direct

As

one

of

shall

of

to

value

the

experiments
of

this

1
2

See

as

Fig. 114,

Rotary

in

on

lines

practicableinductance,
suitable

value

for

is, in

relation

to

of

the

that

the

while

inductance

the

coil

of the

entirely other

which

which

down
and

to,

or

than

both

out

of

afford

of

the

of

related

to

the

length

of

slot

indication

an

in

such

that

concerned.

commutating
winding

armature

but

to

the

this statement.

types, and

between

to

such

designer is

commutation

coils in series
those

these

particularline

the

on

below,

use

desirable

very

these

undergoing

of

even

inch

per

tests

inductance

of

have

study

inductance

to

corrected

satisfactory

most

of

work

to

be

alternating-currentdynamos,2

elements

field of

proportions to give

106, for experimental confirmation

contain

practice,a

give

upon

the

individual

the

the

to

inductance

In

results

the

value,

which

is

inductance

to

impracticableto

carried

case

page

reasons

it is

independently
with

proper

reference
as

By

turn

course,

that

the

the

is, of

It

is

inductance

minimum

the

to

by

figuresshould

This

ampere

general of

on

will

constant.

where

cases

with

basis

desirable

the

per

used.

the

appear

as

the

most

attaches, not

converters

it will

of

load.

core.

described,

bring

to

be

be

the

give the

should

interest

whole,

treatment

value

In

connection,

dynamos,
as

the

be

as

in

generally from

measurements.

selected.

tests

commutating dynamo

In

this

is

turn

It

commutation

Constants

of armature

the

is in

on

considered

ampere

losses

with

calculations

reason,

core.

one

assume

C.G.S.

proportions as

currents

the

load, as

these

extent

commutation

actual

by

will

order

20

of

full

alternators,due

greater

by

that

themselves

increase

in

about

so

to

exist, and

eddy

armature

dimensions

in

does
losses

be

iron,

load

no

not

design developes, the

lamination.

armature

to

length

determine

slot

value

the

upon

may

armature

the

of

do

this

For

the

designers that

to

frequency
have

to

several

bearing

results

the

inch

the

to

and

method,

the

determined

lines per

design.

of

in these

brought

conductors

increase

induced

the

of

is convenient

It

part

expression is, that

average

C.G.S.

the

restricted

second.

particularconstruction

20

be

commutation

to

armature

The

may

appreciable,since
to

on

from

the

increase

the

load, although they

200

in

is incorrect.
as

machines,

increase

commutating dynamos

nature

designing.

commutating
losses

current

generallyassumed

same

often

in

159

increasingmagnetisation in

current

This, however,
the

the

eddy

eddy

has

losses

Constants.

in
should

collector

commutation.

their
have

rings

subsequent
the
must

least
have

Electric

160

of

inductance

The

inductance

of this

measurement

space

the

tests

to

now

described.

be

DEFINITION

PRACTICAL

coil has

of

medium

sets

coil is

the

equal

to

the

with
T

coil has

turns, then

great (except in
turns

of

in the

dynamo
winding.

product

of flux

that

but

10~8 times
is

one

the
of

in),but

and

turns, i.e.,the
the

this

turn, then

its

force

lines

If

it.
T

total
of

of

the

times

is linked

flux

square

product
in

passing through

sets

of

turns

number

the

in

current

that

magnetomotive

coil, is proportional to

the

as

with

linkage,the

the

number

of

coil.

Experiment.

"

with

The

In

Fig.

calculation, are

set

forth

TABLE
in

position

of

is shown

148

projection type

inductance

TESTS

EXPERIMENTAL

OF

of

of

sketch

coils

commutating

four- circuit

was

results, together with

the

measured
the

single
with

steps

XXXVII.

"

between

INDUCTANCE.

MINIMUM

inductance

are

pole

in the

corners.

commutating

zone,

of the

followingTables.

in the

minimum

INDUCTANCE.

with
of

groups

OF

armature

of several

2 5 -cyclealternatingcurrent, and

Conductors

coil has

the

situated

number

the

coil, by

is the

only

is

magnitude

ampere

saturation

as

DESCRIPTION
First

one

not

far

so

the

hence

inductance
turns

when

turn

such

henrys, becomes

in

it

dimensioned,

so

the

If

100,000,000.

inductance, expressed
linked

with

linked

lines

of

of

when

henry

is

flux

magnetic

up

INDUCTANCE.

OF

one

permeability,and

number

the

of

of

inductance

an

such

ampere

one

object of

the

was

the

inductance.

minimum

position of

the

pole-tips,practicallyat

between

in

located

be

of commutation,

time

the

coils will,at

such

this

of

well-designeddynamos

In

brushes.

the

at

simultaneously

which

winding

the

of

components

commutation

undergo
type

those

Generators.

i.e.,midway

Experimental

depth

of about

this machine

of

air gap

The

inductance

maximum

inductance,

values

the

in.,and

.1

again

was

measured.

unaffected

are

of

Inductance.

afterwards

was

about

in. to

.188

Tests

by

the

1(51

from

shortened

in the

inductance

the

In

of

the

original

positionof

position of

the

depth

its

minimum

air gap.

Rg.148.
Gap

"

'/#75

slOCS

Conductors
Turns

ft?

per
coil

per.

slot

lengthof Armature
Ho

of slots-

110

No of Poles

Ho

of

Conductors

slot

per

commutator

Polea.

No.of
No

of Slot*

Conductors
slot

Turn* per
No

-6-f

Turns

-3

per

No of

of commutator

per slot

12
"

Commutator

Length

slot

segments

of krmaburt,

159

t-T'

Eg.160.

(SOS-IK]

N9

of

Gross

Second
has

four-circuit

arranged
on

the

forth

Experiment.
in 75

in Table

XL.

166
ofATrnntare^

==

commutating

lamirvcutions

dynamo,

singlewinding consisting of

slots.

inductance

"

Slot*

length/

of

Tests
from

with
one

to

75

11-25.

illustrated

coils of

three

25-cycle alternating current


five

adjacent coils,and

the

in

Fig. 149,
each,

turns
were

results

made
are

set

Electric

162

XXXVIII.

TABLE
in

Conductors

Hence

by about

position of

shortening
27

per

the

air

has

MAXIMUM

increased

the

INDUCTANCE.
the

under

are

inductance

in

the

middle

of the

pole

position of maximum

faces.

inductance

cent.

TABLE

XL.

"

Position

the

"

inductance

maximum

gap

Generators.

Attention

should

inductance

in the

POSITION

OF

of Maximum

MINIMUM

INDUCTANCE.

Inductance.

again be drawn
to the fact that it is the
minimum
position of commutation,
which
is of chief interest

inductance,
in the

present

which
section.

corresponds

to

Electric

164

"

coils, of

four

Only

slots.

armature

its

equivalentto
current

three

The

armature

being in

suppliedat

was

lamination

of armature

followingTables

frequency of

8.5

XLTI.

of the

four

results

""

,,

"

,,

of

The
are

indicated

in

inductance.

second.

obtained

are

Fig. 151.

four

set

adjacent

which

was

The

testing

Gross

length

forth

in the

POSITION

for three

OF

MINIMUM

INDUCTANCE.

37.5

turns

26.4

six
"

cast-steel

second.

"

observations

""

,,

the

,,

frame.

given

19.1

twelve,,

dynamo

gross

21.3

nine

"

in the

horse-power

30

position in

cyclesper

results

The

Fifth Experiment.
dimensions

in.

minimum

100

of

its field frame,

of

out

was

are

in

were

positionof

the

TABLE

Mean

each,

turns

carcass

of which

leadingdimensions

the

railway armature,

the

relates to

This

Experiment.

Fourth

Generators.

Fig.

gives

experimented
Testing current

length

in Table

152

of

XLIII.

the

sketch

The

upon.

had

armature

armature

periodicityof
lamination

leading

the

showing

was

in

place

100

cyclesper

8.7

in.

The

Experimental
TABLE

Sixth

XLIII.

Experiment.

inductance

of

of

armature

an

POSITION

"

This

"

of Inductance.
MINIMUM

OP

experiment

165

INDUCTANCE.

in

made

was

horse-power tramway

25

followingdata appliesto

The

Tests

this

armature

respect

motor.

:"

of armature

Diameter

16
...

...

...

...

105
...

...

...

...

...

...

coils
"

per

The
of 100

four
which
with

was

air

laminated

...

iron

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

tests

...

...

..

Sin.

laminations
...

were

made

...

...

...

with

of

current

periodicity

second.
measurements

series, and

considered
gaps

...

12

of armature

inductance

in

...

slot

per

cyclesper
coils

...

...

4
...

length

Inductance

...

...

coil

Conductors
Gross

105
...

Turns

in.

...

...

of slots

Number

the

to

of
of

to

various
the

made

were

under

the

correspond

of

condition
with

the

shown

pole-piecein place,with piecesof leatheroid


Owing to this pole-piecebeing of the same

in

radius

three, and
inductance,

in

air, and

then

special pole-piece of

Fig. 153,

between

two,

minimum

armature

lengths arranged by

dimensions

one,

upon

which

it and
as

the

the

shows

the

armature.

armature,

on

Electric.

16G

insertingthe
inner
the

edge

of

calculations

leatheroids
the
and

Generators.

pole-piecethan
curves

at

mean

the

is

gap

C.G.S. LINES

PER

.OFARMATURE

which

obtained

was

gap

(see Fig. 153), so

outer

that

the

in

given.

AMPERE
FOR

larger at

was

TURNS

VARIOUS

INCH

PER

TURNS

IN

LENGTH

SERIES
,

TURNS

PER

COIL.

GROSS

LENGTH

OF

ARM.

'

LAM'.'.S

16

In

Figs. 154

Tables
and

XLIV.

155,

are

to

given

XLVII.
the

results

inclusive, and
of these

tests.

in

the

curves

of

Experimental
TABLE

XLIV.

TABLE

XLV.

"

"

ONE

Two

COIL

COILS

OF

OF

FOUR

FOUR

Tests

TURNS

TURNS

of
PER

PER

Inductance.

COIL.

COIL.

167

RESISTANCE

RESISTANCE

0.014

OHMS.

0.033

OHMS.

Electric

168

TABLE

XLVI.

TABLE

XLVII.

THREE

"

"

The

FOUR

curves

Generators.

COILS

OF

FOUR

TURNS

PER

COIL.

RESISTANCE

COILS

OF

FOUR

TURNS

PER

COIL.

RESISTANCE

in

Figs.

154

and

155

are

plotted

from

the

above

results.

.0473

.0637

OHMS.

OHMS.

Data

Experimental
No

results

inaccuracy
magnetic

was

the
in

by

as

of many

of

length of
with

slots and

many

but

of

few

slot,the

lines per

is but

of

of slots

number

each

very

conductors

principaldimensions

great

uniform

horse-power railway

20

interestingto

C.Gr.S.

lamination,

armature

The

Fig.

number

the

making

it is

in

turns
of

since

gap,

replaced.

especiallysmall

an

1G9

air

zero

pole-piece not

armature

inductance, and

to

Inductance.

position of

the

was

The

Experiment.

concentration
terms

it

"

measured

the

by

time

each

contact

characterised

motor

for

introduced

was

Seventh

given

are

of

the

per

inductance
turn

ampere

little

note

greater

than

(twenty-nine)
that

despite

expressed

as

and

per

in

inch

machines

slot.

armature

are

given below,

and

in

156.
Diameter

11

of armature

Number

in.

29

of slots
...

87

coils
,,

Turns

...

per

Conductors
Gross

Length
The

per

length

out

36

slot

for

9 in.

laminations

of armature

of air gap

values

the armature

coil

wV

average

the

positionof

of its frame

minimum

i.e. in air.
,

inductance

were

in.

taken

with

Electric

170

Generators.

VIEW

SECTIONAL
OF

RAILWAY

MOTO

(50S7.E)

(5087.F)
ARRANGEMENT

OF

COILS

IN

SERIES

IN

SLOTS

no

u"

,;

70

IB
(soar

o)

TURNS

Electric

172

XLVIIT.

TABLE

Coils

Four

10.17

15

11.5

.767

17

13.08

.769

and

1, Coil A

Slot

B.

2, Coils

6.02

.752

6.97

.732

.743

10.5

7.62

.746

.74

Slot

1, Coils

and

6.27

.627

7.30

.608
Slot

.525

13

6.65

.512

15

7.47

.498

of

Slot
15

2.16

.144

13

1.89

.145

10

1.42

.142

Coils

5.6

.56

4.94

.55

4.4

.55
Slot

1,

.098

ohms.

.001223

96

3, Coil

Slot

Resistance

B.

Slot

3, Coil

23.6

.0984

ohms.

1,

Position
B.

of

Maximum

Position

C.

and

1, Coil

11

4.81

.437

12

5.32

.443

ohms.

15.9

ohms.

.000224

ohms.

.0469

.000877

100

Resistance

69.2

Inductance.

Maximum

.551

2, Coil B.

Slot

B.

of

Resistance

.0984

Inductance.

.0232

.000824

101

Coil.

per

Coils

Resistance

B.

97

Resistance

19.7

.001020

4, Coil

Slot

B.

.501

6 Turns.
Coil

97

.620

.553

4.35

.0479

67.7

ohms.

.435

Coils

of

Slot

.438

6 Turns

1, Coils

15

19.2

14

18

1.28

13

16.6

1.28

Slot

B.

24.6

.001272

Resistance

B.

and

.144

10

Three

2, Coil

6 Turns

of

Slot
10

96

.736

.511

Coil

One

Two

.626

2, Coil B.

5.25

10

Slot

B.

10

1, Coil B.

ohms.

.0976

.642

5.45

12
Slot

Resistance

.765

.772

9.5

8.5

Inductance.

.782

13

Slot

Minimum

of

2, Coil B.

Slot

C.

Continued.

"

Position

Coil.

per

A, B, and

1, Coils

Slot

6 Turns

of

Generators.

per

.436

Coil.

A, B, and

C.

.000687

101

of

Position
Resistance

Maximum
=

53.0

Inductance.

.0735

ohms.

1.28

1, Coils

9.6

1.07

10

10.7

1.07

11

11.85

1.08

1.28

and

B.

Slot

1.07

1.28

2, Coil

B.

1.07

102

Resistance

101

68.9

.0020

.0748

.00169

ohms.

58.3

Experimental
TABLE

Slot

1, Coil

B.

Slot

9.2

11

10

.834

13

10.85

.835

Coils

Four

13

25.3

1.95

27.3

1.95

1, Coils

13

24

1.85

15

27.6

1.84

1, Coils

and

1.59

15

23.6

1.57

17

26.5

1.56

1, Coil B.

Slot

in

the

shown

results

and

Maximum

Position

coils

B.

B.

Resistance

from
A

and

101

3, Coil

Slot

B.

and
course,

the

the

the

Fig.

shown

in

48.7

.0986

159

of

an

commutating
connected

were

cycles

30

the

inductance,

positionof

ohms.

of

armature

an

periodicityof

maximum

observations

ohms.

position

inductance.

maximum
:

were

"

20.

C.G.S.
per

lines per
inch

ampere

turn

length

gross

of

lamination.

inductance

in

turns

.101

of slots,however,

standpoint

inductance

minimum

to

number

at

57.6

Resistance

B.

of

ohms.

.00247

related

.0992

Resistance

4, Coil

the

59.2

.00292

101

measured

was

armature

as

ohms.

.0030

considerable

The

from

and

measurements

minimum

deduced

of

1.57

These

"

maximum

then,

46.8

.0984

and

and

ohms.

Inductance.

103

Slot

3, Coil

Slot

being,of

159

values

Then

.0739

.00136

Resistance

B.

1.85

2, Coil B.

inductance

the

Fig.

2, Colls

instructive

position of

The

of

1.94

dynamo.

First, the

in

2, Coil

1.57

2, Coil B.

alternatingcurrent

in series,

97

Position

Slot

Slot

Slot

Eighth Experiment.

machines.

C.

B.

B.

20.7

the

Coil.

per

1.85

13

make

Resistance

B.

.830

1.94

and

1.87

Slot

3, Coil

Slot

1.94

22.4

Slot

B.

173

Continued,

"

.835

A, B, and

1, Coils

23.3

Slot

2, Coil

6 Turns

of

12

12

XLVIII.

of Inductance.

.837

12

Slot

Tests

four

adjacent

Fig. 160,

inductance

slots
was

were

in

connected

measured

in

the

series,

positions

Electric

174

of

minimum

obtained

and

maximum

Generators.

The

inductance.

results

following

were

:-

minimum

of

Position

C.G.S.

13.

inductance

and

per

gross

turn

ampere

length

of

10

inductance

"*

net,

per

inch

lamination.

armature

maximum

lines

"

11

11

11

cores

parallel'

to shaft

IX,'.'

JDepth,
of

CciL

CdL

AA
BB

?
=

txtrne

in/

tarrte

vuSert"s

Gross

depth/

depth'

'31'

Series

W"

12

Net/

Gap

12"

~LcaninMULone

"

6-6"

"

Fy.160.

practicableto
flux

the

regarding
data
The
the

per

for

conditions
which

more

should

of

which

be

projectionarmatures,

conductors
and

per

of

inch

positionof
to

obtain

to

as

experimental data

gross

minimum
any

is

as

it is

small

length

of

inductance.

particular case

available,this

more

employed.

in the
are

the

in

approximately

definite

they

turn

coils in

conform

course

that

slots and

ampere

the

experimental data

types with

indicates

tests

lines

lamination

armature

When

these

proportionthe

so

C.G.S.

20

as

exact

of

study

possession of

accustomed

to

other

deal,

may

designers relatingto
lead

them

to

the

Calculation

use

of

numerical

preceding tests
data

lies

the

absolute
all

but

results.

The

between

the

to

upon
cases

OF

that

the

chief value

various

machines,

the

for

applying

the

according

indicated

constant

suitable

most

design,
when

CALCULATION

THE

determination

and

of

extent

some

those

value

to the

by

of such
than

take

degree

of

in

hold

must

to

the

for

the

divergence

types.

ILLUSTRATIONS

the

method

types, but doubtless

will vary

obtained

175

than

admitted

once

results

Voltage.

other

constant

be at

relative

constant

The

it will

in the

more

equallyfor

for this

values
;

of Reactance

of

the

inductance

method

the

in the

OP

will

be

having

VOLTAGE.

important

so

explained by working

followingsections
HnATURE
onductors

The,
posit

REACTANCE

THE

sho"w.

out

bearing
several

complete working designs

several

CONDUCTORS

fnarjft/otS.are/
short

circuited

the

tyb

at

Fig.161

of

described,

the

value

performance of

the

machine

are

relate to

drum

Case

output

I.

at

240

In

"

per

All

and

the

general

following cases

speed

of 750

revolutions

commutator

has

in

diameter

120

of

kilowatts

the

minute,

per

slot.

The

for 200

dynamo

arranged
single-winding,

brushes

is the

are

there

in.

.75
is

maximum

armature

slots,with

four

in., and

has

20

thick.

complete

one

number

The

segments

turn

undergoing

segment,

per

circuit

short

.26

are

three
at

one

in. wide;

complete
brush

at

instant.

Considering a
commutating
one

considered.

four-circuit

consequently as

any

be

the

to

segments.
The

turns

will

related

as

four-pole continuous-current

volts

550

is built with

conductors

windings

inductance

the

and

zone

one-half

group

between
slots will

of

adjoiningconductors
two

be

pole tips,six

in the

of these

short-circuited, three

slots

occupying the

conductors, occupying
at

one

set

of brushes

Electric

176

and

three

another,

at

this machine

of

full-load current

in

diagrammatically

shown

as

Generators.

is-

364

Fig.

the

amperes,

Now

the

current

per

101.

550
OCA

circuit

being

be

must
91

reduced

to

in

the

amperes

This

circuit.

under

91

be

must

by

the

brush,

the

times

is at

change

there

direction

other

of

current

in

amperes

built

up

time

it

join

to

coil is short-

one

any

in

direction

one

it

from

emerges

the

of

current

side

other

occurring simultaneously in

the

of

the
of

group

adjacent conductors.

six

coil has

sets

up

of lines linked

with

100,000,000.

If

passing through
but

the

In

it.

the

under

of

going

the

be

the

commutation

great

as

the

at

the

the

hence

its

this

the

It

will

in

number

equal

one

in

different

at

hence

the

voltage

be

one

turn

to the

points

other

not

it is

simultaneouslyunder
five

had

turn,

one

current, but

own

is

ampere

coil is of

the

to

becomes

case

coil

the

ampere

the

voltage induced

the

of brushes, and
In

one

coil is

when

turn

of

of

medium

its inductance

adjacent turns

if

as

voltage

the

in the

varying flux,

moment.

great, since it is

turns

change

sets

this

of

consideration,

brushes.

same

times

six

in

different

determining

in

of

rate

product

by

it,and

with

currents

at

of

concerned
will

the

commutation

surface

the

of

change

case

the

turn, then

one

linked

proportionalnot only to
rate

but

in

of

current

that

number

the

by

of lines

linked

that

magnitude

coil has

the

varying flux

dimensioned

such

it is situated

when

henry

one

so

coil

the

number

the

10~8 times

is

of

flux

magnetic

of

inductance

an

permeability,and

of such

as

the

and

zero,

circuit

short

position of

Consequently, while

amperes.

brush,

the

under

circuited

91

=
-

alone
the

been

it

are

induced

undergoing
of

square

that

turns

of

is

six times

required

to

determine.
Had

six

the

of six times

great

as

Gross

length

Flux

set

lamination
Hence

of lamination
in

up
20

commutation

10

200

inductance

of

.0000020

Circumference

of

to

the

would

voltage

coil

one

have

been

undergoing
the

square

coil.

in.
in

ampere

that

and

turn

per

inch

of

length

of armature

lines.

flux of self-inductance
=

belonged

one-turn

turn, per

one

C.G.S.

Self-inductance
Mutual

for

as

series

induced

the

then

commutation,

in

turns

one

commutator

10

10~8

with

turn
=

20

20

lines.

200

Henrys.

relation

.000012
=

.0000020

to

the

six

Henrys.
x

TT

62.8

in.

turns

simultaneously undergoing

Calculation

Revolutions

second

per

of

Peripheral speed

carbon

GO

-f-

commutator

of radial

Thickness

750

brush

of

tion

is

completely

reversed

==

.75

in

177

12.5

785

in. per

second.

in.

^-"

the

half-cycle. Consequently,

Voltage.

12.5

62.8

Current

Reactance

of

.00095

reversal

seconds, which
at

occurs

an

is the

time

2
=

530

are

for want
tion of

Reactance

Reactance

is the

the

530

91

of the

reactance
case

unwarranted

very

"

turn, and

shall,

assump

IT

voltage

the

in this

"

of variation

rate

wave

This

to obtain

better, make

sine

prepared

now

of

.00095

second.

cycles per
We

comple

of

rate

average

of

.000012

.040

voltage estimated

be

to

.040

3.6

ohms.

volts.

in

induced

the

during1

turn

the

process

of

the

induced

an

voltage

the

are

surface

of

concerned

most

brushes,

other

is also

there

in the

of commuta

process

at

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

has

per

and

500

commutator

segment.

The

output

volts.

has

in.

in

slots,

126

segments.

252

of the

diameter

is .24

segment

rated

winding, arranged

The

of

width

the

has

dynamo

minute

six-circuit

amperes

9.2 volts

segment

slot.

per

in series

turns

in. and

turns

ampere

...

91

per

henrys

...

5500
...

...

...

revolutions

600

volts

...

.000012

segment

pole-piece

per

commutator

conductors

two

3.6
...

six-polecontinuous-current

armature

eight

coil

...

"

kilowatts

is 20

under

circuit

armature

per

II.

The

tor

of

set

same

independently

brushes, and

...

turns

Average voltage per

are

of

sets

the

short-circuited

commutator

per
ampere

Current

There

of

factors

voltage of

Armature

with

other

five turns

other

following:

Inductance

of 200

of the

volts.

3.5

design,the

Reactance

Case

each

under

bearing

In this
tion

In

commutation

undergoing
parts

of commutation.

commuta

thickness

The

of

the

radial

number

of

three.

is .63

brushes

short-circuited

at

any

in., consequently
time

at

conductors

3x2x2=12

between

zone

slots,are
one

coils

Hence

neutral

at

bearing carbon

two

pole tips, and

of

brushes

and
Gross

the

other

length

six at

of lamination

of

occupying
that

the

"

next

one

is

brushes
in

grouped together

simultaneouslyundergoing commutation,

set

set

one

maximum

the

the

one-half

and

is, six conductors


set.

9 in.

Electric

178

Flux
9

in.

set

of

length

Mutual

in

up

lamination

armature

of

inductance

by

turns

12

Generators.

coil

one

12

20

2160

lines.

six coils

the

to

10~8

with

C.G.S.

2160

and

turns,

relation

with

(two turns)

commutation

simultaneously undergoing

those

in

ampere

.0000432

henry s.
Circumference

of commutator

Revolutions

second

per

Peripheral speed
Thickness

in

628

.63

second.

in. per

in.

-|

seconds.

.0010

=
-

reversed

completely

10

brush

carbon
f*

Current

10.

62.8

bearing

in.

60

4-

commutator

of radial

62.8

600

62o

Average

of

rate

Reactance

reversal

Amperes
Reactance

(This, of

voltage

is

voltage

Inductance

per

kilowatts

at

has

commutator

is 52

The
maximum

per

per

is three.

commutating

17.6

in.

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

has

revolutions

four

the

per

conductors

width

radial

of

six

bearing

conductors,

slot, in

per

is .45

carbon
at

time

concerned

300

10-circuit,

slots.

The

of

in.

at

grouped together at

pole tips, are

volts

Diameter

is 1 in., and

brushes

any

180

turn.

per

segment

It has

minute.

segment

one

amperes

output of

rated

turns

ampere

..

12

segment

segments,

one

the

set

of

brushes

neutral

simultaneously

the

zone

in

the

process.
Gross

Flux

...

...

henrys

...

5600

of coils short-circuited

two

any

...

10-polelightninggenerator

of the

Hence

between

9. 1 volts
...

...

...

67

100

respects.)

in other

constants

be

only

.000043
...

pole-piece

commutator

in.,and

number

would

circuit

360

thickness

volts.

...

single-winding,arranged,
commutator

amperes.

coil

segment

volts and

125

9.1

"

...

"

bo. 7

=
-

especially
good

of short-circuited

armature

Average voltage

III.

with

turns

ampere

Current

.136

ohms.

undesirably high figure,and

commutator

per

Armature

66.7

an

connection

Reactance

circuit

.136

200,000

.,

"

course,

permissiblein

Case

armature

per

.0000432

second.

cycles per

"

500

TT

500

set up

length of

in six

length

turns

armature

by

of lamination

one

lamination

in

ampere
=

17.6

20

in.

each
17.6

of them,
2,110

and

C.G.S.

with
lines.

inductance

accomplished, first,by comparatively low

was

coils
to

Generators.

Electric

180

secondly, high magnetisation

by

the

is,

no

of

of

of

volts

load

full

this

magnetisation corresponding to
sparkless commutation

to

of the

particularsgiven
coil

full

at

load

is

load

machine,

suit

volts

and

that

the

of

to

The

voltage is
be

that

of

the

that

increase
condition

noted
force

magnetising

approximately equal

and, thirdly,

600.

will

it

armature

railway practice:

of

increase

field

magnetic
to

the

projections,which

armature

machines

the

and

550

the

of the

distortion

over-compounding

favourable

no

down

keeps

extent

some

in

of

from

the

of the

series

shunt

coil

at

load.

Drawings
and

in

this

machine.

given, Figs.

are

and

Figs. 167
The

and

machine

168

SPECIFICATION

and

poles

600-VoLT

1,500-KiLowATT,
75

of

saturation

the

construction,

compounding

forth

the

for

curves

of

constants

calculations.

the

12-PoLE,

OP

Number

showing

166,

sets
following specification

steps in

the

given

are

to

162

REVOLUTIONS

PER

GENERATOR,

FOR

SPEED

OF

MINUTE.
12

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Kilowatts

1500
........................

Revolutions

minute

per
in

Frequency
Terminal

75
...

cycles per

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

second

7.5
...

...

...

...

load

volts, no

...

..

550

full load

GOO
......

...

full load

Amperes,

2500
...

...

...

...

...

...

DIMENSIONS.
Armature

Diameter

all

over

126
...

Length

...

...

Diameter

...

...

...

at

bottom

...

...

...

...

in.

...

conductors

over

48^

...

of slots

,,

12 If
,
"

Internal

diameter

of

103^

core

,
"

of

Length
Pitch

core

all

over

...

...

Effective

length, magnetic

at

...

...

...

33f

...

...

...

...

...

33
...

between

...

...

...

sheets

10
...

Thickness

...

...

...

...

...

of sheets

of slot

Width

of slot at

in.
cent.

per
.014

...

Depth

...

...

...

...

in.

...

2i

.....................

"

root

ii
16

surface
"

"

Number

of slots

Minimum

width

...

......

...

of tooth

...

...

at

...

...

.412
...

...

...

...

face

armature

.763
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

conductor
,,

Depth

7_
...

of

}j

345
...

of tooth
...

Width

"

"
...

...

"

26.8
...

surface
...

Insulation

...

iron

..

...

in.

the

Hundred
Fifteen-

Kilowatt

Railway

Generator.

181

Electric

182

Number
Width

Core

Magnet

of

length

of

pole

face

Length

of

pole

arc

of

Thickness

in.

length

length

Width

of magnet
of

Thickness

.795
...

...

...

...

...

of

...

in.

33^

...

24^
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

,,

.73
...

...

...

magnet

core...

...

...

...

...

1T9^ in.

...

"

14
...

magnet

of

...

18

core

core

of bore

Diameter

...

pole-piece at edge

Radial

Spool

...

......

total

...

pitch

-=-

arc

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

"

30

core

..

,,

of field

of air gap

Depth

...

...

Length
Pole

-f

core

...

...

ventilatingduct

of each

Effective

ventilatingducts

of

Generators.

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

126|

"

yV

"

Length

flanges

over

of
"

winding

Depth

...

space

"

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

17|- in.

...

16^

...

,,

3|

"

"

Yoke:
diameter

Outside

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

190|

Inside

180|
in.

168
,,

...

body

Thickness,

Length along
Commutator

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

6^

,,

36

armature
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

,,

86

Diameter
...

of

Number

at

segment

...

