ELECTRIC
BY
HORACE
FIELD
HENRY
PARSHALL
METCALFE
HOBART.
LONDON
OFFICES
OF
"ENGINEERING,"
35
36,
AND
NEW
JOHN
WILEY
AND
SONS,
BEDFORD
STREET,
YORK:
43,
EAST
NINETEENTH
1900.
STREET.
STRAND,
W.C.
"x*.
85388
[Fro?n
DR.
JOHN
HOPKINSON,
F.R.S.
photograph
by
Elliott
and
Fry
THIS
THE
BOOK
IS
LATE
THE
OF
FOUNDER
OF
PERMISSION,
HOPKINSON,
JOHN
DR.
SCIENCE
BY
DEDICATED,
DYNAMO
F.R.S.,
THE
DESIGN."
OF
TABLE
CONTENTS.
PAET
I.
PAGE
MATERIALS
1
...
TESTING
...
...
...
MATERIALS
OF
1
...
...
Conductirity
meability
"
Hysteresis
and
Ballistic
...
Method
Ring
"
Conversion
"
of
Units
Fields
Methods
of
Measuring
"
Losses
Hysteresis
"
Rotating
Per
Galvanometer
"
Galvanometer
Other
"
Ballistic
Requiring
not
Loss
Hysteresis
Loss
Testers.
Hysteresis
"
PROPERTIES
...
Tests
Methods
"
of
Alternating
without
...
Permeability
Tests
Methods
Testing
Determination
in
...
MATERIALS
OP
14
...
The
Magnetisation
of
...
and
Iron
Steel
Cast
Iron
Malleable
"
Cast
Iron
"
"
Cast
Steel
Mitis
Iron
Nickel
"
ENERGY
LOSSES
.Steel
"
SHEET
IN
Forgings.
"
IRON
28
...
Annealing
of
...
of
Deterioration
Sheet
Iron
"
Hysteresis
"
Iron
Sheet
Loss
of
Pressure
"
Current
Eddy
"
Effect
Losses
Estimation
of
Armature
Core
"
Losses.
INSULATING
MATERIALS
38
...
Effect
of
Insulation
...
Temperature
for
...
of
of
Description
Test
Methods
of
"
"
of
Description
"
Factories
Method
Tests
...
Resistance
"
Insulation
making
upon
Methods
Testing
...
Insulation
Transformer
for
Coils.
Insulating
WINDINGS
ARMATURE
GO
...
Continuous
...
Current
...
Armature
Windings
Windings
"
MultipleCircuit
TwoCircuit
Rotary
Motor
FORMULAE
Windings
Converters
"
Single
"
"
Multiple
Current
Windings
Windings
"
Windings
Alternating
Ring
"
TwoCircuit
Windings
Windings
for
Windings
"
for
Windings
Armature
Drum
"
Formula
"
Induction
"
Windings.
FOR
ELECTROMOTIVE
FORCE
78
...
ContinuousCurrent
E.M.F.
E.M.F.
Phase
in
Assumed
and
Rotary
Transformers.
of
Dynamos
to
Magnetic
be
Sine
"
AlternatingCurrent
of
Values
Dynamos
K
for
Various
Curve
of
"
Waves
of
"
Flux
Converters
"
Wave
Distribution
Polyphase
in
Gap
"
Rotary
Electromotive
Machines
"
Converters
Three"
Force
and
Flux
Table
viii
Contents.
of
PAGE
THERMAL
LIMIT
90
OUTPUT
OF
Magnets
Losses
C2R
"
due
Useful
to
Hysteresis
Loss
Dynamos,
Constant
"
Cores
in
Internal
and
Currents
in
Potential
Surface
the
and
Heating
"
...
...
...
Armatures
"
Coils
Heat
"
Currents
Foucault
"
Motors,
Railway
Heating
Commutator
"
of
Temperature
Conductors
Efficiency of
Dynamos
"""
"""
"
Arc
Friction
"
Loss.
DESIGN
OF
MAGNETIC
THE
115
CIRCUIT
...
...
Coefficient
Leakage
Reluctance
of
Reluctance
of Core
Field
Shunt
the
CONSTANT
Wound
Dynamo
Transformer
of
Number
Windings
of
Output
"
for
Circuit
of
Examples.
"
143
...
of the
Reaction
Commutation
in
Coil
Inductance
to
Two
Calculation
of the
COMMUTATING
POTENTIAL,
Extreme
of
Voltage
Constants
the
per
"
Tests
Experimental
Reactance
the
TwoCircuit
"
"
Inductance
of
Description
"
Windings
"
to
Determination
"
MultipleCircuitWindings
"
...
Considerations
Armature
TwoCircuit
"
Inductance
CONSTANT
Dynamo
Magnetic
"
"
Spool Winding
Motor
Fundamental
of
Related
as
of
MODERN
OF
of
Sparkless
Windings
Illustrations
"
of
DYNAMOS
to
Given
Definition
Inductance
DESCRIPTION
for
Segment
Practical
Circuits
Induction
of the
Influence
"
essential
Multiple
Commutator
of
"
Reluctance
Gap
Circuit
Magnetic
Calculation
to
Application
"
Dynamos
Poles
"
of
...
Reluctance
Gap
...
Reaction
Conditions
"
Circuit
CONTINUOUSCURRENT
Armature
Proportioning
for
Typical Magnetic
"
Magnetic
"
POTENTIAL,
Cases
Application
"
Air
"
Estimation
"
Calculation
Projections"
Formula
Winding
Circuit
Magnetic
Complete
...
...
Reluctance
Core
Armature
"
of
Voltage.
DYNAMOS
179
...
1,500Kilowatt,
200
GOO
Volt, Railway
LOSSES
Power
...
190
...
201
...
...
Generator
215
COMMUTATING
...
MACHINES
...
ELECTRIC
TRACTION
...
...
of
of
Horse
27
of
DrawBar
Pull
Miles
at
an
Armature
of
...
DrawBar
Pull
233
...
Motor
of 640
Gearless
for
Revolutions
Locomotive
Miles
per
per
Motor
Hour,
on
42in.
...
Rated
Output
Minute
242
...
for
Rated
Wheels
256
...
GEAR
Resistance
268
of
...
Brushes
"
...
Brushes
of
...
Various
...
Materials, Copper,
Graphite.
PART
ROTARY
...
Rated
...
Railway
Speed
for
Hour
per
...
Contact
Carbon,
...
232
...
Motor
Geared
HorsePower,
BRUSH
AND
Geared
HorsePower
117
Power
of 11.4
Speed
HorsePower,
Description
COMMUTATORS
24
Ib. at
Description
of 27
228
...
MOTORS
Description
of 800
...
...
MULTIPOLAR
IN
...
...
watt,
250Kilowatt, 550Volt,
CORE
179
Generator
300Kilo
Generator
II.
CONVERTERS
...
C2R
Rotary
Loss
...
Armature
Converters"
SixPhase
Rotaries
Converters"
Design
in
for
Windings
"
FourPhase
a
283
...
Conductors
for
Rotary
Rotary Converters
Interconnection
Rotary
...
of
of
Static
Converters
SixPhase, 400Kilowatt,
"
Converters
"
ThreePhase
Transformers
TwelvePhase
"
SinglePhase
Rotaries
and
Rotary
Rotary Converters.
Converter
311
...
Table
of
Contents.
ix
PAGE
Calculations
Tabulated
Specifications
and
for
900
Three
Kilowatt,
Phase,

Converter
Kotary
329
...
The
of
Starting
...
...
...
of
Running
Adjusting
for
Rotary
...
Converter
Rotary
of
Wound
of
...
...
Converters
Rotary
351
...
Wound
...
...
...
363
Rotary
...
...
...
...
...
...
365
Rotary
...
Rotary
...
Curves
...
Series
...
362
...
Compound
...
Effect
"
Surging
346
Systems
351
Characteristic
Phase
...
...
Converters
...
"
...
345
in
Ratio
Voltage
Conditions
Predetermination
...
Converters
Rotary
...
Methods
...
340
...
Synchronising
...
Converters
Rotary
Without
Field
...
365
Excitation
...
...
...
367
APPENDIX
...
...
Tables
Iron
at
of
High
...
of
Properties
...
Copper
Wire
of
...
Various
...
Curve
Gauges
for
Sheet
"
Curve
Densities
of
Properties
of
Various
Metallic
Materials.
"
INDEX
373
ERRATA.
Page
1,
Page
201,
Page
230.
For
Page
255.
For
line
For
9.
tenth
"
line
in
the
from
bottom.
Table
"
"
metallic
For
LXIX."
"in
"
heading,
Table
magnetic."
the
190
"Figs.
read
the
read
to
193
"
read
207
"Figs.
to
210."
XLIX."
HorsePower
"27
Geared
Motor,"
Railway
page
"117
Page
296.
For
the
Winding."
HorsePower
title
Motor."
Railway
of
Fig.
372,
for
"TwoCircuit
Winding"
read
"SixCircuit
read
LIST
ILLUSTRATIONS.
OF
PIG.
Permeability
Bridge
Permeability
Bridge
Cyclic
Curve
Sample
for
6
...
...
Sheet
Hysteresis
Hysteresis
...
...
to
...
Magnetic
11
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
12
...
13
...
15
for
Curves
Magnetic
Curves
13
Mixtures
of
Magnetic
Curves
Cast
for
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Iron
19
Malleable
Iron
Steel
and
Cast
21
Iron
21
...
15
...
...
Tester
12
and
...
...
...
...
14
...
Tester
Tester
Hysteresis
11
...
...
...
Tester
Hysteresis
...
Iron
...
...
8
...
of
...
Cast
for
...
...
...
Steel
21
...
16
Magnetic
Curves
for
Cast
Steel
20
Magnetic
Curves
for
Mitis
Iron
21
Magnetic
Curves
for
Nickel
to
19
...
23
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
26
Steel
26
...
22
Magnetic
Curves
for
WroughtIron
23
Magnetic
Curves
for
Steel
24
Magnetic
Curves
for
25
Effect
26
"
and
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Forgings
and
26
Iron
Wrought
Forgings
...
Steel
26
Castings
28
...
of
Temperature
Annealing
of
Hysteresis
on
Loss
in
Sheet
...
30
Iron
...
"
Ageing
Curves
for
OpenHearth
Basic,
Steel
30
...
27
"
28
"
"
Curves
for
Acid,
OpenHearth
"
Curves
for
Sheet
Iron
Ageing
Ageing
Steel
to
32
"
"
Ageing
Curves
for
Sheet
and
34
Effect
of
Curves
35
Pressure
for
in
Sheet
36
Curves
Characteristic
for
...
Iron
33
...
in
Loss
Hysteresis
Sheet
in
Loss
EddyCurrent
34
Sheet
Resistance
...
Iron
34
...
Insulation
for
Curve
...
and
39
Transformer
for
Insulation
...
Cloth
43
...
38
...
Iron
...
37
...
32
...
Loss
Hysteresis
upon
...
...
Iron
...
33
...
...
30
...
...
29
30
...
Tests
43
...
40
to
44
for
Apparatus
Insulation
Tests
44
...
Circuit
45
Connections
for
Insulation
48
Tests
...
46
to
51
Insulation
Curves
for
"
52
to
57
Insulation
Curves
for
"Mica
58
to
63
Insulation
Curves
for
...
"
MicaCanvas
Longcloth
"
...
48
and
49
50
and
51
...
64
to
69
Curves
Insulation
for
"
Shellac'd
"Red
Paper"
54
Paper"
56
...
70
Gramme
71
MultipleCircuit,
Ring
Winding
with
...
Commutator
Lateral
61
...
72
Six
Circuit,
Double
Drum
...
Winding
64
...
...
...
...
...
...
65
Winding
...
List
xii
Illustrations.
of
PAGE
FIG.
73
TwoCircuit,
Single Winding
Double
74
TwoCircuit,
75
TwoCircuit
76
SixCircuit
77
UrnCoil
Winding
74
SinglePhase Winding
79
MultiCoil
80
YConnected,
81
AConnected,
ThreePhase
82
ThreePhase,
NonOverlapping,
ThreePhase
QuarterPhase
84
87
to
Induction
of
Types
88
89
91
Form
74
...
96
to
and
97
99
98
112
to
74
76
84
...
Field
Field
Tests
of
Thermal
Tests
of
Thermal
Tests
of Influence
Slot
of
of Rate
Curve
of
...
...
...
...
125
Diagram
Sheet
126
to
Iron
Tooth
127
128
for
137
of Heat
of
Resistance
Diagrams
Density
for
Correction
and
"""
...
...
Projections
123
...
...
...
...
126
...
...
...
Curves
Saturation
129
Transformer
in Transformer
of
...
137
Motor
Resultant
...
...
Force
Magnetomotive
in
Diagrams
Curves
Induction
and
138
of
of
Distorting
and
Effects
Demagnetising
Distribution
Gap
of
of Armature
with
Flux
Magnetic
Various
147
Current
Leads
of
148
Brushes
...
148
to
160
161
162
167
to
and
Diagrams
Diagram
166
168
and
Curves
...
...
of Armature
...
...
161
Inductance...
to
of
Saturation
IllustratingReactance
1,500
and
Kilowatt
...
Railway
Compounding
175
Calculations
...
181
Generator
to
Curves
of
1,500
Kilowatt
Railway
188
...
to
183
Drawings
184
to
188
Results
189
to
206
Drawings
207
to
210
Curves
of 200Kilowatt
of Tests
...
Railway
of 200Kilowatt
of 300Kilowatt
of Results
185
...
Generator
169
174
...
for
Drawings
139
...
...
146
136
Cores
in Transformer
...
Distribution
136
Cores
...
Loss
Calculating EddyCurrent
of Induction
...
...
...
Loss
Motors
to
134
137
Curves
147
to
...
of
Circuit
...
126
their
140
144
Tem
120
...
of
Various
Curves
Circuits
Calculating Hysteresis
Curves
...
at
...
Curve
Magnetic
110
Resistance
...
of Core
...
Typical Magnetic
for
108
Densities
High
139
143
Copper by
Transformer
Dynamos
Circuit
and
in
...
IllustratingReluctance
Magnetic
142
Armature
...
of
138
141
Motor
Railway
and
106
HO
Curves
for
95
101
105
...
Factor
Leakage
in
to
...
...
...
of Generation
Insulation
96
Rise
Temperature
on
Alternator
Loss
and
...
...
Peripheral Speed
of
...
94
Spool
Core
to
94
Spool
Large
peratures
124
...
87
Thermal
Curves
to
86
Curves
...
118
119
76
...
Characteristic
117
116
76
Coils
of
8 Sets
and
Poles
Curves
Factor
Relating
to
"""
Coils
12
...
10
Windings
Curves
114
Field
Winding
Armature
113
14
with
"""
...
...
and
Poles
10
...
92
Winding,
Pitch
Fractional
Coils
Armature,
Converter
Rotary
and
74
...
Winding
Armature
Motor
...
Winding
Armature,
74
Slots
Parallel
74
SinglePhase Winding
21
72
...
...
with
UniCoil
and
...
Converter
Rotary
SinglePhaseWinding
ThreePhase
71
Converter
Rotary
for ThreePhase
for ThreePhase
78
83
90
Winding
Winding
Poles
85
67
of Tests
...