...

per

,,

of

...

...

...

,,

...

slot

2
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

.342

face

commutator

in.

.313

root
"

696

segments

,,

Width

"

"

of

Depth

segment

...

of mica

Thickness
Available

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

,,

.05

insulation

length

of surface

of commutator

Cross-section

Brushes

in. and

of

segment

...

...

...

...

,,

1 9|-

...

1 30

leads
...

...

...

...

"

inches

squai-e

Number

of sets

Number

in

12
...

one

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

set
...

Width

2.5

Thickness...

.75
...

of contact

Area

of

...

one

...

...

...

...

...

brush

1.875
...

...

...

...

...

of brush

Type

Radial
...

...

...

...

...

...

carbon

...

MATERIALS.
Armature

Sheet

core
...

"

...

...

...

...

...

Cast

Conductors
...

...

...

...

...

...

iron

...

spider
...

iron

Copper

in.

Fifteen-Hundred

Kilowatt

Railway

Generator.

183

Generators.

Electric

184

Commutator

segments

Copper

...

...

...

...

...

...

German

leads

silver

...

...

...

...

...

...

,,

Spicier
Pole

...

...

iron

Cast

steel

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

piece

Cast
...

Yoke

Magnet

core

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

DATA.

TECHNICAL

Armature,

load

no

550

voltage

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Style

ring

Gramme

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

of

construction

...

Single

...

Drum

drum

or

...

...

...

...

...

...

winding

of

...

...

12

of circuits

Number

...

slot

per

...

1 392

conductors

of face

Number
Conductors

Type

,,

Carbon

Brushes

...

...

end

E volute

winding

...

...

...

...

...

connections

length

Mean
Total

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

58

brushes..

between

in series

...

inch

...

...

...

10,200 in.
.161

deg.

brushes

at

...

...

...

20

at

between

Resistance

...

conductor

armature

one

cubic

per

...

...

...

...

Cross-section,
Ohms

...

brushes

between

Length

in.

696

turns

armature

Turns

1 76

turn

armature

one

...

00000068

cent

20

Cent.

deg.

...

...

,,

...

.050

60

"

"

in armature

drop

Volts

brush

60

at

deg.

10.3

Cent.
...

...

...

2.5

contact
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

,,

,,

voltage, full

Terminal

Amperes

600

load

inch

square

per

...

...

1290

winding

in armature

...

...

3200

connections
...

,,

,,

...

...

620
...

...

commutator

Commutation

...

...

...

load...

voltage, full

internal

Total

1.9

winding

series

...

Average

voltage

Armature

turns

Amperes

...

pole

per

of

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

ampere

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

12,100

6^
10.8

turns

21.6

turns

ampere

distortingampere

78.4

turns
...

pole

per

...

...

...

2610
...

...

...

...

9490

Distorting

(cyclesper

of commutation

of coils

simultaneously

...

...

,,

"

Frequency

per

...

brushes

demagnetizing

Demagnetizing

Number

...

of brushes

lead

,,

Turns

...

...

...

,,

...

208
turns

ampere

Percentage

Number

pole...

per

10.3

segments

58

...

lead

Segments

commutator

turn

per

Armature

between

227

second)

short-circuited

of

per

brush
...

conductors

commutation

...

...

coil
...

...

per

...

group

ohms.

.043

...

...

...

...

simultaneously undergoing
4

Fifteen-Hundred

Kilowatt

Railway

Generator.

185

Electric

186

Flux

linked

Flux

with

Inductance
1

in

2700

turn

ampere

per

four

length
36.7

of

voltage

full load

for

rated

henrys

the

...

magnetic leakage

brushes

set

are

output

at

temporarily exceed

may

DATA.

1.15
...

...

...

...

pole-piece at

per

...

no

load

and

inter,

armature

pole-piece at

full

load

and

per

volts

35.6

Section

241
...

...

...

Length (magnetic)
Density

at

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

66
...

...

...

...

...

74

"

...

turns

Ampere

turns,

per

kilols,

...

full load

Ampere

inches

square
1 9 in.

load

no

at

inch

...

length

...

...

...

...

"

load

no

15
...

...

...

...

full load
"

18

"

load

no

290
...

...

...

...

...

...

full load

340

"

Teeth

the

31.6

Megalines entering
620

lead

constant

volts

550

volts.

cent.

per

armature

...

8.0

the

all loads, and


50

ohms

.0385
...

...

208

machines,

Megalines entering

Armature

coil, in

one

MAGNETIC

of

(assumed).
2700

turn

.0385

output by

Coefficient

.000027

operating these

6|-segments

20

...

In

20
...

constituting

short-circuited

Reactance

lamination

armature

10-'

Reactance

turns

turn

one

inch

per

Generators.

Transmitting
Section

at

flux

from

pole-piece

one

24
...

...

...

...

264

roots
...

...

...

...

...

Length

inches

square
2.125

in.

...

Apparent

density

at

Corrected

density

at

no

load

120
...

...

...

...

kilols.

...

full load

135
...

no

,,

load

116
...

...

...

...

...

,,

full load

126
...

Ampere

turns

Ampere

turns

per

inch

length, no

"

load...

1800
...

...

...

full load

1400
...

...

load

no

1700
...

...

...

...

...

...

full load

3000

"

Gap

...

Section

at

Length

gap

face

pole

820
...

...

...

...

...

,',

load
...

39
...

...

...

full load

inches

square
.43

Density at pole face, no


",

...

in.
kilols.

...

44
"

Ampere

turns,

no

load
...

full load
"

...

...

5300
...

...

...

6000

Electric

188

Generators.

CALCULATION
Shunt

SPOOL

OF

WINDINGS.

of

length

Mean

Ampere

turns

Ampere

feet

.36

per

full load

spool at

10,840
92,000

shunt

one

inch

per

square

per

spool

watts

1130

spool
20

at

deg.

20

at

And

deg.

,,

copper

Cent.

405
...

468
"

,,

coil

per

inches

square

Cent.

60

Pounds

ft.

...

watts

shunt

Then

8.5

turn

shunt

surface

Radiating
Permit

shunt

one

650

"

Ib.

"

405

leaves

of

margin
83

16.6

available

of the

cent,

per

in

cent,

per

the

volts, or

600

when

rheostat

shunt

500

coils

volts,at

are

hot

terminals

the

f'.'H

600

SSt

too

j;,c

too

3SO

30C

ISO

wo

,'5(7

100

twoo

of

field

This

spools.

spoolshave

when

Hence

is

equivalent to
of

temperature

require"

11.3

lepoo

20

deg.

in shunt

amperes

volts, or

432

36

volts

spool,

per

Cent.

coils.

36
Turns

spool

shunt

per

10,800

960

"

11.3
of 960

Length
Pounds
No.

per

6 B.

and

Cross

section

.162

.0206

Current

density

Length

of

coil

the
9.0

weighs

79.5

Ib. per

in. D.C.C.D.
square

546

ft.

79.8

feet

S. gauge

diameter

Bare

8150

turns

1 000

amperes

portion

of

feet.

1000
inch.

.174

inch.
inch.

square

per

winding

space

available

for

shunt

inches.

"

Depth

Series
ampere

turns

of

winding,

Winding.

"

3.9

inches.

The

at full load.

series
With

winding

4.5

turns

is
per

required
spool^the

to

supply 8,300

full load

current

Fifteen-Hundred
will

give 2,500
be

must

in the

4.5

diverted

series

The

Kilowatt

11,250

diverter

winding,giving 8,300
consist

turns

4.5

of

rheostat,

189

amperes

leaving 1,850

amperes

turns.

ampere

bands

ten

Generator.

Consequently, 650

turns.

ampere

the

through

Railway

in

parallel,each

7 in. wide

by

T\yin. thick.
Cross-section

conductors...

4.375
...

Current

density

Resistance
Series

...

...

...

20

spools at

20

at

...

...

Cent,

deg.

...

deg.

...

...

spool

per

...

Cent.
...

amperes

per

.000855

ohms.

282

"

"

series

copper

"

spool

per

"

650
...

...

ESTIMATED
Total

weight

Cycles

CORE

...

Loss.

...

density

in

Ib.

...

laminations

armature

...

Kilolines

Cycles

...

...

...

26,000 Ib.

...

second

per

watts

60

Weight

sq. in.

...

244
.

inches

square

...

...424

of 12

C2 R

...

7.5

...

...

...

74.

core
...

...

...

Density

1000

Corresponding
Total

watt

estimated

loss per

core

pound

.9
...

...

...

...

...

...

watts

25,850

watts

C2 R

loss at

Core

loss

Total

60

Cent.

deg.

...

(estimated value)

Peripheral radiating surface


Watts

per

in

...

...

...

...

23,400

...

...

...

...

...

49,250

inch

square

armature
...

radiating
feet

Peripheral speed armature,


Rise

...

loss

armature

...

...

...

19, 100

inches

watts

2480
...

rise per

...

watt

per

...

...

...

"

...

minute
...

square
39

...

,,

square
2.6

armature
...

per

deg. Cent.,

15

at

temperature

surface

...

inch

Spool

23,400

CALCULATIONS.

THKRMAL
Armature

...

loss

core

...

deg. Cent.

...

Total

C'2 R

loss at

60

deg. Cent.,

Peripheral

radiating surface

Watts

square

At

per
80

deg.

temperature
Commutator
Area

Brush
Volts
C2

...

...

...

radiating surface,

of

rise

watt

per

of field

per

spool is

.41
rise

in
33

...

...

...

watts

...

...

inch,

inches

square

...

warm

square

watts

...

2080

spool

one

750

spool

Cent.

deg.

...

bearing

Amperes
Ohms

inch

Cent,

per

per

per

surface

all

square

square

inch

of brush

bearing

resistance, positive

drop
at

at

brush

brush

67.5

positive brushes

inch

bearing

surface

...

...

37
...

amperes

...

.03

brushes

of carbon

inches

square

...

surface

ohm

...

negative

.00089
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

ohm

...

2.22

contacts

volts

...

5550

contacts

watts

...

Brush

pressure

1.25
...

...

...

...

...

...

"""

Ib.

Electric

190

.3

of friction

Coefficient

...

Peripheral speed
Brush

Generators.

...

...

of commutator

in feet

...

...

...

per

1700

minute
...

...

1040

friction
lost

Stray

power

Total

commutator

...

Watts

surface

in

,,

...

...

7340
...

...

...

...

"

...

5400

commutator
...

per

Rise

...

loss
...

Radiating

inch

square

temperature

of

radiating
20

at

...

1.36
watt

per

square
27

...

...

...

...

Cent.

deg.

...

...

...

watts

...

...

...

rise per

inches

square

...

...

surface

Cent,

deg.

...

inch
...

watts

750

in commutator

CALCULATIONS.

EFFICIENCY

Watts.

Output
Core

...

loss

C- R

full load

at

(estimated)

armature

60

at

Commutator

and

at

25,850

Cent.

deg.

brush

spools C'2 R

23,400

...

...

...

...

...

5,550

loss
...

Shunt

500,000

60

deg.

...

...

...

...

5,650

Cent.
...

...

...

1,130

rheostat
,,

,,

,,

Series

spools

C2

at

60

deg.

...

...

...

...

3,380

Cent.

1,190

rheostat
"

Total
Commercial

efficiencyat

1,566,150

input
full load

and

60

WEIGHTS
Armature

deg.

Cent.

95.7

cent.

per

(POUNDS).

Magnetic

core

Teeth

Copper
Commutator,
Twelve

segments

magnet

cores

...

and

pole-pieces

Yoke
...

Twelve

...

shunt

coils

series

coils

,,

Total

spool copper

6-PoLE

Figs. 169
of
per

200

to

kilowatts

minute.

relate

183

volts

(500

The

of

to

and

also exhibits

poles

six

GENERATOR.

RAILWAY

400

of this

constants

which
specification,
Number

200-KlLOWATT

the

pole railway generator

amperes)
machine

steps

at
are

in the

speed

set

forth

calculation

in

output

an

revolutions

the

following

...

...

...

...

...

...

200

Revolutions

per

Frequency

Amperes

135

6
...

Kilowatts

Terminal

of

for

in

135

minute
...

cycles per

...

...

...

...

...

6.75

second
...

...

...

...

...

500

volts

400

"
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Two-Hundred

Kilowatt

Railway

Generator.

191

Electric

192

Generators.

DIMENSIONS.
Armature

Diameter

Length

...

...

...

of

diameter
of

Length

...

...

...

...

...

36|-

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

core

...

9.9

iron
...

...

...

...

...

of slot

Width

of slot at

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

10
...

...

...

...

...

...

.416

surface
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

"

220
...

.384

of tooth...

width

...

...

Width

of tooth

...

...

.429
...

...

...

...

Efficient

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

of

...

...

Length

of

pole

face

of

pole

arc

of

length...

...

T7Tin.

and

in.

.70
...

...

...

13. in.

of

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

pole-pieceat edge

of

core
...

...

...

...

,,

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

in.
1T9^-

15-J-

core

core

(diameter)

of air gap

...

.74
...

magnet

of field

...

23.1

length magnet

Diameter

Depth

...

...

...

...

pitch

4-

arc

Radial

total

-=-

core

,,

Thickness

...

...

...

...

"

14^,,
59.9

...

...

...

,,

.33
...

...

...

...

...

,,

Length

over

Length

of
of

Depth
Yoke

...

.658

Length

Spool

...

ventilating duct

length

Core

Bore

...

ventilating ducts

of each

Width

Pole

"

...

of conductor
of

,,

.057

conductor

Number

in.

...

face

armature

at

,,

Depth

5,

-416,,

of slots

Minimum

in.

If

...

...

,,

Number

cent.

per
.025

root

at

,,

...

...

of sheets

Depth

Magnet

,,

...

sheets

between

Thickness

,,

14^,,

31.1
...

Insulation

,,

"

38|

...

...

...

...

length, magnetic

in.

56
...

surface

at

59^

..

all

over

core

Effective

...

of slots

bottom

at

Internal

...

conductors

over

Diameter

Pitch

all

over

flanges
winding

...

...

space...

winding

space

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

15|

,,

14^,,
2J

,,

Outside

...112}, in. and

diameter
...

...

...

diameter

Inside

96-i in.
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Thickness

8 in. and
...

...

Length along
Commutator

106.\ in.

...

...

...

...

17
...

...

...

...

...

armature
...

...

...

...

...

...

in.

Diameter

39
...

of

Number

of
"

...

,,

440

segments
segments

,,

Width

...

...

per

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

..

slot

segment

at

commutator

segment

at

root

2
face

.240
...

in.

...

.210
,,

in.

Two-Hundred

Kilowatt

Railway

%jr,^

Generator.

*!

193

j"

---in"9K

i o,-\^
K^7-,(d)

Electric

194

DIMENSIONS

Thickness

of mica

Available

length

Cross-section

Brushes

Generators.

continued.

"

.04

insulation
of surface

of

leads...

commutator

in.

segment.
.01

inch

square

of sets

Number

6
...

In

set

one

Length (radial)

in.

2
...

'

Width

...

...

Thickness
...

..,

of contact

Area

...

(one brush)

...

...

...

...

1.00
...

...

...

...

...

of brush

Type

j"

...

Radial
...

...

...

...

...

...

,,

square

inch

carbon

...

MATERIALS.
Armature

spider

"

Steel

Sheet

core

Cast

iron

...

Copper

Conductors
Commutator

segments
leads

)i

Rheotan

"

spider

"

Pole-piece

Cast-iron
Cast

steel

...

Yoke

Magnet
Brushes

core

Carbon

Electric

196

Generators.

DATA.

TECHNICAL

Armature,

face

Number

load

no

Conductors

1760

conductors...

slot

per

Number

500

voltage

circuits
...

Single

Style winding
Gramme

ring

of

construction

Type
Mean

length, one

Total

armature

Turns

winding

armature

107

turn

147

...

inch

20

at

deg.

Cent.

20

at

in armature

at

in brushes

and

60

.00000068

deg.

Cent.

.048
.

ohms

.055
,,

,,

,,

drop

deg.

,,

Cent.

"

volts

22
3

contacts

"

,,

Total

inches

square

...

uU

Volts

...

188.

brushes

between

...

...

...

cubic

Resistance

.0375

conductor

armature

Kg

per

Amperes

inch

square

per

525

load

voltage, full

internal

"

in armature

winding...

1780

connection

6670

commutator
,,

Commutation

,,

Average voltage
Armature

Amperes
Armature

Segments

turns

per

between

per

9800

pole

of brushes

lead

of

brushes

9.6

,,

demagnetising

,,

distortingampere

Demagnetising

6.8
147
66.7

turns

ampere

Distorting

segments

turn...

lead

Percentage

commutator

pole

per

ampere

ampere

in.

15,700

brushes
one

in.

880
brushes

between

between

Cross-section,

Ohms

Barrel-wound

turns

in series

Length

Drum

drum

or

turns

ampere

turns

per

19.2

turns

80.8

turns

per

pole

pole

1880
...

7920

Kilowatt

Two-Hundred

of coils

Number
Turns

(cycles per second)...

of commutation

Frequency

Generator.

Railway

short-circuited

simultaneously

197

275.
...

...

brush

per

3
...

coil

per

conductors

of

Number

per

simultaneously undergoing

group

12

commutation...
...

...

Flux

per

ampere

linked

inch

turn

per

12

turns

with

length

with

one

14.25

20

...

20

turns

3420

constituting

turns

coil

one

3420

.000068
short-circuited

Reactance

coil

short-circuited

voltage

,,

estimated

distribution
follows

as

Megalines entering

...

coil

7.85
...

and

amount

of

the

magnetomotive

force

in

Megalines

armature

load

pole-piece,no

per

12.6
...

...

13.3

"

magnetic leakage
frame, per

magnet

1.15
...

...

...

...

...

load

pole-piece,no

14.5
...

...

full load
,,

Armature

may

"

of

volts

...

...

full load
Coefficient

henrys
ohms

.118
...

...

...

roughly

lines

10-8

The

(assumed)

...

those

in

12

of two

...

lamination

armature

ampere

,,

Inductance

...

...

"

,,

15.3
...

...

Section

174
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Length, magnetic...
Density,

15
72

...

full

in.

...

load

no

inches

square

...

kilolines

...

load...

76
...

Ampere

turns

per

inch

length,

load

no

22
...

...

...

full load...

26

"

load

no

330

...

,,

...

...

...

...

full load

390
...

Teeth

Transmitting
Section

at

flux

from

one

pole piece

29
...

...

...

...

roots

110

Length

1.6 in.

...

Apparent

load

density, no

115
...

...

...

...

121
...

...

load

density, no

113
..

...

...

...

...

,,

full load

Ampere

turns

per

inch

kilolines

...

full load
Corrected

118

length, no

load

350
...

...

...

...

full load
"

500

"

no

,,

load

560

full load

800

,,

Gap

inches

square

...

Section

at

Length

pole

face

300

.33

gap

Density

at

pole face, no

load

42
...

...

...

turns,

kilolines

45

"

,,

no

load

4500
...

full load

...

...

...

...

...

4800
.

inches

in.

...

full load
,,

Ampere

square

...

be

Electric

198

Core

Magnet

Generators.

Section

159
...

...

...

Length (magnetic)
Density,

...

...

...

16.4
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

load

no

91
...

...

full load

in.

kilolines

96

"

"

Ampere

turns

inch

per

load...

length, no

80
...

...

...

full load...

100

,,

"

load

no

"

1320

full load

1640
..

Yoke

Magnet

inches

square

...

...

...

Section

220
...

...

Length

pole

per

Density,

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

"

load

no

66
...

70
...

turns

per

kilolines

...

full load
,,

Ampere

inches

square

...

27
...

inch

...

...

...

...

...

,,

load...

length, no

34
...

...

...

full load

40

"

load

no

920

,,

full load

1080

TURNS

AMPERE

SPOOL.

PER

No
No

Load

Volts.

500

and

Load

525

Internal

Volts, Corresponding

and

to

Full

Load

Terminal

Voltage of 500.
Armature

core
...

...

330

390

560

800

...

teeth
"

Magnet

core

yoke

"

...

Demagnetising

Total

turns

ampere

1640

920

1080

7630

8710

full load

pole, at

per

at

full load

CALCULATION

and

distortion

400
...

500

SPOOL

OF

1880
...

density through

in

turns

ampere

1320
...

for increase

Allowance

Shunt

4800

4500

Gap

terminal

volts

WINDINGS.

Mean

length

Ampere

turns

feet

.".

.35

Shunt

.35
x

per

watts

870

watts

per

turn

spool

7630

surface

Radiating
Permit

shunt

one

one

4.25

field

per

square

305

watts

spool

copper

per

spool

spool
inch
per
'"-

\/j

t/

ft.

870

at

square

20

deg.

inches.

Cent.

spool.
305

212

watts.

t)\s

/ampere
pere

4.16

31,800.

"

in.

7630.

50

1000

feet\2

31

1010
ug

watts

212

10,990

Two-Hundred

Of
of

90

the

cent.,

per

Cent.

volts

500

This

Kilowatt

available
volts

450

or

is

for

at

volts

=65

212

Railway

excitation, should

deg. Cent.,

60

spool

per

65

3.25

shunt

per

spool

at

make

to

volts

at

Cent.

deg.

20

use

de"\

20

Hence

C* Q ( \

(-

plan

390

or

199

amperes

^*

Consequently turns

Generator.

2350

"

turns

o.Zo

of 2350

Length
Pounds

per
diameter

This

should

turns

Hence

No.

bare, and

in

14

Winding."

there

of

Mean

length
length

Series

C2

Hence

R.

of

series

70

in.

Ib. per

ft.,and

has

each.

Cross-section

No.

13

53

amperes

of which

turns

93

spool

per

per

530

spool

per

per

70

330

square

7630

"

3360

should

amperes

for

amperes

inch.

the

ampere

be

carried

series

coils.

in.

in.
watts

per

consist
five

.00085

ohms.

inch.

square

spool may

spool.

3302

93-7-

.425

thick, wound

density in

turns

series

winding

of two

coils of flat
coil.

per

770

strip copper

Weight

series

copper

in.
one

wide

amperes

per

square

inch.

C2R
Core

loss

60

deg.

loss

deg.

per

Increased
37

square

temperature

inch

by

deg. Cent.,

as

Ditto, per square

per

increased

inch

of

resistance

6800

radiating
watt

determined

armature

temperature

armature

armature

temperature

Peripheral speed
Increased

watts.

armature

winding

Cent.

Peripheral radiating surface


Watts

watts.

11,560 watts.

increased

63

8800

(observed value)2760

armature

Observed

Cent.

per
from

surface

resistance

by

radiating

armature

measurements.
2030.

thermometer

peripheral radiating

inches.
1.70.

inch

square

(feetper minute)
of armature

square

surface

30
17.7

deg.

Cent.

deg.

Cent.

and

spool

CALCULATIONS.

THERMAL

loss at

spool.

per

turn

800

Ib.

Current

covered.

cotton

turns

1000

"

ten

winding

.06

168

15.7

supply 10,990

must

turns

cross-section

Series

S. has

and

in. double

winding

amperes,

10

resistance

Copper

Total

.082

layers

in shunt

This

400

be

must

Total

Armature

B.

diverting shunt, leaving

9800ft.

13

inch.

density

at full load

through

in.

wound

square

current

Series

4.16

15.2.

.072

be

2350

ft.

of

.00407
Hence

turns

1000

surface

Electric

200

Spool

Generators.

Total

C2R

loss at

Observed

60

increased

deg. Cent.,

Watts

per

inch

square

Commutator

per

the

per

from

observed

increase

winding

of all

Amperes

positive brushes

surface

spool radiating

of

temperature

spool was

per

resistance, positive

drop

Brush

brush

at

brush

Coefficient

(watts)

pounds

.03
.

...

...

...

...

1070
...

...

...

...

inch

1.25
...

...

...

22.5

pounds

pressure,

...

...

...

...

...

.3
...

power

Total

commutator

per

Increased

minute...

1330
...

...

...

...

...

200

watts
...

...

...

...

1540
...

...

...

...

...

800

temperature

watt

per

...

1.92
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

radiating surface

temperature

...

...

inches

square

inch

square
rise

...

270
...

loss, watts

Radiating surface,
Observed

feet per

...

...

...

lost in commutator,

Stray

inch

square

per

...

further

reference

increase

nine

of

described

those

construction

was

in

...

temperature
had

Cent.

19

deg.

Cent.

the

machine

radiating
...

...

observed, had

was

probably

about

that
substantially

been

reached

equivalent to,

were

specification.In

this

deg.

temperature measurements,

spool windings

The

temperature.

to the

and

hours,

...

...

...

36
...

surface

the

ohms

...

of friction

friction,watts

Watts

...

brushes
...

...

...

square

per

Peripheral speed commutator,


Brush

...

...

inch.

44.5

2.7

...

with,

deg.

deg. Cent.

square

...

contacts

contacts

pressure,

Total

for

16

.0067

negative

...

surface

bearing surface, carbon

...

brush

as

inch

square

...

...

inch, brush-bearing

square

Brush

C2 R

load

111

only

9.0

per

which

Cent.

measurements.

in

...

Ohms

Volts

on

deg.

Area

With

45

inches.

.405.

inch

square

of

square

"

resistance

watts.

resistance

870

spool

one

watt

determined

thermometer

By

by

353

spool radiating surface

temperature

Cent., as

spool,
increased

temperature

Peripheral radiating surface,


Increased

per

all

its

but

other

at

run

maximum
identical

not

respects, the

described.

CALCULATIONS.

EFFICIENCY

Watts.

Output
Core

at

full load
...

...

Commutator

and

loss

brush

...

Armature
Shunt

C2

loss

spools

C2 R

rheostat

C2

at

60

loss at
R

...

deg.
60

loss at

"

Series

spools
rheostat

"

Total

200,000
2,760

loss

O2

loss at

C2
(diverter)

output

60
R

...

...

...

...

Cent.
...

deg.
60

...

...

...

deg.

Cent.

loss at

60

8,800
180

Cent

deg.

1,540

1,470

Cent

640
...

deg.

Cent

...

full

...

130

215,520

Two-Hundred

Kilowatt

WEIGHTS
Armature

Generator.

Railway

201

(Pouxos).

Core

magnetic

...

...

...

...

...

...

3,GOO

...

Teeth...

400

1,000

Spider
Copper

...

Commutator

...

...

...

...

...

1,150

...

450

Segments

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

shaft

without

Complete
Frame

...

12,000

Six

750

pole-pieces

Six

magnet

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

cores
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

4,100

Yoke
Field

Windings
shunt

Six

coils

890
...

...

Six

series

184

base

of tests

...

to

plate

...

...

of this machine

300-KlLOWATT

Union

of

and
193

tests

pounding,

and

carbon

...

...

...

...

given

are

33,000

in the

of

curves

LIGHTING

Figs.
loss,

core

GENERATOR,
Mr.

A.

Moore,

H.

at

covering

efficiency.The

brushes

is

output

speed

given

are

and

rated

of

of

curves

the

100

kilowatts

300

revolutions
machine

this

at

most

used, notwithstanding the

the

commutator

low

in

and
In

minute.

derived

interestingfeature

are

volts

125

per

subjects of saturation,

built

and

is illustrated

of Berlin,
Elektricitats-Gesellschaft,

Its

206.

to

190

1,310

...

distribution.

gap

the

by

results

that

...

...

...

...

3,800

amperes,

Figs.

...

...

ten-polelightinggenerator, designed by

Figs. 189
2,400

...

...

with

10-POLE

in 1897

...

...

relatingrespectivelyto saturation, compounding,

188,

and
efficiency,

...

...

complete

results

to

..

parts

Machine

The

...

420

spool copper

Other

...

coils
...

Total

11,000

...

...

from

loss,

core

of

the

this

tension

com

design is

and

heavy

current.
In

be

this instance

seen

commutator

Mr.

Moore

commutator

in

the
was

has

is crowded

the
following specification,

largelyin
modified

segments

of that

excess

the

about

25

design
per

in

and,
considerably,
temperature

at other

this

parts

rise

as

will

at

the

machine.

of the

respect by lengthening the

cent.
2

Electric

202

Generators.

Fy.184.
Curve.

Saturation

SIX

5SO

POLE,

ZOO

K.W.
FOR

GENERATOR

VOLT

SOO
R.PM.

135

500

4SO

400

350

300

160

100

Rg.1S5.
Compounding
n,ooo

Curve

For

SOO

VolU
SO

100

200

ISO

250

300

350

400

450

600

SJSQ

fcf

VOLTS

(HSC.M)

10.000

9000

e.000

fsooo

SIX

SOO

POLt,200K.W.

VOLT

FORI35RRM.

OENERATOR

and
Efficiency
at

500

Losses

Volts.

cluttmy?l"c".v

;*"*.;

Tl

Yoke

Hundred

tree-

Kilowatt

Generator.

Lighting

205

Outside

diameter

Ill

in. and

105

in.

...

Inside

diameter

97
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Thickness...

7 in. and
...

...

Length along
Commutator

in.

...

...

4 in.

1 6 in.

armature
...

...

...

...

...

...

Diameter

52
...

Number

...

of
"

of

at

...

...

...

,,

...

...

...

...

slot

per

segment

...

360
...

,,

"Width

...

...

segments

2
face

commutator

.425
...

...

...

in.

...

.372

root

"

Thickness

of mica

insulation

.03
...

Total

depth

of

Maximum
Available

...

of

segment

surface

length

Cross-section

...

depth

of

length

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

of

...

segment

...

...

...

...

,,

...

...

...

12|

,,

11|

,,

.059

leads...

commutator

,,

...

1.5

segment

...

Brushes

,,

...

3.0

segment

useful

Approximate

...

...

...

inch

square

...

Number

of sets

Number

in

10
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

set

one

Width

1.25

Thickness
...

Area

of contact

...

...

of

one

...

...

...

...

...

,,

...

brush

1.25
...

...

...

of brush

Type

in.

Radial
...

...

...

...

...

...

inches

square

carbon

...

MATERIALS.
Armature

Sheet

core
...

...

...

...

...

spider...

,,

...

Cast
...

...

...

...

conductors
"

...

...

Commutator

segments

...

...

...

...

..

...

iron

Copper
,,

...

leads

Rheotan

,,

...

spider

,,

steel

...

Pole-pieces

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Cast

iron

Cast

steel

...

...

Yoke

Magnet

cores
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Brushes
...

TECHNICAL

Armature,
Number

load

no

of face

Conductors
Number

per

voltage

Mean
Total

...

...

DATA.
110

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

conductors

720

slot

4
...

10
...

Type

...

of circuits

Style of winding
Gramme

,,

Carbon
...

ring

or

construction

length
armature

one

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

drum

Drum
...

of

...

winding

armature
turns

Single

...

...

...

...

Barrel-wound
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

88.5

turn...
...

360

in.

Electric

206

Fig.191.

Fig.184.

Generators.

Three-Hundred
Turns

Kilowatt

in series between

Lighting Generator.

brushes...
...

Length

between

...

36

...

...

brushes
...

Cross-section

207

...

...

.128

...
...

Ohms

per cubic

Resistance

inch

deg. Cent.
at 20 deg. Cent

20

at

brushes

Volts

drop

in armature
brushes

,,

60

at

and

Total

voltage,full

internal

Amperes

per

Commutation

"

series

...

...

winding

3.25
...

load

125

...

inch

...

...

...

...

133
...

in armature

...

...

winding...

...

1880
...

...

...

...

connections

commutator

,,

"

...

4.75

voltage,full load
square

.00171
.00198

...

and

contacts

ohms

...

...

deg. Cent.

,,

Terminal

...

deg. Cent.

60

inch

square

.00000068

...

between

in.

...

conductor

armature

one

3190

...

4000

,,

Average voltagebetween
Armature

Amperes

turns

per

commutator

polo...

per

36

...

ampere

Segments

lead

turns

per

...

...

...

...

...

...

240
8650

...

...

...

...

lead

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

8.3
...

distortingampere

Demagnetising

...

of brushes

demagnetising ampere

16.6

turns
...

...

...

84.4

turns
...

turns

ampere

pole

per

...

...

...

1450
...

...

...

...

7200

Distorting

"

"

of commutation

of coils

(cycles
per second)...

simultaneously short-circuited

138
...

per

...

brush

3
...

coil

per

Number

...

...

of brushes

,,

Turns

...

pole-piece

,,

Number

...

...

Frequency

...

turn

Armature

Percentage

3.5

segments

1
...

of

...

conductors

...

per

...

...

...

...

simultaneously undergoing

group

commutation

6
...

Flux

per

Flux

linked

ampere

17.6

with
20

Inductance
2110

...

turn

...

inch

per

six turns

one

10-8

...

with

240

20
...

in those

amperes

...

...

lamination
turns

in

...

length armature

2110
one
constituting

turn

coil,in

henrys

lines

henrys

.0000211
...

Reactance

short-circuited

.0183

turn
...

voltage

.0183

4.4 volts

FORCE

per

CALCULATIONS.

at
pole-piece,
at

"

...

240

MAGNETOMOTIVE

Megalines entering armature,

...

...

,,

ohms

no

load

9.17

full load

11.1

,,

1.15

Coefficient

of magnetic leakage
at
Megalines in magnet frame, per pole-piece,
...

no

1.05

load

1.28

full load
Armature

143

Section
...

...

Length (magnetic)

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

square

inches

10 in.

"

,-K

.A

4,r-J=d
----i-pd
n"?-|--'7^~^i" n"3"n;sJ"
"

Three- Hundred

Density

at

Kilowatt

Lighting

Generator.

209

load

110

63.5
...

kilols.

...

full load

77.5
...

Ampere

turns

inch

per

"

load

length, no

14
...

...

full load

Ampere

23

,,

"

turns,

load

no

140
...

...

...

...

...

full load

230
...

Teeth

Transmitting
Section

at

flux

from

pole-piece

one

14
...

...

...

8.5

roots
...

...

Length

...

Apparent

density at

...

...

...

...

...

inches

square
1.75

...

...

no

...

...

...

...

108
...

...

...

in.

...

load
...

kilols.

...

full load

130

"

Corrected

density

"

at

no

load

106
...

...

...

...

...

,,

full load

125
...

...

Ampere

turns

inch

per

"

load

length, no

100
...

...

...

...

full load

750
...

Ampere

turns,

load

no

180
...

full

...

...

...

load

"

1310
...

Gap:
Section

pole-face

at

Length

213
...

.3 in.
...

Density

at

...

...

pole-face,no

...

...

...

...

...

load
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

42,800

full load

52,000

...

loud

Ampere

turns,

Ampere

turns, full load

Magnet

inches

square

Core

no

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

4,050
4,900

...

Section

132
...

...

...

Length (magnetic)
Density,

...

...

...

...

...

13.5
...

...

...

...

...

kilols.

79.0
...

...

...

...

...

...

in.

...

load

no

inches

square

...

'

full load...

96.5
"

"

Ampere

turns

inch

per

length, no

48

load
...

...

93

full load
no

"

650

load
...

...

...

...

...

...

1250

full load
...

Magnet

Yoke:
156

Section
...

Length

per

Density

no

pole

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

15

in.
kilols.

67.0

load
...

82.0

full load...

"

...

"

Ampere

turns

per

inch

length, no

load
...

58

full load
"

inches

square

no

480

load

870

full load
...

Electric

210

Generator*.

TURNS

AMPERE

SPOOL.

PER

5500

Demagnetising

Total

turns

at

terminal

125

circuit is

when

the

to

turns

volts

10,560

adjusted to give 5,500

terminal

5,500

be

must

voltage

is

SPOOL

OF

turns.

6,250 ampere

suppliedby

CALCULATION
Shunt

ampere

the

125,

shunt

125

will amount

4,310 ampere

distortion

shunt

in the

volts, then,

and

full load

at

load

full

pole-piece,at

per

density through

in

turns

ampere

rheostat

110

excitation

ampere

for increase

Allowance

If the

turns

series

the

10, 5GO

"

0,250

winding.

WINDINGS.

Mean

of

length

Ampere

turns

feet

surface

Radiating

.-.

.36

263
177

Shunt

51

in.

4.25

full load

spool at

field

one

watts

total

turn

shunt

ft.

6250.

26,600.

"

Permit

shunt

one

per

per

watts

spool

square

20

at

This

spool.

per

730

inch

inches.

square

deg.

Cent.

is divided

up

into

84

in series

watts

winding

and

iu shunt.

watts

spool

per
Q-,
31

Pounds

60

at

deg.

204.

(" Tooo"

Cent.

feet\2

/Ampere

"

watts

.-.

Shunt

Plan

copper
have

to

of the
This

90

spools

volts

at

^^f

of the

cent,

per

field
is 98

spool

per

when
20

available

hot,

deg.

the

Cent,

125

"

125

9.8

volts

177
Hence

require

"

Turns

per

shunt

18.1

amperes

"

=
"

18.1

Length
Pounds

of 345
per

turns

1000

per

spool

ft.

1470
85.

ft.

volts,

remainder
or

345.

spool,

Ib.

or

being
per

113

volts,

consumed

spool.

at

the

in

field

terminals
rheostat.

Electric

212

diameter

Bare

82.4

has

8 B.W.G.

No.

.0214

Cross-section

1000

Ib. per

.177

inches.

square

"

ft.

D.C.C.D.

in.

.165

Generators.

in.

Current

density

845

amperes

per

square

inch.
of

Length

the

Winding

Series
G250

"

Winding.

With
4800

in

.079

Consequently, 250

and

The

197.

in.,making

Resistance

Ditto
At

of ten

C2R
per

60

spools at

of 3.8

give

2400

be diverted
series

through

winding, giving

per

as
edge spirally,

of

up
square

shown

strips 1.10

44

inches

in.

inch.

square

20

deg.
=

Cent.
840

.000183

ohms.

watts.

97

copper

watts.

1250

Ib.

CALCULATIONS.

loss at
loss

60

deg.

Cent.
...

(observed value)
increased

per

Increased

square

inch

...

4.150
...

...

increased

resistance

...

...

...

...

watt

per

per
...

...

...

...

deg. Cent.
inches

square

...

armature

29
...

...

...

minute

deg.

1720
...

by

peripheral

...

7,000

2.22
inch

square
...

feet per

of armature

inch

...

armature
...

temperature

of

armature

radiating

temperature

square

by

surface

radiating surface

Ditto, per

...

watts

15550

...

Peripheral speed armature,


Increased

...

...

64

...

Peripheral radiating surface


Watts

...

...

temperature

winding

armature

11,400

...

loss

armature

Observed

...

...

thermometer

29
...

radiatingsurface

...

Cent.

deg.

13
...

,,

...

C2R

Observed

loss at
increased

60

deg.

Cent,

per

temperature

spool
by

increased

301
resistance

64

per

square

inch

of

of

one

spool

spool radiating

surface

watts

of

winding
Peripheral radiating surface
Watts

by

watts.

...

Total

in.

.000183

84

Cent.

series

51

THERMAL

Spool

the

on

is made

amperes

2150-

spool

deg.

Weight

630

of turn

length

Series

Total

in

stripswound

conductor

density

Mean

Core

in.

supply 10,560

to

will

must

amperes

total cross-section

up

Current

C2R

required

current

amperes

of flat

consist

turns

196

Armature

6f

turns.

two

Figs.

full load

rheostat, leaving 2,150

4,300 ampere
The

is

winding

8 B.W.G.

full load.

spool,the

per

turns.

ampere

diverter

the

turns

two

shunt

each, of No.

turns

winding

at

turns

for

available

space

layers of 35

series

The

"

winding

of 10

4,310 ampere

of

portion
consists

730

deg. Cent.
square
.41

inches.

Tliree- Hundred

Kilowatt

Lighting

Generator.

213

Electric

214

Increased

temperature

thermometer

Commutator

inch

square

per

of

spool
156

...

the

...

...

...

in

increase

spool

46

was
...

,,

112
...

,,

...

...

of all

Area

Amperes
Ohms

positivebrushes

per

per

Brush

inch

square

drop

C2B

at

bearing

surface

of carbon

48
.

negative
...

Ditto, total

...

...

...

"

.3
...

...

of commutator

in feet

...

...

per

...

1365

minute
...

...

1160
...

for

...

...

...

...

...

,,

...

1920

commutator

inch

square
rise in

in

,,

8560
...

...

...

per

500
...

loss

surface

of

radiating

temperature

...

...

4.45
...

...

...

...

...

watt

per

per

...

...

inch

square

of

radiating
18

been

the

end

..

run

of the

...

observations

full load

on

...

for

deg. Cent.

...

surface
...

...

be

made

were

As

eight hours.

test, it cannot

inches

square

...

surface
80.5

temperature

temperature

watts

...

...

...

...

Observed

...

...

lost in commutator

stray power

commutator

Radiating

Ib.

...

friction

Allowance

These

watts

1.25
...

...

Peripheral speed

Increase

6900
...

inch

125.
...

Watts

volts

of friction

Coefficient

Total

2.9
...

...

...

ohms

...

...

...

square

ohms

.00120

...

per

amperes

.03

brushes

contacts

pounds

inches

square

...

contacts

pressure,

Brush

...

...

...

surface
.

...

Brush

bearing

...

brush

at

brush

50

(bearing surface)

of brush

inch

square

resistance, positive +

Volts

had

deg. Cent.

...

...

of

temperature

radiating surface

inch

Ditto, per square

watt

per

radiating surface
By

Generators.

stated

that

on

the

readings
the

deg. Cent.

machine
were

machine

after

made

only at
not

was

increasingin temperature.
EFFICIENCY

CALCULATIONS.
Watts.

Output
Core

at

full load

300,000

loss
...

...

...

Commutator

and

brush

...

...

...

C2R

Armature

loss at

spools-C2R

Shunt

...

...

4,150

...

loss
60

loss at

...

deg.

Cent.

60

deg.

...

...

8,560

...

...

11,400

...

Cent

2,040

rheostat

230
...

,,

Series

spools
rheostat

,,

Total

...

...

...

C2R
(diverter)

...

...

loss at

...

...

60

...

deg.

...

...

Cent.

100
...

...

327,450

...

at
efficiency

full load

WEIGHTS
A rmature

...

970
...

input

Commercial

...

and

60

deg.

Cent.

91.6

per

cent.

(POUNDS).

Ik

Magnetic

core
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Teeth

3,500
560

...

Spider
Copper

and

flanges

...

...

...

...

...

...

it

7,000

1,310

still

2,5Q-Kilowatt

Six-Pole

Comimitator

Generator.

215

Segments

...

and

Spider

rings

press

Complete
Frame

Electric

and

armature

without

commutator

shaft

Ten

pole pieces
magnet

,,

...

...

cores

...

..

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

1,000

...

5,000

Yoke

8,500

Ten-shunt

1,250

coils
...

...

1,250

Ten-series
"

Total

spool

Other

parts

Machine

In

and

Points

various
110

and

core

loss.
B

208,

of

Fig. 209

if the

in

of losses and

to

...

...

...

125

efficiencies

voltage
volts

of the

one

show

some

brush
in the

which

but

the

in

interestingdetails

mechanical

development

of

required for

would
was

not

the

Figs. 211

to

224

of

poles

other

...

...

...

250

Kilowatts
Revolutions

Frequency
Terminal

per
in

...

cycles per

volts, full load

Amperes

...

...

...

...

...

16

second
...

...

...

550
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

500

load

no
,,

320

minute
...

...

,,

...

...

...

455
...

...

...

...

...

233

schemes,

generator.

...

to

spider,commutator,
alternative

C
...

are

electromagnetic dimen

SPECIFICATION.
Number

auto

210.

of frame,

among

from

tested.

not

correspond. Figs. 225

of construction

the

This

designs: In

latest

of

curves

straightline

of

tests

GENERATOR.

ELECTRIC

holders, bearing, "c., suggested

in

of

The
be

would

deviation

Fig.

designs should

ultimate

the

results

the

that

increased

given diagrammatical sketches, setting forth


to

34,500

...

full load.

at

given

are

given

turns

ampere

250-KlLOWATT

following is

sions

...

...

are

straight line,

SlX-PoLE

The

...

experimental values.

are

terminal

load, up

no

...

213,

page

approximately the

matically increase
Curves

...

...

207

outputs,

volts at

...

3,000

and

show

Fig. 209

...

complete

Figs.

saturation

copper

2,500

...

216

Electric

Generators.

Six-Pole

250

}-

Kilowatt

Electric

Generator.

217

DIMENSIONS.
Armature

Diameter

all...

over

Length

46

conductors

over

in.

32.3

"

Diameter

at

bottom

of slots

43.4
"

Internal

diameter

of

30

core

"

Fig.2,14.

Kg.%18

Fig.ZK.
,

Length

of

Effective
Pitch

at

core

11 torn*

of

-012

StexL

Wire

,14- turos

of -058

Phosphor Bronze

TPEne

all

over

12.3

length, magnetic

iron

9.9

surface

24
w*

...

Insulation
Thickness

in.

...

between
of sheets

sheets

10

"

per

cent.

.014

in.

Electric

218

Depth
Width

Generators.

of slot

1.28

of slot at

root

.582

surface

.582

in.
"

,,

,,

Number

"

of slots

150
..,

Minimum

width

of tooth

327

""**"

j)

ttg.%18

.379

Width

of tooth

Width

of conductor

.10

Depth

of conductor

.45

at

face

armature

in.
"

Number
Width
Efficient

"

of

ventilatingducts

of each

ventilatingduct

length of

core

-=-

total

.44
.

length

.80
.

in.

Electric

220

Generators.

DATA.

TECHNICAL
Armature
No

load

Number
Conductors

voltage
face

500
...

1200

conductors.

per

slot

_l_L-L4-J"

4-4-- -M-

T-4

Number

1_U_4_

L_iV

-UU-JH-L

of circuits

Multiple

Style winding
Gramme

i-U

ring, or

drum

Drum

Six-Pole

250-fCilowatt

of construction

Type
Mean

length,

Total

armature

of

Barrel-wound
84.5

turns

in series

between

between

brushes.

100
.

brushes

8450
...

Cross-section

...

...

.045
...

Ohms

inch

cubic

per

Resistances

between

brushes

.00000068
...

20

at

deg.

Cent.

.0213
...

ohms

...

60

.0245
"

Volts

drop

Total

internal

in armature
brushes

deg.

60

at

and

"

Cent.

11.3

contacts

2.1

,,

...

Amperes

voltage, full

per

inch

square

...

Commutation

...

load...

564
...

...

in armature

...

winding

1700
...

connections

commutator
,,

2500
...

,,

Average voltage
Armature

turns

Amperes

between
per

100

pole...

...

...

turns

per

pole

7600
...

...

...

8
...

...

,,

distorting

Demagnetising

Number

16

turn

ampere

cent.

...

"

84
,,

,,

turns

ampere

Distorting

8 per

...

...

,,

demagnetising

Frequency

...

of brushes

lead

,,

...

pole

per

...

"

1220
...

...

...

...

6380
"

of

.,

commutation,

of coils

second

cycles per

500
...

...

short-circuited

simultaneously

per

...

brush

4
...

coil

per

Number

...

76

Percentage

Turns

5.5

segments

.........

ampere

Segments

commutator

turn

per

Armature

1
...

of

...

...

conductors

...

...

simultaneously undergoing

group

per

...

commutation...

8
...

...

Flux

per

Flux

linked

turn

ampere
with

Inductance

of

Reactance

per

inch

eight

turns

turn

in

one

short-circuited

...

length
with

henrys

...

lamination

20
...

in these

ampere
1970

1970

turns

10"8

,.

...

.0000197
.062

ohms

4.7

volts

...

...

...

lines

...

...

coil

short-circuited

voltage

...

...

armature

one

...

coil
..

MAGNETO-MOTIVE

Megaliiiesentering armature,

FORCE

per

CALCULATIONS.
7.80

load

pole piece,no

...

8.80

full load
Coefficient

Megalines

of
in

magnetic leakage
magnet

1.15
...

frame, per pole piece,at

...

...

no

...

8.97

load

10.1

full load

Armature

inch

square

...

Cent.

deg.

20

at

in.

...

conductor

armature

one

in.

GOO
.

Length

221

turn

Turns

Generator.

winding

armature

one

Electric

...132

Section
...

Length, magnetic

square

...

13.0
...

...

...

...

"

inch

Electric

222

Density,

Generators.

load

no

59
...

...

66

,,

...

Ampere

turns

kilolines.

...

...

full load
inch

per

...

...

...

...

,,

load

length, no

11
...

...

full load
,,

,,

13
...

,,

load

no

140

,,

...

full load

179
...

Teeth

Transmitting
Section

at

tiux

from

one

pole-piece

20
...

...

65

roots
...

Length

...

...

...

...

...

1.28
...

Apparent

load

density, no

132

full load
Corrected

148

load

no

kilolines

124

,,

...

...

...

...

...

,,

full load

134

"

Ampere

turns

inch

per

load

length, no

700
.

full load

1250

load

no

890

full load

1600
...

Cap

Section

210

pole-face

at

Length

gap

Density

at

...

in.

.31
...

...

pole-face,no

...

inch

square

...

...

...

load

37.2
...

kilolines

...

full load

42
...

Ampere

turns,

load

no

3640
...

..

...

...

full load

4150
...

Magnet

Core

Section

119
...

Length

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

76
...

Ampere

inch

per

85
load...

length, no

35

full load
,,

,,

kilolines

...

...

full load...
turns

in.

...

load

no

inch.

square

...

12.75

(magnetic)

Density,

...

46

,,

load

no
,,

450
...

..

...

full load

590
.

Magnetic

Yoke

Section

140
...

Length

per

Density,

...

pole

no

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

load

64
...

...

...

...

per

inch

...

...

length, no

load...

25
...

...

...

full load
no

kilolines

...

72
...

turns

inches

1 8 in.

full load

Ampere

square

32

load

.,

450
...

full load

...

...

...

...

...

570

Six-Pole

Fi0.Z.

250-KUowatt

Electric

Generator.

223

Electric

224

TURNS

AMPKRE

If the
turns

at

in

rheostat

volts,

500

the

SPOOL.

PER

circuit

shunt

then

Generator*.

when

is

adjusted

terminal

the

to

voltage

give
is

5570

550

ampere

the

shunt

the

series

550

excitation

will amount

to

5570

6130

turns.

ampere

500
8900

6130

"

2270

supplied by

be

must

turns,

ampere

winding.
CALCULATION
Shunt

WINDING.

SPOOL

OF

Mean

length

Ampere

turns

Ampere

feet

Total

of

shunt

one

turn

=
...

shunt

per

spool

...

...

48.5

4.05

"

ft

6,130

full load

at

in

...

...

...

...

24,800
.....................

radiating

Proportion

surface

available

of

field

one

for shunt

530

spool

inches

square

365

530

"

"

...

...

...

...

8900
Permit

.40

365

.'.

And

watts

.40

168

per
146

watts

watts

shunt

per

inch

square

20

at
...

shunt

per

...

...

spool

...

copper

per

spool

at

20

at

31

615

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

131

Ib.

fLb.

at

the

sumed
volts

to

have

terminals
in

per

the

80

of

per

the

field

field rheostat.

spool.

Hence

of

cent,

the

This

i)

available

hot,

the

is 382

volts

at

2.3

amperes

volts,

volts, i.e.,440

550

when

DO.

,,

watts

spools

require

,,

1 46

Plan

Cent.

60

spool

31
Shunt

deg.

remainder
20

per

being

deg. Cent.,
spool.

or

con

63.5

2,50-Kilowatt

Six-Pole

/"

Turns

of 2660

Length
Pounds
No.

spool

shunt

per

per

Generator.

225

O/"\

2600

...

...

turns

10,800ft.

ft

1000

B. and

14

"

Electric

12.1
12.4

S. has

Ib. per

1000

ft.

diameter

Bare

.0641
...

...

D.C.C.

...

...

...

...

in.

...

diameter

.075
"

Cross-section

.00323
...

...

Amperes

of the

Length

of

of 33

winding

layers of

series

load

of

455

series

able

for

is

winding

inch

square

...

710
...

...

for shunt

each, of No.

turns

...

14

6.5 in.

winding,
B.

and

S.

WINDING.

required to supply

2770

turns

ampere

full

at

amperes.

Planning
the

...

available

space

81

SERIES
The

...

...

...

portion

consists

Winding

...

inch

square

per

...

divert

to

winding,

find

we

through

cent,

per

have

we

excitation

series

the

25

.75

455

each

hence

rheostat

342

series

in

coil

parallelwith
avail

amperes
should

consist

of

2770
=

8 turns.

342
Mean

length

Total

length

.40

48.5
...

watt

lost per

Watts

turn

eight

surface

Radiating
Permit

of series
of

per

...

...

for

series

inch

square

spool

in series

20

at

spool

...

winding

Cent.

deg.

165
...

resistance

spool at

per

20

deg.

Cent.

deg. Cent.

165

inches

square

...

20

at

.40
/"

Hence

in.

...

388,,

available

series

...

turns

66.

/"

.00057

=
-

ohms.

342-

Copper

cross-section

winding

Series

per

2.3 in.

copper

Weight

of series

Current

.46 square

spool may
.050

density

series

spool

one

winding

THERMAL
Armature

of

eight turns

made

of

up

four

stripsof

58

Ib.

740.

CALCULATIONS.

C2R

loss at

Core

loss

60

deg.

Cent.

5050

watts

...

4000
...

Total

armature

Peripheral radiating surface


Watts

per

square

Peripheral speed
Assumed

increase

inch

of

...

...

...

feet per

...

measured

increase

,,

4700
...

...

as

...

of armature

temperature

total

9050

...

radiating surface

armature

radiating surface
estimated

"

loss
...

Hence

sheet

in.

in

copper

inch.

consist

...

...

per

by

3850
per

increased

temperature

inches

...

minute
watt

square
1.93

...

of

...

square

...

inch

resistance
armature

in
25

"

deg. Cent.

48
,,

Electric

226

Commutator

of all

Area

Amperes
Ohms

13.1

positive brushes
inch

square

bearing

resistance, positive and

Brush

drop
brush

at

Brush

brush

at

"

950
Ib. per

1.25

square

feet

per

...

...

...

3130

minute
...

...

700
...

surface

per

square
of

150

lost in commutator

1800
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

radiating surface

temperature

per

watt

1.64

of commutator
...

per

inch

square

radiating
20

...

estimated

,,

1100

inches

surface
Total

,,

...

...

in square
inch

increase

watts

...

...

loss
...

Increase

...

...

...

stray power

commutator

Radiating

Ib.

.3
...

...

of commutator,
...

Watts

watts

32.8

inch

friction
for

volts

2.1

friction

Allowance

ohm.

.0046

negative

...

Total

amperes

.03

brushes

contacts

assumed

Peripheral speed
Brush

carbon

contacts

pressure,

Coefficient

surface

inch

square

35

surface

brush-bearing

inch

square

per

per

Volts
C3R

Generators.

...

of

...

temperature

...

...

...

...

of commutator

deg. Cent.

33
...

,,

"

Electric

228

Commutator

Generators.

Segments

G80
...

Spider

530

Rings

260

Other

parts of

Armature
Field

and

armature

180

commutator

complete, including

and

commutator

shaft...

8,000

Six

pole-piecesand

Magnet

magnet

2,400

core

...

5,000

yoke

Six

shunt

coils

790

Six

series

coils

350

Total

1,140

spool copper

Brush

300

gear

Bedplate
Machine

and

2,600

bearings

...

20,000

complete

Fig. 235.

In

in

efficiency curves
has

recently been

saturation

and

determined
excitation

loss

core

of

given in

the

as

LOSSES

determining

convenient

methods,

to

resort

owing

load

no

to

the
to

the

Figs.

on

page

IN

core

and

235

They

agree

and

500

volts

show

236

was,

value

the

well

very

machine

This

values.

specification.As
predetermined

against the

calculation

CORE

above

the

estimated

with

tests.

and

given saturation, compounding,

are

accordance

required at

turns,

234B

completed.

values

ampere

In

and

Figs. 234, 234A,

results
the

with
in

shown

of

5570

pre

Fig. 235,

by observation,
ampere

of

the

5400

turns

224.

MULTIPOLAR
losses of

COMMUTATING
electric

empiricaldevices, as
conditions

in

MACHINES.

generators,
check

upon

it is

more

practiceaffectingthe

frequently
theoretical

results.

As

Losses

Core

already explained
upon

the

armature,

resultingeddy
eddy

in

introduce

the

uncertain

Multipolar Commutating
earlier

an

section

of

periodicvariations
and

current

in the

currents

in

observed

Table

core

238.

on

losses

EXHIBITING

CYCLSS

of

in the

magnetic

densities.

high, the

in these
small

magnetic reluctance,with

in the

magnet

frame, and

the

tend

to

Pea

237.

RF.!. .'.TIC";

XILOLINCS

BETWEEN
SLOTS+IOOO

BELOW

DENSITY

POUKO

set

are

forth

dimensions

the

and

the

twenty-three large multipolar commutating


and
of periodicies
which
there
wide range
a
was

The

results

drawing practicalconclusions
Although

7K5

SECOVO/C

P"ft

230

page

design of

machines,

machine-work

factors.

WATTS

the

229

conductors, supports, shields,"c., all

armature

CURVE

In

series, the

in the

hysteric losses

FIG.

FIG.

this

Machines.

designs the

set

to the

as

rate

percentage which

of
the

forth

in

probable core
of
dissipation
mass

in the

Table

this

are

losses of
energy

teeth

new

in the

bears

to

useful

in

designs.
teeth
the

is

total

Electric

02

tf
o
H

O
O

w
H

O
02

"
CO
02

O
o

p
w

t"
P5
W
02

"
O

02

fc
o
i" i

02

s
I-l

M
i" i

Generators.

Core

of

mass

results

the

per

in

the

pound

of

below

density

since

the

loss

due

sequence

value

of

eddy

of

the

the

be

loss

core

useful

in

minute.

of

total

core

Now,

body.

sixteen

cycles

of

eight

Cycles

calculations

For

the

to

Ib.,

is the
in

con

affecting

the

influence

of

which

the

frequency

the

teeth

and

per

square

poles

results,

and

running

find

it

body,

core

inch

at

requires

loss

core

240

allowing

Ib.

weight

full

load
of

area

minute

per

of

revolutions

7000

cross-section

revolutions

240

at

the

the

would

be

in

density

kilolines

16x76_,0;)
"~~

"1000~~

Fig.

curve,

total

the

range

tabulated

machines,

following

approximate
Watts

considerable

tabulated

the

and

we

1000

is 7,000

adopted,

the

predetermine

to

~~

there

generally

second.

per

According

the

machine.

eight poles

say,

kilolines

76

to

from

plotted

wish

including

of

is

we

previous

relation

in

to

bearing.

type

having,

From

density

this

is

the

except

case,

factor

dynamos,

coils,

238

example,

laminations,

working

Fig.

for

for

of

the

the

of
and

conductors,

Another

commutating

important

an

uiultipolar generator
per

in

more

copper

them.

crossing

commutation

given

curve

Suppose,

field

embedded

the

be

limits

the

by

comparison

to

the

shown

periodicity

found

within

231

as

the

to

projections,

the

in

from

be

not

lying

in

density

has

found

chosen,

practicable,

related

as

would

this

are

stray

commutation

will

But

it

conclusions

laminations

currents

during

The

total

draw

to

Machines.

Commutating

makes

armature,

Table,

the

to

conditions
of

the

slots.

higher

Multipolar

densities

tooth

when

of

core

given

watts

Tkmex

per

199,

of

periodicity

an

average
rule

Ib.

will

loss

core

and

value

is derived

1.7

obtain

we

cycles

be
flux

of

1.7

watts

2.1
2.1

7,000

density
is

obtained

pound,-

per

14,700

covered
for

by
K.