Generator
...
191
to
196
...
Railway
Lighting
of
...
Generator
202
...
Generator
300Kilowatt
204
...
Lighting
to
213
...
Generator
213
...
List
of
Xlll
PAGE
FIG.
211
234
to
233
to
236
and
237
Drawings
of 250Kilowatt
Characteristic
216
Curves
of 250Kilowatt
Electric
Curve
for
Core
to
226
...
Generator
and
227
228
...
238
and
Diagram
to
254
Drawings
255
to
258
Characteristic
259
to
277
Drawings
283
to
319
Drawings
320
to
323
Characteristic
331
Commutators
Corn
Multipolar
of 24
Horse
of 27
Curves
of
Power
Geared
117
for Traction
Railway
240
to
250
Motor
240
...
242
Railway
Motor
250
Motor
Railway
and
253
to
251
264
...
Gearless
HorsePower
to
...
Geared
Gearless
234
Motor
Railway
HorsePower
...
Motor
Railway
Geared
HorsePower
of 117
...
...
Geared
HorsePower
Curves
Characteristic
to
in
229
HorsePower
Curves
284
Losses
...
of 27
278
Calculating
Machines
of 24
239
to
Generator
...
mutating
324
Electric
Motor
Railway
265
...
Motors
268
and
269
269
and
270
...
332
to
340
Commutators
for Traction
Generators
...
...
341
342
to
346
Curves
347
to
352
Brush
353
and
of
Diagram
354
of
Properties
Holders
for
Brush
Carbon
for
Arrangements
Contact
Measuring
of Commutator
for Small
Holder
for Traction
Launch
275
Motors
to
358
Carbon
Brush
Holder
for
Holders
...
for Generators
liss Reactance
360
and
361
Bay
362
and
363
Brush
and
364
365
Gauze
Copper
Holder
Carbon
for
...
...
Holder
Constructed
of
279
...
Stamped
...
279
Parts
...
...
Brushes
279
...
Curves
Sine
366
of
367
Diagrams
and
369
of
381
371
TwoCircuit
SixCircuit
373
SixCircuit
374
TwoCircuit
375
TwoCircuit
376
SixCircuit
377
TwoCircuit
Current
Values
Line
in
...
Rotary
and
Singly
of
...
Windings
of
ReEntrant
of Static
"
DoubleDelta
ThreePhase
295
...
...
296
SinglePhase Rotary
SixPhase
of SixPhase
Connection
and
"
"
299
Rotary
...
...
...
...
301
Rotary
Diametrical
...
for SixPhase
ThreePhase
and
...
300
Rotary
Transformers
...
298
Rotary
and
...
for ThreePhase
Triple Winding
...
297
Rotary
for SixPhase
ReEntrant
...
Rotary
Triple Winding
for
Single.Winding
InterConnection
289
...
...
for ThreePhase
Single Winding
380
and
296
ReEntrant
Comparison
...
288
for
Triple Winding
for
Single Winding
Diagrammatic
Winding
...
Single Winding
Singly
...
SinglePhase Rotary
Single Winding
Singly
...
Converter
for
Single Winding
379
"
Phases
...
287
...
of
TwoCircuit
382
...
Converter
378
and
Three
in
286
Developed Diagrams
372
Values
...
Instantaneous
TwoCircuit
370
Current
...
Rotary
368
Instantaneous
...
Converter
Rotary
278
278
...
...
Holder
and
276
...
Brush
...
Brush
274
276
276
...
359
and
Motor...
...
355
to
...
...
Brushes
271
271
Brushes
Carbon
Radial
of Brushes
Resistance
302
Rotary
...
303
Windings
...
Converter
304
.
Connection
305
...
383
SixPhase
Switchboard
384
SixCircuit
307
...
Single Winding
for
FourPhase
Rotary
386
TwoCircuit
Triple Winding
for
FourPhase
Rotary
Diagrammatical
394
396
and
to
and
to
389
393
395
398
Connection
Drawings
Curves
Representation
...
for TwelvePhase
Diagrams
of SixPhase
400Kilowatt
400Kilowatt
of ThreePhase
Conditions
in
...
...
309
...
310
...
FourPhase
...
Rotary
310
Winding
of SixPhase
Drawings
of
308
Rotary
TwoCircuit
Converter
390
...
FourPhase
385
387
388
...
for
Single Winding
...
Converter
Rotary
Rotary
...
...
311
...
...
313
...
Rotary
315
...
316
Rotary
900Kilowatt
to
...
331
and
332
List
XIV
Illustrations.
of
PAGE
FIG.
399
to
402
Curves
Characteristic
of
ThreePhase
Rotary
900Kilowatt
333
...
Connections
of
Diagram
403
for
Starting
Converter
Rotary
Compensator
by
Method
341
...
...
404
and
405
of
Methods
Synchronising
Converters
Rotary
343
...
406
to
408
ThreePole,
2,000
Switch
330Volt
Ampere,
...
...
Converters
Rotary
for
344
of
Diagram
409
the
for
Connections
Ratio
Voltage
for
of
Diagram
410
Connections
Converter
by
System
the
Controlling
an
Auxiliary
Booster
Controlling
the
...
Voltage
...
Ratio
in
Rotary
348
...
411
Diagram
412
Combined
413
Combined
of
of
for
Connections
System
Converter
Rotary
by
345
347
...
for
and
Controlling
Converters
Rotary
in
Regulators
Induction
Using
Voltage
...
on
Portion
Booster
Auxiliary
an
Ratio
349
...
and
Converter
Rotary
Series
Booster
350
...
Converter
Rotary
Giving
Adjustable
and
Synchronous
Auxiliary
to
418
Curves
Characteristic
Phase
for
Ratio
Voltage
350
...
414
..
Motor
of
...
...
Converters
Rotary
354
to
357
...
419
and
420
of
Distribution
Resultant
Surface
Armature
Magnetomotive
Armature
of
Converter
Rotary
Force
the
over
and
358
359
...
421
Curves
of
422
Curves
of
423
Curve
Series
Wound
Rotary
363
...
for
without
Rotary
Sheet
Iron
at
Field
High
...
...
...
...
Excitation
Densities
364
372
LIST
OF
TABLES.
TABLE
PAGE
I.
Data
of
Ten
FirstQuality
Data
of
Ten
SecondQuality
Data
of
Twelve
of
Samples
Cast
Steel
22
...
II.
III.
of
Samples
of
Samples
Mitis
Cast
24
of
Analyses
of
Samples
Sheet
Iron
Results
of
Tests
"
Ageing
"
on
and
of
VII.
Properties
Preece's
of
Iron
Tests
of
Steel,
and
Annealed
Steel
27
...
Influence
of
Carbon
31
Special
with
Reference
to
Influence
of
Silicon
Influence
of
Manganese
...
Specific
Resistance
36
Wire
Iron
Specific
on
...
...
36
...
...
VIII.
...
Iron
...
VI.
...
...
24
...
V.
...
Iron
...
IV.
...
...
Steel
Resistance
of
...
Steel
37
...
IX.
Specific
on
Resistance
of
Steel
37
...
X.
Specific
on
Resistance
Steel
of
38
...
XI.
Puncturing
Voltage
of
Composite
White
Mica
38
...
...
XII.
Insulation
Tests
Sheets
on
of
Leatheroid
39
...
XIII.
Summary
of
Qualities
of
42
...
...
XIV.
Insulation
Tests
on
Insulation
Tests
on
Mica
"
"Mica
...
"
Canvas
47
...
...
XV.
...
Materials
Insulating
...
...
LongCloth"
52
...
XVI.
Insulation
Tests
on
Shellac'd
XVII.
Insulation
Tests
on
Red
XVIII.
Subdivision
of
53
Paper
...
...
...
...
for
Windings
55
XX.
Drum
...
Rotary
...
...
70
80
Constants
Winding
Correction
...
Converters
...
XIX.
...
...
Paper
...
for
Factors
of
Voltage
...
...
81
Windings
Distributed
...
...
XXI.
Values
for
XXII.
Values
XXIII.
Values
for
Various
Calculations
E.M.F.
in
E.M.F.
in
Pole
for
with
Windings,
83
Arcs
...
E.M.F.
in
for
...
...
...
Calculations
Windings
with
Per
Various
Spread
centages
XXIV.
82
Windings
MultiCoil
for
Calculations
...
for
MultiCoil
Values
for
Voltage
Ratio
for
Single
XXV.
Values
for
Voltage
Ratio
for
ThreePhase
XXVI.
Values
of
Number
of
Turns
in
and
QuarterPhase
Series
Rotary
85
85
...
Collector
between
Converters
Converters
Rotary
Rings
in
Rotary
87
Converters
...
XXVII.
for
Values
Form
...
...
Factor
88
...
XXVIII.
Values
for
Form
Factor
89
...
XXIX.
Correction
Temperature
Coefficients
for
102
Copper
...
XXX.
Current
Densities
Generation
XXXI.
Magnetic
of
XXXII.
Current
Flux
Generation
Densities
in
of
Heat
in
Densities
of
in
and
Copper
in
Heat
Various
Watts
Sheet
in
Watts
Types
Corresponding
...
...
Specific
Rates
of
108
Pound
per
...
and
Iron,
per
of
Corresponding
...
...
Specific
Rates
109
Pound
Apparatus
...
...
...
109
...
...
List
xvi
of
Tables.
PAGE
TABLE
of
125
Projections
Calculation
of
XXXIV.
Calculation
of
Reluctance
of
Core
Projections
Calculation
of
Reluctance
of
Core
Projections
XXXV.
Reluctance
Core
XXXIII.
125
125
149
XXXVI.
Test
of
Reaction
Armature
160
Inductance
Tests
Inductance
Tests
Inductance
Tests
Inductance
Tests
Inductance
Tests
Inductance
Tests
XLIII.
Inductance
Tests
XLIV.
Inductance
Tests
Inductance
Tests
XXXVII.
162
XXXVIII.
162
XXXIX.
XL.
XLI.
XLII.
XLV.
XLVI.
VII.
XL
XLVIII.
Inductance
Tests
Inductance
Tests
Inductance
Tests
Core
XLIX.
L.
LI.
LII.
II.
LI
LIV.
LV.
Tests
162
163
164
165
167
167
168
168
171
230
Results
Loss
and
Graphite
on
Carbon
280
Brushes
Output
of
Rotary
Converters
284
Output
of
Rotary
Converters
285
Armature
C2R
Loss
in
Rotary
Converters
290
Armature
C'2R
Loss
in
Rotary
Converters
292
Armature
CR
Loss
in
Rotary
Converters
294
APPENDIX.
LVI.
LVII.
LVIII.
Table
of
Table
of
Table
of
Properties
of
Copper
Wire
B.
and
Properties
Copper
Wire"
Properties
of
Copper
Wire
S.
B.
W.
W.
"
LIX.
Physical
and
Electrical
S.
"
of
Properties
of
Various
G.
G.
Gauge
367
Gauge
368
369
Gauge
Metals
and
Alloys
370
xviii
Preface.
without
become
alternatina
and
currents
understand
to
has
deal
to
engineers began
with
How
selfinduction.
effects of
the
commutation
of
theory
electrical
since
understood
better
The
efficiency.
the
diminishing
owing
ever,
obtained
in
this
In
will
work
found
be
with
familiar
certainty,from
the
results, and
such
commutation
of
numerical
with
can,
machines.
comparative
machines
given, design
dimensions
and
designs.
new
representativecommutating
from
theory
values
the
of
statement
preparation of
the
experimentallyobtained
values
One
be
practicemust
results, data
final
affectingthe
variables
of
number
the
to
with
satisfactorycommutating properties.
third
The
Output," that
of
Limit
fairlysaid
be
dynamo
of
still a matter
found
from
the
losses
iron
the
made
tests
mechanical
processes
measure
to
to be
greater
If
the
of
current
due
often
side
be
the
in
lines
solid,
considerable,
conductors
in the
is also
armature
considering that
each
the
coil under
of
be
in
the
these
loss
to
the
is
to
therein
commutation.
is
the
to
to
be
in
sub
large
assumption
laminations.
foucault
by
high
be
considered
distortion, and
brought
actual
loss is found
the
the
is
hysteresis
has
of
it
predicted
The
core
can
invariably
be
may
plane
hysteresis and
variables
It
upon
losses
in
at
have
due
relation
eddycurrent
the
the
even
run
losses,
greater, owing
based
parallelto
are
C2 R
the
to
It
commutating
Owing, probably,
calculations
by
in
construction.
magnetisation,the
projections from
There
before
Thermal
"
heating.
which
those
material
the
the
predictedlosses.
of
projectionsare
the
what
of construction.
magnetic
armature
thereto.
current
which
determine
excess
including friction,there
loss
loss in the
to
of
generally found
conductors
especiallywhen
losses, not
is
losses
exception
the
material
is indicated
than
may
in
the
process
armature
currents
termed
core
species of
distribution
the
the
safe
with
of all the
theory
are
upon
armature
jected during
be
may
loss in the
of
the
termed
have
we
output
practicalexperienceto
what
to
that
maximum
is,the
while
that
what
to
are
losses bear
relates
subdivision
about
It
eddy
Under
foucault
the
the
load
increased
currents
likewise
by
the
is
apparent, therefore,
dependent
upon
reversal
the
of
form
the
of
Preface.
design,
material
the
estimate
approximate
consideration
of
thermal
limit
The
placed
at
which
have
work.
We
and,
it
disposal
formed
Apart
Dynamo
Electric
the
dynamo.
works
the
that
aim
applying
that
from
these
dealt
have
we
only
an
theoretical
the
that
therefore,
which
from
the
con
with
the
in
decided
to
practice
show
contribution
of
papers
Dr.
to
fact,
the
Sylvanus
after
our
considering
imperfectly,
principles
already
in
work
present
which
clearly
the
the
dynamo
on
had
the
of
theory
of
contents
the
on
which
treatise
has
of
the
liberal
render
the
knowledge
treatise
will
Thompson,
own
at
progress
Hopkinsons,
thorough
prepare
however
the
our
this
of
hope
we
technical
to
of
conclusions
the
which
manner
by
forth
kindly
experience,
results
appreciation
our
of
have
technical
the
to
Company
Berlin,
of
amount
setting
disseminating
was,
supply,
of
found
have
we
Electric
addition
by
in
Machinery
to
large
to
arrive,
in
which
General
The
of
policy,
useful
It
we
made
information
substantial
very
to
influence
greatest
work.
results
the
rare,
us
design.
with
give
endeavoured
thoroughly
be
ElektricitiitsGesellschaft
have
enabled
work
sections
Union
unfortunately
has
can
construction,
believe,
length
designing
the
our
loss
We
the
other
in
and
America,
total
of
output.
various
indispensable
processes
constants.
justify
of
the
the
to
as
the
will
siderations
and
used,
xix
lines
these
with
assist
shall
enunciated
in
in
these
treatises.
We
which
work.
acknowledge
we
have
with
received
pleasure
from
many
the
assistance
valuable
friends
in
the
and
suggestions
preparation
of
the
PART
ELECTRIC
I.
GENERATORS.
ELECTRIC
GENERATORS.
MATERIALS.
CONSIDERABLE
of
used
and
electric
dynamo
shall
materials
varietyof
conform
to rather
it is essential
and
apparatus,
exacting requirements,
well
magnetic conductivity as
with
as
into the
enters
both
that
grades
the
regards electric
as
mechanical
their
to
respect
construction
properties.
TESTING
metallic
The
circuits
in
be of
must
in the
differences
addition
the
iron
sheet
unannealed
having
cent,
exerts
cases
many
almost
the
conductivity.
properties of
subjectedfor
subjectionto
It thus
magnetic
few
this
various
iron.2
weeks,
exerts
Sheet
iron
to such
as
poor
of
stages
for
instance,
drawn
copper
production
final
the
has
when
Cast
copper
only
50
the
upon
temperature
when
deg.
60
as
before
as
purposes
per
magnetic
compositions,
magnetic
also
result.
hysteresisloss
copper,
certain
steel
unity.
of the
upon
great
moderate
slight
permeability of
great influence
for
high temperature.
analysisas
even
times
as
of
conductivityof
influence
twice
over
the
conducting
effect
scarcelygreater than
annealing from
Pressure
several
temperature.3
becomes
tests
during
chemical
sheet
Cent., becomes
after
same
is
preponderating
The
magnetic
the
and
considerable
often
reduces
Again,
frequentlyhas
it has
as
of aluminium
treatment
metallic
the
composition.
of manganese
cent,
per
chemical
18.1
to
100
in
employed
composition is
cent,
mechanical
The
Thus,
chemical
of
containing 12
in
definite
of 3 per
ratio
the
compounds
MATERIALS.
OF
desirable
samples
Electrician,July 3rd,
1896.
3
See
from
Dewar
pages
to
every
and
30
lot of material
Fleming.
to
32, and
See
Figs. 26
to
intended
page
33, and
for
electro
in the
use
Figs. 33
32.
B
and
34.
Electric
of
construction
of
importance
Generators.
becomes
books
devoted
materials
tivitythan
in
standard
tivity,due
consequently
manufacture.
It
conductivityin
order
electrical
The
alloys varies
to
like accurate
anything
results
properties of
materials,
and
apparatus
and
care
tests
physicaltreatment,
uniformlygood qualityin
been
with
proposed
method,
accurate
sample
is in the
Among
W.
Holman's
Professor
the
form
more
of
an
useful
books
Electrical
also
of the
propertiesof
conductivity
of inferior
conduc
difficulties
the
to
of
its
test
value.
other
each
most
the
lot
resistance
high
imperative,if
are
in
testing the
variabilityin
extreme
in chemical
laborious,
most
the
on
subject
Notes
various
Notes
the
of
(Massachusetts
and
in
with
applicationof
electrical
measurements
Institute
of
the
obtain
to
methods
is that
permitting of
in
composition
order
Various
employed.
magnetic
improvements
recent
indispensablein
tests
the
Laboratory
experi
simplifyingpermeabilitytests, but
annular
former
lessen
on
the
material
Physical Laboratory
Fleming's
Table
to
although
S.
view
with
be
to
slightvariations
such
the
apt
necessary
Nevertheless,
render
conduc
TESTS.
are
with
even
magnetic properties,
resultingfrom
and
show
required.3
are
judgment
methods.
text
recent
of Matthiessen's
silver and
PERMEABILITY
Considerable
is
low
German
that
to the
especiallydesirable
becomes
extent
in
copper.
guard againsttoo
an
described
results of which
obtained
often
now
impurities to
conductivityof
such
to
results
diameters,
of
admixture
the
to
is
for pure
to small
drawn
be
may
considerablyhigher
have
the
as
wire
copper
exceeding Matthiessen's
Copper wire,
them
to
those
are
Fleming,2 the
and
great purity
attributed
was
Manufactured
ments.
of
state
the
case,
tests
Dewar
Professors
that
such
TESTS.
conductivitytests
subject.1 It
to the
of
investigations
that
in
used
the
being
apparent.
CONDUCTIVITY
methods
order
in
practicalshop methods,
The
This
dynamoelectric apparatus.
have
the
most
which
the
primary
and
any
are
desired
Professor
Technology), and
Forms.
conducting
materials
is
given
later
in this
volume.
Generators.
Electric
2.00
Reversing
of
simply creating
turns, and
50
would
obtained
been
have
with
2,400 ohms,
of
instead
ohms
100
2400
..
density
the
Therefore
1.10
f
and
inch
square
Density
mixed
Although
terms
into
curves
iron
of
the
force
motive
H.
6.45
The
=
n,
of
number
should
turns
others
equal
amperes
inch
per
14,700
Similarly,fluxes
kilolines.
95.0
of
units
which
the
lines
the
per
number
have
metric
employed
ordinates
the
inch.
square
of
practice.
denoting
used
curves
They
ampereturns
in
are,
of
in centimetres.
Ampereturns
per
centimetre
Ampereturns
per
inch
of
length
25^
of
Ampereturns
ampereturns
per
inch
per
of
inch
length
of
are
length
2.02
TT
absolute
1Q
;
7T
H.
approximately equal
the
magneto
practice
length.
"
being expressed
absolute
In
the
therefore, equal
inch
per
the
""
=
instance,
system, present
readily convert
in
In
permeability.
of
the
to
to
per square
the
the
For
of
lines.
inferior
admittedly
are
plotted,in
p,
we
COS
12,700,000
terms
Therefore
length,
95,000
1 \J L
.'.
of
75.4.
6.45
in
equal
C,
2 H
is,therefore, necessary
number
written
units
are
equals
the
inch
It
S lines
should
abscissae
and
of
curves
B/H
turns
ampere
length
square
per
megalines
use.
C G
to
390.
generallyexpressed in megalines.
are
expressed
saturation
ordinates
B.
the
centimetre.
square
14,700;
of
inch
per
in lines
systems
measure,
centimetres,
square
12.7
1.10
was
be reduced
generallybe
would
This
37.7;
Ampereturns
lines.
was
should
this
practice1
lines per
ring
the
was
16,200
in
deg.;
was
16,200
But
1,690
of
crosssection
the
as
9.60
sample
in the
9.60
And
there
50
reversed
flux
reversing it,
of
"
100
consequentlythe
40
instead
of
deflection
exploringcoil
instead
flux
the
with
Then
circuit.
in the
turn
one
of
deflection^
gave
secondary
of
total resistance
2,400 ohms
deg. with
40
coil
exciting
the
in
amperes
to
2 H.
to
Letting
Tests.
Permeability
of
rodshaped
sample, this
in that
the
latter
in
rod
and
the
used
be
may
and
the
where
kinson
and
for all
of
apparatus
of the
those
be
to
are
calculation
the
of
for the
lines
along
PERMEABILITY
MEASURING
OF
is
absolute,
more
methods,
other
Hop
closelysimilar
annular
an
to
ring sample.
BALLISTIC
REQUIRING
NOT
the
electromagnetism,1
on
of
ring,
whereas
exploring coils
Descriptionsof
case
use
negligibleproportions,
to
textbooks
be
and
with
case
for.
would
results
the
annular
an
method
ring
be reduced
in
found
of the
separately wound,
is the
corrected
METHODS
the
than
either
practicable,or
be
than
magnetising
same
error
must
error
Hopkinson, permits
sample
samples. However,
for
METHODS.
convenient
more
the
less chance
sources
Dr.
by
each
method
yoke
is seldom
which
being
requires that
much
affords
devised
yoke method,
and
bar
The
TESTING
PERMEABILITY
OTHER
GALVANOMETER.
There
of
been
have
permeability
making
galvanometer, and
attending its
Those
of
number
well
which
is
bridge2
the
with
described
by
by
by
Also
Electrical
"An
27th,
4
"The
J.
in
of
the
ballistic
compared
the
trouble
but
it
to
standard
successful.
most
is
rather
between
difference
The
untrust
standard
the
Mr.
Holden
Professor
Hopkinson,
Engineer,
Apparatus
for
in
1895,3
before
Ewing
Phil.
Trans., page
New
York,
March
Determining
Frank
Mr.
Electrical
in
and
also
in
commercial
a
December
instrument
1896.4
455, 1885.
25th, 1891.
Induction
and
Hysteresis Curves,"
Electrical
World,
1896.
Magnetic
Testing of Iron
and
is
apparatus
similar
in
It
Determining
for
World
Royal Society
the
extensively
Holden.
of
Method
embodied
been
in
the
"
used
been
has
by
entitled
"
Curves
principlehas
which
devised
been
article
an
Hysteresis
The
1894.
constructed
June
him
and
Induction
exhibited
accomplishing this,
of
very
15th,
great
purpose
testpiece/
method
is
there
be
to
example,
wellknown
when
worthy, particularly
and
proved
have
is
tested
be
to
the
calculations.
simplifyingthe
piece
the
permeability
Eickemeyer
as
use
for
generally considerable
the
with
away
the
without
measurements
doing
as
use,
in
known
of
devised
arrangements
or
Steel," Proc.
Inst.
Civil
Engineers, May,
1896.
Electric
method
Holden's
bars
by
about
been
found
about
close
as
long.
magnetometer,
lie at
tending to
of the
bars
Over
the
to
use
right angles to
to
set
it at
the
provided
for
It
rod
one
bars,
a
and
and
is evident
the
this
brought
the
that
fluxes
leakage
which
south
in. in
affect
each
such
other
block
each
in
are
to
in
current
to
get
bar
H
has
diameter, and
is
placed
its needle
with
position.
10*
measuring,
directions
equal, for
variation
parallel,
are
bars, the
two
this
for
influence
Means
are
This
rid
or
of
the
north
effect
the
end
block.
from
the
there
would
be
through
the
air,
no
balanced
both
of
terminal
equal
other
each
the
same
shows
the
one
that
the
if not
magnetometer.
the
ends
practice it
one,
the
their
at
1.
magnetism.
For
of
two
arrangement
sensitive
very
magnetometer
be
must
the
in
the
the
by varying
reversing between
of
terminal
one
would
end
this
right angles to
pass
whenever
in them
from
about
of about
reversing simultaneously,and
magnetising currents,
of
In
length
FIG.
The
.25
in which
rods
windings permit.
portion of
middle
the
joined
fit.
they
rods
necessarilya
not
tending
which
as
convenient
most
7 in.
into
together
arrangement
an
over
soft iron
of
essentiallyof
consists
uniformly
blocks
two
and
wound
are
Generators.
of
condition
the
effects
is
bars, and
of
residual
Tests.
Permeability
where
n
number
of
Current
in
distance
between
As
the
be
may
arranged
at
fixed
amperes.
blocks
coils
magnetising
same
turns.
be
always
may
distance
centimetres.
in
used, and
blocks
the
as
apart,
and
H
The
and
mined,
the
at
of
curve
when
found
once
the
of
reference
of
are
the
balance
standard
the
the
to
characteristics
this
testpiece,and
of
means
making
and
quickly done,
of
the
need
Although
two
thus
The
be
it
steel, and
the
standard
hand,
of
castiron
quality
most
and
one
like
that
of
of
size
the
compass.
permeability
iron
wrought
the
is
simplicity
manipulating,
of
in
test
of
in
the
bars
good
care
If
furnishes
whole
by
with
is
standard.
the
extremes
less
takes
of
one
and
use
than
quite opposite
yet
at
delicate
more
of
pieces
are
for
of
method
minimised
are
magnetometer
not
compared,
error
the
The
comparisons,
of
chances
value
described.
as
accurate
very
standards
be
is calculated
the
process.
described
be
and
produced
the
of
the
been
has
deter
previously
calculated,
crosssection,
same
been
have
must
abovedescribed
force
by
bars
two
standard
the
the
magnetomotive
KG.
may
if
two
or
cast
testpiece should
used.
Sheet
about
.5
iron
in.
be
may
wide
and
7 in.
stripswhich
of
the
is
easily accounted
of
be
testpiece and
crosssections
shown
may
both
the
in
long.
making
about
the
Holden
since
total
and
the
the
with
In
case
induction
are
Ewing
if it
require
contact
this
fluxes
way,
will
This
in. thick.
in
the
same
good
.25
standard
for,
when
tested
the
the
general
will
equal.
are
In
use
in
cut
of
strips
specially
end
of the
the
crosssections
be
not
values
is
equal,
bundle
but
inversely
Figs.
permeability bridges.
and
this
the
as
are
Electric
Generators.
Hysteresis Tests.
DETERMINATION
stepbystepmethod
The
a
is
sample through
employed
with
to
motive
great
is
plottedwith
metre), and
with
such
abscissae
metre1
but
in
cycle per
derived
"
of
means
the
second.
per
results
in terms
relation
The
"
of
be
may
From
cubic
centimetre
per
per
in
commercial
the
two
per
OF
Alternate
Current
be
equal
per
cubic
pound
cycle
second
edition, page
62.
this
centi
by
to
the
"*"
centi
it is
more
of material
expressionsmay
UNITS.
Transformer,
If
square
apparatus
wratts
the
ergs
results
divided
area
planimeter),will
between
Fleming,
is made
plotted.
lines
),its
the
Area
of
CONVERSION
Ergs
(C
("
H,
flux.
the
Fig. 3,
to
subsequent calculations
follows
as
in
one
to have
convenient
per
of
by
to
test
in
in
equal
equal
Such
is shown
as
time.
present
consists
ordinates
(convenientlydetermined
hysteresisloss
the
at
extent
primary coil,and
of
corresponding changes
the
Loss.
force of the
galvanometer
HYSTERESIS
OF
be
Generators.
Electric
10
Watts
centimetre
cubic
per
at
second
cycle per
one
Area
=
Watts
inch
cubic
per
at
10T
7T
Area
16.4
Watts
pound
per
at
107
TT
second
cycleper
one
Area
4
Watts
..
pound
per
at
of sheet
inch
cubic
.282
.0000058
Ib.)
.282
weighing
iron
second
cycle per
one
107
TT
16.4
'
(One
second
cycleper
one
cubic
per
ergs
centimetre
per
cycle.
LOSSES
HYSTERESIS
in iron
Hysteresis loss
ALTERNATING
IN
through
other
when
remains
of
core
alternatingfield,but
inch,
the
kilolines
that
further
on
per
square
at
from
and
which,
when
the
becomes,
Royal
"
See
it is
in
inch,
quite
fact, it
magnetism
and
paper
Society, June
Magnetic
"
The
in
the
of
result
with
the
In
pressed beyond
constant
in
Hysteresis
of Iron
4th, 1896.
Hysteresis
has
predicted.
was
is
very
in
See
also
100
small
an
in
with
does
not
in the
Electrician
square
and
rapidly
about
130
indication
other
of
experi
magnetism,
hysteresisloss
decrease
Field,"
of
read
October
as
in the
before
the
2nd, 1896,
of
alternatingfield,
limit,the
Rotating Magnetic
article
by
theory
per
of
be
of the
that
every
of the
case
certain
than
of
rotating
the
kilolines
verified
molecular
value, but
that
induction
types
cannot
maximum,
an
been
other
cases
greater
about
the
certain
two
the
condition
former
found1
sharply defined
it becomes
This
in
hysteresisloss
the
magnetisation,
the
The
latter
the
induction
an
in accord
remains,
on
direction.
magnetisation,until, at
disappearingaltogether.
menters,
consequently
and
when
one
ways
positiveto negative,and
Bailey has
a
diminishes
from
in
same.
inductions
in two
hystereris loss
the
necessarily
field
varies
transformer,
resultant
The
to be
assumed
value, but
in
constant
apparatus.
changing
the
in the
holds
in
value
zero
produced
iron, and
the
be
may
FIELDS.