:"

per

second

kilolines

density.

the

Hence

and

as

watts.

above
the

TRACTION

ELECTRIC

be reversible, and

designed to

circuited

coil

direction
of

to tend

as

assistingto

tation, and
For

fact,

the

it.

full

current

average

one-fourth
of the

designed for
in the
in

and

constant

generated
that

load.

projectionsand

machines

square

of machines
Because

for

inch

of

of the

brush,

densities

of

coil,should

important
armature,
the
three

be

work

frequently
load, and

so

to

shorten

Material

motor.
or

as

even

one

condition

would

reasonable

and

the

the

the

50

per

the

in

reactance

rated

at

magnetic

brushes.

high

very

magnetisation

the

magnetisation

cent,

rated

in machines

higher than

load

the

than

generallymore

heat
double

conditions, the

one

made

slot, where
bar, was

adverse

heating,in large generators

to

armature

'

voltage of the short-circuited


capacity. This is the more

circuit

been

has

commutator

be

commu

loads, since

that

diameter

of lesseningthe
desirability

progress

four, coils

correspondingto
which

of

ordinarilyabove

from

at

commutating

comparatively small

account

on

such

load.

unfavourable

railway motors

passing

practicable,as

reaction

with

constant

at

different

is

short-

is in

of the

is not

motor

radiatingsurface

is

brush

are

capacity,however,

constant

shifted,

the

flux

designed

running

very

is

core

for constant

in

resistance

in average

that

positionat

originaldirection,instead

are

traction

work, be

be

current

be termed

the

higher

rated

At

fixed

cannot

the

in its

motors

is not

armature

designed
per

by

core

the

may

in machines

capacity,so

armature

brushes

under

is in

Much

intake

in

set

reverse

current

traction

load.

of its rated

air gap

to

element

regards the heating limit,than


the

the

commutation

The

commutation,
satisfactory
at

Since

of their

nature

impressed magnetic

whatever

commutating

magnetisation

brushes

utilised

to maintain

reverse

the

the

it is short-circuited

coil while

the

through

in

from
the

to have

be

field cannot

magnetic

MOTORS.

must,

pole ends.

between

point midway

the

traction

for electric

Motors

Generators.

Electric

232

and

diminish

in

placed

in

This

slot.

one

load

but

in

one,

is
with

satisfactorycommutation

for constant

of

by putting

practice but

former

the

weight

the

in this direction

of

the

case

Horse-Power

24

of

railway motors,

consequent less

increased

under
permissible,
A

material

lesser

the

been

has

in

of the

cross-section

is diminished

sparking

made

projectionsand

magnetisationin

higher

condition

which

advance

that

so

233

of

number

occupied for insulation,the

room

been

jectionshas

of

account

on

Railway Motor.

Geared

at
efficiency

pro

is

gap

loads.

heavy

at

in

loads,and

average

sparking,by greatly increasingthe magnetisation of

the

the

armature

core

proper.

It

be

may

been, first,to

open

increase

wider

all efforts to

that

slots.

of

inductance

the

Machines

the

much

machines

where

of

case

in

will

be

been

has

that

apparent by

made

utilised,is

shown

by

attention

requiresmore

of

this

class

the

drawings

and

constants

of machines

those

of

case

the

gradual

than

in the

remarkable

The

machines.

400

without

in the

perfectas

design of

comparing

and

300

either direction

so

and

by employing

of

in the

types of machines, with

known

be

can

never

non-reversible

other

or

is

which

commutator,

generators

progress

commutation

the

reversingfield

the

of the

roughening

machinery
well-

of
but

constructed

few

ago.

years

DESCRIPTION

OF

This

represent
been

GEARED

800

OF

not

That

sparking.

coils

constructed

horse-power capacity,capable of being reversed

have

is diminished

armature

been

have

commutation

improve
distortion

that

magnetisation,so

diminish

secondly,to
and

fairlysaid

been

has

motor

latest

the

introduced

of its established

to time.

time

with

for

best

the

The

examples

in

years,

far

so

HOUR.

PER

some

of recent

Its constants

Figs.

to

254,

are

pages

236,

234,

not

have

and

240,

practice.

On

account

built in

given drawings

are

is

design,however,

large

below, in specification
form, and

forth

set

it does

hence

modifications

as

fundamental

PULL

DRAWBAR

it is still,
however,
reputationfor reliability,

numbers.
239

use

BATED

MILES

11.4

OF

in extensive

FOR

developments, except

from

in accordance

SPEED

AT

LB.

MOTOR

RAILWAY

of

in

the

motor.

SPECIFICATION.
Number

of

Rated

drawbar

Under

poles

standard

4
...

...

...

...

...

...

800

pull

conditions

at

this

rating, the

field

Ib.

windings
2

are

234

Electric

Generators.

Electric

236

Commutator

Generators.

8J

Diameter
...

of

Number

in.

105

segments
per

slot

JFuj246.

Fig 246

"

-Kf
%.26o Jr/'
I-T-

-y-jZT
-^"V
*

/5S',

I v|\k.
I

I'rgN

Width

of
"

Thickness

segment

at

commutator

face

.214

"

of mica

in.

.128

root

"

insulation

.04
"

Available

length

of surface

of segment

Horse-Power

24

Brushes

Geared

Railway

Motor.

237

of sets

Number

...

...

brushes

in

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

set

one

,,

radial

Length,

...

2f

Width

in.

24-

...

"

Thickness
...

Area

...

of contact

of

.5

brush

one

of brush

Type

voltage
of face

Number
Conductors

...

...

carbon

DATA.
500

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

conductors

840

slot

per

...

coil

,,

Number

Style

of circuits
of

winding

Gramme

ring

...

Number

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Single
Drum

of

winding...

Formed
...

...

...

coil

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105

of

length

...

...

armature

one

in series

Length

...

between

between

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

210
9000
...

...

...

...

between

20

at

deg.

.0102

brushes

.00000068
...

...

...

,,

of

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...

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...

,,

of

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length

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conductor, B. and

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,,

in

drop

,,

...

...

...

"

...

...

...

,,

95

at

18

field turn

one

4G.5
...

...

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...

...

No.
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

of field conductor

.0205
...

field

per

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square

...

...

...

...

...

...

..

...

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...

spools

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406
...

,,

...

in series

of

length

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...

of

...

...

...

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spool winding

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...

...

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spool copper

resistance

at

20

...

...

deg.

j)

.625

Cent.
...

Thirty

of

per

diverted

from

the
the

resistance, hence
Volts

drop

Resistance
Volts

in field
brush

drop

in

Counter

field

...

81

winding

winding

95

force

Amperes

per

square

...

...

field

amperes

...

26

...

...

...

volts

.055

ohm

2.5

volts

...

...

46.5
...

,,

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453.5

of motor

in armature

32

is

brushes
...

inch

shunt

Cent

contacts

field,and

"

is

amperes

suitable

winding

deg.

...

electromotive

by

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(positiveplus negative)

contacts

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at

of

current

in field

current

armature,

"

main

ohm.

"""

"

"

cent,

in.

...

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"j

in.

203

spool

of field
field turns

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...

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Number

in.

...

diameter

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ohms.

...

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deg.

95

Volts

inch

square

...

cent.

20

at

...

in.

...

conductor
...

inch

in.

420
...

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brushes

armature

one

cubic

per

...

43
...

brushes
of

Resistance

...

turn

...

Cross-section
Ohms

...

turns
...

Turns

...

...

armature

winding.

...

of coils
...

Total

...

...

of construction

Type

...

drum

or

inches

square

radial

TECHNICAL
Terminal

"

1.125

,,

...

winding...
1560

inch

238

Commutation

Electric

Generators.

commutator

segments

voltage between

Average
Armature

turns

Amperes

turns

ampere

Number

of coils

Turns

coil

per

...

...

...

...

short-circuited

simultaneously

...

250

second)

(cyclesper

...

brush

per

3
...

4
...

...

conductors

of

Number

2400

pole

per

of commutation

Frequency

...

turn

per

Armature

...

105

pole...

per

18
...

...

...

...

...

simultaneously undergoing

group

per

...

24

commutation
...

Flux

per

Flux

linked

ampere
with

20

in

brushes,
under

24

there

...

with

000154

poles

coils in
is

short-circuited

of
per

Armature

per

magnetic leakage

...

.000154

henrys.

.000308

...

...

...

volts

11
...

...

FORCE.
2.92
...

...

...

1.25
...

...

...

...

...

3.65

field-pole
...

...

...

...

...

...

62.8
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

turns

inch

per

kilols.

4 in.

Length (magnetic path)


Ampere

inches

square
46.5

Density
...

...

of

length

for armature

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

8
30

core

"

...

...

...

...

Transmitting
Section

at

flux

from

pole-piece

one

19
...

...

...

...

22.5

roots
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

inches

square

1.4 in.

Length

...

...

density

Apparent

...

at

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

125
,,

Ampere

kilols.

130

tooth

root

Corrected
turns

"

per

inch

of

...

length

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

,,

700
980

for teeth
"

Gap

ohm

...

coils

pole-piece

...

Section

at

pole

Length,

average

Density

at

Ampere

turns

face

pole

66
...

of

top

and

...

...

...

...

...

bottom

for gap

square
.14

...

...

...

...

...

44
...

...

...

...

kilols.

...

1920
...

...

...

inches
in.

...

face
...

of

series, being commutated

Section

Teeth

sets

two

.484

...

Megalines entering armature,

henrys

22.8

MAGNETOMOTIVE

Megalines

only

coils
...

Coefficient

and

coils

of short-circuited

voltage

20

turns

four

four-turn

such

two

10~8

...

Reactance

those

in

ampere

3480

winding

in short-circuited

Amperes

...

lamination

3840

turns

of these

Reactance

one

their inductance

brush, and

one

...

of armature

two

are

...

length

with

turns

two-circuit

inch

per

24

of four

Inductance

But

turn

...

...

Horse-Power

24

Cast-Steel Portion

of Circuit

turns

...

...

...

inch

per

of the

of

field

101.5

...

of the

...

for armature

320
...

...

excitingwindings ;
be

to
main

is 32
3250

kilols.
35

are

follows

as

turns

...

...

poles carry

101.5

somewhat

Ampere

taken

as

and

amperes,

turns.

ampere

of

hence

diverted

field ampere
These

the

turns

per

probably

30
...

...

...

980

"

1920
...

frame...
"

320

"

turns

ampere

...

...

...

...

Total

...

3250

pole-piece

per

...

CONSTANTS.

THERMAL
:

Resistance

input

weight

loss at

deg.

95

.394
...

45.5
...

...

...

...

...

...

watts

314

Ib.

800

watts

...

...

...

2.55

laminations
...

,,

...

1615

losses
...

...

of armature

815
...

teeth

loss)

core

amperes

...

Cent.

laminations, including

ohm

...

...

...

of armature

Length

Cent.

deg.

(only apparently

in armature

pound

per

95

loss

core

,,

Total

at

capacity

of armature

observed
Watts

rated

at

C2R

Armature
Total

brushes

between

Amperes

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

"

12

(over conductors)

Peripheral radiating surface

...

600

of armature
...

\Vattspersquareinchperipheralradiatingsurface

...

...

in.
inches

square
2.7

watts

.81

ohm

...

Spools :
Total

resistanceof
in

Amperes
Spool

C?R

Commutator
Area

Brush
Volts
R

Brush
Total

the

field

two

loss

95

at

95

spools at

deg. Cent.

...

32

spool winding

...

...

...

...

...

830

Cent.

deg.

amperes
watts

of

bearing

Amperes
Ohms

C2

one

teeth

Field

203

from

are

core

gap

Armature

the

corresponding to

being

current

...

"

inches

square

...

...

frame, per pole-piece

cent,

per

32

...

...

...

length

exciting current

pole-pieceare
distributed

four

spool,only

pole-piece. Thirty

...

...

,,

one

...

70
...

...

for cast-steel

two

...

9 in.

density

Ampere

fields,the

239

52

Length, magnetic

on

Motor.

...

Average

turns

Railway

cross-section

Average

Only

Geared

per

per

inch

square

square

of

surface

inch

of

at

at

surface

negative

...

...

...

of carbon

brushes

per

pressure

inches

amperes
.03

ohm

...

.053
...

...

...

,,

...

2.4 volts
...

1 1 0 watts

contacts

pressure

square
40

surface

contacts
...

brush

brush

brush

...

brush-bearing

bearing

resistance, positive

drop

1.13

positive brush
of

2 Ib.

inch

square

...

...

...

...

...

4.5
...

...

...

...

...

...

,,

tt.40

"?

(we
0

SOO

tOO

SOO

600

(1SI6C)

1SOO

IOOO

BAR

DRAW

1600

1100

fi

20

16

12

o)

HORSE

32

29

29

36

OUTPUT

-rones*

ISOO

PULL

GEARED

RAILWAY

MOTOR.

Fig.^S.

AT

CF

SPEED

Curve

Speed

Gearing

CF

PULL

SAB

DRAW

RATED

MOTOR.

RAILWAY

GEARED

Ftg.2ffl-FOR

PER

H-4-MILS.S

For 33' Wheels

Kg trio of

Curve
SCO

of

Commercial

100

i"

HOUR.
30

"

4-76.
60

*""*
3
Q.

12

16

Miles

20

per

24

Hour.

28

32

36

40

10

"*"ef"

20

jo

Amperes

+0

Efficiency.

90

Horse-Poiver

24

Geared

Motor.

241

of friction

Coefficient

...

Peripheral speed
Brush

Railway

.3

...

...

of commutator,

...

feet per

...

minute

1240ft.
...

...

friction

Stray power
Total

36

lost in commutator

(allowance)

...

...

...

loss

commutator

198
...

...

...

...

...

...

Peripheral radiating surface


Watts

per

inch

square

watts

50

100

radiating surface
EFFICIENCY

of commutator

inches

square
2 watts

...

CALCULATIONS.
Watts.

Output
Core

at

rated

capacity

18,100

"...
...

...

...

...

loss

800
...

...

Commutator

and

...

brush

...

spool C2

Field

...

...

...

loss

198
...

C- R

Armature

...

loss at

95

...

...

Cent

deg.

815

830
"

...

friction

Gearing

2 000
...

Total
Commercial

...

...

...

...

...

...

input
rated

efficiency
at

22,743

capacity

and

95

deg.

Cent.

79.5

per

cent.1

WEIGHTS.
b.

Armature

250

(magnetic)

core

...

...

...

...

...

teeth

67

"

60

copper...

"

Commutator

...

bars

45
...

Armature

Magnet
Spool

111

bar

...

...

described.

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

and

...

258

several

number

few

these

instead
pole-piece,
diameter

running

not

only

allowed

Tri this

coils

armature
the

slots would

has

been

of

having

has

the

result, the

...

been

set

found

in

from

pole-faces
too

up

and

the
to

diverting

the

shunt

in

the

design

the

motor

eddy

have

one

two

core,

up

to

field

the

field

other

spool

per

The

poles.

is minimised

by

extremely high

greatlyreduced
to

just

loss in

current

consequent

sparking

has

slot, largely

one

an

great

largelyreduced, and

the

of draw

laminated, since

are

preferableto

also

of

those

arranged

are

salient

two

teeth, but

loss

...

this motor.

respects

many

magnetic density; nevertheless, owing


1

...

street-railwaymotors,

of slots,and

wide

pole-face. It

armature

curves
given respectively

are

modern

more

differingin

Thus

reducing the
wise

of the

lines

...

...

...

for
pull,output, speed,and efficiency

followed

...

...

1525

complete

many

...

...

129
...

Figs. 255, 256, 257,

In

the

...

...

...

520

pole

copper

Machine

...

635

complete

of

mass

spool winding

for.

is

the

not

~y

/r

ff*'

Electric

242

iron,the

armature

of not

loss is small.

core

different

very

Generators.
A

motor

the

capacityfrom

one

and
designedon these lines,
just described,will next be

described.

GEARED

RAILWAY

MOTOR

ARMATURE

AN

FOR

SPEED

OF

OUTPUT

RATED
640

REVOLUTIONS

27

OF

PER

HORSE-POWER

AT

MINUTE.

ratingof this motor is in accordance with the now


acceptedstandard practiceof limitingthe temperature rise

generally

The

of field and

g.ZGZ

Centre,Section, of

armature
run

of

to
one

75

Pole-piece

deg.Cent., as

hour's duration.

measured
The

motor

by

thermometer

is illustrated in

after

Figs.259

full-load
to 277

inclusive.

Applying this

same

different durations, the


500

terminal

volts

standard

permissibletemperature rise

to

runs

of

Table givesthe corresponding


following
ratingsat

Electric

244

Generators.

SPECIFICATION.
of

Number
Rated

poles

4
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

27

horse-power output

...

...

...

...

...

kilowatts

20.2

"

above

Efficiencyat

The

efficiencyis

maximum
out

rating

about

at

the

entire

overloads.

and

little

of

higher

Kilowatts

input

Corresponding

rated

at

in

input
per

,,

of teeth

axle
of gear

of

25.6

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

51
...

...

...

of armature

G40
...

...

14
...

...

...

....

67
4.78

per

...

...

33-in.

on

in

Pounds

drawbar

foot-pounds

at

...

...

...

...

wheels

1160
...

...

...

...

13.1
"

per

minute,

normal

pull,at
rated

...

hour
"

Output

...

134
...

minute,

miles
"

...

conditions

at

normal

rating

in

cycles per

...

890,000

...

770

rating...

...

...

...

second

21.4
...

...

DIMENSIONS.
Armature

Diameter

all...

over

11
...

bottom

at

...

...

of

core

of

Effective

of

magnetic

...

"

6.17
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

,,

,,

in. wide

iron

7.42
...

in.

8.65

between

...

...

...

,,

...

laminations

10
...

...

...

...

of laminations...

cent.

per
.025

...

Depth

,,

...

...

surface

armature

...

Thickness

...

core

9
...

ventilatingducts, each

insulation

Japan

...

of

all

over

length

at

...

magnetic portion

...

Number

Pitch

of useful

in.

..

8.42
...

diameter

Length

...

of slots

,,

Internal

...

...

...

...

in.

...

of slot

1.29
"

Width

of slot at
at

root

surface

,,

Number

...

...

Minimum

Size
Bare

...

...

...

...

...

Jjj

,,

29

width

...

...

of tooth
of armature
diameter

...

...

...

...

...

...

of tooth...

.445
...

Width

...

i|

of slots
...

at

conductor,
of armature

B.

and

S. gauge

...

,,

No.
...

...

...

...

...

.102
...

...

0081
"

in.

...

.724
...

conductors

Cross-section
"

...

face

armature

its

heavy

to

minute

in feet per

car

Frequency

load

500

minute

...

of axle

at

high through

reduction

Revolutions

Speed

quarter

is

gear

"

,,

Ratio

and

it is

that

so

is, from

...

pinion

armature

on

load,

...

...

...

revolutions
Number

lighter loads,

at

cent.

per

...

...

load

...

amperes

79
"

Fig. 282.)

...

voltage

Cent

that

working,

curve
(See efficiency

Terminal

deg

full-rated

two-thirds

range

95

at

10
in.

square

inches

Electric

246

Core

Magnet

Generators.

of

Length

pole

face

in.

...

...

...

6.1

arc

"

"

Pole

arc

of

Length

.69

pitch...

-7-

magnet

...

...

...

core

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

8|- in.

...

4"

Width
of field

of bore

Diameter

...

of gap

Length

above

clearance

...

...

,,

,,

,,

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

,,

|-

,,

32

,,

Diameter
...

...

of

Number

...

of
"

Thickness
Available

...

...

segments

Width

...

...

...

3
...

at

commutator

segment

at

root

...

...

...

...

...

..

...

...

face

.243

in.

.108
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

,,

.050

insulation
of surface

length

in.

...

slot

per

segment

of mica

...

...

87

segments

"

Brushes

"

11392

armature

below

Commutator

...

...

of

segment

,,

2|-

"

of sets

Number

...

in

...

...

...

2
...

,,

Length,

...

set

one

...

...

...

...

...

radial
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

1"

Width
...

Thickness
...

...

of

...

one

...

625

brush
...

...

Radial
...

...

...

...

...

...

,,

inches

square

...

of brush

Type

"

.......

of contact

Area

in.

21

carbon

...

MATERIALS.
Armature

...

...

Magnet
Pole

...

...

...

...

...

Cast
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

,,

...

Sheet

faces...
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

,,

Carbon

Brushes
...

...

...

...

...

TECHNICAL
Terminal

per

DATA.

...

...

...

...

....

conductors

696
...

Conductors

...

500

voltage
of face

Number

...

...

slot

24
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

coil

,,

Number

Style

...

of circuits
of

Gramme

Type

steel

Sheet

core

frame

winding
ring

or

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Single

...

drum

Drum
...

construction

Number

2
...

of

...

Formed

winding

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

coil

of coils

Mean

length

Total

armature

of

one

...

armature

...

...

38.5

turn
...

in series

between

...

...

Length

Cross-section

...

...

...

...

...

...

174

brushes
...

between

brushes...

6700
...

of

one

in.

348

turns
...

Turns

winding

87
...

armature

...

...

...

.0081
..

...

in.

...

conductor
...

square

inch

27

Horse-Power

to

Geared

.dotted,line reproseTifa

Motor.

Railway

of

outline

2J2SecAJ).
IrundaAwrvJ'ig

Section,

r/

*x

ft

SSTT
Zi_

"f

"Shows

shape*

of"

pifce

before

being

247

248

Electric

Generators.

Horse-Power

27

Ohms

cubic

per

Resistance
"

Volts

of field

of

20

at

Railway

249

.00000068
Cent.

deg.

.28 ohm
...

...

j)

95

at

Motor.

Cent

deg.

"

in armature

length

Size

20

at

brushes

"

drop

Mean

inch

between

Geared

...

.00

"""

Cent.

deg.

...

...

...

...

...

...

field turn

one

...

S. gauge

Turns

...

...

...

per

spool

of field

Number
Total

spools

field turns

length

"

...

...

of

resistance

...

...

...

brush

in brush

drop

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

20

at

...

deg. Cent.

)"

winding

...

...

22,000 in.
.59

"

deg. Cent.

"

"

"

"

"

...

"

"

volts

...

.048

ohm

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

59.3
...

,,

of motor

441

in armature

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

3130

winding

field
,,

,,

Commutation

,,

,,

10
90
i;7~v

Average voltage between


Armature

turns

Amperes

Turns

...

...

...

...

...

25.5

of

turns

pole

per

commutation,

...

...

...

2200
...

...

...

...

second

cycles per

270
...

...

...

simultaneously short-circuited,per

brush

2
...

coil

per

Number

21

segments

87

...

of coils

Number

pole

per

ampere

Frequency

commutator

turn

per

Armature

4
...

of

...

conductors

...

per

...

...

...

...

simultaneously undergoing

group,

16

commutation
...

Flux

per

turn

ampere

linked

with

16

...

inch-length of

per

with

turns

20

Inductance
a

armature

in

ampere

turns

are

two

2880

winding,

two

under

of these

such

the

and

brush, and

...

only

coils in

their

Estimations

Megalines entering armature,


Coefficient

Megalines
Armature

of
per

pole

series,being
.000230

is

henrys

...

.39

coils
...

...

...

ohm

...

amperes

...

9.9 volts

coils
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

per

magnetic leakage
field

of

25.5

voltage of short-circuited

henrys

...

sets

two

inductance
...

Magnetomotive

lines

.000115

coils
...

Force

20

turns,

10~8...
with

four-turn

short-circuited

in short-circuited

Reactance

lamination
those

"

brushes, there

Amperes

...

2880

four-pole,two-circuit

Reactance

...

16

of four

commutated

...

...

,,

In

,,

38.6
...

brushes
...

inch

" o

2.4 volts

force

square

ohm

...

contacts
...

per

"

...

(positive+ negative)

contacts

electromotive

Amperes

...

...

...

"

95

at

armature, field,and

,,

inch

626

"t

Volts

in.

square

...

yo

Resistance

156.5

spool copper

in field

drop

Counter

...

...

in series

"

"

,,

...

...

.026

spool winding

,,

Volts

...

of field conductor
field

in.

No.
.182

...

Cross-section

volts

36
...

conductor, B. and

diameter

Bare

,,

18.3

pole piece

2.96
1.25

...

...

3.70
...

...

...

...

...

...

16.7

Section
...

Density

...

...

"""

"""

inches

square

kilols.

177
...
...

Electric

250

6CAACO

Fiq. 218
*s

AN

ARMATURE

RAILWAV

SPEED

MOTOR.

or

e^o'n.

Generators.

Electric

252

in root

density

Apparent

Generators.

tooth

148
...

...

...

...

...

Corrected

138
,,

,,

Ampere

turns

inch

per

of

...

...

length

...

...

...

1 300
...

...

...

...

for teeth

1680

"

Gap

Section
But

pole-face

at

owing

the

to

(see Figs.

...

and

262

corrected

taken, equal to, say

length

Pole-face

Ampere
Cast

Steel

Portion

Average
Length

of air gap

shunt.

45

square

is not

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

66
...

kilols.

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

39
...

...

...

...

of

inch

...

...

...

length

...

...

frame

per

main

...

kilols.

...

90
...

in

current

...

670

pole piece

turns, and

156.6

in.

...

...

96
...

portion of the

...

this

...

full field is

motor

is diverted

through

load

to

always

auxiliary

an

Hence
Ampere

turns

field

per

spool

full rated

at

7950

This

in the

somewhat

are

equal

156.5

51

turns.

ampere

of 7,950

force

magnetomotive

be distributed

turns

ampere

followingmanner

considered

be

can

Turns.

2700

core

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Teeth

1680
2900

Gap
Steel

...

It is not

670

magnetomotive

intended

to

but

dimensions

employed,
is obtained.

of
some

working
the

from

idea

per

pole piece

the

of the

observed
the

7950
...

impression that

magnetomotive

apparatus, and

rough

force

the

convey

is obtainable, in these
;

...

Frame

Total

accuracy

to

Ampere
Armature

motors

inches

square

...

7.5

(magnetic)

spool carries

inches
in.

2900

Circuit

per

inches

pole-face

surface

...

section)

...

turns

square

pole-face should

at

...

...

"

used, i.e.,
no

entire

section

corrected

for cast-steel

Each

the

55
...

cross-section

Average density
Ampere

...

the

.14

for gap

of

...

constructing

...

...

density (from
turns

...

of

263), whereby

equally effective, a
be
Mean

...

special method

force

...

any

distribution

from

propertiesof
of the

in

estimations

results, and

assumed

high degree
the
the

of

railway
known
material

magnetomotive

force

jo

Electric

254

Generators.

CONSTANTS.

THERMAL
Armature

Resistance

between

Amperes

input

Armature
Total

deg.

amperes

925

Cent.

including teeth

(only apparently

loss)

core

watts

120

Ib.

1120

watts

9.3

laminations

Ib. in armature

per

ohm

...

51

laminations

loss

core

"

.36

Cent.

deg.

capacity

of armature

weight

95

at

95

loss at

observed

Total

rated

at

C2 R

Watts

brushes

"

...

of armature

2045

losses
...

of armature,

Length

Field

of

465

armature

peripheral radiating

inch

square

per

in.

...

Peripheral radiating surface


Watts

13.5

conductors

over

surface

inches

square
4.4

watts

Spools :
resistance, all field spools at 95 deg. Cent.

Total
Current

in

Commutator
Area

of

Ohms

95

per

square

of

of

inch

square

positivebrushes

of

inch

drop
brush

at

Brush

brush

at

Coefficient

watts

...

pounds

per

.03
.

.048
...

,,

..

...

...

...

...

2.4
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

square

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

,,

...

...

.3

of commutator

...

...

(feetper minute)

1850ft.
...

...

46
...

...

...

...

...

50
...

,,

...

loss

216
...

radiation

...

...

...

...

,,

...

surface

95
...

inch

square

watts

...

lost in commutator

stray power

commutator

per

watts

2 Ib.
5

...

Watts

volts

122
inch

of friction

for

Peripheral

ohm

friction

Allowance

amperes

...

brushes

of carbon

inches

square

40.5
.

negative

(watts)

pressure

Peripheral speed
Brush

surface

...

...

surface

contacts

contacts

pressure,
brush

1.25
...

brush-bearing

bearing

resistance, positive +

Volts

Total

amperes

2000

Cent.

deg.

surface

bearing

per

Brush

Total

loss at

ohm

Amperes

C2R

spool winding

C2R

Spool

.76
51

...

...

...

peripheral radiating

surface

...

of

square

inches

com

2.3 watts

mutator
...

...

...

EFFICIENCY

...

...

...

...

ESTIMATIONS.
Watts.

Output
Core

at

rated

capacity

...

...

...

...

20,200

...

loss

1,120

Commutator

and

brush

loss

218
...

Armature

C2R

loss at

95

deg.

...

...

...

...

Cent.

925
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Field
"

Gearing

"

2,000

"

friction
...

...

...

Total

Commercial

efficiencyat

rated

...

1,200

25,663

input

capacity

and

95

deg.

Cent.

79

per

cent.

27

Horse-Poiver

Geared

Railway

Motor.

255

-"-la

t-

"

"

K^; 3' \'

" IL.

"8?
1

Electric

256

Generators.

WEIGHTS.
Ib.

laminations

Armature

complete (with pinion

"

Motor

In

complete (without

Figs. 278

output,

to

283

axle

gear

thermal

miles

23.8

hour

per

pull of

drawbar
such

gives

motor

RAILWAY

motors

the

above

at

exerting a

torque far

tractive

takes

the

effort

its constants

of

Number
Drawbar

pull

7,350

of

this

...

...

...

miles

23.8

in feet per

Diameter

of

in

Output

the

figure;

in

of this
in

given

in

pull of
is

motor

fact, up

Figs. 284

per

...

...

...

1840
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

23.8
...

Ib.
miles

2100ft.
...

...

42
...

...

...

...

per

190
...

minute

per

in.

...

minute
for above

...

...

drawbar

...

pull and
3,800,000
117

horse-power

...

...

...

...

...

...

kilowatts

87.5

"

kilowatts

Corresponding
Terminal
Current

voltage
input

Frequency

in

input

95.8
...

...

...

...

...

500
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

cycles per

...

...

...

...

volts

...

192

amperes

...

second

G. 3 5
...

...

...

...

...

cycles

DIMENSIONS.
Armature

Diameter

all

over

...

Length

Length
Effective
Pitch

at

at

bottom

diameter
of

...

...

...

...

core

over

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

all

,,

,,

9|

,,

28

length, magnetic
surface

in.

19.04

core

...

armature

...

...

of slots
of

22|
45

...

Diameter
Internal

...

conductors

over

iron

of

of

319, and

...

wheels

foot-pounds

this

slipping

to

hour

...

driving

four

limit

the

to

the

capable

weight, before

speed
Ditto

Ib. to

of which,

draw-bar

minute...

revolutions

Armature

total

of

speed

1,840

equipment

Ib.,but

are

at

followingtabularly-arrangedcalculation

in the

Corresponding speed (miles per hour)


Speed

contributes

the

locomotive

speed,

poles
at

is

for this motor

forth

set

are

excess

possiblefor

place. Drawings

It

wheels.

speed

in

horse-power

117

Consequently

employed.

are

of D.P.B.,

MOTOR.

locomotive, for the

3 5 -ton

locomotive

the

42-in.

on

of

output

an

1460

characteristics.