ROTATING
AND
Also
the
poles of
placed between
thoroughly analysed. The
rings when
loss3
to
be
rings
The
sample rings
built
are
up
into
FIG.
Surrounding
wire,
the
The
measured
sample, the
and
the
not
terminals
magnet.
and
but
of the
number
constants
deflection
For
lead
which
to
Weston
voltmeter.
of turns
of the
voltmeter,
voltmeter,
electromotive
in the
can
force
be
the
such
as
11).
page
rings.
the
"
in.
high.
5.
to be
tested
force
of the
Knowing
calculations,see
coil of insulated
the
coil is thus
in
corresponding
an
another
obvious
page
of
the
in this
to
manner.1
volume.
the
rectified,
crosssection
angular velocityof
induction
calculated
is
revolving with
commutator
coil,the
the
just
are
pile about
cylindrical
enables
(Fig.4,
test
vertical
alternatingelectromotive
by
rings
sheetiron
electromagnet which
coaxiallyan
in sheetiron
loss
the
measures
with
concentric
held
are
revolves
which
It
in the
be used
would
satisfactory.
most
the
be
to
appears
The
Generators.
Electric
12
the
magnet,
a
certain
Hysteresis Tests.
The
force
tending to
shaft
to
torsion
position,and
zero
By varying
by
data
residual
eddy
which
only ones
attached
the
required
from
angular velocityof
of
effect
under
eddy
the
of
ment
induction
the
for different
into two
of
that
the
of
magnetising
much
motive
force
that
is
the
With
rings on
will be
The
is
lot
there
applied
such
any
of
account
nearly constant,
sample
rotates
proportionalto
applied
for
tions in the
of
in
the
volume
to the
thickness
the
of
of
from
does
air
give
and
the
speed, the
the
purposes,
in
Fig. 4,
12.
with
away
the
adjust
determination
about
made
that
modified
onethird
small
as
the
flux
in
corresponding variation
total
likelyto
flux
furnished
general
the
is
as
average
the
the
in
this
angle of
correction
same
as
them
in the
in
occur
through
them
manner.
rotation
has
pilesof
the
high magneto
very
spiralspring,and
sheets, make
of
is
gap
magnetisation
In
of
electromagnet is
leakage.
the
crosssection, as
the
for,
low
page
crosssection
The
hysteresisloss.
spring.
is shown
Fig. 5,
the
case
little
at
coil
varying permeability,the
with
their
to
observations
allowed
separate
considerable
variation
loss per
practicallynegligible,and
electromagnets,so
oppositionto
and
the
this
is very
the
end
6.
rings.
slightlywith
In
in
instrument
greater length,and
sample
practicable,so
tests.
be
wire
seen
and
current
few
other
rings
of
helical
The
with
FIG.
scale.
constant
be
The
bring the
to
may
are,
be
over
magnet,
to
of
means
end.
one
by running
or,
sample
test
the
as
conditions
these
A
small
so
the
currents
determined
becomes
loss
to it at
pointermoving
readilycalculated
necessary.
rings is opposed by
deflection
the
hysteresisloss
readings taken
whilst
is
the
current
and
head, with
cycle is proportionalto
the
rotate
13
to
be
to varia
height.
The
Electric
14
magnets
when
made
reading is
iron
sheet
pieces of
seven
poles of
between
the
magnet
carries
pointer which
line
tests, this
has
of
made
be
to
of
thickness
in the
variation
deflections
The
hysteresisloss.
The
PROPERTIES
as
descriptionof
The
tests.
primary
pression.
The
material
the
coolinghas
noticeable
and
by
heating, and
of
rate
permeabilityof
too
permeabilityof high
diminished
mechanical
The
into the
by
however,
effect
on
it
the
composition
; the
Fig.
as
iron,
7.
be
of
physical
basis
specific
essential
an
for
the
part
affected
of
to
composition ; by annealing,
strains
the
for
the
upon
chemical
by
tension
instance, is diminished
flakes
com
the
if the
by annealing,the only
of
also be
wrought
or
magnetic propertiesof
restored
steels may
iron and
in
the
graphite
increased
iron
or
is increased.
by annealing
steel is diminished
permeabilityresultingfrom
mechanical
by annealing.
magnetic properties,of
of
advantages, that
magnetic propertiesare
carbon
be restored
and
which,
size of the
of
depend
steel
and
the
loss
great
correction
no
the
that
and
MATERIALS.
analysisforms
may
tempering, and
strain
is shown
influences
cast
rapid,but
that
apparatus
mechanical
coolingalso
strain, may,
and
degree accordingto
been
of
material, chemical
the
tempering, continued
indication
physicalstructure
less
greater or
The
iron
magnetic propertiesof
structure
OF
subsequent
with
same,
other
has,
corres
deflections
between
among
It
of
hysteresislosses,
to in the
is referred
so
pile of testpieces,
the
The
of their
practicallythe
are
variation.
such
for
function
existing
relation
the
showing
line
deflections
The
The
standards
Two
reference.
found
pointsthus
two
rotated
are
knifeedges.
on
scale.
of about
up
These
long.
mounted
over
moves
known
and
in.
magnet
permanent
is made
sample
test
and
wide
in.
the
TESTER.
HYSTERESIS
Ewing's apparatus1the
Professor
and
impulse by hand,
an
is obtained.
steady deflection
EWING
In
them
slowly by giving
rotated
are
Generators.
the
different elements
steel,varies according to
Electrician,April 26th,
1895.
the
entering
percentage
of
Composition of
other
be
elements
objectionablemay
influence
the
be
not
steel,as
The
present.
in
while
more
oftset
less
so
when
ordinary
it exerts
degree.
although
some,
harmful
the
in
injuriousinfluence
1
as
for
of
of
is not
others
also
are
present
objectionablein iron
nature
as
modify
the
same
15
element
an
amounts
carbon, but
of
that
and
7.
elements
themselves
Steel.
and
number
is of the
Some
impurities:
of
presence
FIG.
greatly
Iron
act
objectionable,
instance,
sulphur.
in
The
cast
influence
as
amounts
others,
antidote
iron, silicon
relative
1895.
an
of
tends
and
for
to
the
Electric
16
of
sum
in
variations
the
the
make
to
result
approximate
here
forth, as
set
values
magnetic
and
remained
elements
tests
test
varied
of
the
of
The
elements.
with
uniformity of
nificant
to
the
in
effect
it exerts
as
it
other
may
the
on
elements
to
permit
tending
to
first
the
the
of all the
maintain
the
initial
loss
at
of
that
other
the
low
value
iron,
carbon
silicon, phos
that
noticeable
the
the
influence
percentage
However,
carbon
sig
controllingelement,
impurities;
of
is
iron, and
of
of
also
iron.
percentage
is the
wrought
of
account
hence
grades of
considerable
extremely low
It
amounts
has
ingredients,
as
practice.
ingredients,and
usual
regarded
processes
secondary to
where
be
purer
in
cast
and
the
on
the
within
analysis.
proportions
less
compared
difficult it is to
more
iron, steel
the
the
between
important
impure
most
cast
other
sum
general
in the
the
chemical
the
with
and
of
or
and
the
of
variations
correct
more
principallywith
melting point,may
be
iron,
of
steel, the
or
with
degree
manganese,
present
sometimes
sheet
lesser
one,
determines
in
in the
been
have
found
been
treatment,
grades
forth
the
on
several
of any
excess
and
that, beginning
the
phorus, sulphur,
an
iron
propertiesaccord
magnetic
present,
compared
constant
economicallyproduced
be
can
the
purer
process
note
and
principal
were
interactions
the
set
have
magnetic propertiesfrom
passing through
the
materials
general,the
predict the
analyses
the
herein
tests, and
of
which
limits between
In
remained
modify
may
statements
number
great
element
any
is
method
this
that
seen
amount
other
obtained
so
had
that
one
the
proportion.
in
will be
It
results
The
elements
the
all but
of
of
with
the
studying
of
result
the
amounts
constant.
which
in
with
the
when
acting
elements, when
an
conclusions
The
element.
one
any
the
arriving at
before
analyses
various
effect of
the
to
effect of
the
to
as
or
indicate
therefore,
It is necessary,
test.
and
tests
elements
other
of
number
great
more
not
magnetic
in the
the
in
not,
of
account
slight
the
to
singleanalysismay
extreme
fairlyrepresent
cases,
elements,
may
used
sample
the
On
manufacture.
the
quality,and
average
qualityof
of
slightly,according
vary
of
process
diffusion
unequal
less
elements
various
the
Generators.
to
as,
has
exert
of
its influence
for
instance,
been
an
found
influence
during subjection to
pro
longed heating.
The
properties
of
iron
magnetic permeabilityand
and
steel
require separate
magnetic hysteresis.
The
examination
as
permeability is
to
of
Propertiesof
be
then
may
losses
parts
may
laminated.
Thicknesses
found
useful
for
of
is small
On
magnetism
in.
.014
the
permeability. Hysteresis
tends
maximum,
of
have
.036
in.
good
iron
the
percentage
masses
be
finely
generally
are
withstand
to
hysteresis
of
the
electrical
to
minimum,
the
in solid
flux
and
towards
the
as
of
account
in
dimension, and
is reversed
be
must
change
desired
any
impurities affect
rolling process.
there
be
plates,which
Some
17
varying magnetic
to
the
meability towards
which
between
of
Iron.
forged.
the
when
most
in
cast, rolled,or
either
local currents
by
parts
such
hence
magnetisation;
of
in
greatest importance
the
Cast
than
more
and
the
per
elements, other
than
iron, diminishes.
In
it is
of
case
inferred
be
found
been
has
to
hysteresisloss
the
and
there
noticeable
permeabilityis increased
from
the
other
have
the
known
Iron.
with
greater facility
Consideringthe
in the
shown
as
iron
Cast
"
exerts
great
of cast
use
be
curves,
costlyfor
in the
IRON
the
subse
of
account
on
cast
that
cast
result
iron
the
form.
steel,
and
iron
than
castingshas
is,other
steel.
cast
rendered
the
welldesignedelectrical
of
construction
and
castingsof complex
given magnetic
steel
such
to
STEEL.
it is evident
of
purity,
final result.
the
purposes
into
made
iron
which
for its
during
upon
AND
magnetic
manufacture
exceptionalin
influence
in
reduced
iron, both
which
purest
iron
remarkable
magnetic propertiesof
and
accompanying
progress
iron
it may
the
nickel,
that
The
hysteresiswas
the
OF
for
relative costs
thingsbeing equal,more
The
great
is used
which
the
of
MAGNETISATION
THE
Cast
why
treatment
manufacture,
beyond
present.
is not
smallest
cause
The
elements
highest permeability,
yet
found
been
extent.
to its
quent
steel,alloyed with
or
the
that
has
no
was
iron
comparatively pure
found, however,
would
the
machines.
The
cast
those
elements
fluxes
and
greatest
present
used
which
fuels used
effect
is
on
for
magnetic
crude
iron
the
4.5
brings with
Of
it from
its influence
in
0.2
amount
per
of
carbon
cent., and
ore
The
and
from
the
has
the
used,
0.8
varies
per
between
cent,
carbon
of
amount
melting point.
determining the
extent, all
some
the
materials
of the
account
to
elements, carbon
these
magnetic permeability.
and
contains,
purposes
in its reduction.
necessarily
high, on
employed, and
of
iron
the
In
3
process
cast
cent.
per
being in
D
iron
com
Electric
18
restricted
0.3
is
carbon
Combined
to
ascertained
In
given
magnetisation,but
of
rather
result
the
The
magnetisation values.
would
be between
Graphite
exertingany
very
limit, there
lower
marked
is
Sulphur
graphiticstate.
An
inferior
and
not
seem
of
amount
2.5
phorus
in
cent,
be
of it
purposes
without
iron.
cast
It
as
annuls
is
its amount
of silicon
amount
is
in the
extent.
carbon, and
influence
casting homogeneous,
The
be
limited
combined
the
and
of carbon
possibleshould
a
is
to the
carbon
percentage
excessive
of
excess
make
low
at
cent,
per
of combined
certain
much
in
carbon.
of
sulphur,
greater
and
than
lessen
to
generallyvaries
in small
an
an
of
excess
carbon, and
little
permeabilityof
objectionableuntil
in
Manganese,
cent.
per
as
Silicon
harmless,
of combined
and
amount
indication
being to
denotes
excess
it is
curve,
magnetic
an
combined
per
itself it may
excess
is
be
to
between
0.8
sulphur
magnetic quality.
does
2 per
the
of
excess
for
high
to
being especiallybad
cent,
the
in the
that
is
the
by
high
very
8.
per
permeability.
it is desirable
and
necessary,
to
up
the
of
correspondingdecrease
Fig.
2
increase
an
of
effect upon
when
also
generallyused
between
vary
that
generallyfound
and
be
may
corresponding
values
result
the
iron
cast
curves
may
iron,
grades
carbon
carried
sample
different
three
accompanying analyses.
the
analysisand
the
by
cast
poor
of
test
obtaining
for
shown
as
with
less than
high magnetic
combined
proportionsof
results
the
of
be
should
having
be
to
analysesof
and
of the
useful
is
It
saturation.
sample
of
irons
generallyfound
are
curves
by comparison
is
Fig. 9
carbon
effect of different
The
iron.
graphitic state.
or
Cast
possible.
as
shows
permeability. Fig. 8
of cast
amount
an
uncombined
an
objectionableingredient,and
most
of combined
cent,
per
the
small
as
in
remainder
the
state,1 and
bined
Generators.
it should
the
becomes
is
phosphorus
be
restricted
accompanied by
to
0.7
in
marked
irons
that
an
cent,
per
has
in
or
but
low
are
in
carbon.
Figs.
grades A
10
and
Malleable
process
for
Arnold,
and
11
further
show
data
relatingto
irons
in
shown
Fig. 8,
respectively.
Cast
making
"Influence
Iron.
it
"
When
cast
malleable,
of Carbon
on
in
iron
which
Iron," Proc.
is
a
Inst.
decarbonised,
portion
C.E.,
vol.
of
the
as
in
the
graphite
cxxiii.,page
156.
is
Electric
20
however,
the
to
with
Fig.
In
12
Steel.