DIRECT-CONNECTED
This

case)

curves
given,respectively,

are

357

and

gear

and
loss, efficiency,

core

120

"

25.2
"

17.7
,

117

Horse-Power

Railway

Motor,

'257

Electric

258

insulation

Japan

between

Generators.

10

laminations
...

Thickness

.025
...

Depth

cent.

per

...

...

...

of laminations
...

...

...

in.

...

of slot

1.73

Width

at

"

...

...

.52

root

"

,,

.52

surface
,,

,,

Number

...

...

...

...

...

,,

...

61

of slots
...

...

Minimum

width

Width

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

.463

of tooth

of tooth

face

armature

at

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

,,

.10

conductor
...

,,

...

,,

.60

Depth

"

"

is

stranded

pressed

No.

19

.060
...

of

conductor...

of armature

cross-section

Apparent
This

in.

.635

19

and

B.
wire

gauge

of the

section

conductor,

S. gauge.
is

.0101

strands

49

made

up

inch,

square

49

hence

the

No.
cross-

.0495

.0101

...

inches

strands
of

cross-section

The

is 49

of

square

...

inch

square

...

...

Fig.285
^O.SZT

:a

\j

(Ti

But

allowance
due
when

twisted

in

...

of

increased

resistance
strands

individual

forming.

Hence

should

copper
...

...

...

stranded

conductors

of

be

the
esti

...

of about

in
these

...

...

...

...

...

...

of

Diameter

this

case,

and

dimensions.

magnet

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

of gap

9|

clearance

above

...

...

...

...

armature
...

...

...

below

"

"

"

...

...

in.

...

of field
...

cent.

per
28

core

...

of bore

in.
"

...

73

...

23T^
yV

"

"

"

""

"

Diameter

19
...

...

,,

inches

13.2

arc

pitch...

-4-

"

Number

square

...

Width

Commutator

.046
...

28

pole-face

"

arc

Length

lit

Length

Length

solid

of

the

experimentally-determinedvalue

fairlyrepresentative of

Pole

process

cross-section

the

Core

of

at

was

Magnet

for the

length

the

...

This

made

be

increased

equivalent
mated

also

must

the

to

MA*

O^lff

"

-\

of

...

,,

...

...

...

...

"

...

183

segments

...

per

slot

...

...

...

...

...

is

260

Electric

Generators.

117* Horse- Power

Railway

Motor.

261

Or"

"',

Ht

"

-"S

'.*

.-

"

-fioi-

'

Horse-Power

117

two

of

in.

.060

by

of .010

thickness

section

of field conductor

.060

winding
is made

in.

by 2"

the

on

of

up

all four

on

of two

Resistance
"

of

of

on

large spools
are

70

spools at

deg.

of

i,

70

per

.234
...

182
...

...

...

"

.059
...

,,

...

...

...

11

volts

.012

ohm

...

...

(positive+ negative)

..

...

2 volts

field,and

force
inch

...

...

brushes

29
...

...

...

of motor
...

...

winding
of small

winding

"

"

,,

471

in armature

"

"

ohm

.012

contacts...

,,

inch

square

...

...

Cent

...

armature,

square

"

2100
...

...

...

...

1000

spools

820

large

,,

,,

...

"

...

between

Average voltage
Armature

turns

Amperes

per

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

4200

pole

per

...

cycles per

...

...

...

...

...

...

second

138

short-circuited

simultaneously

...

per

brush

3
...

coil

per

1
...

of

Number

...

91

commutation,

of

of coils

Number

10.7

segments

46

...

turns

ampere

Frequency

commutator

pole...

turn

per

Armature

...

conductors

...

per

...

...

...

...

simultaneously undergoing

group

commutation...

6
...

turn

ampere

per

...

inch

per

...

of

length

...

...

...

of

lamina

armature

20

tions
linked

of

one

only

two

series, being
inductance

with

turns

ampere

Reactance

sets

commutated

are

the

two

such

brush,

henrys

...

four

poles

turns

and

in

their
.OOOOG7

is
...

of short-circuited

...

...

...

henrys

...

.058

turns
...

...

ohm

...

91

in
,,

voltage

.........

,,

of short-circuited

of
in

5.3

turns
...

Megalines entering armature,


Coefficient

with

winding

under

...

...

brushes, there

of

FORCE

MAGNETO-MOTIVE

Megalines

3360

turns
...

...

...

two-circuit

...

Amperes

in those

.0000336
...

...

Reactance

one

turn

having

armature

and

six

with

Inductance
The

one

"

deg.

contacts

electromotive

,,

Flux

whose

seventy-sixturns,

Cent.

...

,,

Commutation

inch

.047

at

in brush

drop

Amperes

Flux

of

square

in series

...

Turns

.193

by 2j in.,in multiple with

all

...

of brush

,,

Counter

consists

...

in field

drop

Resistance

"

large

"

Volts

turns

...

consists

in.

.050

spools

small

resistance

spool

Volts

spools

large spools
stripof

small

on

of field conductor

turns

Total

between

263

in.

Cross-section
Total

Insulation

Motor.

in. of asbestos.

Cross-section

The

in.

.875

Railway

per

magnetic leakage
magnet

pole piece

taken

...

ESTIMATIONS.
20.6
...

...

...

1.15

at

frame, per pole-piece

volts

...

...

...

...

of

264

Electric

Generators.

Horse-Power

117

Armature

Railway

Motor

265

Section

240

Density

kilolines

Length, magnetic
Ampere

turns

6 in.
inch

per

of

length

for armature

DIRECT

When

CONNECTED

RAILWAY

SATURATION

CURVE

dnven

on

circuit

open

40
240

core

"

Ticy.320^-

MOTOR.

DIRECT

CONNECTED

Fl"J-322_COK"
190 r p.m, field

at

inch

square

86

RAILWAY

MOTOR.

CURVES.

LOSs

I.Core Loss from analysisof efficiency


curve
//Core Loss when driven at speedscorresponding
to
those of Curve Land with correspondingfieldexutations butw/th no current
in
the armature.

dfd

30OO{"

with

brushes

raised

2800

2600

2400

2200

2000

JSOO

1600

1WO

noo

looo
60

SO

ISO

VO

MO

ICO

180

20O

ZX

200

260

28O

SOO

SOO

row

600

ooo

200

'Pig.32,1.

120

DIRECT
CURVE

"

"x

Jeeth

oo

no

GO

igo

100

CONNECTED
OF

iso

iea

RAILWAY

COMMERCIAL

zta

zoo

"o

za"

zao

MOTOR.

EFFICIENCY.

an

Transmitting
Section

at

flux from

one

Apparent

13
...

...

...

...

152
...

Length

pole-piece

roots
...

...

...

...

...

...

1.73
...

...

...

density at

...

...

...

...

13"
...

kilolines

...

127

Corrected
"

"

Ampere

in.

...

tooth

root

inches

square

turns

per

inch

of

...

length

...

...

...

"

...

1000
...

...

...

...

1730

for teeth
...

300

Electric

26 G

Gap

Section

...

of

average

gap,

...

top

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

for gap

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

turns

Portion

5000
...

240
...

Length, magnetic...
Average density

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

inch

of

length

turns

per

turns

for cast-steel

is

observed

in.

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

kilolines
105

frame

following Table

inches

square

...

102
...

Ampere

force

...

17

Ampere

magnetomotive

kilolines

...

cross-section

Average

in.

...

56

Circuit

of

inches

square

...

.28

...

Ampere

the

...

bottom

...

at

In

and

pole-face

Density

Cast-Steel

370

pole-face

at

Length

circuit

Generators.

1780

(per pole-piece)

given

...

subdivision

estimated

the

the

among

...

different

portionsof

of

the

the

magnetic

:"

Turns.

Ampere
Armature

240

core

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

teeth

1730

"

5000

Gap
Cast-steel

1780

frame
...

Total

turns

ampere

poles,and

fifteen turns

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

8750

spool

is furnished

by

spool,and

small

two

the

large spools on

two

small

per

...

field

per

field excitation

The
bottom

...

other

per

full rated

spool at

two

the

top and

There

poles.

seventy-sixper largespool,the
1 ^

excitation

spools on

load

_L

being
average

*7 (\

is

192

8,750

ampere

_j

turns.
THERMAL
Armature

Resistance

Amperes
Total
Watts
Total

input

weight
per
core

brushes

between
at

C2R

Armature

rated

loss at

deg.

of armature

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

teeth

watts

1900

Ib.

1.15

watts

...

laminations
...

...

2200
...

...

...

...

...

...

,,

5300
...

Peripheral radiating surface


square

3100
...

losses

inch

amperes

...

Cent.
...

ohm

...

192

...

...

per

.084

Cent.

deg.

(apparently core-loss)

of armature

Watts

70

laminations, including

in arniature

pound
loss

at

capacity
70

,,

Field

CONSTANTS.

...

...

of armature

,,

3250
...

peripheral radiating

...

...

surface
...

square
1.63

watts

.059

ohms

inches

...

Spools :
Total

resistance

Spool

C2R

of four

loss at

70

field

deg.

spools at

Ctnt....

70

deg.

Cent.
...

...

2200

watts

268

Electric

Generators.

Commutators

and

Brush

Gear.

269

270

"

Electric

Generators,

FCg.337.

Fig.33

Fig

340.

number

in

Figs. 324

in

traction

power

Commutators

and

COMMUTATORS

AND

of illustrations
to

Figs. 324

340.

motors,

of

that

direct-connected

of

Moore*

to

of

BRUSH

GEAR.

the

and

three

ifie Relation*

01

from,

MOORE'S

RELATION
BRUSH
AMPERES

PER

100

geared

horse

motors.

dtrrent

CantauA

Surface,

AtoB.

RESULTS

BETWEEN

CONTACTS

on

between*
and,

Contorts

mea"uredj

used

in smaller,

irv
Amperes per effuare, Inch, of
Derufity
Arrangement of Apparatus

Jieeietance.

given

are

designs widely employed

being

331

former

Ccu-boh, brush

271

of commutators

types

illustrate

331

of
Im/e"iigajiuonj

Rfeiftartcf.

Gear.

various

Figs. 330

motor,

Brush

FOR

RESISTANCE
AN

SO.IN.

D
OF

CURRENT
CONTACT

:B

OF

CARBON

DENSITY

IN

SURFACE.

"06

"Of,

04

OS

02

O1

SO

ZO
AMPERES

Figs.
have

been

332

much

to

334

give

used

with

IN.

early designs

some

traction generators.
especially
in Figs. 335
designs are shown

1,600-kilowatt generator.

40

SO

PER

general
Other
to

in

success

useful

340, the

of

Mr.
many

modifications
last

one

Parshall's,
later
and

which

machines,
alternative

being employed

in

Electric

272

Commutator
results

conductivity

that

to

that

the

and

freedom

material
from

unequal

otherwise

of

the

just
no

will

For
mica

soft

the

enough

event

not

similar
for

wear

The
mutator

to

to

writers
losses

and

it is of

found

heating, set

intelligenthandling

amply
of

the

speeds, brush

rate

same

the

under

its

superior

since

loss

the

exercised

but
the

to the

page

selection

and

the

relations

contact

in

should

brush.

112,

to

the

give

practical determinations.
of

cumu

commutator

predetermining

of

or

preferablybe

it should

surface

down

in the

copper,

may

commutator

started, is

once

that

turned

conditions

brieflyon

subject
pressure,

such
the

until

the

as

such

method

forth

cover

be

segments

suitablysmooth

segments

primary importance

render

wear,

must

care

slowly,as

present

cast
of

score

necessary,

will

uneven

between
the

at

wear

to

of

great

insulation

inequality. Any

or

segments

effect

reasons

have

good results, and


commutator

the

the

as

more

away

continue

are

thoroughly satisfactoryservice

remedied,

lative.

of

life

the

although good

greatest possibleuniformity throughout,


flaw

of

sort

any

further

to

the

the

on

but
negligible,

itself is

shall possess

develop during

is not

wrought-copper segments

resistance

the

due

drawn,

drop-forged segments

generallyunsatisfactory. It

been

have

with

attained

been

preferably be

should

segments
also

have

Generators.

existing

But

com

very
an

between

resistance, is facilitated

Contact

by

of

study

dependence
The

of

the

these

results

of

values

upon

complete

most

Resistance

and

that

tests

various

careful

MOO

RES

.RELATION

273

been

have

made,

showing

the

conditions.

tests

RESULTS

Brushes.

of

carbon

on

brushes

at

present

FOR

RESISTANCE

BETWEEN

___

OF

4OO

CARBON

BRUSH

1GOO

120O

SOO

SPEED

"28Pi

CONTACTANO

IN

FEET

PER

2000

Z400

"OO

2800

MINUTE.

"u

iu

03

i
02

2O
f*SM"i

available,
and

Fig.

appear

results

the

is

341

parts.

CURRCHT

DENSITY

be

to

50

HO
IH

PEP

AMPERES

conducted

those

60
SQ.Ifl

by

graphicallyrepresented

are

given

3O
ATCONTACT

sketch

showing

rotatingcylinder,A,

of 6.8

the
in.

Mr.
in

A.

H.

Figs.

Moore,
341

dispositionand

diameter,

of cast

to

in

1898,

344.

In

of

the

took

the

nature
copper,
2

Electric

of

place
whether

from

derived
to

be

the

given

have

would

these

tests

predictionsof

correct

set

of

but

with

all other

In

consequence.

respects
for

30

("so*.)

hence

important

results

less useful

observed

Mr.

Some

subject.
of

Fig. 345,

results,like
page

B.

E.

and
Mr.

tests

contact

fir

eg
SO

not

it may

special

no

The

especiallygood.

seem

brush

the

of

resistance

w
PER

of

lead

to

commutators,

new

resistances

the

advisable

relatingto

of

mica

constants

found

been

have

be

should

to

as

and

the

as

dissimilaritywas

the

AMPERES

deemed

been

it has

the

holders

brush

good designs of

of

point

values

includes

also

tests

this

inasmuch

which

those

performance

the

that

safely concluded

with

agree

doubt

segments

copper

But

results.

same

of

element

an

hard-drawn

of

structure

segmental

introduced

this

and

commutator,

Generators.

holders,

negligible
;

ffo

IN.

divert

to

resistance, by

attention
the

from

addition

the

of

these

values.

Raymond
of

the

has,
results

it will

be

Moore's,

in

America,

for carbon

observed

lead

to

the

conducted

brushes

are

tests
shown

on

in

this
the

same

curves

his

that, for all practicalpurposes,

general working

constants

given

on

112.

Dr.

E.

1899, page

Arnold,

in

5, described

the

Elektrotechnische

on
investigations

both

of January
Zeitschrift,
copper

and

carbon

5th,

brushes,

276

Electric

Generators.

Brush

which

from

also
on

copper

to

be

suitable

more

absence

of

inclined

to

thorough
continue

the

in

using

of

of

for

for

brushes

has

brushes.

found

carbon

both

.2

in

the

would

be

But

writers

the

Arnold

carbon

of .3, he

this,

.3

Dr.

cases.

friction

of

support

Fig. 346, showing

two

copper-gauze

coefficient

in the

neighbourhood

for

in

forth

set

curves

coefficient

value
tests

277

resistances

the

is in

commutators

the

contact

while

that

points out

derived

for the

values

relative

the

been

have

Gear.

and

copper

brushes.
Of
losses

all values

course,

are

dependent

so

brushes, and

the

propertiesof

of
a

motor,

for

is shown

reversible

latest

and

is

365

to

holders

carbon

and

Figs.

is

354

to

355

in

brushes, and

in

of

the

and

Figs. 360
in

358

Fig. 359

361,

in

shown

is

one

design.

brush-holder

stamped

largely,of

holder

The

modification

essentiallya

and

353

horse-power launch

constructed

363.

the

brush.

shown

is

352)

to

where

motors,

Figs.

developments

holder

the

on

railway

(Figs. 347

brushes.

copper-gauze

holder,

six

In

used

carbon

successful

362

electromagnetic

the

traction

reversed.

been

with

brush

Figs.

brush

and

generators and

first

on

generators with

where

also upon

surfaces, as

upon

"

roughly

very

commutator

for

the

365,

brushes

has

running,

most

in

parts, is given

347

designed for

design,

Another

brush

which

Bayliss reaction

The

of

frequently

for

the

else

than

dynamo.

carbon

is

types

holder

the

radial

holder

useful

illustrate

Figs.

running

brush

shown

the

designs

in

with

use

direction

of

given

are

for

being

and

design of

the

collection

motors,

of their
of

material

commutator

material, quality,and

the

upon

fullyas important as anything

"

of

matter

little better

condition

the

construction, condition, and

holders, and

of

they

as

of

adjustment

whole

necessarilybe, in practice,but

must

approximate,
the

this

relatingto

Figs.

364

design represented

in

Fig. 357.
Of
from

carbon

the

carbon

carbon

Some

and

types of

brushes.

manufacture.
for carbon

are

for

great

most

brushes

deal

for

graphite

coefficient
much

cases

have

depends

By varying these,
and

grades

brushes.

wide

upon
range

to

lower
the
of

to

up

been

have

hard,

used, ranging

crystalline,

rather

specificresistance,1 a

lower

the

have

lower

graphite

of

range

graphite brushes,

latter

The

resistance, and

mutators,

wide

soft, amorphous,

brushes.

contact

brushes,

of

be

friction

composition

and

specificresistances

Tests

than

specificresistance

some

the

upon
may

com

copper

on

preferred.

lower

be

made

by

types of
methods

of

obtained, both

278

Electric

Generators.

Brush

Gear

279

Electric

280

Mr.

show

Raymond,

carbon

the

of two

brushes

L.

TABLE

between

differences

of these

extent

Amperes
per Square Inch
Brush-bearing Surface.

TESTS

GRAPHITE

ox

CARBON

AND

BRUSHES.

Inch
Square
per
Brush-bearing Surface.

of

Ohms

of

Carbon.

Graphite.
10
L'O

The
of

hood

.033

.026

.027

.022

50

.022

.019

60

.019

.017

70

.017

80

.015

results
ft. per

at

with

and

minute,

obtained

Raymond

cubic

per

Another

peripheralspeeds
brush

in the

neighbour

about

of

pressures

obtaining the

carbon

for these

Ib. per

1.3

good grade

4,000

times

to

carbon

coarser

best

out

that

they

at

brushes.

the

resistance

helpful,although

attention

brushes

be

to

it is almost

surface,

with

as

There

are

and

materials,
between

the

for

classifyand

methods

type
of

impossible to

very

harder

describe
upon

the

constructing the

of

brush

and

such

and

of

varieties

grade

brush
of

contact

with

occurs

the

the
of

matter

in certain

still

instances,

requires more
with

soft

hard, glazed

brushes, made

grades
It is not

copper.

choice

their

particular case,

have,

copper.

con

graphite

commutator

brushes.

intermediate

these

of

obtain

varieties

many

of carbon

than

each

is 2,500

of

have

to

bright ; indeed,

carbon

more

many

giving

dependent partly

and

.3,

higher potential

on

surface

commutator

clean

kept

coarser,

limits

the

rate

any

brush

Nevertheless,

conditions

commutating

carbon

extent

greater

about

graphite brushes.

liable

are

is

brushes

of

partlyexperimental,and graphite brushes

found

stant

of

volts, is

500

gradually pitted

remains

of .47

inch, i.e.,about

say

hard-grained,

been

value

the

for

friction

objectionto graphite brushes,

commutators,
surface

of

specificresistance

microhms

range

obtained

were

coefficient

the

The

one

.045

40

2,000

While

to

.048
.035

inch.

square

Mr.

.075

30

above

and

graphite

representativegrades.

RAYMOND'S

"

Generators.

of brushes

of

their

these

resistance,

variety of dynamo-electricmachine.

while

to

relative

still

more

materials.

is suitable

of

resistances, lying

worth

materials, but

from

of

of all sorts

for

attempt

merits
upon

Scarcely
any

are

the
any

considerable

PART

ROTARY

II.

CONVERTERS.

Converters.

Rotary

284

speeds

able

force, becomes
centrifugal
and

of

commutator

in the

important factor

an

rotary converter,

mechanical

periodicities.The

economical

at

compared

as

limit

design of
with

imposed by

the

armature

continuous-current

generators.
In
in

installations,a good deal

some

operating rotary

rators, whose
This

lack

of

uniformityin

in

synchronism

This

caused

these

angular

difficulties

different

is to

angular velocity.

In

been

devices

to

TABLE

LI.
C2R

OUTPUT

"

Loss

OF

extent

TERMS

rotary

100

and

give

to

for

uniform

design rotary

to

regards the generating

as

employ auxiliary

to

results

serious

GENERATOR

loss

in

EQUAL

FOR

FACTOR

POWER

UNITY

OF

solution

steadying devices.

in

FOR

revolution.

true

as

CONTINUOUS-CURRENT

OF

motor

keep perfectly
operate several

to

which

on

there

energy

EFFICIENCY

the

lines

it is necessary
and

CONDUCTORS

which

design

such

gene

converters.

causing cumu

to

parallel. The

of

otherwise

OUTPUT

OF

Station

effect of

the

this condition,

causes,

CONVERSION

to

the

attempted

proper

of
dissipation

ARMATURE
A

operate

was

in

points

that

such

the

IN

IN

ASSUMPTION

The

with

counteract

through

economy,

it

describingthe

complied

Central

troubles

insufficiently

to

generators throughout

engines

have

converters, it will be assumed


set, has

to

had
velocity,

direct-driven

the

at

"surging"

largelydue

engine driving the

the

when
especialdifficulty

converters

rotary

of

rotary converters, in their efforts

in the

with

heard

were

ultimatelyused

was

power

lative oscillations

These

converters.

angular velocityof

uniform

been

has

AND

ON

THE

neutralise

one

CENT.

PER

generator

currents

another,

and

current, varies
of

rotary

permit

of

with

the

converter

small

for

armature

number
a

of

given

conductors

phases.

C2 li loss

Table
in

the

to

LI.

carry

the

gives

armature

the

residual

output

conductors,

in terms

of

current

modified
TABLE

C2R

67

PER

The

comparison
driven

cally

considerable

As

MAGNETIC

loss

FLUX

of

for

GENERATOR

PER

CENT.

OVER

POLE-FACE

FOR

EFFICIENCY,

AND

SPANNING

the

of

other

load

same

in the

delivered

ordinary way
Not

only

of

the

from

as

of

results

of

investigation

interestingfeatures

many

the

mechani

the

are

graphical method

the

methods

three-phase rotary converter,

dynamo.

understanding

an

100

FOR

armature

study

to be

have

preceding values

CONTINUOUS-CURRENT

OF

is used

machine

basis for the

sections

are

given

of the

armature

three

lettered
indicated

analysis,
Figs. 366, 367, 368,
sine

a,
as

lines

b, and

positive. These
c-a.

also the

curves

the

zero.

of

the

line currents
the

are

Outwardly

directed

about

directed

line current

ordinates, lettered

resultant

of

by

are

from

three

several

currents

current

curves

the

are

delta
law

Kirchhoff's

junction of

common

in the

alternatingcurrents
first three

derived

prepared.

were

values

The

rings.

clockwise

369

current

be if the

would

collector

of resultant

Thirteen

and

corresponding curves

current

from

currents

always equal

a-b, b-c,and

and

positive.The

of the

curves

leading to
c,

of instantaneous

winding (as it

present),and

were

in the

must

C3 R

the
the

to

the

PITCH.

loss in the

with

continuous-

1.00.

investigatedby graphical and

value, but

Fig. 366

sum

OUTPUT

OF

as

unity.

CONDUCTORS

POLAR

THE

used

285

converter.

rotary

the

than

OF

when

at

which

to

continuous-current

leads

pursued

TERMS
ARMATURE

have

when

commutator

extent
other

IN

C~ H

the

being taken

Converters.

of Rotary

armature

same

DISTRIBUTION

OF

writers

subjectof

the

IN

GAP

CENT.

the

factors

Loss

UNIFORM

FOR

alone

shows

OUTPUT

"

of

Conductors

this latter

for power

LII.

Armature

output

LII.

EQUAL

In

the

generator,

Table

in

in

Loss

C'R

that

conductors

are

considered

designatedin Fig. 366


A

to

M,

is

divide

one

com-

as

Converters.

Rotary

286

winding
i.e.,from

that

shows

would

M,

to

six

these

of two

kinds, of

values

in

become

in

the

merely
and

to

study the

to

positionsA

and

positions.

out

in

Figs. 368

this

and

to

100

winding
volts

negative),of brushes.

The

has

that

armature

there

two

are

conductors

necessary.

and

into account,

to

take

brushes, which

are

The

to

thought
somewhat

per

best

just

to
as

it comes,

modifies

the

three

current

these

practicalpurposes

rotary
be

been

have

of

from

poles

this

it may

final

pair

is immaterial.
be

assumed
is

not

of conductors,

disturbing influence
result.

whose

each

assumption

fairlylarge number
the

mapped

converter, from

delivered

number

loss for these

C2R

average

slot, though

take

examination

.867, whilst

"

multiple-circuit
singlewinding, and

It

was

the

remainder,

conductors, corresponding

armature

of

line and

magnitudes, are

A, the

developed diagrams

(positiveand

An

current

and

.867

The

these.

In

types.

calculate

purpose,

at

to

F.

to

it is sufficient for

in the

then

369, for the

amperes

relates

as

the

are

repetitionof

Hence

1.00.

B, and

For

100

"

far

distribution

current

two

be

given diagrams of

are

from

respectively0,

windings, are
and

Fig. 367

ordinates

diagrams, so

which

B, .5, .5

commutator

of the

each

from

currents

In

deg.sections.

into 30

pletecycleup

Of

course,

of

the

this

C*R

.in Armature

Loss

disturbing influence
paratively narrow
number

of

The

would

this

amperes

far

so

the

as

the

width

of

this

being considerably less

brushes.

the

will

tend

Com

off-set

to

would

than

287

be

the

taken

in

voltage.
is made

assumption
to

Converters.

of Rotary

shown, and

are

that

efficiency,
only calling for
100

with

vary

brushes

conductors'

practicefor

Conductors

the

the

rotary

input equal

an

brushes

commutator

continuous-current

the

to

calls for 50

end

is of

converter

amperes

per

This

cent,

per
To

output.

is concerned.

Orb'

supply

conductor,
in

shown

is

1-6OO

b-c-o

b-C't-7SZ

b-C=

100

1-600

C-0="S67

CU-b-1

600

O-t-bOO

(5031 B)

direction

and

vertical

the

lines

volts

100

representingface

and

Therefore, input
volts

per

100

winding

3330

100

of

ends

conductors.

61.5

watts

Volts

watts.

.615

lower

the

figuresat

give 10,000

amperes

phase

per

and

arrowheads

magnitude by

poles.

collector

between

volts.1

of

pair

per

Amperes

per

rings

winding

3330
TTT-Z
O 1

of

the

The
Ratio

Voltage
these
for

54

(effective). In

amperes

analysis,

this

which

considers

at

Values

Estimation
of
the

the

the

Electro-Motive

Alternating Voltage

Commutator,

; have

Electro-Motive

of

already
Force.

and
been

the

Force
between

Estimation

given

on

pages

in

Rocary Converters,

Collector
of

the

84, 85,

Rings

Effect
and

of

86,

the
in

Pole

the

Tables

of

Values

Continuous-Current

the

to

Face

section

Spread
on

upon

Formulae

Rotary
9

99

591

Converters.

OS

CO

II

C'R

Loss

in Armature

Conductors

of Rotary Converters.

-"

9w^""

.w

^/v/v/'v/'x

"

r^^i'3X

"*

X)

"'

"

'o

"0

289

Rotary

:Z

Converters.

292

H!
s

Rotary

Converters.

values,

instantaneous
the

maximum

When

the

from

distribution
in the

ing

current

things
of

diagrams

to

will

instantaneous

these

lines

as

from

which
These

the

TABLE

LV.

There

show

also

LIU.

and
from

pole

is low.

does

not

of

LV.,

the

so

bottom,

the

results

"

C2R
FOR

Loss

THE

is

OP

THAT

OF

OUTPUT,

SAME

ARMATURE

SAME

100

ASSUMING

Per

IN

PER

CENT.

85

But

375
...

oo

is introduced

the

for

condition

the

It

appear.

only

Cent.

.87

by

of

will

under

for

greatly

be

the

continuous
the

values

other

results

noted

brush,

the

as

of the

the

of

unity, the

number

of

results

for

of

conductors

per

factor, this indefiniteness

power

current

width

position and

exact

that, just before


is

reaching
often

the

the
sum

position
of

the

currents.

into

the

above

form, brings

comparatively high-power
decreased.

the

factor

power

being higher, in proportion

Throwing
it is

where

to

top

58

short-circuit

loss is

resultant

the

figures given being

Factor.

under

alternating and

that

to

middle

LIV.,

1.00

indefiniteness

value

of

lagging currents,

...

this

the

the

at

brushes

give

corresponding

.50

the

the

EFFICIENCY.

Power

Some

at

ARMATURE

GENERATOR

for

arrowheads

conductors,

positive,and

as

in Table

up

and

and

successive

48

loss.

rise in C2R

summed

Any

directions

Tables

in

values

given

48.

arrowheads

and

values

given

to

currents

figures and

The

also

the

shown

as

conductors, correspond

face

the

of

directions

the

48

values

The

working

force,

respectively, is

are

from

result.

electromotive

There

top is regarded

THAT

and

assumed,

amperes.

the

representing

positionsA
CENT.

PER

numbered

are

are

are

76.5

with

369.

instantaneous

rapid

CONTINUOUS-CURRENT
CONVERSION

and

are

for

"

368

same

to

results

average

positions

results

bottom

negative.

phase

and

the

give

from

current

in

conditions.

These

currents.

is

lines

values

instantaneous

the

been

has

curve

^2

54

for

the

the

current

wave

of

these

give

of

part

upper

Figs.

poles,and

two

sine

value

of

conductors

of

Converters.

Rotary

294

factors

out

that

forciblythe
the

residual

fact
C2R

Windings for Single-Phase Rotaries.

SINGLE-PHASE
The
for

is connected

winding
the

point, to

collector

one

Fig

FOR

to

SINGLE-PHASE

is illustrated

Fig.

converter,

winding

ROTARY

alternating-current

winding, at

to the

collector

other

one

some

one-half

tracing through

72

CONVERTER.