Cast
steel used
Cast
hearth
of
account
last
the
in the
at the
molten
steel,and
In
suitable
most
the
frequentlyby
the
of
openhearth process
cast
and
the
metal
the
first
the
change
in
difference
noticeable
process
temperature,
this
greater advantage
pouring
the
likewise
Bessemer
open
the
elapsing between
time
is
magnetic quality.
tained
castingsthan
considerable
castings,there
temperature
the
small
of
to
to
that
small
of
manufacture
the
process
manufacture
for
frequently used
more
the
by
being
principalreason
the
process,
generallymade
been
has
iron.
steel process.
the
by
where
manufacture
of
made
pig
place,is intended
in this
irons
iron
cast
of steel and
processes
in
as
magnetic purposes
Bessemer
The
in the
of
been
has
ings.
for
to the
not
recarbonisation,
no
SiemensMartin
or
process
and
been
has
malleable
mixtures
used
steel,"as
cast
irons, and
refer to recarbonised
there
"
term
analysis
permeability.
of the
fraction
magnetic propertiesof
the
The
"
but
iron, has
accom
chemical
iron, of
cast
which
iron
the
magnetic properties of
the
shown
are
1 3 illustrates
Fig.
unmalleable
as
of malleable
that
of
physicalstructure
in the
change
is due,
This
permeability.
in the
increase
marked
decarbonisation,
panies the
identical
is
there
eliminated,
Generators.
composition is
main
be
can
easily
more
regulated.
Cast
which
case
steel is
is in the
of
distinguishedby
combined
iron, the
cast
strains,in which
case
approximately
stated
should
have
not
the
state, there
combined
that
when
good
cast
changes
steel, from
of
greater percentages
present
graphite,as
in the
subjectedto great
castingsare
carbon
of carbon
amount
being generallyno
exceptionbeing
the
small
very
magnetic standpoint,
impuritiesthan
the
following:
Per
Combined
be
It may
graphite.
to
carbon
Cent.
0.25
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Phosphorus
0.08
...
...
...
Silicon
0.20
Manganese
0.50
...
Sulphur
In
with
the
practice,carbon
advantage
results
0.05
of
is the
restricted
great
number
tests
permeabilityis proportioned
conditions
remaining equal ;
the
proportion,
same
and
objectionableimpurity, and
smaller
to
of
most
that
that
to
amounts
than
and
analyses show
the
amount
is,that
the
the
0.25
per
cent.
that
the
decrease
of carbon
other
temperature
in the
elements
of
the
be
may
The
in
steel, other
are
molten
present
steel
in
is
Magnetisation
Curves
of
Iron
and
HONlOS
Steel.
U3d
S3NHOTIM
21
Electric
22
increased
according
would
0.5
steel.
but
has
cent,
per
from
magnetic properties,a
air.
permeability than
silicon is that
steel of
In
magnetic quality.
I.
what
curves
good
represent
the
and
analyses
steel
poor
values
average
blow
steel
the
the
amounts
excess
the
given
are
of
formation
and
magnetic
respectively.
In
corresponding to
the
proper
Fig.
these
14,
two
of tests.
The
may
II.
termed
be
may
and
and
in
but
it
objection to
sulphur, in
and
Phosphorus
Tables
densities
higher
in
magnetisation
The
extent.
it facilitates the
diffused
objectionable;
not
at
greater
economical
low
at
;x but
cent.
5 per
noticeable
machining.
and
all its
nearly
densities
magnetic
carbon,
or
inferior
ties of
sets
of
scarcely having
mixture
the
at
has
manganese,
tool in
are
specified,
to
unequally
when
like
difficult to
Silicon,
deprives steel
it
cent,
per
permeability to
the
and,
12
permeabilityup
the
diminishes
holes
the
objectionablethan
less
practice,is
increases
in amounts
large proportions,however,
In
permeability
lower
low
too
at
less than
analysis. Manganese
the
little effect upon
magnetic propertiesof ordinary
inferred
be
steel
Cast
purity,shows
of
state
purity.
of
degree
consideringthe
temperature
than
the
to
Generators.
be
extent
seen
deleterious
which
to
from
the
effect
of
combined
I.
See
"
DATA
OF
Electrical
Fig.
carbon
steel
of
percentage
of
curves
magnetic propertiesof
TABLE
the
TEN
The
15.
upon
further
are
QUALITY
nalysis.
December
the
affects
of
curves
Fig.
16
result,
the
show
magnetic properties.
illustrated
FIRST
World,
phosphorus
SAMPLES
in
OF
CAST
619.
STEEL.
and
the
The
19.
Magnetisation
"H3NI
6S
H3d
S3Nno^l)l
Curves
of
Cast
Steel.
23
Electric
24
II.
TABLE
DATA
"
SAMPLES
QUALITY
SECOND
TEN
OP
Generators.
OP
CAST
STEEL.
Analysis.
Mitis
Iron.
In
"
Table
III.
are
of aluminium
TABLE
III.
"
DATA
TWELVE
OF
to
SAMPLES
Kilolines
AmpereTurns
"
as
per
mitis
MITIS
OP
iron."
The
action
IRON.
Square Inch.
per
Analysis.
Not
of
of
aluminium
a
in
steel
softeningnature.
castings having
seen
ranging from
from
0.05
It
somewhat
magnetic qualitythan
It will be
is, like
steel
the
per
determined.
that
to
seems
act
silicon, sulphur,
castingsmade
to 0.2
the
by
or
powerfully than
more
greater degree
analysesthat
cent,
of
of
purity
of
processes
aluminium
that
is
and
silicon,the
a
higher
equal refinement.
present
this
phosphorus,
in amounts
permits of making
Magnetic Propertiesof
about
good castingswith
steel.
ordinary cast
less.
they do
furnish
not
It will be
Mitis
to
iron
The
kilolines
this
impurities,
of
result
magnetic
is
of
with
than
is
homogeneity
is
it
to
up
steel
up
somewhat
densityof
from
obtained
that
impurities.
ordinary
iron
mitis
from
obtained
identical
practically
lack of
densities
high
at
that
shows
good quality.
little better
kilolines,but
100
iron
mitis
denoting a
in those
than
hardness
generally somewhat
there
magnetic qualities
of poor
excess
is, magnetically,a
of
density
inferior.
100
of
excess
in
as
manganese
to the
as
25
and
is
analysesof
in those
that
Steel.
carbon, also,
and
tests
clear indication
greater degree
these
and
silicon
much
as
of
amount
noticed, however,
generallyan
and
The
inspectionof
An
onehalf
Iron
wroughtiron
forgings.
A
is
representingthe
curve
able
Steel.
Some
"
of the
propertiesof
are
shown
in
the
of
22
at
inferior
grade
to the
remarkable
For
of
Swedish
find
tions, although
and
vol.
'"
the
For
nickel
xlviii.,page
presence
the
information
Various
iron, in
curve
as
and
to
the
of
of
and
is made
G.
by
Armstrong
illustrates
conditions
Hopkinson,
an
attributable
the
shows
properties
it is somewhat
which
iron and
sheet
taken
sheets
the
J.
Dr.
be
graphite.
for the
remarkable
see
Curve
preferablybe
should
to
iron, nearly
former
Curve
analysis of
the
percentage
composition
iron,
curves
permeabilitybeing
sulphur.
wToughtiron forgingsand
generally used,
alloys of
alloys
low
its
and
small
its
to
wrought iron,
of
In
Sir W.
Messrs.
exceptionalpurposes.
phosphorus
to
the
practice,found
in
are,
of
Works
owing
of
excess
forging
nickel
for
manufactured
only
iron
wrought
Elswick
the
it is
analysisof
the
by
steel,
with
magnetic propertiesof
The
as
steel process
and
for
accounted
remark
possess
of nickel
mixture
the
shown
are
and
the
of
qualityand
Fig.
be
can
nickel
Fig. 2 1.2
"
of uniform
steel with
cent,
per
components.
Forgings. Forgings
pure,
greater permeabilitythan
the
of
alloysof
magnetic properties.1 A
shows
the
III.,
of
Table
samples of
twelve
of the
average
as
will
be
not
controllingthe
Proc.
basis
sheet
steel
calcula
for
that
given
magnetic properties of
Royal Soc.,
vol.
xlvii.,page
23 ;
1.
investigationshave
of chromium
and
shown
that
the
permeability
of steel
is
greatly lessened
tungsten.
E
by
Electric
26
HONI'6S
U3d
Generators.
S3NHOTIU
S3NHOTDI
"6S
H3d
S3NHOTIH
Electric
28
LOSSES
ENERGY
The
loss in
energy
field consists
of
intermolecular
loss
The
the
increases
the
with
the
is
obtaining in
duced
to
give
practice,and
uniform
those
results, the
"
LOW
STEEL
UNFORCED
CASTING
INTO
FOR
DYNAMO
of
currents.
reversal
of the
increase
of
material
ANNEALED
RING,
of
iron, and
the
of
magnetisa
be
can
by hysteresismay
be
pro
taken
fc TURNED.
MAGNETS.

STEEL
the
limits
the
such
loss
of
law
exact
which
FORCED
BAR,
FOROINO
by eddy
thickness
within
energy
MOOR
CD
in
that
the
is no
There
by hysteresisor
that
frequency
the
magnetisation,but
the
being
second
the
entirelyindependent of
magnetisation.
hysteresiswith
tion
first
the
quantities,
by hysteresisis proportionalto
but
rotating magnetic
alternatingor
an
magnetism,
IRON.
SHEET
IN
in
iron
sheet
distinct
two
Generators.
UNFORCED
..
(SIEMENS
CASTINGS
PROCESS)
(KRUPP)
GO
GO
AMPERE
to
increase
first
Professor
tests, found
the
power
the
The
Mr.
Ewing
C.
and
1.48
in
generally met
as
the
as
from
1.6
INCH
14O
OF
1SO
200
LENGTH.
of
power
160
the
magnetisation,as
was
Steinmetz.1
Miss
Klaassen,2 however,
be
to
transformers.
better
Other
from
large number
representative
extensive
the
at
point
tests
of
densities
the
to
1.5
average.3
hysteresis loss
temperature
10
TZO
PER
the
P.
power
working temperatures,
as
TURNS
approximately with
pointed out by
100
per
is
but
independent
from
to
20
of
Elec.
Electrician,April 13th,
Elec.
Eng.,
New
World,
June
York,
temperature
upward
deg. Cent,
700
cent,
per
the
deg. Cent,
200
increases,until at
cent,
of
it has
15th, 1895.
the
677.
at
loss
fallen
ordinary
decreases
to
as
Obviously
low
this
decrease
at
Sheet
is of
high temperatures
very
in
Losses
Energy
Iron.
29
commercial
no
importance at
the
present time.1
The
chemical
annealed
has
obtained.
together
of
the
the
deg.
the
iron
sheets
the
Tech.
in
This
In
this
Clinker
4
"
On
Mr.
S.
Properties
this
Beyond
the
of
surfaces
sheets
slight sticking
been
brought
of
danger
the
to
but
soon
injuringthe
been
yet
found
No
been
Elek.
also
and
wide
by
paper
of
Iron
as
from
iron, giving
deterioration
K.
Phil.
also
dependent
a
exceed
an
through
Morris, Ph.D.,
so
Mag., Septem
the
On
"
Temperature,"
upon
it
which
of
Mag
read
series
of
of
tests
hysteresis,
temperatures.
the
upon
D.
depends
amount
temperature
described
are
of
range
somewhat
depends
Its
valuable
hysteresis
the
satisfactoryexplanation
of charcoal
14th, 1897,
May
over
that
given.
the
upon
grades
in two
high temperatures.3
has
has
effected
composition
the
iron.
much
of
authors
and
C.
C.
Slow
Proceedings of
January
the
temperature
improvement
the
heating.4
Resistance
Electrical
resistance,
and
materials, the
results
the
easilyseparated;
are
is
hysteresisloss
Cent.2
having
particularlysubject to
complete
very
temperature
the
pure
3
best
Physical Society, on
permeability, and
'2
The
and
It
"
iron, and
the
; also
the
Iron.
continued
by
Properties
before
Sheet
of
annealed.
ber, 1897
show
Fig. 25
of this deterioration
ingly low
by
950
together badly.
the
of
of
relation
iron
sheet
nature
higher the
place;
it insures
of
compositionof
been
and
increases
cause
upon
to
stick
which
at
the
loss in iron
C.
the
the
upon
about
sheets
and
subjected.
that
take
as
the
temperature
actions
the
upon
great.
Deterioration
more
far
dependent
different
netic
to
influence
to
up
high temperature,
Curves
has
The
"
annealing, show
desirable,
iron becomes
of
iron is
is somewhat
scaled, and
desired
Iron.
deleterious
is
iron, but
the
hysteresisloss
temperature
become
the
preponderating
temperature
after
of
Sheet
Extended
the
hysteresisloss
which
to
Annealing of
lower
the
composition
physicalprocesses
to
of
magnitude
are
following work
Wharton,
Royal
llth, 1895.
Roget,
of
Iron," read
complete experimental
in
Mr.
to
London,
Magnetic
Society,January
A
R.
of
in the
Changes
the
the
indebted
recent
paper
before
data.
very
hysteresisand
Royal
assistance
Permeability
17th, 1895
"Effects
on
the
propertiesof insulating
for valuable
valuable
entitled
the
on
Jesse
of
; also
contribution
of
Messrs.
to
carrying
Electrician, December
to
this
subject
Heating
12th, 1898.
on
11.
of tests.
out
M.
Iron," by William
Prolonged
Society, May
in the
Mordey,
7th, 1894,
has
the
It contains
been
made
Magnetic
some
very
Electric
called
loss
subjectto
by
lower
Table
case
results
brands
of
brands
of those
rise of
percentage
the
shows
different
several
on
27, but
annealed
of
is
sample
JFt9^J6.BASIC
the
of
tests
invariablygreater
in
that
"
Cent,
deg.
60
hysteresisby
FLg.27.
i'S
in
noticed
be
the
ageing," the
than
of the
that
ACID
ncLKriouarteiiHG
0 +
at
tests
will
of
increase
"
grade
same
case
more
exceptions.
many
are
It
the
was
ageing
"
iron.
subject to
the
there
the
superiorto
This
temperature.
and
correspondingto Figs. 26
V.
ageing,"generallyremains
"
from
iron annealed
from
annealed
Iron
ageing."
"
Generators.
of
IRON
TO
t.l
OPENHEARTH
STEEL
ANALYSIS
E!
SILICON
"
PHOSPHORUS..
."
MANGANESE
gl
SULPHUR
"
CARBON.
unannealed
sample, and
than
worse
the
Brands
plottedin
at
even
the
as
more
unannealed
III., V.,
these
when
VI.,
at 60
stable
constructed
temperature
much
29
are
the
brands
with
above
and
of
of
same
056
sample ultimatelybecomes
appears
that
at
deterioration
selected
that
that
iron deteriorate
60
irons whose
"
ageing
"
records
are
respectively.
temperature
relates to avoidance
annealed
the
it
investigations
deteriorate
this
often
026
samples.
and
From
will not
that
0031
oas
can
be
obtained
irons deteriorate
some
temperature of
90
which
rapidly
deg. Cent,
even
gradually. Consequently, so
through
irons, should
deg. Cent.
iron
"
ageing," apparatus,
not
be
allowed
to
far
even
reach
"
V.
TABLE
(From
of
Temperature
The
chemical
Ageing
RESULTS
"
Tests
ageing
analyses
of
OP
by
=
these
"
R.
60
C.
Iron.
of Sheet
TESTS
ON
AGEING
Clinker, London,
are
31
given
18967.)
where
in
IRON.