CONDUCTORS,

in the

with
is

371

writh
has

the

two-circuit

after

is carried

single winding,

six-polearmature
In

For

of the

This

ring.

case

370

two-circuit

converter,

Then

segments, exactlyas

commutator

dynamo.

tapped, for

ring.

64

is

conductors, a tap

armature

WINDING

winding

CONVERTERS.

the

to

up

ordinary continuous-current

an

connections

of

ROTARY

295

given

connected

PITCH

up

SINGLE

WINDING

WITH

11.

as

of

single-phaserotary

Fig. 370,

which

relates

conductors.

diagram

t\vo-circuit

conductors.

Two-CiucuiT

POLES,

winding diagram

64
a

Six

singly

for

six-pole single-phaserotary

re-entrant

triple winding.

This

with

two-

Single-phase rotary converters,

WINDING

FOR

SINGLE-PHASE

TRIPLE

WINDING

FOR

72

WINDING

SINGLE-PHASE

CONDUCTORS,

ROTARY
72

WITH

ROTARY
Six

CONVERTER.

TWO-CIRCUIT

CONDUCTORS,

Six

CONVERTER.

TWO-CIRCUIT

POLES,

FRONT

PITCH

POLES,

13, BACK

SINGLY
PITCH

SINGLE
PITCH

RE-ENTRANT

11.

WINDING
11.

WITH

Advantages of Polyphase
circuit

multiplewindings,have

triplewinding
In

of

Fig. 371

Fig. 372

connected

six-circuit

as

up

has

Single-Phase Rotaries.

over

taps per winding, hence

two

the

297

two-circuit

equi-distant
taps.
singlewinding, also with 72 conductors,
2x3-6

single-phaserotary

For

converter.

such

is

winding

'

'""\

Fig.31 3.

WINDING

FOR

108

there

are

two

being divided
In
and
as

/y^X

r^t"L
/
f

CONDUCTORS,

up

into

per
six

alreadyon

'*^ N,-'"*' \

ROTARY
Six

pair

I I 1

pages

so

/ "

of
the
less

284, 285, Tables

X"

"

-V

19, BACK

six

12

taps

all, the

in

LI.

winding-

each.

overlappingof
complete

WITH

17.

PITCH

conductors

and

WINDING

SINGLE

Six-CmcuiT

poles,hence

much

's!0\\

PITCH

FRONT

equal sections
is

-'*--\ \

CONVERTER.

POLES,

of

single-phaserotary converters,

currents
collector-ring

shown

""N^

sTs^'r^

THREE-PHASE

taps

''

x*v ^-_-^

/"/-y^../^^'-^^- ^'\,^'

"X
S

for

than

LIL,

the

as

commutator

multiphase,

to render
2

their

use

uneconomical,

very

is the

There
run

further

of the

because

disadvantage

synchronism

to

up

from

FOR

THREE-PHASE
90

they

rarelyused

are

windings
entire

shows

as

pure

the
turns
with

be

cannot

general, the

\
.*-

TWO-CIRCUIT

POLES,

distribution

the

In

machine.

and
distinctly
unsatisfactory,

PITCH

SINGLE

series

entire

alternatingcurrent

WINDING

WITH

11.

capacities. An
in

given

except for small

is

"v/\

--../

EIGHT

simultaneously linked
used

CONVERTER.

to

in

singlephase rotary

ROTARY

that, due

converters

CONDUCTORS,

peripheralsurface, the

winding

that

output

^^^

WINDING

reduced

side.
alternating-current

the

operationof single-phaserotary

never

Converters.

Rotary

298

of the

of

examination
conductors

between

magnetic

collector

over

rings

the
the
are

flux ; in fact, such

single-phasegenerator, gives

for

output

rotaries

earlier

The

greater

the

for

than

Fig.31

WINDING

SIX-PHASE

FOR

operated
67

per

heating
Table

LI.

cent,
the

as

and

in

used

as

-phasers,the

winding being

armature

CONVERTER.

Six-CmcuiT

POLES,

FRONT

ROTARY

four
98

the

three

as

38

per

cent,

continuous-current

Six

To-day, however,

either

in

in

armature

same

CONDUCTORS,

generator.

generally operated

were

loss

C2R

given

CONVERTERS.

ROTARY

THREE-PHASE

of

Converters.

Rotary

300

or

per

armature

PITCH,

most

rotaries

with
six-phasers,
cent,

increased

conductors.

SINGLE

19,

BACK

WINDING

being arranged

are

still further

the

are

the

values

to

be

advantages

for
output respectively,
These

108

WITH

17.

given

given

in

Three- Phase

For

Rotaries.

three-phase rotary converters,

there

301

are

of

poles in multiple-circuit
single windings, and

of

poles

sections

three

in

winding

per

sections

per

pair

three

sections

per

pair

multiple-circuit
multiple windings.

winding, regardless of

per

three

number

the

of

There

pairs

of

are

poles

/\/\/\
'

x"

5034

WINDING

FOR

Six

two-circuit

windings.

triple\vinding,wouldhave
the

winding

rings,
the

three

armature

from
leads

had

Thus,
!j x

beginning
to

had

each
a

TWO-CIRCUIT

EIGHT

CONDUCTORS,

in

CONVERTER.

ROTARY

PHASE

y"

\/

POLES,

of

two-circuit

the

At

sections.
would

three

double

WITH

90

11.

with

six-pole machine,

end, leads

to

PITCH

WINDING

SINGLE

equal
be

ninths

carried

collector

winding,

six-circuit

to

through
collector

rings.
there

would

But

if
have

Rotary

302

but

been

hence,

for

six

leads

WINDING

FOR

SIX-PHASE

may

be

which

which

of

The

any

belonging

of
one

to

two

the

phases.

alternatelyto phases

and

inherent

of

the

one

2, then

In

be

POLES,

the

SINGLY

to 2 and

of such

and

374

TRIPLE

in

windings

overlapping

is the

of

consequence

conductors
then

17.

carries

armature

3, and

RE-ENTRANT

PITCH

phases,

portion, the

poles;

windings,from

characteristics

three

of

Figs. 373,

characteristic

periphery of
At

would

converter

CIRCUIT

Six

number

the

rings.

Two

distinctive

most

portion of

collector

CONDUCTORS,

the

conductors

the

winding

CONVERTER.
108

WITH

there

three-phase rotary

with
familiarity

obtained.

distribution

three

ROTARY

WINDING

study of

double
the

to

given diagrams

are

winding, regardless of

per

two-circuit

this

sections, and
375

sections

three

Converters.

to

conductors
will

belong

and

1, then

Rotaries.

Six-Phase

again

to

and

of

consequence

distributed
of

2, the

the

voltage
phase

with

and

the

flux, 56

is

one-third

of

considered,

at

phase will

one

the

higher than

cent,

for

SIX-PHASE

which

in

converter,

will

as

"

THREE

phase

are

result

of

distributed
which

phase, with
of

such

the

machine,

increases, as
i.e.,by
a

44

stated
cent,

per
of

matter

Figs.376, 377,
375

so-called

"

case

of

later

appear

so-called

LI.

of

one-third

on

an

entire

the

linkage

of

of

any

378

winding

one

of

the

periphery, as
of

turns

resultant

ratio

of

are

the
and

299), but

six collector
up

three-phasewindings.

into
A

winding diagrams as

just

with

rings.
twice

study

the
This

as

of these

many

to

1.38

for

requires in
sections
will

1.98,
As

of threeclear.

Figs.373,
made

connections

windings

one

output

ordinary three-phase machine.

same

conductors,

armature

six-phase is only a specialcase


distinction will be subsequently made

(pages 297, 298,


the

turns

six-phaserotary

all the
The

obtained.

284, in the

page

of

that

beyond

and

one

output

of

linkage

conductors

the

"

given heating

in Table

six-phase,"with

subdividing

heating,the

effective

in the

magnetic flux, is

This

is

the

of

turns

fact,this so-called

phase arrangement.
374, and

it

CONVERTER.

simultaneous

for

and

single-phaserotaries.

overcome

only

over

entire

width

PHASE

almost

an

the

alternating-current
all the

of

given

more

ROTARY

disadvantage is mainly

This

of

are

simultaneouslylinked

lower

three-quartersof

be

not

for

when
"

least

As

phase

one

any

polar pitch

linkage

Hence,

already,because

the

is

consequence

flux occurred.

pair of poles.

periphery,and

if simultaneous

than

entire

per

of

conductors

entire

the

exceeds

turns

limited, although

is

of

flux, and

phase

per

of

spreading

entire

the

the

property,

all the

"

per

flux

magnetic

polar pitch

repetitionoccurring once

two-thirds

over

generally,when
with

this

303

each
as

for

show

for
case

the
that

with

the

periphery

is

phase, i.e., the

one

third

third

and

conductors, suitable

for

in Fie.

there

conductors

first

and

second

in

fourth

this

be

in which

the

each

portion

and

fifth,or

the

to

the

previously

phases overlapped.

clear

more

pairs,

belonging

distinguished from

is

way

made

the

groups,

in

three-phase winding,

Furthermore,

phase.

three),

were

sixth, taken

occupied exclusivelyby

will

distinction

This
o-iven

fifth,and

three-phase windings

described

before

(where

now

sixth, and

and

the

sections

pairs constitutinga

above

of the

each

of

distribution

and

fourth, second

first and

give

six

with

connections

these

the

of

Converters.

Rotary

304

by

study

of

the

diagrams

371).

HIGH

TENSION

HIGH

BUSBARS

TENSION

SWITCHES

fig.380.

LOW

TENSION

SWITCHES

\TO THE

COLLECTOR
RINGS

INTERCONNECTION
For

be

in

"

transformers

for

this

delta,"as
in

permits

third

the

case

has

the

be

to

six-phase rotary converters,

satisfactory.One
the

other
a

of connection

method
satisfactory

For

the

as

circle

"

be denoted

may

diametrical

(Fig.381),and

"

should

system

be

to

preferably

operated with

of circuit

out

cut

connected

diagram,
the

to

up
or

first

across

case

the

collector

diametrical
it is necessary

as

six

the

given

is

either
the

"

in

Fig.

of two

temporarily

delta

the

rings

in

"

that

each

connection, and
be

represented

circumference

the

delta/'

double

of the

will be

transformers

of the

pairs of points as

"

winding

equidistantpoints on

secondaries

380.

arrangements

double

Let

connection.

let the

represent collector rings,then

In

CONVERTERS.

ROTARY

AND

repairs.
A

by

TRANSFORMERS

three-phase rotary converters, the transformers

connected

two

STATIC

OF

in
three

the

as

second

may

in

the

be
first

diagram.

transformers

have

Six- Pli ase

two

independent secondary coils,as

in the

The

second

two

In
the

diagrams (Fig. 382)


the

same

first case,
for

as

"delta"

is need

there

case

the

and

for but

A1,

305

secondary

one

collector

of

ring

three-phaserotary converter,

In

systems.

second

the

single-phaserotary converter,

it

coil per

is the

same

such

three

TO

mtw

RINGS.

COLLECTOR

LVI.
Ratio

of Collector

Ring
Voltage to
Commutator
Voltage.

connection

.612
.707

lightercables
to

the

rotary

brought out

"

The

preferred.

"

systems.

Diametrical

latter

for

CONNECTION

for .Six-Phase
Style of Connection
Rotary Converter.

The

as

two

'

TABLE

Double-delta

voltage is

CONNECTION.

DIAMETRICAL

RINGS.

COLLECTOR

transformer.

simply consistingof

mm

C1, whereas

commutator

"DIAMETRICAL

TO

and

381

CONNECTION

DOUBLE-DELTA

it

being analogous to

CONNECTION.

BELT*.

to

ratio

the

case,

Fig

"DOUBLE-

Bl, C

and

this clear.

make

ratio

Rotaries.

higher voltage at

about

the

converter.

per

"

"diametrical

the

station
It

transformer

in

also
"

and

"connection,
the

collector

wiring

up

is, on

whole,

to

be

rings,permits of carrying

from

only requires two


it

the

the

static

secondary

transformers
leads

to

be

the switchingarrangements.
simplifies
2

is

converters

rotary

of

broken
the

connectors

system
to

of

right

the

to the

flashing. The
serious

has

two

be

which

kept

be

must

can

and

feature

Another

system
The

entirelyseparate.

high-tensionfeeders

of

sets

of

alternating-current

continuous-current

have

been

hardly

be

is, of

of

gain

given output

apply

not

just

"

constitute
of

of

the

for

large

as

the

to

any

44

per

armature

important advantage

does

and

surging

to

heating

the

an

course,

this

said

have,

converters

free from

already explained gain

is the

standpoint

the

that

for

"

rings

there

latter

in mind

the

made

be

to

six-phase rotary

that

stably,and

run

collector

This

said

be

to

from

output

independent

for

more

are

entire

them

keeping

C.

the

entire

the

transformer.

the

panels shown.

may

found
six

conductors.

as

L,

thus

disadvantage,and
in

for

feeder

two

been
practice,

must

shown,

conclusion, it

In

cent,

line

the

particularscheme
coming

line L, and

left of the

the

of

the

that

arranged

intended

are

brings

it

is that

shown,

arrangement
to

circuits

and

high-tension,quick-break switches

the

by

line

it

four, six-phase

necessityof six-bladed,heavy

the

switches

The

the

is

high-tensionside

the

on

with

plant

where

Fig. 383,

switches.

current, low-tension
purpose

done

for

synchronising avoids

of

method

in

given

be

synchronising shall
This

suitable

connection

switchboard

in

Converters.

Rotary

306

but

it

commutator,

six-phase rotary

three-phaser.

FOUR-

In

Fig. 384

is

four-phase rotary
sections

per

and

collector

four

ROTARY

PHASE

given

six-circuit

Here

converter.

pair of poles
"

single winding
subdivide

we

in

hence

CONVERTERS.

this

case

up

"

total

12

as

into

winding

the
x

connected

four

sections,

ring's.
o

two-circuit

converter,
rule
that
of

in

for two-circuit

they

windings
per

cent,

reallyin

four
in the

is subdivided
are

the

Fig. 385.

windings

have

poles. Hence,

winding
50

is shown

shall

same

the

used

as

into

by

the

polar pitch.
phase, in

this

into

12

winding
Sections

sense

four-phase rotary
four

sections;

four-phase rotary converters,

triplewinding

winding, independent

per

two-circuit

for

up

is subdivided

It

sections

characterised
of

connected

singlewinding

such

per
1

in

shown
All

sections.

of

Fig. 386,

rotary

3,

as

also

converters

the

four-phase

phase having

and

being

number

the

these

the

2
are

spread
and

4,

of

are

sometimes

Rotary

308

called
well

two-phase,
shown

in

There

are

occasionallyquarter-phase.

also

Fig.

Converters.

The

distribution

is also

387.

also

four-phase,

in

as

in

six-phase, alternative

methods

of

Fig.384

WINDING

FOR

FOUR-PHASE
96

connecting

from

diametrical

connection

the

case

of

ROTARY

CONDUCTORS,

secondary

six-phase.

is to

CONVERTER.
Six

POLES,

transformer
be

SIX-CIRCUIT
PITCH

17

terminals

preferred, and

for

SINGLE

AND

to

the

WINDING,

WITH

15.

collector
same

The

rings.
reasons

as

in

Twelve-Phase

Rotary

ROTARY

TWELVE-PHASE

the

advantages

Each

transformers.

WINDING

of

FOR

12-phase

transformer

80

coils.

other,
a

of

The
and

CONDUCTORS,

primariesare
there

are

excited

twelve

number

of

poles in

Six

from

twelve

two-circuit

with
and

two

PITCH

SINGLE

obtaining
two

static

equal secondary

WINDING,

AVITII

13.

circuits in
the

of

only

four

T\VO-CIRCUIT

POLES,

tappings into

winding, and
multiple-circuit
the

primary

one

CONVERTER.

ROTARY

FOUR-PHASE

apparatus permits
converter

rotary
has

309

CONVERTERS.

of

interestingcombination

Another

Converter.

quadrature with

armature

per

each

pair of poles in

tappings per winding, independently


windings.

The

diagram, Fig. 388,

sets

forth

underlying idea

the

representing the

WINDING

FOR

II.

FOUR-PHASE

their

have

as

applied to

winding, tapped

ROTARY
96

and

Converters.

Rotary

310

points

the

at

CONVERTER.
Six

CONDUCTORS,

primaries connected

bi-polararmature,

Two

POLES,
to

1 to

12.

CIRCUIT

PITCH

circuits

the

circle

Transformers

TRIPLE-WINDING,

I.

WITH

17.

quadrature with

in

each

other.
The

60

deg. chords

fig

represent

the

transformer

secondaries

11-9,

3-5,

387
FOUR

PHASE.

n
a

12-2, and

pairs

8-6, while

of secondaries

BJ

0
the
1-7

two

and

diameters
10-4.

represent

Obviously

the

the

whole

series-connected
idea

is based

on

Twelve-Phase
inscribed

two

hexagons, the

The

other.

four

letting the

well-known

method

retaining

the

Converter.

standing at

one

sides and

coils

primaries

changing

greater

of

deg. from

90

conform

the

to

the

equality

radii.

transformer
of

;;i I

angle

an

equally-wound secondary

requirement between
By

Rotary

from

three

and

economy

have

windings, the

quarter-phase permits

to

other

different

advantages

of

of

three-phase

JFig.388

pain

TO

A av

COLLECTOR

KINGS

LEADS

transmission, and
rotary, and
indicated

DESIGN

further

these

greatly increased

in

advantages

output

per

of

TO

only

two

transformers

This

system

25-CvcLE,

600-VoLT

rotary.

ff/NGS

COLLECTOR

is

per

sufficiently

diagram, Fig. 389.

OF

400-KiLOWATT,

SIX-PHASE

ROTARY

CONVERTER.
The

first

question to

being given, the

speed

speed,and

as

hence

generallylead

to

the

decide

will

few

best

be

is the

inverselyas

poles as
results

the

consistent

are

for

of

number

given

amount

poles.
number

The
of

periodicity

poles. High

good constants,

with
of

material.

will

Rotary

312

In

considering the
that

shown

the

limitingarmature

pole-piece,and
in

which,

by

the

commutator

the

current

in

this

so

is

the

consideration
armature

that

other

as

each

be

to

of

current

other

and

the

the

the

caused
the

pulsationsof

by

the

generating
is not

low

as

the

reverse

neutral

from

the

the

ring

in

result.

could

safelybe

converter

given periphery,

of the

rotary

the

in

the

current,

superposed

upon

which

to

hence

where

in

interference

with

extent

But

interference.

such

perfectstep

another, and

one

In

made.

keep

decrease

neutralise

insuffi

generator supplying

motion
consequent oscillatory

revolution,greatly

With

rotary converter

to

only

resultant

separatelyinsulated,

on

can

have

the

carry

revolution

provided,armature
voltage of

reactance

possible,as

commutation,"

the

is

to

arranged

currents

generator

is

of the

permissible

conductors

order

not

of

the

on

the

results

satisfactory

rotary

converter

limitingconsideration.

The
as

the

and

limiting

used

is that

motor

component

armature
oscillatory
set

which

interference

generator components

and

large

motor

the

by

of

rate

and

motor

the

inabilityof

generator, and

its uniform

is

be

angular velocityper

be

the

converters

be

not

conductor

each

armature

per

resultant

six-phase rotary
would

in

cross-section

can

for

voltage

small

very

extent, the

considerable

very

rotary converter, this assertion

case,

on

excessive

no

cientlyuniform

of

to

nevertheless,by the time

hence

per

As

determine.

pole-piecewill

among

extraordinarilylarge number

no

many

relativelysmall

in

considerations, first

peripheralspeed, shall
cancel

turns

per

segment,

average

leave

interference

armature

turns

ampere

commutator

by

polyphase rotary converters,

conductors, and

in fact, as

in

currents

generator

armature

per

was

is determined

poles

design, the

the

But

is taken.

armature

small

voltage

reactance

and

motor

of

expressed in

first steps of

very

segment

superposed

permissiblenumber

interference

generators, it

continuous-current

of

design

minimum

the

Converters.

point
neutral

collector
current

the

loads,

generator

since

coil.

the

practicalpurposes

voltage

any

based

upon

the

kind

of

in

it appears
which

desirable
would

"

forced

field to
at

position

superposition
the

collector

commutation

current.

made

remain

their

proper

the

"

magnetic

Moreover,

of

be

must

brushes

The

resultant

that

alteration

with

independently
of

of

use

currents.

commutator

component

for

make

not

interfere

would

continue

must

reactance

all

and

commutation,

short-circuited

the

point

ring

complicated,and
nominal

for

does

one

in

current

coil under

has, in rotary converters,

one

is,

that

the

going

The

process

to

estimate

be

set

up

in

Six-Phase, Four-Hundred
the

short-circuited

by

turns

Kilowatt
the

Rotary

reversal

of

Converter.

the

313

continuous-current

component.
The

diameter

retainingthe

of

the

conductors

armature

binding wire, figured with


is

armature

and

flux

low
sufficiently

limitation

often

on

of

machines

segments
and

segment

commutator

number

of

several
be much

should

of

segments, and,

the

permit.

For

the

basis

of

one

turn

this

face.

the

current

as

For
number

commutator

conductors.

design,is
It is not
the

that
a

approaching

without
of armature

output,

per

safety. Upon

converter

in. in width.

restricts

once

of

ratings,however,

obtained

rotary

with

amount

conductors

some

commutator

of
of

of number

kilowatts

less than
at

or

in

with
at

be

may

is consistent

reasonable

factor
number

hundred

poles,this
on

place,using

diameter
met

large as

as

large a

voltage

reactance
armature

width

as

densities

extremes, either of
Another

in

conservative

generallyplaced

magnetic

is chosen

armature

of

desirable,

commutator

given
of

that

diameter

commutator

segment,
2

also

restricts
two

the

turns

per

converters,

poles.
to

600

of

segment

would

generators of

Hence
1000

the

gain

to

an

undesirablyhigh

as

high

for

as

with

an

is also very

commutation
second.

minute,

per

output, and

be

lead

Consequently

correspondinglylow,

in

is,

rotary

good

continuous-

equal

number

of

from

high, often
the

in order

inductance
not

to

of

lead to

voltage.
have

referred

segments.

would

coil must

large rotary converters,

commutated.

times

same

frequency of

converters

limitations

mutator

the

always

revolutions

in

complete cyclesper

reactance

Rotary
the

being
three

or

For

turns.

almost

coil

the

generallytwo

short-circuited

high

armature

speed, expressed

The

current

number

voltageof

reactance

the

Converters.

Rotary

314

be

in

This

to,

been
of

two

the

is rather
two

and

narrow

since
unsatisfactory,

commutators

to

commutators,

high peripheral speed,

method

connecting

built with

in

series

escape
com

the
but

chief

by

so

Converters.

Rotary

316

In

similar

of, say, four

and

the

final effect

the

inverse
the

upon
current

in

than

six

be

armature),

reversed, is, in
machine

the

reversal

with

the

few

poles.

complete comparative calculations,

SATURATION
400K.W.

25

It

is much

safer

ol

poles,less
rather

make

to

the

probabilityof overlooking

the

as

larger number

the

CURVE
CYCLES.

Rotary

JKg."394

of

case

the

that

quite different,and

be

may

(largelydependent

turn

per

while

that

great (because of

be

not

may

inductance

speed),the

the

mind

in
keep distinctly

should

advantages

relative

the

comparing

were

frequency of

in

of

length

one

poles,one

the

on

change

to

if

manner,

600

VOLTS.

Converter.

4-OOK.W.

LOSSES.

AND

EFFICIENCY
25

600VOLTS.

CYCLES.

Rotary Converter.

!" 30

E"
i
O

"iearinq " ail

50""

700"

600"

"?"V

effect

TURNS.

of

(it7f""

certain

Windage

9000
100

AMPERE

BrusfiTnccion

change,

all

on

2OO

300

AMPERES

600

TOO

8OO

involved, is

constants

the

500

WO

OUTPUT

very

considerable.
As

slots,thus
as

than

surging,"

generating
present
solid

the

few
of

width
radial

is

to

set.
any

due

to

preferableto

slot

not

the

with

where

it should
This
there

extent, it will be

is

as

keep
much,

as

small
if any,

important, because

is the

least

possibility

revolution

pole-pieces this

diminished, and

conductivity,such

be

not

angular velocityper
laminated

to

necessary

air gap.

be used

inconstant

pole-facesof good

is also

in many

conductors

the

arrange

opening, and

depth of

Where,

It

slot.

per

pole-facesshould

laminated
"

but

having

the
possible,

greater

of

general rule, it

sometimes

"

of

surging

the
"

is

prevented, if

wrought-iron forgings

of

Six-PJiase, Four-Hundred

good quality,are
the

and

armature,

induced

used.
the

surging will

be of

dissipationof
may

best

air

but

gap,

small

in

which

and

600

volts

in

Figs.

394

conditions,

negligiblewith

but

the

cores

shorter

generally render

converters

the

pole-faces.

complete, the

more

the

little

magnet

for

employed

and

mind, lead

in

the
very

successive

numbers

should

be

thoroughly

made

calculations
one

definitely

very

corresponding speed,

the

economy

in material.

of

At

pairsof poles,
out, and

worked

output

the

following design

is worked

the

speed

working

making

out

the

the

given

revolutions
per

cycles,

out.

The

minute.

per

could

minute

applicationof

the

of the
in

is illustrated

are

375

25

at

these

costs

Figs. 390

estimated

have

principles

for
corresponding specification

comparison

is

revolutions

500

practicein

excellent

395

kilowatts

for 400

converter

poles and

six

in

then

voltage,trial

the

operationwith
two

eight, and

is

eight-poledesign

The

favourable

poles and

of

in

commutator,

poles

and

machine,

loss of energy,

compared.

at

found

be

be

also be

number

designs

obtained, and

would

should

up

check

to

high specificconductivityas

so

of

set

to

tend

turn

minimum

be made

considerations

constants

good design with

been

latter

six-phaserotary

of

number

not

will lie between

cost

For

in

wrought-iron pole-faces. The

this has

certain

both

and

under

high speeds of rotary

of

case

constants

but

and
output, periodicity,

choice

the

most,

317

superposed oscillations

react, and

may

surging will

combining good

best

the

Converter.

undesirable.

the

choice

the

the

foregoing various

the

with

circuits

which

the

the

clearances
Given

of

accomplished with

extent, and
in

iron,

prevention of

The

to

small

steel, but

wrought

be

may

copper

energy

be of cast

pole-face,which

This

by suitablyarranged

tendency

Rotary

consequentlyvarying magnetic field,is

in this

currents

oscillations.

these

The

Kilowatt

such

of material.
to

393, inclusive, and

saturation

and

efficiency

curves.

TABULATED

CALCULATION

AND

PHASE

SPECIFICATION
ROTARY

FOR

SIX-

400-KiLOWATT

CONVERTER.

DESCRIPTION.
Q

Number

of

poles

Kilowatt

output

Speed,

revolutions

Terminal

Amperes

...

per

minute

volts, full load

...

...

...

Frequency (cyclesper second)

...

318

Rotary

Converters.

DIMENSIONS.
Armature

Diameter

all

over

58
...

Length

...

...

over

of

...

periphery

at

core

bottom

...

...

...

,,

...

58
...

...

...

...

,,

...

of slots
...

...

...

...

laminations
,,

"

of

Length

...

of

Width

ventilating ducts

of each

Effective

length, magnetic
of

core

,,

Length

,,

...

-r

periphery

9^

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

iron
total

length...

...

...

...

...

...

...

7.2,,

...

-76,,

...

...

...

in.

...

183,,

...

surface

at

,,

...

4
...

ventilating duct

round

...

laminations

over

...

Number

Pitch

40

,,

core

!"

55

,,

,,

in

...

...

29
...

Diameter

...

...

conductors

22.8
"

Insulation

between

10

sheets
...

Thickness

...

...

cent.

per

...

...

in.

.014

of sheets
...

...

...

...

...

...

1.25

Depth

of slot

Width

of slot at

"

.28

root

"

.28

surface...

at

...

,,

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

300

of slots

Number

depth

of teeth

9 in.
...

...

...

7.75
...

...

...

...

.303,,
...

...

...

...

05

of conductor
core,

Length

of

length

of

pole-piece

of

Pole-piece

...

...

edge

pole-pieceat
consist

to

9.5
...

...

...

...

...

in.
in.

...

of

...

soft

...

...

...

in.

shaft.

in.

...

If

...

wrought-iron forging,so

"

to

as

have

conductivity.
specific

maximum

Pole-arc

61

pitch

-r

Length

of core,

Diameter

of

Bore

...

14

radial
...

magnet

...

...

...

in.

...

...

12

core
...

...

...

...

,,

...

58J

of field
...

Spool

cent.

per

Clearance
...

...

...

...

...

...

"

,,

1 4 in.

Length

...

of shunt
,,

winding

space

...

...

!!"""

...

...

...

2f

of series
,,

"

Depth

...

,,

...

...

,,

...

of series
...

,,

of
,,

,,

of shunt

,,

Yoke

.45

along
14

pole-arc

Thickness

.330,,

face

armature

Magnet

,,

...

root

at

,,

"

...

teeth

below

Width

...

of lamination

depth

Radial

...

...

...

radial

Gross

Size

"

winding

space

...

...

...

,,

...

2
...

...

...

...

...

"

...

Outside

104

diameter

in. and
88

Inside
"

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

3|

Thickness

Length along

95

in.
"

20

armature
...

...

...

,,

in.

Six-Phase, Four-Hundred
Commutator

Kilowatt

Rotary

Converts.

Diameter

52

...

Number

of segments

"

slot

per

of segments

...

at

surface

at

root

...

...

.23

...

"

"

Total

depth

Width

...

of segments

length

,,

Available

of

...

\\

...

of segment

of insulation

...

in.

21

...

segment

length

5 in
QQQ

...

"

Width

Collector

31"J

...

between

segments

...

.045

...

Diameter
...

Number

of

Width

of

...

rings

...

rings

...

...

1
.........

...

JJrushes

6
2 in.

all

over

..

...

22

...

...

Continuous

Alternating

Current.

Number

of sets
...

in
"

...

...

...

Radial

length

Width

...

...

...

...

..

2J in.