OP
stated.
otherwise
Table
IV.,
Temperature
raised
to
90
deg.
after
600
hours.
Temperature
raised
to
90
deg.
after
650
hours.
Temperature
raised
to
90
deg.
after
670
hours.
on
page
27.
Electric
32
of
examination
An
the most
the
high temperature,
impure
such
that
results indicates
is believed
It
stable result.
Generators.
iron may
annealingfrom
by
that
made
be
impure
rather
to
have
gives
sufficiently
low
as
iron
initial
an
ss
"
u
2500
3000
xsa
iso
soo
iroo
aso
1000
vso
HOURS
"Saix.
MIT../1*
because
low
the
softens
surface
the
at
comparatively
temperatures.
The
^ageing
annealed
of
curves
"
tests.
sample
is
Fig. 30
of
when
increase
the
no
32
represent
effect of
Pressure
great magnitude,
hystereticloss.
partlyregainsits
the
and
the
results
of
interesting
higher temperature
upon
the
clearlyshown.
Effectof Pressure."
even
and
former
Even
and
as
all
mechanical
they
decrease
after release
good qualities.
In
the
from
curves
strains
are
injurious
permeability and
the iron only
pressure,
the
of
Fig. 33
is shown
Properties of
the
effect of
applying pressure
having
ments
been
Another
of
it
after
These
show
the
that
results
from
received
was
removal
is
the
Iron.
different
two
the
interestingcase
Fig. 34.
iron,as
made
to
Shwf
of
the
curves
certain
upon
after
makers,
measure
pressure.
in
shown
of tests
33
it had
been
A, B,
sample
and
of
annealed,
C,
sheet
and
09
EFFECT
OF
PRES8UREUPON
HYSTERESISLOSS
JRON
SUBSEQUENT
REMOVAL
SILICON
THE
OFSHEETTO
THE
.QC9
PHOSPHORUS"
__;090
MANGANESE,
474
SULPHUR...
O4O
_.__
CARBON..
_O72
"
4OOO
8OOO
1200
PRESSURE
IN
ZOOO
16OO
LBS.
PER
SQ.
24OO
INCH.
:O4"
CARBON
....II7
PHOSPHORUS
MANGANESE
368
SILICON
.202
I
SULPHUR
.
AMPERE
after
being subjectedto
It will be
that
seen
meability,but
that
meabilitybelow
The
is
value
probably
the
much
TURNS
JO
PER
annealing in this
14
12
OF
INCH
of 40,000
pressure
subjecting the
its
of
sample
to
16
LENGTH.
Ib. per
case
..
square
inch, respectively.
materiallyincreased
the
per
diminished
the
per
pressure
originalvalue.
the
hysteresislosses
greater.
Mr.
Mordey
while
the
refers to
iron
a
case
is still under
in which
pressure
a
pressure
Electric
34
of
in the
Reannealing
value.1
its
accompanied by
was
the
Upon removing
loss.
core
inch
square
Generators.
injuredby
original
to
pressure,
originalcondition.
This
under
be
sheets,
no
HysteresisLoss.
that
The
"
Fig.
of
curves
35
give values
practice.
in actual
be obtained
can
These
should
for the
Curve
be increased
I0?.for transfi
50 Ibs of Iron " S/. For those. "ith From 50 U
with Iron' not pruper/y annea/eol
tL~g"
'
ok'
~H test
iple.,
results
via, less than
100
Orthodox.
is
for
forfcldv
Values
hysteresis
sheet
Lost
Current
F 10 Microhm,
'
losses inTransFormcrs.diie
in excefS
SQ7.txlt"Ofi
should
be
used
transformer
work
transformer
work, iron
and
iron there
is
for armatures
transformer
is
occasion
for
is
no
yet secured
the
in. to
usually.025
plate.013
by
such
in. in
used
generally used.
Curve
thickness.
Ewing.
Professor
\
tdolyCurre
thtbc values
in
For
Swedish
It
from
was
iron.2
Its
Iron
gives
strip of
analysiswas
Cent.
.02
Silicon
.032
Manganese
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
.020
Sulphur
.003
(by difference)
Slow
Proceedings of
only.
trace
Phosphorus
ier
values.
Per
"On
Sheet
in
exacting requirements,
iron
armature
.036
these
Carbon
Iron
steel
generallyused.
in. thickness
representative of
is
best result
of .014
with
comply
required to
be
bo
of
all iron
construction, and
transformer
for
should
armature
curve
good
'
Actual
For
tem
to
bnprtur
as
im
construction.
mechanical
such
the
to
more
is essential
than
used
relates
as
of considerable
one
transformer
and
should
pressure
is
pressure,
assembling armature
in
far
so
particularly
pressure,
remains
permanent
or
losses
injuryby
iron
the
portance, and
porary
of
matter
while
increase
the
cent,
per
core
been
has
which
iron
restores
the
pressure,
of 21
increase
an
Changes
the
in
the
the Institution
...
...
...
99.925
...
...
Magnetic
Royal Society,January
Proceedings q/
...
of
Civil
...
...
Permeability
of
Iron,"
by
William
17th, 1895.
Engineers, May
19th,
1896.
M.
Mordey,
Electric
36
The
of little
for
eddy
to
used
irons
and
currents
set
copper
but
constitutes
for
magnetic
given
in
(Munroe
W.
and
dependence
i)
1.
Swedish
Preece
H.
Jameson
of the
charcoal
gives
"
iron, very
,,
PREECE'S
soft and
TESTS
and
given,
for
com
,,
,,
not
suited
for P.
0.
"
specification.
Swedish
5.
Best
6.
Bessemer
SiemensMartin
puddled
cast
the
composition.
steel 0.10
carbon.
iron.
,,
Best
values
WIRE.
7.
8.
,,
IRON
4.
,,
of
strikingmanner
chemical
the
upon
ANNEALED
OF
No.
pure,
in
shows
of iron
tication.
,,
iron
also
are
resis
the
YI.
Pocketbook), which
VII.
3.
"
in which
pure
very
and
total loss.
of the
the
resistance
specific
2.
,,
current
sheets,
approximately
VI.
for
eddy
are
TABLE
No.
Table
correspondingvalues
part
have
purposes
TABLE
Mr.
small
the
to
isolated
individual
the
a
only
refer
they
in
up
work, and
for transformer
chieflyuseful
are
density constants
comparison, the
mercial
36
calculation, as
this often
in armatures
The
Fig.
in armature
use
Tosses due
tance
in
curves
Generators.
,,
steel.
hard
quality.
SpecificConductivityof
Although prepared in
of much
of
to
significance
using
reduced
to
low
ately
also
be
nearly
its lower
course
to
this
formers
in America
sition is
more
1, and
like
have
been
Samples
ageing."
property
Reference
should
before
FAcademie
useful
data
of
The
results
sequently reproduced
per
Resistance
Centimetre
of
will
proportion
Transformer
such
to
whose
13th, 1898,
of
the
H.
M.
by
Le
varying percentages
of
influence
of
INFLUENCE
CARBON.
OF
Si.
Mn.
0.05
0.13
..
0.08
0.15
0.05
0.24
14
0.49
16
0.84
0.24
0.13
18
1.21
0.21
0.11
18.4
1.40
0.14
0.09
19
1.61
0.13
0.08
...
...
...
...
Centimetre
INFLUENCE
OF
SILICON.
Composition.
per
Si.
C.
Cube.
0.1
0.2
12.5
...
38.5
0.2
15.8
0.8
2.6
...
0.1
0.7
0.8
26.5
...
...
1.3
0.8
33.5
...
...
0.1
1.0
17.8
...
...
...
32.0
0.6
1.0
25.5
given
1.0
very
of
varying percentages
0.20
"
present,
resistance
...
IX.
very
of carbon, silicon,
especialimportance,and
C.
TABLE
compo
been
be
is
electrical
the
upon
O.OG
in Microhms
trans
Chatelier,read
which
in
...
Resistance
of
have
Composition.
12.5
tem
that
Most
should
to
in
chemical
transformers
paper
in Microhms
Cube.
Of
builders
quality as
ageing."
"
of manganese
followingTables
10
iron will
resistance.
specific
are
"
hysteresis loss
sufficiently
high
by
the
cent,
elements,
VIII.
to
material
6, and
desirability
troublesome, owing
some
troubled
be made
manganese
TABLE
Speci6c
iron
4, 5 and
influence
in the
its
it is
prolonged heating.
annealing.
built from
relating to
carbon, silicon,and
heated
when
much
other
the
to
comparatively impure
it somewhat
Sciences, June
des
telephone work,
points
through
from
raisingthe
here
nickel, and
steels.
Such
least .4 per
At
regarding the
manganese,
loss.
results
been
37
higher specificresistance
together
have
to its
owing
the
generally used
have
No.
of
stick
to
Steel.
by annealing, have
deterioration
good
sample
"
from
builders, and
can,
current
and
telegraph ami
secure
country
free from
eddy
free
platestending
perature
as
value, since
the
with
transformer
iron
impure
as
decrease
the
connection
Iron
1.1
are
con
of
Generators.
Electric
38
X.
TABLE
Resistance
Microhms
in
INFLUENCE
"
MANGANESE.
OF
Composition.
per
Mn.
Si.
0.24
0.1
...
0.1
0.95
...
0.2
0.83
...
0.9
1.8
...
0.3
13.
MATERIALS.
INSULATING
to
the
insulation
in
according
The
nical
part of
one
No
strains.
in
one
still another
in
material
in
withstood.
electrical
high temperatures
to
part
marked
any
to
to
part
greatly,
vary
be
subjectedto high
be
may
in another
pressures
conditions
the
dynamo
construction
dynamo
and
use
temperatures
electrical
moderate
of
method
at moderate
pressures
and
used
insulating materials
The
mecha
severe
degree
possesses
very
largely
all the
qualitiesrequired.
either
Mica,
without
absorption of
invaluable.
lack
of
formed
Table
white
so
sheets
to
as
shows
mica
the
of
has
used
however,
use,
has
be
moisture
proof, have
of
account
on
coils
armature
entirely satis
been
not
of
armature
and
the
of
sheets
found
been
electrical
properties
of
specially
paper
highly
fieldmagnet coils.
The
composite
suitable
following
sheets
of
:
"
XI.
Puncturing
...
...
...
7,800
...
...
8,800
0011
...
another
upon
20th, 1898.
paper
the
by
electric
the
same
resistance
author
of
to
...
0.009
...
3,600
...
0007
June
mica
its brittleness.
of
roughly
insulate
to
0.005
In
from
pieces cemented
small
numerous
been
TABLE
tempering
on
of with
commutators
is restricted,
however,
Thickness.
of
construction
made
hot,
Its
of
insulation
the
while
account
Composite
for
used
its freedom
deterioration, and
mica,
mica, i.e.,mica
factory,on
prepared
In
of
use
commutators.
as
been
has
flexibility.
together,and
well
moisture.
The
Moulded
as
solid,
or
its property
extremely high insulatingqualities,
of its
account
composite
...
are
steel.
set
forth
Comptes
"
"
11,600
results
Rendus
"
Voltage.
5,860
10,800
11,400
14,600
showing
de
the
I'Academie
influence
des
of
Sciences,
dried
and
is
which
paper,
shows
be
to
found
is
irregular in
better
been
used
satisfactory,
soaked
with
insulator
and
baked
less
or
linen
quality
fairlysatisfactorywhen
has
more
are
use,
which
linen,
and
good qualities,
very
been
have
preparation and
shellaced
liable
but
linen,
that
of
method
according to
oil
materials
other
The
39
brittle
press
with
than
oiled
oiled
board,"
"
linseed
satisfaction
bondwhich
insulate
to
fieldmagnetcoils.
linseed
Where
thoroughly
Red
and
main
far
so
before
They
and
to
absorb
to
necessary
use
waterproof.
good
The
to
thickness, owing
the
inner
is made
according
in this
have
the
leatheroid
Sheet
material
tensile
of
increase
are
made
be
the
thick
qualities,
Baking improves
the
voltage not
in
to
render
thickness,
the
volts
10,000
insu
it is
Whenever
according to
their
thicknesses
increasingwith
as
processes
of
is
success,
to
substantiallythe
thickness
is
thoroughly painted
puncturing
be
sheets.
same
materials
This
brittle.
withstand
increased
possesses
XIT.
varying
mechanical
due
substance
should
with
concerned.
air.
should
by chemically treating
decidedlypoor
the
the
material
the
insulators
as
their
from
in., this
to
strength
such
in
to the
TABLE
With
fibres
shrinking are
fibre
the
of
oil.
insulatingquality varies
^ in.
part
the
material, it should
vulcanised
from
varying
being
renders
this
employed,
used
moisture
lating qualities,but
but
been
have
warping
as
be
to
applying
objectionto them
readiness
it
is
vulcanised
white
fibre.
paper
the
dried
oil
5,000
"
TESTS
as
not
vulcanised
safelywithstand
Ib.
ox
per
SHEETS
vulcanised
square
OF
qualities,and
same
fibre.
5,000
thickness
volts, and
should
inch.
LEATHEROID.
fibre
and
leatheroid,
sheet
necessarily accompanied
by
increased
Electric
40
insulation
resistance, owing
the
throughout
is well
This
sheet.
the
obtaining uniformity
difficultyof
the
to
of
thickness
Generators.
in
the
tests
preceding
Table.
shown
of
of
sheets
leatheroid
useful, owing
quite flexible,and
it becomes
Cent,
deg.
70
at
the
restricted, however,
is
use
in
sometimes
is
forms
various
in
rubber
Hard
thicknesses, given
various
at
its
to
from
the
deg.
Cent,
80
fact
it
softens.
Hard
bars
and
their
of
hard
is
rubber
should
chief
The
be
slate
moreover,
is
quite
mechanical
and
terminalboard
has
from
take
it is
useless
useful.
the
There
to
faults
and
about
dynamos,
"c.
volts
per
5000
used
of
found
the
to
will
the
greater
will
withstand
As
of
withstand
baking
This
considerable
material
is
proportion being
10,000
of
volts
tests,
per
the
the
its
cases
switchboard
and
bushings.
to
less
extent.
will
and
addition
in
subject to
is
of
one
market,
such
as
other
to
action
the
readily obtainable
is that
deg.
known
Cent,
compound
in.
in
the
most
Insullac,
"c.
asbestos.
be
not
on
315
as
for
used, shellac
value
such
in
should,
and
of varnishes
high
is desirable
in thickness.
purposes
commonly
as
voltages,
frequently used,
are
specialinsulatingmaterials
be
results
Even
ebonite
by
inch
for electrical
number
requires
veins, and
metallic
with
it useful
woods
volts per
20,000
it
moderate
very
slate, though
as
other
varnishes
are
deterioration.
taken
of
it
practicable,
insulator.
an
paint,SterlingVarnish, Armalac,
One
which
times
50
thoroughly impregnated.
reeriforced
same
maple
10,000
Of
at
even
permeated
as
when
the
varnishes
oils.
been
terminals
Where
place.
withstand
insulatingqualities,
and
of
hygroscopic quality,and
fireproofproperties make
Kilndried
radius
diameters.