...

of brush

Thickness

...

of brush
...

Current.

8
...

set

one

in.

...

...

between

15

...

...

ring

,,

Length

...

11,,

of brush

in.

.63
"

Dimensions

of

bearing surface,

one

brush

1.5 in.

"

.75 in.

1 in.

1 in.

1 square

inch.

...

Area

of contact,

Type

of brush

one

brush

1.13
...

...

Insulation

square

...

Radial
...

inches

carbon

Copper.

...

On

in slots

core

Oil-treated
.012

Of

conductor

Varnished
...

...

...

...

cardboard

about

in thick.
linen

...

tape.

ELECTRICAL.
Armature

Terminal

full load

volts

600
...

Total

internal

...

Style
Times

...

...

...

614
...

...

Number

...

volts
...

of circuits
of

winding

...

...

...

...

...

...

Multiple

circuit
1

re-entrant
...

Total

...

parallelpaths through

Conductors

in series

construction

Number

of face

of

...

...

...

...

150

winding

Bar
...

...

...

...

1200

conductors
...

...

...

...

...

conductors

Arrangement
Number

in

"""

300

slots
"

...

brushes

between

...

Type

...

armature

per

of conductors

parallelmaking

slot
...

in slot
up

one

conductor
...

drum.

Converters.

Rotary

320

Mean

length of

Total

number

armature

one

...

in series
of

conductor

...

...

Per

It

output

...

conductors

cube

20

at

...

in

..

brushes, 60 deg. Cent.

for

is

conductors

little

conductors

armature
C

full load

drop

667

at

in armature

60

at

...

...

...

for

deg.

Cent.

coils

brush

contact

from

is

667

370

in

current

the

the

same

armature
In

commutator.

Allowing

take

may

the

loss in the

the

amperes.

the

for
in

current

amperes.
9.5 volts

...

...

...

...

,,

...

...

...

,,

...

...

2.2

surface
...

...

,,

allowed

C2R

same

generator with

resultant

times

1.96

series

not

...

the

factor, we

.55

ohm.

...

.0256

output

16
.022

...

delivered

that

Cent.

six-phase rotaries

the

quite unity power

not

deg.

continuous-current

half

over

in

60

to

commutator

given load,

the

present machine,

and
efficiency,

the

in

as

deg.

that

seen

from

conductors,

20

Cent,

brushes, 20 deg. Cent.

taken

,,

...

...

.00000068

between

be

...

...

in resistance

been

...

inch

square

...

.18

parallel

between

already

in.

...

Cent.

deg.

Resistance

may

...

.0225

Resistance

winding. Hence,

the

...

increase

armature

the

5850

brushes

cent,

has

...

...

conductor

one

inch

per

...

75

between

eight

,,

...

...

...

...

Cross-section,

Ohms

...

brushes

between

...

Length

...

...

600
...

Turns

in.

78

turn

of turns

,,

...

...

1.3 in cables

for in above
...

...

,,

and

...

...

connections

Amperes

per

2050

inch, conductor

square

...

...

figured on

...

...

resultant
,,

brush-bearing

,,

surface

37
...

...

current

figured on

current

from

output

commutator
"

,,

All

but

in the

the

,,

current

armature

but
specification,

density and

the

transformers, it is

total

section

of service

in

the

of copper

specifiedinsulation

...

...

...

drop

brought together here

are

to

aim

to

the

space

in which

ratio

Sectional

"Space

area

of slot

area

of copper

factor"'

.09

1.25

-4-

.35

.28

in slot
=

later

insulation

and

4
.26

.35

square

.0225

for

"

space
to

inches.
.09

square

possibleof

as

it is wound,

slots.

Sectional

derived

are

for reference.

ratio, termed

same

conductors

proportioning the

results

high

as

secure

The

resistance.

...

FACTOR.

SPACE
In

...

1000

windings

series
,,

980

windings

shunt

inches.

the

given

factor," is
armature

Six-Phase, Four-Hundred
i.e.,26

of the space

cent,

per

is

Kilowatt

occupied by

Rotary

Commutation

volts

Armature

between

turns

Resultant

per

current

commutator

segments

pole

Resultant

As

as

It

is

strength

armature

brushes

the

the

remain

per

pole

distortingtendency, and

do

the

factor

power

also

be

to

the

46

and

Figs. 368

75

and

288

the

VOLTAGE

demagnetising

any

armature

COIL

OF

...

across

surface,

of

short-circuited

...

...

...

...

...

,,

...

...

...

...

...

...

.00073
...

cycles per

together per

...

...

...

...

second

short-circuited

685

brush

...

...

per

brush

commutated

together

group

turn

ampere

...

...

together per

inch

per

gross

...

...

...

...

...

length

armature

20

lamination
...

through

Inductance

of
in

Reactance

one

coil of

earring one
one

coil of

one

coil

...

...

six turns

one

Reactance
Current

.0000114
...

turn

one

...

...

good

83.5

amperes

...

4.1
...

...

THE

rotary

machine

ohm

...

coil

with

henrys

...

.049

important consideration

otherwise

...

...

ampere

(continuous-currentcomponent)

voltage,one

high speeds customary

...

...

turn

PROPORTIONING

an

sees.

per

per

in.

.75

segments

coil

Conductors

in.

...

1030

...

commutation,

Turns

an

COMMUTATION.

UNDEK

reversal

complete

one

Turns

is

pole-piece.(See

second

per

Frequency

fully

means

negative in successive

...

...

...

Width
of

is

6.25
...

Peripheral speed, inches


of brush

unity.

165
...

This

no

second

per

so

current

of commutator

Revolutions

Flux

by

are

oppositeone

"

is

component

turns

exert

effect

52.5
...

Flux

point,these

of commutator

Circumference

Coils

neutral

resultant

turns

turns.

ampere

289.)

REACTANCE

OF

3450

current
alternating-

in successive

even

DETERMINATION

Time

have

not

amperes.

force, being positiveand

369, pages

Diameter

mechanical

that, while

magnetomotive

as

the

46

corresponding ampere

3450

sometimes

"

of

noted

...

the

effective

where

by

cent,

75

at

46, amperes,

groups

per

...

conductor

per

...

long

74

Average

and

copper,

321

insulation.

necessary

only

Converter.

volts

...

BINDING
in machines

converters.

WIRE.
which

Cases

must

at

run

the

might easily occur

might be designed; but

on

calculating
2

Converters.

Rotary

322

the

it would

binding wire,

total

peripheralsurface

could

of

Every pound
of .0000142

copper

need

be

only

devoted

to

it.

...

...

...

...

...

.18

.18

.32

340

in.
inch

square

Ib.

periphery is subject

the

at

5850

=
...

the

to

centrifugal

pounds, where

N2
D

diameter

revolutions

to

in inches.
minute.

per

of

force

laminations

iron

larger portion of

brushes

5850

.0000142

wire

properly be

between

material

in this case,

The

require

to

brushes

between

of conductor

of armature

Weight

Hence,

found

...

Cross-section

force

than

of conductor

Length

be

58

3752

dovetailed

are

into

retain

proportioned to

115

Ib.

the

weight

the

of the

binding

the

spider,so

in

wire

copper

place.
Total

centrifugal force

Force

per

inch

square

340

115

of armature

Ib.

39,000

surface

=7.4

Total

projected

Total

stress

area

29

wire

binding

on

58

1680

1680

7.4

of

tensile

10,

of

strength

Ib. per

100,000

58

TT

inches.

square

12,500 Ib., or

and

Using phosphor-bronze binding wire,


a

Ib.

29

Ib. per

with

side.

factor

basis

the

estimating on
inch,

square

6250

of

of

safety

require

we

6250

10

.63

inch.

square

100,000

No.

Taking

of

cross-section
should

bands
each

be

of

be
end

Stubbs

.00933

arranged

should
set

12

over

wire

inch,

square
in

bands

nine

laminated

the

(614
Coefficient

of

Megalines

in

one

pole

at

full

body

of

would

392

on

pole

at

required.

These

of

these

Three

armature,

and

page

in., and

.109

each.

turns
the

be

three

315.)

CALCULATIONS.

load

and

600

terminal

volts

volts)

magnetic leakage
one

eight

CIRCUIT

MAGNETIC

internal

of

of

diameter

of these

72

(See Fig.

connections.

Megalines from

with

gauge

8.20
1.15
...

...

...

...

...

full load

9.5
...

...

...

...

over

Rotary

324

Converters.

SPOOL
Shunt

WINDINGS.

Mean

length, one

3.66

turn
...

Ampere

turns

Ampere

feet

shunt

per

...

...

...

...

spool, full load

ft.

...

7,650

...

28,000

Radiating surface, one


Watts

per

square

Watts

per

spool at

field

inch
20

,,

,,

"

"

,,

,,

...

allowed

...

20

at

deg.

...

.40
...

280

winding

20

at

Cent.

deg.

220
...

...

series

60
"

shunt
Shunt

copper

Volts

terminals

at

Amperes

of

shunt

per

"

winding

spool

per

,,

60

at

255
,,

...

...

...

...

...

...

110
...

...

...

spool

20

at

spool

deg.

...

Cent.

56
...

3.92
...

...

...

...

...

Turns

1950

"

Total

length

Resistance
Pounds
Size

"

of shunt

per

conductor

spool

1000

per

20

at

7150ft.
...

...

...

...

...

..

Cent.

deg.

14.4
...

15.4
No.

...

...

...

...

...

.072
...

...

double

...

...

...

...

...

,,

...

...

Cross-section

00407

density, amperes

Available

winding

Number

of

Turns

strength

found
of

very

small

do

weaker,

in

and

circuited, all

winding
relation

to

the

continuous-current
the

terminal

no

load, and

increases

as

to

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

use

series

the

the

In

diverted

the

extent

system,

shunt

by having

which

on

with

from
found

comes

on,

line, as

except

small

the

series

coil
it.

current,

is

coil

balance
half

being

completely
enables

This

the

desirable, considered
well

system, it

the

to

as

of

much
short-

series
with

low-tension

is desirable

to

have

load.

the

so

series
and

the

machine,

about
position,

next

series

latter

excitation

sufficient

the

the

but

of the

cent,

of

main

the

perfect;

per

winding,

rheostat,

position,the
to

all the

sends

open,

high-tensiontransmission

load

in.

lead, and

or

25

some

side

the

on

lag

is far less

currents

have,

to

being

employed

much

series coil of

rheostat.

final

with

generator

through

current

well

so

coil,and

voltage increase

the

...

...

run

and

diverter

By adjustingthe

...

...

...

completely

the

the

be

to

not

motor

is diverted

current

...

...

...

percentage, through
a

...

...

115
...

shunt

passing through
the

...

...

switch, which, when

inches

980
10

...

convenient

the

inch

square

"

square

17

converters

superpositionof the
it is often

per

space

layers
layer

per

Rotary

in. in diam.

.082
...

Current

S.W.G.

...

covered

cotton

Ib.

15

...

bare

Dimensions

ohms

...

ft

of conductor

Dimensions

inches

square

...

Cent....

Cent.

deg.

shunt

700

spool

be

to

thus

that

the

current

excitation, the
controls

the

lags slightlyat

total

phase

field

strength

of the

motor

Six-Phase, Four- Hundred


At

current.
in

lead, thus
Series

load

intermediate

some

phase with

Kilowatt

electromotive

the

at

higher commutator

be

exactly

will

loads

higher

325

will

current

motor

force, and

maintaining rather

also

the

Converter.

Rotary

slightly

voltage.

Ampere

full load

turns,

load

Full

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

6G7

amperes

167

in series

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

2 in.
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

.5 sq. in.

cross-section

Total

...

...

density, amperes

Current

of

Mean

length

Total

length, all turns


of

Resistance
C2R

Series

...

...

3.66ft.

spools at
20

at

20

deg.

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Cent.

20

deg.

475
...

60

Cent.
...

...

JO

...

"

Weight

Ib.

225

copper

...

...

...

CALCULATIONS
Armature

ohm

.0019

Cent.

CO
of series

in.

1400

deg.

spool at

per

...

1000

...

eight spools

on

total

"

,,

...

inch

square

per

...

eight

watts,

...

turn

one

LOSSES

OF

HEATING.

AND

ohm

.0256

brushes

between

Resistance

C-R

60

loss at

3500

Cent.

deg.

deg. C.
figuredfrom

watts

resultant
second

Frequency, cycles per

=
...

2310

weight

density

Flux
C.D.

-j-

density

flux

Apparent

in

"

laminations

armature

in teeth

2555

"

(kilolines)
D

(kilolines)
=

core

Ib.

245
...

...

core

Total

current

25

teeth

of armature

Weight

at

...

...

...

...

...

60

in.

.05

by

parallel

in

...

used

of conductor

Number

...

...

spool

per

...

500

spool

,,

Size

...

diverted

Amperes
Turns

2000
...

73
=

1-83

1000

...

1-65
=
...

5^-5l

watts

loss per

core

3.02

Ib.

...
...

1000
Total

loss

core

3.02

loss

armature

2555

7,700

watts

11,20(

,,

,,

58

diameter

Armature

...

34

length

"

Peripheral

per

Assumed

5300

radiating surface
speed, feet

per

inch

in

square
rise

of

thermometer,

square

inches

5700

minute

...

...

radiating surface

temperature
after

"

"""

...

...

,,

Watts

in.

10

watt

per

hours'

run

per

square

inch

by
20

deg. Cent.

rise estimated

Total
Assumed

core

Ib.,is multipliedby the

from

which

and

tooth

the

constant

...

...

...

total

teeth,

...

...

...

loss per
the

,,

as

iron

in

and

as

i.e.,

armature,

for

of

range

229)

page

allow

to

total

obtain

to

(seeFig. 238,

curve

proportioned

so

,,

pound"

construction

type of

this

...

of

weight

core

taken, is

was

for

losses

...

63

"watts

loss in

includes

This

loss.

by
30

run

the

that

observed

will be

inch

square

per

basis

above

on

...

...

...

watt

per

hours'

10

rise estimated

42
...

temperature

resistance, after

It

basis

above

011

of

rise

Total

2555

Converters.

Rotary

326

core

magnetic

densities.
LOSSES

COMMUTATOR

Amperes
Ohms

drop

brush

at

...

...

37
...

...

.03

surface, assumed

contact

...

...

.0033

negative

...

...

...

...

...

...

2.2

contacts
...

...

1500

loss

Ib. per

1.25

pressure

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

"

.3

of friction

Coefficient

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

ft. per

5150

Peripheral speed

...

...

...

...

...

70,000

friction

Brush

..

"

,,

Total

...

lost in

watts

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

in.

...

9
...

inch

square
of

rise
hours'

10

1500

surface

per

Assumed

"

...

"

"

Watts

...

watt

per

per

...

...

per

Total

resistance

square

drop

inch

square

per

LOSSES

...

AND

(assumed)
per

HEATING.

..

...

...

pounds
total

,,

of friction

inches

square
110

...

.003

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

.34
per

...

per

pounds

square

...

...

...

110

ring

"

"

Coefficient

"

...

contacts
contacts

Cent.

.001

ring
...

pressure,

deg.

surface

in six

"

...

18

contact

contact

of brushes

brush

...

35

...

inch

brush

at

loss at

...

after

of all brushes

area

Ohms

...

...

...

...

Amperes

inch

basis

above

on

COLLECTOR
contact

...

square

15

run

rise estimated

inches

square

...

2.3

radiating surface

temperature

...

...

...

...

...

Brush

...

52.5
...

Radiating

C2R

...

3500

of commutator

Length

Volts

min.

watts

400
...

...

...

Total

...

assumed

lost in commutator

watts

Diameter

Total

...

...

...

commutator,

min.

ft.-lb. per

1600

Stray

sq. in.

Ib.

45

total
"

watts

"

"

Brush

inches

square

...

surface
...

inch

square

...

...

contact

resistance, positive and

Brush
Volts
C2R

inch

square

per

per

18

positive brushes

of all

Area

HEATING.

AND

...

...

...

watts

...

660

rings

"

1.0

inch
...

...

...

18
...

...

...

...

...

.3

Six-Phase,

Four-Hundred

Peripheral speed,
Brush

feet

1470
8000

minute...

per

180

,,

...

...

...

840

lost in collector

watts

...

Diameter

...

...

...

collector

Effective

rise

10

12

surface

inch

of

hours'

"

...

...

570

square

per

Assumed

radiating

...

...

...

surface

Radiating
Watts

of

length

in.

15
...

...

watt

per

per

...

...

square

inch

after
20

run

...

rise estimated

30

LOSSES

SPOOL

Cent.

dog.

...

...

...

basis

above

on

inches

square
1.5

radiating surface

temperature
...

Total

...

...

lost

watts

Total

327

Converter.

Rotary

minute

per

friction, foot-pounds

,,

Kilowatt

AND

HEATING.

Spool :
loss at

C2R

deg.

60

,,

,,

Total

Cent,

lost per

watts

of

Length

of

per

rise

Assumed

of

rise

Assumed

rise estimated

Total

in.

14
...

...

...

spool

per

10

per

hours'

above

run

700

.465

hours'
above

run

inch

square

per

...

...

...

watt

by
80

...

...

...

Cent.

deg.

37
watt

inch

square

per

,,

...

...

...

...

10

inches

square

...

...

...

...

basis
per

,,

...

...

...

...

...

...

radiating surface

on

,,

..

...

...

temperature

resistance, after

,,

...

...

...

325

surface

on

of

watts

70

...

..

after

rise estimated

255
...

...

temperature

thermometer,
Total

per

coil

50

spool

inch

square

coil

series

total

space,

Peripheral radiating
Watts

shunt

spool

winding

Circumference

per

by
120

...

...

...

,,

...

56

basis

,,

EFFICIENCY.
full-load

Output,
Core

400,000

watts
...

7,700

loss

...

loss at

C2R

Armature

60

deg.

3,500

Cent.
...

3,500

losses

Commutator

losses

Collector

...

2,040

spools losses

Shunt

rheostat

losses

"

spools losses

Series

diverter

losses

,,

Friction, bearings and

Input,

windage

...

total

Commercial

full
efficiency,

95

load

per

cent.

...

MATERIALS.
Sheet
Armature
"

core

spider

steel

...

...

conductors

Copper

Rotary

328

Commutator

segments

...

Converter*.

...

...

...

...

Copper

...

Rheotan

leads
,,

Pole-piece

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Cast

spider

,,

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

iron

Oast

Yoke
...

Magnet

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

,,

...

and

Carbon

Brushes
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Gun-metal

yoke

,,

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

wire
...

Insulation,

...

...

bronze

Phosphor
Mica

commutator
...

...

...

...

...

...

Varnished

armature
"

...

...

...

...

...

linen

...

WEIGHTS.
Armature

Lh.

2,550

Laminations
..

...

...

...

...

...

...

340

Copper

...

...

1,550

Spider

...

Shaft

1,230

-.

700

Flanges
Commutator

1,000

Segments
Mica

80

Spider
Press
Other

...

1,000

...

200

rings

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

300

parts

Collector, complete
Armature,

700
...

...

collector,

commutator,

...

and

shaft

...

...

...

complete...

9,650
...

Magnet

Cores

3,550

Pole-pieces

400
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Yoke

Field

5,000

Shunt

coils

880
...

Series
,,

Total

copper

Brass

Brush-holder

Binding

steel

...

core
...

forging

Wrought-iron

225
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

copper

Spools complete

...

Bedplate, bearings,
Brush

rigging

Other

parts

...

...

1,105
1.800

...

"c.

6,300

...

450
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

Complete weight rotary

converter
...

1,000

30,360

tape

Three-Phase, Nine-Hundred

TABULATED

CALCULATIONS

SPECIFICATIONS

AND

PHASE
The
its

machine

performance

ROTARY

is illustrated

given

are

in

Kilowatt, Rotary

in

Figs.

FOR

329

900-KiLowATT

THREE-

CONVERTER.

Figs. 39G,

399

Converter.

to

and

397

398

and

of

curves

402.

DESCRIPTION.
Number

of

poles

Kilowatt

output

Speed,

revolutions

Terminal

...

...

...

...

...

...

12

...

900

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

minute

per

250

volts, full load


...

,,

load

no

"

500

...

Amperes, output

...

...

...

...

1800

...

Frequency, cycles per

500

...

...

...

...

...

...

second

25
...

...

DIMENSIONS.
Armature

Diameter

all

over

84
...

Length

...

...

...

of

of

bottom
,,

...

...

,,

...

...

84

periphery

at

core

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

,,

81 i

slots

,,

,,

62

laminations
,,

,,

of

Length

core

of

Number

Width,

...

,,

,,

...

12.5,,
...

...

ventilating ducts

each
...

Effective

length,magnetic
of

"

core

surface

at

of

...

...

,,

...

...

in.

...

...

...

",

......

10

sheets

between

Thickness

...

...

.79

length

".'.'.

....

Insulation

...

...

total

2G4

periphery

round

Length

in.

9.9

iron

-r

,,

Pitch

...

laminations

over

in.

...

...

27
...

...

Diameter

...

conductors

over

sheets

per

cent.

.016

in.

1-25

Depth

of

slot

Width

of

slot at

"

...

root

-44

surface

-44

"

of

...

...

,,

,,

Number

,,

slots
...

radial

Gross
Radial
AVidth

depth

depth
of

below

tooth

at

"'"

9-75

teeth

in.
'

root...

"

-*'0

face

armature

,,

,,

Size

laminations

of

of

-1-5

conductor

in-

-400

bJ

...

Core

Magnet

Length

of

pole-piecealong

shaft

pole-arc,average

"

Pole-piece

and

core

consists

thick, japanned on

one

of

sheet-iron

side, and

built

punchings
up

to

.04

depth

in.
of

in-

330

Rotary
12

in.

The

edges

by '-^in., and
1-| in. under
"

prevent
Pole

of

Size

magnet

Bore

copper

bridge

inserted

between

poles

to

surging."
.722
...

...

core

...

of

3 in.

by ^ in., extending

in.

14

back

...

...

...

...

radial

Length
of

chamfered

pole-face are

pole tips, is

pitch...

-f-

arc

of

Converters.

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

in.

...

Spool

...

...

TIT

...

...

""

Length

...

of
,,

,,

,,

of

Depth
Yoke

...

in.

in.

84

(magnetic gap)

12

by

...

field

Clearance

in.

9}|

...

12

(laminations)

core

...

...

...

...

8T7^in.

...

4.9

shunt-winding

space

series-winding

space...

winding

...

...

space

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

,,

3.5

...

...

...

...

,,

2|

...

,,

Outside

123

diameter
...

...

...

...

...

...

Length along
the

Commutator

in.

...

4|

...

wide, which

is

...

...

...

length along armature,

in.

,,

22
...

22-in.

rocking

...

...

armature

ring 1|

...

...

in.

...

...

Thickness

Beyond

114

1 05

diameter

Inside

in. "

grooved

...

projects ori
to

side

one

the

receive

,,

...

brush

gear.

Diameter...
of

...

...

...

in.

...

576

segments

,,

...

of

...

...

...

...

...

slot

per

,.

Width

54

"...
...

...

Number

at

surface

.24

at

root

.215

"

,,

length

,,

Available
Width
Collector

of

depth

segment

of

...

of

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

between

...

...

...

...

in.

2"

...

,,

14

..."

segment

insulation

...

17

segment

length
of

...

...

,,

Total

...

...

,,

...

.05

segments

...

...

"

...

24

Diameter
...

Number

...

of

Width

of

...

...

rings

,,

Length

...

ring

between

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

....

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

3|

...

18"

1|

all

over

...

...

Number

in

12

sets
...

...

...

...

...

Radial

length

Width

of

of

...

...

brush
...

...

of
of

Area

of contact

Type

of brush

bearing

surface

...

...

(one brush)

1.25
1.08

(one brush)

...

...

in.

...

...

...

in.

G
,,

"

by

square

Radial
...

1J

I],,

brush
...

Dimensions

in.

...

brush
...

Thickness

set

one

,,

in.

Current.

Current.

of

in.

Alternating

Continuous

Number

in.

...

rings...

each

...

...

.87 in.
inch

carbon

1.25
1.35

n.

by

1.1

square

Copper

in.

inch

Rotary

332

TECHNICAL
Armature

Converters.

DATA.

ELECTRICAL.

"

Terminal
Total

volts, full load

internal

Number

500
...

...

...

513

volts

12

of circuits
of

Style
Times

winding

Multiple-circuitdrum

...

re-entrant
...

Total

parallelpaths through

Conductors

in series

12

armature
...

96

brushes

between

...

construction

Type

of

winding

...

1152

conductors

of face

Number

Bar

288

slots
...

,,

conductors

per

,,

Number

in

parallelmaking

Mean

length

Total

number

of

...

by
1

conductor

one

up

armature

one

in slot

of conductors

Arrangement

slot

in.

78

turn

576

of turns
...

in series

Turns

between

of conductor

Length

48

brushes
brushes

between

.05

one

conductor

12

conductors

in

20

deg.

,,

Per

in.

...

Cross-section,

Ohms

3744

per
cent,

Resistance

inch

cube

increase
between

at

in resistance
brushes

20
60

inch

square

-60

parallel

.00000068

Cent.
...

20

deg.

deg.

Cent,

Cent.

to

60

deg.

Cent.

16

per

cent.

.00425
.00493

Three-Phase, Nine-Hundred

Assuming
be

about

the

in

current

three-fourths

of

that

Kilowatt, Rotary Converter.

three-phase rotary

converter

for continuous-current

armature

generator

Observed/ Curves

333

to

of

same

Observed;

of
CORE

SATURATION
000

ow

Three,

Kw.

25

Phase

Cycles500

Rotary

900

on,

Volts

Three.

Converter.

Kw.

LOSS.

25

fycles500 Volt*
Rotary Converter.

Phase

Rg390
*.""=

'""
(5l42Sc0f

x!

""

i*00 f50
*$",""
Voits
Armature.

"""

"*"

iOO

7v///
.

1000

30004000

ZOOO

FueloL

5000

6000

Ampere

7000

8000

turns

per

3000

10000

IWn

Spool.

MO

fOO

Art7,

fitr
^"fad^

EFFICIENCY
900

aw

Three,

Kw.

Phase

"

LOSSES.

Cycles500 Volt*
Rotary CoMerter

25

Observed'
PHASE

CHARACTERISTIC

900

on,

Three,

Kw.

Phase

Amperes

output, and
armature

Cycles600 Volts
Ratary Converter.

25

ui

factor

power

conductor

as

1,800

200

W"

600

(tutij

Field

of
x

not
.8

quite unity,
1,440 amperes.

800

1000

Ampere

we

may

IWI

MOO

I60H

1800

ZOtl

2200

TMO

Output,.

take

current

in

Converters.

Rotary

334

CR

in armature

drop

1.6
...

...

brush

...

...

,,

...

...

2.1

surfaces

contact

...

"

...

...

...

..

...

"

for cables

1 '5 volts

for in above

allowed

not

...

...

...

coils

series
,,

at

7.1 volts

cleg.Cent.

60

at

,,

...

...

connections

component

on

and

figured
cur

rents

Amperes

conductor

inch

square

per

,,

,,

,,

,,

"

"

brush-bearing
shunt

,,

Factor

Space

34.5
...

...

970
...

...

...

970

windings

,,

...

...

surface

windings

series
,,

2400

(armature)

...

...

...

Sectional

of slot

area

factor"

"Space

leaving

copper,

Commutation

.2

.44

in slot

copper

,,

,,

1.25

.55

-f-

63.6

.364,

.4

36.4

or

inch.

square

.125

for the

cent,

per

.55

per

of

cent,

necessary

inch.

.2 square

total

is

space

occupied by

insulation.

Volts

between

Armature

segments,

turns

Resultant

per

current

Resultant

Diameter

...

...

=120

120

VOLTAGE

REACTANCE

per

Width

of brush
of

of

Frequency

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

,,

4.2
...

per

surface

commutation,

708

second
..

.00123

seconds
...

...

...

...

...

407

second

cycles per

together

,..

brush

per

...

...

...

per
ampere

group

...

...

...

short-circuited

together

per

commutated

turn

per

...

...

brush
...

together

inch

...

gross

length

..

....

6
...

...

...

lamina

armature

20

tion

through

Inductance

six turns
coil of

one

Reactance
Current

in.

.87

segments

across

...

Conductors

Flux

in.

...

coil

per

per

...

second

Coils,short-circuited

Flux

COMMUTATION.

UNDER

170

complete reversal,

one

armature

54

Peripheral speed, inches

Turns

COIL

OP

of commutator

Revolutions

amperes.

5800

of commutator
...

Turns

48

...

...

pole.

per

OP

Circumference

Time

...

strength

turns

DETERMINATION

48

conductor

per

...

...

...

...

pole

armature

ampere

10.4

average

of
in

one

one

carrying

coil of

one

ampere

1500
...

...

...

...

...

one

coil,amperes

...

.000015

turn...

one

.039

turn
...

...

...

henrys

...

ohms

...

150
...

...

...

...

...

(continuous-current
component)
Reactance

voltage, one

5.8

coil
...

...

...

...

...

volts

Three-Phase,

Nine- Hundred

Kilowatt, Rotary

BINDING
of conductor

Length

between

-section

of conductor

between

3774

of armature

.0 square

...

3744

copper

...

in.

...

brushes
...

Weight

335

WIRE.

brushes
...

Cross

Converter.

...

...

...

inch

.0

.32

...

721

Centrifugal force...

II..

.0000142

N-

Ib.

...

Therefore,
force

Ib.

721
=

by

of the

into

dovetail

tops

of

copper

conductors,

strands

No.

of

force
centrifugal

721

are

74.7

Megalines from

in

per

follows

pole

of

pole

one

S.

wood

driven

of

the

shaft

at

are

held

the

length

connections

phosphor-bronze wire

each,

of

seven

in

arranged

bands

these

the

being

at

CALCULATIONS.

CIRCUIT
full

load

and

500

terminal

volts
10.4

...

1.20

magnetic leakage

...

12.5

full load

at

...

...

and

reluctance

magnetic

spool required,were

field

hard

volts)

coefficient

Megalines

and

of six strands

one

internal

(512.5
Assumed

by stripsof

projectionsand
B.

11

MAGNETIC

as

there

as

end.

for each

employed

end

the

bands

in

ends,

is resisted

running parallelto

slots, while

84

both

turns

total

centrifugal

as

and

armature,

on

the

Ib. exerted

74.7

==

conductor

centrifugalforce

grooves

the

The

250'

Ib.

Part

place by

of

of copper

weight

84

pound

every

54,000

over

.0000142

observed

the

probably

total

of

number

distributed

ampere

approximately

:"

Armature
Core

9.9

section

magnetic

of

Length

9.75

x
.

...

...

...

194

inches

square
1 in-

circuit

Density (kilolines)

Teeth

Ampere

turns

Ampere

turns

inch

per

transmitting

Number
Section

flux

per

pole-piece
76

face

at

inches

square

...

roots
...

Mean

'"

section

"

.........

in.

1-25

Length

...

i "}J.

Apparent
Width

density (kilolines)
(mean)

of tooth
slot

"

Ratioofa-^-6

"a"

"

...

Corrected

OQ

density (kilolines)
1 1 fiO

Ampere

turns

Ampere

turns

per

inch
.

1460

Converters.

Rotary

336

Gap

Section

pole-face

at

190
...

...

...

...

...

...

Length

.1875

Density

at

Ampere

turns

Magnet

Core

pole-face(kilolines)

54.5

...

.313

54,200

...

...

...

...

...

...

.1875

3200.

Section

(effective)

135
...

...

...

...

Length

in.

9j|

95

Density (kilolines)
Ampere

turns

Ampere
Yoke

inches

square

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

inch

per

53
...

...

530

turns
...

...

...

...

...

...

Section

magnetic

Length

per

136

turns

Ampere

turns

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

inch

per

in.

...

48
29
430

...

SUMMARY
Armature

inches.

square

...

...

Density (kilolines)
Ampere

272

14.5

pole

AMPERE

OP

...

TURNS.
180

core

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

1460

teeth
...

...

3200

Gap

...

Magnet

530

core

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

430

Yoke
...

...

...
.

5800
WINDINGS.

SPOOL

Ampere

turns

Watts

spool

per

winding

,,

load

5800
...

at

20

at

60

405

143

at

at

20

shunt

per

per

of

shunt

length

Pounds
Size

per

per

Resistance

Total

spool

terminals

Amperes

Turns

deg.

"

"

Volts

...

of shunt

...

...

spool

at

20

deg.

...

...

36
...

...

spool, ohms

per

...

...

...

5.7
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

4400ft.
...

...

...

24.9

ft
...No.
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

covered

cotton

density, amperes
winding
of

per

...

...

...

per

square

...

...

...

...

inch

,,

,,

square
970

...

...

...

4 in.

space

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

layers

layer

...

...

S. gauge.

in. in diameter

.101
.00647

Cross-section

Available

11 B. and

.0907

bare
double

Number

...

conductor

"

Current

...

...

912
...

1000

Ib.

...

Cent.

6.3
...

Cent,

spool

240
110

spool

deg.

Cent

of conductor

Dimensions

Turns

200

,,

"

"

shunt
copper

...

deg. Cent

series
"

Shunt

...

cleg.Cent.

60

at

shunt

spool, full

shunt

per

40

inch

Three-Phase, Nine-Hundred
Series

Kilowatt, Rotary

Converter.

.337

Ampere

turns, full load

3030

...

Full-load

amperes

Amperes

diverted

...

1800

...

...

...

350
...

in series

spools

,,

Turns

spool

Size

per

...

of conductor

1450
...

in

Total

...

...

2.5 in.
...

...

...

...

density, amperes
length

of

...

...

Total

length, all
C2R

per

...

...

,,

"

"

12

on

total

inch

970
...

...

...

at

150

20

cleg.Cent.
Cent.

ft.

1800

in.

...

...

20

deg.

...

...

...

spools

.000816
...

ohm

...

1718
143

spool

per

...

pound

copper,

CALCULATION

165

deg. Cent.

60

at

...

864
...

...

...

LOSSES

OF

...

...

...

"

of series

weight

in.

4.83ft.

spools at

watts,

,,

1.5 square

inch

square
...

turns

of 12

Resistance

Armature

...

...

turn

one

.075

by

...

section

Mean

Total

...

8
...

Series

...

used

parallel

cross

Current

...

...

...

Number

...

2.',

...

AND

HEATING.

Resistance

60

loss at

C-R

9700
C

sec.

"

500

teeth

of armature

deg. Cent.

60

at

Cent,

deg.

Frequency, cycles per


Weight

...00493

brushes, ohms

between

lb.

...

6500

core

Total

weight

Flux

density

"

70(

of laminations
...

teeth, kilolines

in

core

"

C.D.

1000

Observed
watts
^

loss per

core

core

loss per

pound,

watts

pound

2.05
_

~7o7D7
Total

ioooy~

-r

loss

core

...

on

FJ.-.A

losses

armature
,,

diameter

Armature

length

,,

Peripheral radiating
"

Watts

per

surface

speed,

feet

square

inch

minute

per

radiating surface

LOKSKS

COMMUTATOR
Commutator
Area

AND

HEATING.

of all

Amperes

51

positivebrushes
contact

inch

square

per

35

surface

.03

"

,,

resistance, positiveand

negative

Drop

at

brush

contacts

brush

volts

...

3700
loss at

ohm

.00116
2.1

C-R

inches

square

assumed

nu~
Ulims

Brush

"

watts

contacts

Rotary

338

Brush

pounds

pressure,

per

Converters.

inch

square

1.15
...

...

...

total

117

of friction

Coefficient

...

...

Peripheral speed, feet


Brush

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

minute

per

3550
...

minute

friction, foot-pounds per

124,000
2800

watts
"

"

Stray

lost in commutator,

watts

assumed

600
...

...

...

...

...

...

Total

7100
"

"

"

of commutator

Diameter
Available

Watts

...

inch

square
rise of

hours'

of

...

...

radiating

temperature

per

square

contact

on

...

...

per

inch

square
inch

square

Total

resistance

Volts

drop

...

LOSSES

of contact

per

square

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

1700

rings
inch

1.6
...

...

...

1,580

...

...

...

...

...

...

25,500

...

600
...

2,300

collector

24

inch

square

per

...

rise of
hours'

Losses

loss at

...

11

;..

...

...

...

...

radiating surface
per

...

...

,,

...

2.8
...

watt

per

square

...

...

inch, after

on

...

...

...

...

basis

above

inches

square

...

15
...

in.

...

run

deg.

42
...

...

...

,,

...

loss at
60

60

deg.

loss per
in

...

820
...

temperature

rise estimated

C-R

...

surface

...

Total

...

minute

length radiating

Assumed

C2R

...

lost

radiating surface

Spool

...

54

...

Spool

...

lost in collector

Diameter
Effective

Field

...

850

...

watts

Total

...

minute

per

watts

10

...

...

...

...

...

,,

Watts

...

...

.003

...

...

friction, pounds per

Total

...

.3

Peripheral speed, feet

,,

inches

square

of friction
...

Total

...

150

...

ring

per

pounds

,,

Brush

...

.48

,,

pounds
total

,,

...

,,

.00027

ring

per

deg.
Cent,

Cent,
per

spool, watts
12

,,

spools, watts

per

series

shunt

coil

240
...

...

coil

165
...

...

...

405
...

...

...

...

...

4850
...

...

...

...

...

EFFICIENCY.
Full

load,

Core

loss

watts

Cent.

deg.

HEATING.

AND

(assumed)

in three
,,

Coefficient

...

contacts

contacts

pressure,

...

surface

...

brush

,,

Brush

...

33.5

of contact

of brushes
brush

at

...

of all brushes

area

loss at

...

43

...

per

...

inches

inch, after

basis

COLLECTOR

Ohms

,,

square

15
above

...

Amperes

...

...

2.9
...

...

...

Total

...

...

surface

watt

per

...

run

rise estimated

Total

...

2400
...

per

10

14

surface

Radiating
Assumed

...

of commutator

length

in.

54
...

C~R

Ib

.3

output

900,000
19,850

Cent.

Converters.

Rotary

340

Field

Shunt

coils,copper

...

.........

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

1,320
860

Series
,,

Total

,,

copper

...

Spools complete, including flanges and


Bedplate, bearings, Ac.
Brush

...

gear

several
of

of

startingis generallyin

drop

line

decreases

other
the

as

The

lags

induces

faces, and

the

rotating

field

this

in

in

into

action

are

in

field
But

phase.
interlinked

the

several

between

or

secondary voltage
but

better

between

should

be

the

is

than

to

this cause,

be

used

between

these

an

the

gradually

Then

in

in

generated

in

and
the

winding
parts.

to

the

pole-

and

revolves

the
with

circuit of the

the

starting,the

turns

per

these

spool, a

wire
most

with

Hence

spools.

spools ordinarilyare,
;

armature

the

current

field
the

spools
current

normally-proportionedfield spools,with

of

field

the

motor.

currents

adjusted to bring

is first

of

induction

which

armature,

serious

action

currents

secondary

rotary
serious

entering the

currents

and

causes

The

of

moment

the

large current

that

to

synchronism.

to

thousands

However,

is from

the

to

the

at

input to

increases.

to

directlyon

alternatingmagnetic flux, generated by

adjacent turns
used.

This

these

armature

windings, and,

hundreds

insulated

an

the

by

spools is closed,

when

with

armature

speed

sight, is

line conditions, to

line.

the

accom

practicable,has

angle, it

large

be

converter

rush

current

"

imparts torque

converter

rotary

ineffectivelysecondary

constantlyacceleratingspeed, up
rotary

the

normal

the

converter's

very

mutual

simplest,at

first

full-load current

phase by

field set up

may

the

starting,is analogous
but

"

method,

on

converters

this, although often

of the

apparatus

rotating magnetic

windings

of

affects

rotary

rotary converter,

terminals

excess

voltage,and

of

detriment

it

as

The

but

...

CONVERTERS.

ways.

66,000

...

ROTARY

OF

several

disadvantages. By

of

18,000

...

converter

rotary

synchronising of rotary

current
alternating-

and

of

weight

STARTING

one

any

converter,

...

1,200

mains
alternating-current

the

...

...

startingand

the

throw

...

...

...

...

THE

plished in

...

2,200

parts

Total

The

.5,600

all insulation

...

other

Sundry

2,180

double

not
or

dangerously high
they

must

only between
triplecotton

layers,
covering

frequently-occurringbreakdown

frame,

and

hence

extra

insulation

be

due
should

Methods

The
suitable

broken

different

the

switch, arranged
into

up
in

induced

several

spool,the

each

starting,this

At
the

until

line

the
then

frame

to

closed, and

afterwards

in

line current

decrease

the

By

to

conveniently

volts

thousand

up

between

or

are

so

ends

the

of

and

open,

value.

field

due

occurs,

This

be closed

not

must

is observed

by

special switch

switch, whereupon

is

still further

improved phase relations,and

to

synchronisingis completed.

of

process

be

smaller

main

the

if

be

may

synchronous speed, which

much

winding

connected

severe.

always

to

up

falling

current

is

be

insulation

the

on

must

run

field

the

Converters.

spools should

otherwise,

strain

switch

has

armature

field

that

so

sections

spoolsin series,and

these

the

of

terminals

of Starting Rotary

of

means

compensator,

this

heavy

current

the

on

line at

starting

I
403

Fig

COMPENSATORS

THREE
'OR

compensator,
At

the

compensator

connection

to

times

the

are

moved

terminals
on

the

rotary

rotary

the

i.e.,if the

of

the

one-fifth the

converter

up

runs

common

line

in

collector

along until, at synchronism, the

voltage,

taps into

from

way

the

to

line

of the

fraction

has

converter

As

current.

difficultyencountered

the

end,
alternating-current

commutator,
Unless

line

the

connected

are

current;

one-fifth

say,

403.

voltage

speed, the
is

directly

line.

Another

from

line, then

small

line

the

times
are,

with

three-phase rotary

rings

collector
but

receive

winding

diagram of Fig.

starting,the

several

receive

would

five

in the

contacts, hence

and

and

of

instant

for

connections

The

shown

as

are

the

lowest

three

ATOR"

PENS

dispensed with.

be

may

PHASE

THREE

ONE

COM

some

converter

when

the

rotary

independent

source

sab-station, the

is
of

when
is

the

made

the

to

is

converter

its

furnish
current

dependent

is started
the

polarityat

indeterminate

continuous

rotary

rotary

own

excitation.

is available

for its excitation

at

the

upon

the

polarity that

its

sub-station, and

the

be allowed

may
The

second

as

to

one

run

the

polarity of

and

the

second

and

of

converter

of

objectionto startingrotary

been

found

it is started

by

of

the

rapidly about
followed

by

these

is in

happen

mark.

on

of

machines

Near

inconvenience

them

directlyon

first machine

One

will

will

machine

the

when

will

excite

the

"

point

finallybe

of

opposite

whichever

field switch

itself,provided
Otherwise

the

vibrate

in

polarity,the

negative.

after alterations

or

desired

ready

to

These

maximum

when

stand

must

commence

swings.

of the

it

heavy armatures,

the

side.

the

this

large capacity, slow-

with

polarityof

short

direction

the

first run,

the

further

case

voltmeter
with

second

direction,

correct

approaches synchronism,

correctlypositiveand

are

the

first

the

the

fairlyslow, indecisive,long swings,

zero

closed, and

be

terminals

to

the

swings

should

of

couple

from

directions

mark

zero

from

by throwing

the

machine

the

as

synchronised.

Obviously, however,

in the

But

continuous-current

the

into

alternatingcurrent

the

field switch

the

pointer

of

from

down.

control

practicableto

up

shut

consequently

speed rotary converters,


has

reversed

converters

alternating-currentline.

the

be

polarityconstitutes

initial

the

is

one

Then

current.

it

polarity,then

wrong

polaritydesired, by using

continuous

the

at

converters

second

the

of

instant

the

at

rotary
the

with

up

first may

the

rotary

indeterminafceness

comes

have

to

two

are

given either

source

one,

there

temporarily,till

so,

be

independent

an

If

first

can

happens

commutator

attaining synchronism.

to

Converters.

Rotary

342

field

the

which

"

field terminals

might

will

require

be reversed.

required line

The
and

converter

rotary

instant

of

running

coupled
the

latter

and

results

in

Where

better

way

which

the

induction

small

with
an

station

of

line

have

is

sufficient

its

minimum

in

coupled

with

capacity to

converters

recent

to

this

the

to

system.

an

direct

motor

of

purpose

is

the

plan practicable.

induction

for the

the

generator, and
strain

small

from

is then,

extra

starting
expense,

set.

rotary

provided

direct

with

This, however,

currents.

described

latter

The

converter

rotary

several

are

is that

being only

is to

unsightly combination

there

motor

the

at with

by starting generator

operationrarelyrender

used,

of

shaft

the

to

reduced

synchronism

arrived

are

sometimes

method

in

of routine

conditions

the

But

of

greatly

simultaneously.

up

starting,always

conditions

is

current

small

in

British

the

sub-station,

much

in
patent specification,

auxiliaryset consistingof

continuous-current
run

rotary

dynamo,
converters

one

at

an

latter

the
a

time

Metlnxk

of

Rota

) "//

Converter*.

343

up

Converters.

Rotary

344

speed

synchronous

to

is arrived

speed

at, and

collector

current

closed, and

the

continuous-current

as

synchronism attained,
and

rings

the

line,

converter

rotary

runs

the

between

the

switch
from

on

When

motors.

alternating-

between

the

this

them

is

alternating-current

supply.
In
from

continuous-current

such

cases,

the

in

line,and

Continent

the

being charged by
the
and
more

rotaries
are

with

uniform

converters.

rotaries

load

customary

on

independent

assistance
the

the

during

loads.

heavy

started

simply

parallelwith

considerable

of

sub-station

the

partly from

its

rotary

as

up

In

from

motor

They
in

operate

the

rest

of

batteries

the

batteries

light load,

known

as

maintaining

of the

storage

rotary converters,

times
are

to

'"

system

for

helping out

and

batteries,"

buffer

uniform

generating plant. Moreover,

of the

supply partly

converters.

synchronised.

then

it is very
in

sub-stations,

the

is

converter

derives

system

and

generators

rotary

continuous-current
On

continuous-current

cases,

many

voltage

and

render

the

they

starting up

the

rotary

Methods

of Synchronising
Rotary Converters.

SYNCHRONISING
One
a

has

the

choice

between

switch

the

of

rotary

voltage

transformers

either by
synchronisingthe rotary converter
rings and the low potential side of the

of

switch

and

the

consideringthe step-down transformers

constitute
to

current

synchronisingby
the

to

converter

continuous

CONVERTERS.

collector

step-down transformers,or
the

ROTARY

345

transforming from

system,

one

and
low-

high-voltagealternatingcurrent,

placed between

the

and

high-tensionterminals

high-tensiontransmission

line.

latter

plan

408.

Pig

fig 40

This

of

best

is, perhaps, generally the


for

switch
400

volts

heavy

rather
;

and

such

expensive

construction

Moreover,

for

have

six

at

currents

switch,

than

for

as

to

simpler

in

obviates

opening

against three

six-phase rotary
and

the
the

be

potentialof

for the

between

one

often

safelyopened,

low-tension

converters

connections
collector

plan,

former

the

high-tensionswitch

six-phaserotaries,the

blades,as

transformers

from

is of

for the

high-tensionswitch.
to

have

the

an

much

in

more

preferably
It is much
which

of the

terminals
such

to

current.

arrangement

low-tension

ring terminals, although

300

smaller
should

switch

requires a

cases

some

type
the

of

circuits

of

alive, for purposes

not

are

provided which

be

should

connectors

The
and

Converters.

Rotary

346

when

testing.
represents a plan for synchronising

Fig. 404

and

high-tension circuits,

the

switching, on

in

shown

arrangement

readilyremoved

be

may

adapted

six-phase

to

rotaries.

the

diagrammaticallya plan for

shows

Fig. 405

switching is

Figs. 406, 407,


is

and

The

switch

designed for

thus

protectingthe operator.

VOLTAGE

alternating-currentvoltage
degree,

If the
verters

sufficient

voltage

at

both.

or

the

distant

excitation,the

of the

voltage

sequently also

its commutator

the

field

generator

current

to

effects

may

lag, and
be

the

at

the

the

By weakening

the

results

intensified

an

the

in

by

rings
be

decreased

by placing

be

of

suitable

of the

field,

made

of

adjustment

rotary, and

con

Strengthening
both,

the

causes

voltage.

commutator

coils

to

increased

an

causes

or

inductance

be

may

excitation

may

increased.

converter

con

generator excitation

circuit

Hence,

collector

field

current

inductive

line.

the

line

rotary

voltage

of

voltage,may

weakening

or

over-compounded

an

commutator

variations

through

end

as

batteries.

rotary excitation,

leading current

be

adjustablecommutator

line, transformers, and

by

certain

it may

whereby

with

the

continuous-

the

is,to
flexibility

purposes

inductance,

limits

certain

strengthening the
a

same

between

ratio

and

methods

converter

charging storage

generator,

or

lead, and

hence,

rotary

the

of

lack

board,

of the

SYSTEMS.

This

generators, transmission

within

converter

for

also for

possess

varied

CONVERTER

rings

in

Samuelson.

Mr.

back

the

on

collector

the

at

occur

tolerably definite

inconvenience

desirable

generator, and

to

commutator.

interest.

possess

voltage, is

the

of

source

avoided

or

the

voltage at

current

is

designed by

was

ROTARY

IN

there

already shown,

As

breaks

the

RATIO

switch

quick-break switch

The

construction, is illustrated

elaborate

rather

This

408.

circuits.

low-tension

the

on

necessarilyof

is

used, which

done

where

three-phasesystem

in

These
in

series

the

circuits.

equipping
of
may

turns

be

of

method

Another
the

in

step-down

primary

adjusted.

or

controlling the
transformers

secondary, and
much

better

with
hence

method

voltage

commutator

switches
the

whereby
ratio of

consists

in

the

is

by

number

transformation,

employing

an

Converters.

Rotary

348

small

voltage of
main

the

it

which

by

amount

auxiliary rotary converter,


main

the

is desired

be

rotary, may
main

of

the

of

exerting a great

specialtransformer

considerablyseparated, so

CONTINUOUS

should

collector

Its

or

inductance

gives large

the
of

permit

to

as

to

MAIN

very

the

wide

of

of

range

since

case,

factor

of

variation

low

by

power

caused

by

small

the

supplied
secondary

branch

circuit

small

the

factor.
the

power

The

ROTARY

for

rotary

it is

only

at

is secured.
circuit

main

combined

the

its field excitation,

by regulation of

in the

working

main

the

unity, while

consumed

capable

magnetic leakage

much

its commutator

at

inductance

over

voltage

voltage

auxiliaryrotary, without
the

and

primary

that

BOOSTER

auxiliaryrotary, and

great advantage
range

be

should

of

that

to

CURBfNT

AUXILIARY

leading to

commutator

field coils

have

the

to

in series with

its commutator

transformers, with

coils

This

with

the

capacity equal

current

of excitation.

range

them.

voltage equal

decrease

or

auxiliaryrotary

from

between

with

employed

The

rotary.

increase

to

rotary, and

having

set,

low-power

may
the

be

factor

on

of

the
the

it

that

factors.

adjusted

This

relativelysmall

power

factor

small

rotary,

at

of
may

the

the

wide
and

obviously
a

of

amount

is

main

is

work

to

has

gives

consistingof

capacity auxiliaryrotary, which


effect

It

power
energy

supplied at
main
be

system,

completely

Methods

of Adjusting Voltage Ratio

in

Rotary

Converter

Systems.

34'J

neutralised, and
method

of

for

with

the

lagging

similar

of

of

piece

winding,

it had

the

about

fell off to

that, while

This

winding.
rotary

from

the

as

The

used

case

simple
under

or

than

unity, to
be, con

may

is illustrated

scheme

for the

500-volt

700

This

charge.

of

express

line.

giving the

With

volts

rotary

of

the

requiredby

when

had

finally
adjusted
battery from

the

volts at the

530

purpose

maximum

converter

automaticallycharging

neighbourhood

to

commence-

is

30

low, and

spite of

fullycharged.

battery was
this

and

volts

Its

amperes.

40

coils

shunt

graduallyincreasingvoltage.
in
act
to
opposition to
winding is connected

own

at

negative
effect
if the

with

up
its

from

excited

are

in

on

excitation

own

first,it finished

at

amperes

is,

That

is thrown

converter

rotary

line,it automaticallyregulates its

30

gradually

commencement,

at the

amperes
the

when

amperes

fullycharged. Moreover,

volts when

700
40

some

of

line

series

winding

sudden

at first

was

variations

voltage suddenly

rotary voltage would

battery ;
in

the

Thus,

circuit.

30

; hence

series

Its

the

been
a

the

to about

up

giving

and

volts

commutator

of

of

the

500-volt

the

series with

200

slight over

negative series coil, and

battery charge

the

when

so

charge,

current, amounting

the

slightlylower

the

BOOSTER

of the

ment

factor

has

volts more,

also

potentialin

rotary

converter.

from

interestingproperty

minimum

seaies

and

unity by

to

with

leading current,

or

apparatus

completion

shunt

power

restored

410.

excitation,it supplied 200


toward

batteries

charging storage

battery

main

auxiliaryrotary

diagrammaticallyin Fig.
A

factor

power

large

hence

small

the

by

the

running

compensate
sumed

resultant

the

excitation,and

Converters.

Rotary

350

have

negative series winding


line variations, and

sent

tended

proved

to

of
rose

much
to

put

520

the

500-volt

volts, the

addition

heavier

equalisethe

contribute

protect

this

voltage
to

to

on

shunt

the

very

on

current

resultant

into

the

voltage

markedly

to the

MefJwds

of Adjusting VoltageRatio

automatic

regulationof

the

during
In

process

addition

of

of the

shaft

the

main

desired
A

is

of

another

conversion

of

The

the

set.

the

excitation

is

be

is

rings;

synchronous
which, the

of

avoids

main
to

main

com

have

and

commutator,

doubled.

for

giving

in

the

adjustableratio

an

wherein

Fig. 413,
shaft

small

rotary,which

of the

serving for

motor

synchronous

separate field system, by varying

the

voltage

consequently also
in

losses

the

the

must

current

also

percentage of

is varied, and

scheme

This

has

motor

series with

of

is that

main

the

on

the

in

that

schemes

are

illustrated

of

the

excited

the

as

losses

those

of

of this scheme.

last

radiating surface

directlyconnected

the

extension

an

are

carrying the

that

in

adjusted to over-compound

these

commutator

all, consists

series with

diagram

both

of

of

total

the

the

ratio

of
and

commutator,

extra

an

in

consumed

flexible method.

very

CONDITIONS

RUNNING

conditions

The
sidered

speed,

in

may

gives

voltage,is

synchronous motor,
conversion.

The

collector

requires no

varying requirements

on

its fields

interesting arrangement

motor

synchronous

351

auxiliaryrotary converter,

machine
If

set

Fig. 412

great

small

connected

combined

expensive.

Still

the

arrangement

converter.

auxiliarymachine

the

substantiallyas
hence

best

the

commutator
the

extent.

of

of

continuous-current

great disadvantage

mutator

that

to

whole,

rotary

its

rotary converter,
any

scheme

small

load, and

the

is

on

voltage to

Systems.

charging the storage battery.


given a diagram of its connections.

alternative

and, perhaps,

Rotary Converter

of

Fig. 411

An

and

current

in

on

pages

have
been con
relatingto startingrotary converters
After
to 344.
340
brought to synchronous
being finally

performance,

efficient

adjustments requisiteto

various

remain

there

CONVERTERS.

ROTARY

FOR

and

to

them

adapt

fulfil the

best

to

the

secure

most

special

requirements.
Characteristic.

Phase

applied

to

ampere-turns
collector

Fig. 400,

per

ring, as
on

field

normal

in

question),and

333,

and

between

voltage
a

"

term

phase

field

Such
from

characteristic"

has

curve

an

collector
excitation

and

with
been
of

examination

rings (310
of

0.4

is

generally

(preferablyexpressed in

field excitation

spool),for abscissae,

ordinates.

page

at

The

plotted with

curve

"

input

amperes

given
it, one

volts

amperes

in

for

no

learns
the

(5800

per

load

in

that,

machine
ampere-

Converters.

Rotary

352

turns
to

pole), there

per

the

run

current

lags, and

with

with

amount

the

and

it also

field

varying

reaches

current

80

This

weaker

stronger it leads, in

field excitation, the

no

with

input ;

about

unloaded.

converter

rotary

minimum

required only

was

this

The

approximately

shows

curve

about

to

value

same

the

of

current

increasing rapidly

phase increases

per

condition

excitation

cases

excitation.

phase

per

the

is

field

both

amperes

that

2100

with

amperes,

twice

with

in

normal

the

field excitation.
If the

is in

current

volt-ampereswill

the

phase

be

at the
the

equal to

minimum

point of

of the

sum

NO-LOAD

input,then

current

losses.

no-load

LOSSES.
Watts.

Core

and

stray losses

Friction

and

at

normal

C2R

collector

voltage

...

...

field self excitation

G.4

...

...

...

500

Total

phase

per

no-load

3,200

=
...

...

Watts

8,000

=
...

Shunt

20,000

=
...

...

losses...

losses

=31,200
10,400

=
...

...

...

...

...

...

...

310
"Y"

voltage

Current

=",-

(i.e.,entering

phase

per

each

collector

10,400
ring)

58

amperes.

22

amperes.

"

...

...

volts.

180

...

...

...

180
Hence

This
and

have

we

is due

partly to

value, depending

in

upon
a

the

upon

methods

the

difference

of

80

in the

58

"

forms

wave

of the

motive

employed

varying

driving the generating alternator,

power
to

generator

limit

the

effect.

It will

be considered

subsequent paragraph.
Neglecting

factor
400

balance

rotary,but chieflyto so-called "surging" effects,and will be

the

and

unaccounted-for

an

of

the

shows

tion)

thousand

amperes

"surging" effect,for

incoming

that

there

the

is

with
an

amperes
in the

current

the

may

excitation

incoming

current

be
of

given

estimated.
3.2

amperes

of

1000

field excitation, the


Thus

the

(halfthe
amperes

conductor.

normal

power
of

=
"

j=

Fig.

excita

phase.

per

entering a collectingring corresponds to

armature

curve

One
580

/ 're-determination

Resistance

given
R

ohm

.005

as

of

Then

the

.0067

ohm.1

In each
and

excitation

branch

but

R.

one

will be

C2R

3 x

2250

the

.0007

G750

friction remain

loss is increased

by

500

will

A)

been

be

2250

1 33

watts,

The

watts.

losses will be one-half

loss and

core

collector C2R

side of

loss of 5802
of

has

332.)

page

(i.e.,
one

C2R

armature

The

(See

353

brushes

commutator

branch

regulatingrheostat

watts.

the

cleg.Cent.

there

total

with

i.e., 1650

at 60

Characteristic Curve*.

between

armature

resistance of

therefore

of Phase

field

its former

value,

as
substantially
before,

watts.

SUMMARY.
Watts.

Armature

C2R
...

Field

...

6750

...

self-excitation

1 (550

.........

Core

and

stray losses

Friction

and

20 000

.........

collector

CZR

losses

8,500

...

Total
Total

of losses

36,900

phase

per

12,300

...

Volt-amperes input phase

580

310

180,000.

\f) 3

Hence

factor

power

.068.

=
-

180

Proof

Take

48

brushes.

48
of

groups

the

But

brushes, then

commutator

total
of

resistance

One

turns

the

12

paths

collector

side

of

the

the

on

two

between

12

poles, and

the

paths through

576

are

has

It

rotary.

12

are

each.

turns

between

1.33

A.

present

there

the

turns.

192

of the

There

turns.

of

of

case

resistance

armature

side

one

Therefore,

negative

path

of

the

winding.
has

that, if R

resistance

in

parallel.

is made

Hence,

armature.

rings,the

576
up

multiple-circuitsingle

from

armature

'.

12

positive

each

of

the

to

12

resistance

are

such

one

divided

of

into

arranged

group

the

paths

total turns
of

the

one

three
in six

192

parallelpaths

of

32

each

turns

; 32

"

in series

turns

12

will have

resistance

of

R,

48
8 R
and

six

paths

resistance

of

be

may

winding

shown

windings,
yield
for
the

the

side

one

and
same

three-phase

of

in

in

the

by

Fig. 373,

study
on

winding diagrams

of

For

the

an

Figs. 374

the

of

page

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297.
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1.33

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CHARACTERISTICS.

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