25
the
otherwise,
often
work,
Marble
is its
slate
paraffinuntil
is,
cases
The
will
leakage
Slate
of
of
Sheets
thickness.
to
baked, withstand
will, when
objectionto
it in
boil
stand
of
radius
mil.
per
bending
stand
insulation
the
considerable
such
for
to
volts
500
thickness.
in
inch
tubes
used
Ordinarily good
to
stand
thickness, and
Slate
to
should
rubber
of
"
as
that
vulcabeston,"
apparently
with
has
asbestos
and
no
rubber,
thickness.
following approximate
values
may
be
"
Red
pressboard,.03
stand
10,000
volts.
It
should
Properties of InsulatingMaterials.
bend
to
radius
strength along
Red
50
Manilla
the
the
rope
of
grain
times
of
grain
Ib. per
inch
of
paper,
.003
in.
Ib.
200
Oiled
per
thick, having
width, should
thick,
and
stand
TESTS
ON
OILED
cotton
.003
paper
.004
in. thick
the
volts.
tensile
stand
strength along
volts.
400
FABRICS.
stood
from
2500
4500
to
6300
"
tensile
strength along
1000
having
width, should
have
inch.
tensile
of
.007
should
square
inch
cambric
"
Ib. per
GOOD
in.
.01
paper,
of
grain
of five
41
"
"
"
,,
"
"
3400
.010
volts.
7000
4800
"
5000
"
volts.
"
number
of
of
split mica
material.
one
The
consistinggenerally
use,
of
sheets
to
on
other
some
:"
of .005
sheets
two
between
in
are
shellac
are
consistingof
.015
mica
bondpaper
in. thick
being
whole
the
them,
insulation
compound
in. thick.
This
red
shellaced
stands
together
the
on
with
paper,
average
volts.
3,400
Combined
2.
breaking
shellac
to
on
shellaced
canvas
thickness
width,
g
in.
Each
point.
.002
of
and
"
beyond,
row
Mica
and
piecesare
in.
so
as
thickness
of .009
in. had
volts.
canvas.
mica
The
about
"
and
of
3,000
of canvas,
sheet
to
2,000
of mica
on.
about
and
every
and
strength of from
Composition
3.
same
principalones
of mica
thickness
into
with
Insulation
1.
insulations
composite
with
covered
each
lapped over
stripsis lapped
other
double
for
thickness
half
of
their
of mica
preceding row
the
over
sheet
another
approximately the
be of
splitto
to insure
pasted together
stripsare
at
about
i in.
The
The
use.
.013
in.
thus
This
manner
will stand
as
White
5.
about
quoted
will
should
be
and
mica
up
taken
and
at
3,000 RM.S.
about
for
baked
about
.048
24
hours
in.,using
before
canvas
volts.
longcloth,made
shellaced
cartridge paper
at
60
of
hung
up
with
shellac
in the
preceding material.
hours
It
prepared are
total thickness
Composition
4.
same
sheets
deg. Cent.
doubtless
for various
The
on
total
thickness
been
observed
both
sides, and
is .012
in., and
baked
it will
for
12
stand
layer.
have
materials
are
not
at
that
the
all consistent.
quantitativeresults
This
is
probably in
Electric
42
part due
to
tinuous
alternatingcurrent
or
maximum
effective
stated
whether
especialimportance
subjectedmay
method
the
The
appreciated,and
is true
that
instructive, and
these
tedious
The
of
resistance
of the
moisture.
apparatus should,
high temperature
Governed
so
to
far
by
as
which
UPON
far
these
that
to
come
be
worth.
are
useful
no
OF
INSULATING
INSULATION
as
and
free
expensive
will
material.
the
RESISTANCE.
very
rapidly as
high temperature
it appears
considerations,
its insulation
give
MATERIALS.
decreases
the
and
simple method
thoroughly
conditions
results.
more
necessarilyelaborate
are
QUALITY
so
to be
that
they
are
it is
which
to
the
what
It
being investigatedexhaustively as
insulatingmaterials
in
with
is
accomplished
accompanying
for
effect
thoroughly
appears
insulatingpropertiesof
OF
expel
made
are
TEMPERATURE
OF
given
it is believed
SUMMARY
"
been
is
only gradually
has
are
been
if this
in connection
to.
interval.
have
It thus
been
referred
often
short
con
form
have
it should
temperature
material
points
tests
out, but
the
case,
stated
materials
various
EFFECT
hand,
regarding the
have
tests
some
to carry
TABLE
other
preceding results
the
practicable. Such
rapidly as
and
of
importance
be
should
of test
for
should
the
detail
every
strain
material
affect the
permanently
by
the
on
generallybe
thoroughly valuable,
It
the
that
by
the
alternatingcurrent
results, and
the
resist
prior to testing;though
would
tested
whether
as
the
samples which
in
by baking, as
and
or
applicationof
Continuous
dried
and
effect the
and
also of
if
periodicitywould
factor
breakdown
of test, such
conditions
different
the
Generators.
run
from
at
acts
that
the
to
the
sufficiently
moisture.
The
Electric
44
2.
in water,
immersed
the
measuring
in
shown
Figs. 40
of
rounded
are
These
the
plates
for
,
transformer.
the
to
pattern
be
tested.
brass
two
which
sample
the
of
copper
vertical
the
secondary of
holding
off to
and
prevent
an
This,
as
1^ in.
in
of
excess
are
also
strips,which
brass
two
of
edges
points.
these
intensityat
by
for
primary
being adjustable.
one
upper
the
voltage on
43, consists of
to
inside
the
diameter,
the
voltmeter,
electrostatic
effective
the
in
current
positionof
testing board
4.
the
Kelvin
3.
of
consists
This
transformer.
regulatingthe
for
rheostat
water
Generators.
apply
to
serve
the
voltage
to
hold
sample
the
l"J
discs.
The
between
pressure
the
is
discs
just enough
to
the
firmly.
An
5.
consists
should
with
The
for
oven
in
(as shown
be
inch
an
asbestos
tin
board, while
drilled
and
there
clearance
is
beneath
at
the
hole
Adjustment
is
round,
an
in the
top
to
temperature
the
should
front
shelf, which
for
tin
There
case.
doors
the
supports
heating the
It
tightlyfilled
be
where
high potentialleads
the
testing
Holes
oven.
and
are.
lamp leads,
thermometer.
is made
of which
lamp, the amount
generated to keep the temperature at
with
containinga
at the
lamp
the
admit
required temperature.
two, which
except
admit
the
box
the
incandescent
to
at
wooden
horizontallyby
back
of the
between
all
packing
sample
the
Fig. 44) of
is divided
case
are
keeping
can
the
by having
be
adjusted
required
value.
resistance
till enough
in series
heat
is
Transformer for
DESCRIPTION
Core.
of iron
The
"
and
respectively,
total
of
depth
density
Coils.
Primary
bare
an
by 4in.,for
other
per
of
sides
allowance
an
in., and
2.92
is built
up
and
plate is japanned,
impressed E.M.F.
and
of form
factor
the
cent.
per
sectional
net
of 10
ends
of
area
1.25, the
inch.
square
secondary
The
"
coils
wound
are
in., the
side
opposite sides
on
of
coils
two
The
Over
in three
turns
of
side.
by
crosssection
of 75
coil consists
consists
primary
in. in diameter.
.092
.103
measures
Each
With
were
S.W.G.
in.
of the
longer legs.
the
these
Ij
Every
iron
45
TRANSFORMER.
3^ in.,giving with
depth
and
primary
on
is
of
kilolines
is 36.4
The
core
net
inches.
square
in. thick.
.014
Testing.
singlemagnetic
by 7f in.,and
punchings
in.
punchings lj
STEPUP
OF
is of the
core
Insulation
formwound,
double
the
.0066
13
inch.
square
total of 150
layers,giving a
No.
covering it
cotton
being
copper
is
conductor
and
primary
turns.
Coils.
Secondary
reel, with
flanges to separate
is No.
conductor
The
double
silk
.000079
inch.
the
The
core
in.
by
they
.009
in
Figs. 38
of
of
39.
the
being
copper
giving
turns,
1,600
and
Over
diameter.
crosssection
wooden
of
total
great
Connection
The
are
primary
venience
fuses.
also
direct
outside
covered
layer
of
with
"
mica
two
canvas
tape
being put
"
leg.
the
on
is
which
reel,
layers of black
three
or
rolled
before
wooden
the
on
layer of
shellaced
lapped and
wound
are
with
wrapped
are
in. half
.018
slipped over
coils
are
coils
tape
shellaced.
in.),
secondary on
which
by
are
this
Advantage of
circuit,no
primary
in.
they
secondary
shellaced
The
"
(white webbing)
and
in.
.010
in.,the
coil consists
Each
in
shown
as
on
secondary turns.
Insulation.
(1
bare,
.014
measures
in six sections
wound
sections,
the
S.W.G.
33
covering it
square
9,600
on
secondary is
The
"
different
flow
"
placed the
leads
mounted
on
legs,the advantage
of current
Boards.
are
the
Tests.
The
occurs,
because
transformer
top of
to
the
another
gained that,
posts,
teak
transformer.
the
even
primary
on
short
magnetic leakage.
of the
is mounted
secondary connection
brought
is
By having
"
on
shown
as
board,
This
teak
which
board
board,
in
on
Fig. 45.
is for
con
is fitted with
Generators.
Electric
46
is
45.
B, B,
samples
taken
are
the
within
made.
before
test.
The
but,
apparatus
that
made
was
different
of
various
shuffled
samples, measuring
order
in
together,
test, all
samples
baked
were
and
the
voltage
volts,
2,000
and
samples
B,
Switch
the
on
if
down
for at least
the
dropping
switch, B
any
broke
back
;
it
to
broke
zero,
being
by liftingswitches
arc.
of
it
to
easy
B,
Table
XIV.
of strain
and
insu
composite
the
B,
down,
as
determine
B,
one
by
and
cut
different
at
well
sheets.
Cent.
deg.
60
testing boards,
was
was
raised
capacity
of
current
the
3,000,
voltage
in
of
admit
to
for
samples
magnetic leakage
interval
open
to
applicationof the
This
to
closed
now
voltage was
of
rheostat
water
Switch
Switch
the
the
the
voltmeter.
the
re
value.
indicated
disconnected
was
of
hours
24
long enough
desired
in., were
clips of
the
down
as
the
to
sample
static
being
not
pressure
between
slightly because
voltage
When
in
one
TEST.
OF
closed
again
adjusting the
hour
an
investigations
durations
variations
(Fig 45).
sample
no
practicallyonly momentary,
brings
an
by
closed
B, B
by
secondary adjusted by
indicated
as
switches
placed
were
in.
eliminate
to
METHOD
Five
give
disruptive strength
the
on
half
materials.
effect of different
the
for
suitable
we
investigation,
an
for
is
test
specialrequirements;
to suit
found
the
micacanvas.
as
hundred
Two
Before
used
such
temperatures
known
lation
of
and
been
Five
testingboards
which
at
in. square
together.
the
temperature
modified
be
clipsof
temperature
this
left at
be
determine
to
the
of course,
it has
the
samples
shuffled
well
are
placed between
to
of
number
be tested, and
should
example
an
follows
brought
disruptivevoltage
As
main
the
in
given
five branches.
in the
as
to
may,
described,
as
the
on
and
They
in
switch
random,
at
ovens,
be
to
is
test
material
the
from
cut
are
of
method
The
diagram of connections
the
*"
switches
singlepole
are
in
shown
singlepole
tested
be
may
as
parallel,
in
testing boards
Fkr.
samples
of
number
which
one,
by
from
sample
till
one
needle
voltmeter
the
circuit
the
had
of
by
broken
them
drew
its
do\vn
out
Insulation
The
remainirg samples
voltage, and
so
until
on
TABLE
twenty
series
of
samples
four
tested
XIV.
"
then
were
all five
Tests.
subjected
had
samples
INSULATION
TESTS
deg.
Temperature
60
deg. Cent.
under
the
above,
same
broken
the
next
higher
down.
Cent.
25
as
to
; MICACANVAS.
Temperature
tests,
47
were
taken, making
conditions.
total of
Electric
48
for
constant
for
twenty
minutes,
ten
ditions
The
"
deg.
hour,
of
Cent.
it
which
kept
was
that
as
of
curves
same
left in
were
constant
as
right temperature,
did
test
these
in
the
tests
46
the
51, the
In
and
Figs. 46,
10
Table
effective
different
47,
deg. Cent.,
least
at
before
percentage of samples
ordinates.
temperatures
to
in
con
half
CANVAS
than
more
vary
given
are
Figs.
the
not
three
60
for
ovens
IICA
abscissae, and
voltage
plottedfor
samples
above
the
deg. Cent.,
25
CANVAS
results
as
under
made
was
temperatures"
The
temperature during
plotted
tests
approximately
at
impressed
at
the
with
set, in
another
and
different
three
at
100
The
are
series
complete
MICA
an
tested
samples was
thirty minutes.
A
and
of
set
Generators.
and
being
per
tested.
cent.
above, and
they
(R.M.S.) voltage
broken
not
48
durations, while
curves
in
down
are
Figs. 49,
Insulation
and
50,
they
51
Tests
plotted for
are
of Materials.
different
for
temperatures
the
same
duration.
As
and
form
the
it
of the
electromotive
force
impracticableto keep
being supplied by ThomsonHouston
in
as
various
at
possibleby making
It
tests
is evident
MICA
from
loads,the
and
the
that
moo
aooo
running
much
as
different
on
MICA
as
days.
R.M.S.
volts
CANVAS
3000
tFFECTW
MICA
same,
3000
CANVAS
*"t/j
results,
current
alternators
samples
obtained
results
the
the
eliminated
were
of
sets
affect
the
Brush
effects
different
on
of
account
was
paralleland
would
wave
woo
sow
VOiTAGC.
eooo
7000
BOOO
IHHIES"CD
CANVAS
FCg.5C.
5
^
"
"
mrtiesfD
is
limit of
the
safeworkingvoltage of
this material
under
all conditions
tried.
It
would
with
the
have
time
to
From
this
tive
get
that
is not
curves
material
the
so
strained
between
the
the
in
curves
applicationof
as
the
for
tenminute
and
material
voltage, the
duration
longer
and
48, that
of
does
the
not
applied
thirtyminutedurations
the
marked.
so
in
temperature
voltage, although
softened, and
from
appear
momentary
voltage,and
difference
also
at
sample
60
may
and
does
not
deg.
be
and
bent
51,
seems
that
in
much
effect
on
it
have
deg.
100
back
on
the
the
the
shellac
itself without
case
of
disrup
becomes
cracking.
H
Electric
50
'HO
?3~ldlHVS'
JO
Generators.
33VJ.N33U3d
XO
'MO
SJIdWVS
JO
39VJLN33U3d
Electric
52
least
or
double
four
into
four
hours
in
at
oven
an
before
by
XV.
"
MICA
Temperature,
Temperature,
much
the
results
same
again
were
placed for
were
sheets
The
in., and
sheets
the
were
then
baked
for
three
cut
up
twenty
testing.
TABLE
The
up,
Cent.
deg.
60
4 in.
samples measuring
hours
made
When
thickness.
Generators.
which
are
character
3,000
given
as
60
in the
those
R.M.S.
25
for
volts
LONGCLOTH.
deg.
deg.
Table
"
as
Cent.
Cent.
and
plottedas
micacanvas,"
before.
The
the
show
curves,
limit
results
as
of
safe
plotted
Insulation
in the
of
support
the
former
applicationof
the
voltage, the
curves
the
Tests
by longer applications.As
affect the
of Materials.
conclusion,that
material
tests
"
micacanvas
the
show
canvas
in.
.025
and
is
total thickness
only
five seconds
is not
much
so
before,also,the temperature
the
material
to be
does
duration
strained
not
as
to
appear
but
with
disruptivevoltage.
These
"
53
the
mica
"
so
of
the
for
the
longcloth"had
thicker
much
than
the
"micacanvas"
evidentlydue solelyto
"mica
the
TABLE
thickness
extra
"
.048
the
the
longcloth
to
as
against a
as
The
insulation
mica
latter.
thickness
same
"
in.,
longcloth."
of
"
of
The
mica,
make
the
thickness
of
strength
is
mica.
XVI."
SHELLAC'D
PAPER
Temperature,
(Two
25
deg.
Temperature,
60
deg. Cent.
Temperature,
100
Sheets).
Cent.
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
deg. Cent.
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
In
the
employed,
which
on
following
the
material
consists
both
finished
layersof
of
sides
the
in
.012
then
in.
windings
the
tests
this
cartridge paper
and
is about
of
set
about
thoroughly
This
being
case
.010
baked.
material
of
method
same
socalled
in. thick,
The
is often
of transformers, in thicknesses
as
was
Paper,"
pasted with
shellac
average
used
procedure
Shellac'd
"
thickness
insulation
of from
one
when
between
to
three
54
Electric
Generators.
SSIdlNVS
JO
39VJ.N33U3d
Insulation
sheets, according
test
voltage within
tended
the
applicationof
the
slight but
exert
Cent,
the
shellac
The
higher factor
or
for the
Further
tests
proportionalto
Curves
fibrous
and
the
should
of
case
showed
known
nature,
and
conjunctionwith
mica,
the
thicknesses
of
deg. Cent.,
100
to
up
also
duration
the
seen,
results.
withstands
But
at
employing
allowed
under
abrupt bends
little
deg.
100
and
R.M.S.
1000
over
factor of
other
unfavourable
disruptivestrength
given
as
to
it for construction,
"
below
Red
of
of this
still
conditions.
material
XVII."
RED
the
obtained
It is .0058
Paper."
strengthen
results
the
mechanically strong
TABLE
will be
to
of two
use
convenient
to
be
of sheets.
are
material
in
be
the
number
Tables
to
temperature
upon
this material
that
three
found
quite soft.
singlesheet, although
safety of two
on
becomes
As
55
was
order
The
the
influence
It
in
results.
voltage,and
definite
show
tests
volts per
tests
the
layer.
per
voltmeter.
uniform
more
Materials,
of
together,
of the
range
produce
to
material
of the
sheets
two
voltage
the
to
Tests
hence
especiallyuseful
(Four Sheets).
Temperature,
25
deg.
Cent.
Temperature,
60
deg.
Cent.
Temperature,
100
deg.
Cent.
similar
latter.
PAPER
in
is of
in
56
Electric
Generators.
Insulation
The
method
of tests
preceding set
in those
the
tests, it
material
An
safe
be
to
other
of the
is 2,500
proportionalto
of 100
been
strengththan
the
such
tests
should
For
to
of
case
forth
set
reasons
the
four sheets
test
of
will show
sheets, or
showed
that
limit of
the
volts for
625
breakdown
the
single
pressure
of sheets.
that
materials
Red
"
"
Paper
has
previouslytested.
uniform
more
in the
As
of the insulation
weakening
one
in favour
of its
is
to
given
be obtained
results.
to
them.
But
designing
material
to
be
they
other
at
of
case
temperature
used
in., and
are
machinery,
similar
hand,
materials
tests
together
and
other
and
properties,
are
often
insulated
given
with
the
insulation
giving
it is often
hence
at
attention
cracking and
and
be
layer.
expensive,and
be
the
on
of
all
insulating
of
factors of
reasonable
still
impracticable
details
with
coil
is
taped
is .014
of the insulation
approved
insulatingvarnish,
deg. cent.
a
number
It has
These
and
with
in.
customary
half
their
safety
in
an
are
oven
that
found
in
required amount
practicethat
coil treated
of
or
is
total
some
temperature
operationsof taping,dipping,and
the
the
dipped in
then
at
linen
of tape
thickness
overlap,so
coils
The
baked
of times, until
been
with
by serving them
halflap. A
with
thickness
obtained.
thinner
if due
comparison
that
show
would
would
chances
test
matters.
patented composite
should
coils
tape wound
repeated
volt
and
primary
compositeinsulation
leakage, bending
much
transformer,
test, between
the
"
micacanvas
"
use
conclu
taken.
Armature
90
to
though
definite
very
2,000 volt
12,000
or
such
with
electrical
mechanical, thermal,
be
inserted
10,000
market
the
on
of
this
would, however,
longcloth,"
are
better
In
layersof
strengthcould
use
three
withstanding a
"mica
There
insulation
probably be
desired
were
hour,
would
just described,
sets
main
the
an
half
four
instance, if it
of
withstand
be sufficient and
about
Tables
which
curves,
the
as
be drawn.
secondary,for
.007
made
showed
chief constituent
which
cotton
the
deg. Cent.
the
should
in
for the
convenient
case
and
number
the
Paper," it
sions may
tests
and
the
From
as
57
employed
"
Paper
curves
from
Shellac'd
that
as
in this
R.M.S.
having
tests
It also appears
"
found
was
same
Shellac'd
"
on
examination
insulation
the
was
of M.iteriftJs.
together.
working
sheet,
of test
Tests
of
drying, are
insulation
in this manner,
i
is
Electric
58
but
with
and
volts.
600
placed in
in
thickness
coil into
forcing the
overlap,and
of
tion
before
that
parts of
slot
coils
cardboard,
greatest of
should
pounds,
as
acid
in
the
by
and
copper
the
hot
vacuum
Such
in the
90
but
steams,
been
kept
deg. cent.,
current
to
varnished
the
needless
cases
of
already
does
in
and
the
in the
metal
moisture
manner
flanges,and
instances
coils treated
described.
In
one
case,
drying
sweat, and
much
less
much
spools have
is
time.
deep
metal
moisture
simply
cooks
occurred
where
days
further
spoolsmay
at
dried
temperature
with
be treated
coils,thus
spools
doing
of
heavy
with
tape
with
away
saving space.
taping
with
be
armature
as
also
of
to
corrodes
of
and
very
have
for ten
Field
out.
the
cases,
oven
spools had
the
and
field
Cases
out.
come
same
steam,
in such
oven,
ordinary drying
then
further
some
an
not
less
lead
their
requires a
moreover,
oven,
necessity where
ordinary
sweat
and
As
almost
is
oven
an
flanges,for
have
vacuum
temperature, consequently
lower
and
out.
copper
first coat
the
method
coils steam
the
method,
best
in time
moisture
residual
the
far the
By
this
By
oven.
is sucked
all moisture
insulations.
the
rots
the
unskilful
com
preparations have
excellent
Some
thoroughly dried,
is not
compound
or
coil.
the
impaired by
effectiveness
the
of acetates
formation
the
or
The
worthless
be
which
of copper
formates
oil
and
corrodes
which
process,
The
them.
insulations.
the
practice to
in
proved
drying
in the
warmed
lined with
slots
of
abrasion
half
evapora
and
into
coils,
one
through
farther
when
the
selectinginsulatingvarnishes
in
have
them
thoroughly
the
strength,
than
dried
in.
.012
of
more
thick
penetrate
prevent
used
not
over
abrasion
treatment
too
paraffinand
hot
to
be
forming
shortcircuits
to
of
of
many
vegetable
through
care
in
this
taping be
be
should
of about
from
varnish
become
not
will then
varnish
varnishtreated
In
the
does
dipped
are
slot.
that
see
coils
All
the
dipping,as
to
varnish
the
solvent.
the
armature
taken
be
must
care
the
skin
of
of
generally
are
insulation
the
little to
but
thin
the
protect
to
an
cent,
for not
manner
cardboard
oiltreated
contributes
this
but
rather
serving
great
armature
above
deg.
90
potential test
high
the
in
insulated
coils
Armature
at
is considered
volts, which
R.M.S.
5,000
withstands
varnish,
in
dipping
each
after
baked
thoroughly
the
after
twice
second, and
after the
taping,once
first
after the
twice
in varnish
dipped
overlap),
half
with
(wound
.007in. tape
layersof
three
Generators.
the
a
and
same
half
be
varnishing, may
kind
of
tape
and
overlapped covering
cited
varnish
of
the
as
.007in.
Electric
60
Generators,
WINDINGS.
ARMATURE
the
to
respect
but
the
lightingpurposes,
with
large scale, are constructed
of types of winding. Although
lessused
the
treat
arranged
are
each
includes
turn
pole ;
is
of
coils is
in
arclightdynamos,
would
become
coil is
conductors
tator
to
external
surface
of
Gramme
small
winding
Gramme
each
that
magnet
the
windings.
be
can
total
voltage,
coils
On
armature.
in the
of space
amount
windings
volt
the
adjacentarmature
largelyused
drum
is that
of the
fraction
are
the
for
conductors
the
cylinder,so
flux
magnetic
flux from
of the
voltage between
case
total
of
ring winding.
windings
excessive
windings
largelightinggenerators,
are
armature
ductors
less
or
armatures
for
required
is also
There
arranged
that
so
the
each
independently replaceable.
Grammering
the
more
chief classes
voltage generated by
which
that
practicaladvantage
interior
the
of the
the
total
the
or
only
insulation
number
into two
in which
other,
the
only onehalf
armatures
periodically
equal to
account
on
present purpose
the
maximum,
through
advantages
adjacent
as
Gramme,
the
as
in drumwound
while
numerous
utilised
be
may
our
the
arranged on
windings ;
maximum
chief
of the
between
age
as
this is known
One
drum
threaded
and
on
for
subdivided
be
are
includes,
turn
pole,termed
each
from
each
that
cylinder,so
types
necessary
may
conductors
the
in which
one,
in the
as
most
now
comparativelysmall
other
many
be
well
as
at
are,
types.
windings generallyused
The
"
the
it will not
particularcases,
in
useful
of
one
some
generators
being commercially
is
electrical energy
where
processes
and
for power
extensivelyused
continuouscurrent
large
been, and
have
types
with
is
consideration
primary
windings. Many
armature
present employed,
other
machines
design of dynamo
the
In
WINDINGS.
ARMATURE
CONTINUOUSCURRENT
on
bars
so
are
the
external
is twice
the
designed
used
as
as
have
that
the
of
the
in the
with
in this
radial
commutator
as
used
advantage
surface
great
been
case
ends
and
being that
of each
with
cylinder,the
drumwound
considerable
turn
given
armature
the
at
armature
one
number
"
an
side of
of
of the
number
in
success
con
commu
important
Continuous
in
feature
segment
the
commutator
large number
commutator
fested
should
of
segment
by
be too
poles,the
it is necessary
of
machine
ations
Machines
in
an
outline
cases,
while
the
choice
turn
time
permitting
high
of
The
the
to
number
per
mani
poles
number
desired
of
extent.
the
commercial
that
so
of
in this way,
strength
increased,
any
of
voltage
sufficiently
large
the
use
reaction,
armature
be reduced
may
keeps
limits.
distortion,if the
armature
and
it is
been
of the
one
and
armature
lightinggenerator,
have
type
of the
drawing
Grammering
of this
America,
desirably low
entail
commutator
one
of turns
within
to limit the
same
number
01
cost
consider
restriction.
is
400kilowatt
by
Having
sufficient
low, would
armature
is at the
impose
Fig. 70
but
per
While
the
be
Windings.
currents.
demagnetisation and
small
current
of
in such
to
Armature
large
segment
turns
excessive
of
choice
the
turn,
per
voltageper
generation
Current
of
the
in
extensivelyused
most
successful
field of
12pole
type just
described.
types
have
been
ever
built.
In
a
small
machines
coil of several
ring is,on
the
ing ; since, in
and
assembled
between
turns
of
score
the
case
where, instead
afterwards
latter,the
upon
segments,
convenience, inferior
the
be
coils may
armature
core.
the
This
Gramme
wind
drum
to the
wound
is often
there
conductors,
adjacentcommutator
mechanical
of the
of twoface
upon
is
only
form,
made
Electric
62
practicablein
segment of
of
case
laminated
the
These
be
the
"twocircuit"
into
and
the
the
there
of these
comparison
twocircuit
the
that
only a
This
is
small
or
in
Andrews
of the
when
the
referred
i.e.
This
in
the
armature
the
only
having only
the
in small
have
the
voltage exists
between
with
is
generators,
the
air gap,
of material.
of
either
has
twocircuit
having
that
used
same
saving
armatures
state
small
the
to
fraction
advantage
adjacent coils.
multiplecircuit
winding,
been
of
made
known
as
twocircuit
for
the
sake
multiplecircuitGrammering
any
extent
as
the
required
longconnection type
now
for
that
requiredfor insulation.
or
armature
to
ones
capacity; and,
to, of
be
stated
of
reservation
it is sufficient
are
considerable
circuits
be
depth
particulartype
Grammering winding.
windings
the
poles; hence
space
armature
total
Gramme
the
winding,
accuracy,
of
the
is,
would
that
and
of
diameter
certain
conductors
number
the
being
winding
fraction
only true
winding,
of
number
may
is
lesseningthe
of
and
the
of
labour
in the
last economy
either
twocircuit
the
through
subclasses, it
number
the
times
winding, N
multiplecircuit
This
circuits
many
two
the
windings
In
of
as
are
may
interconnectingthe conductors,
poles.
are
Making
in
number
the
from
armature
of
method
disadvantages.
windings, Gramme
of
the
obvious
plan has
windings.
"multiplecircuit"1
windings,independently of
through
This
core.
subdivided, according to
Gramme
practicalclasses
two
Generators.
of
in machines
the
possess
the
total
of any
advantage
voltage
between
adjacent coils.
DRUM
In
from
not
the
bar
to bar
of drum
windings, it
be
must
made
as
being practicable,
connections
the
case
through
face conductors
in fields of
inside
the
oppositepolarity;
This
term
so
rear
and
that
front
of
Grammering
back
to
front.
sides
of any
two
that
applies to
the
From
one
electromotive
single armature
all the
ends
case
from
the
is obvious
the
upon
in
forming
WINDINGS.
connections
exclusively; it
windings,to bring
this it follows
coil must
forces
windings.
be
that
situated
generated
in
Drum
respectivefields,shall
to
chief
circuit
like
windings,
Drum
or
inherent
this
to
circuit
drum
windings
ring windings,
undesirable
conductors
circuit
the
whereas
Grammering winding
total armature
In
It is
for
arranged
the
commutator
other
end.
The
arrowheads
show
the
the
at
the
armature
the
multiple
The
the
small
very
multiple
the
of
fraction
inside
of
the
the
the
it will be found
and
the
the
winding
the
six
order
the
at the
armature,
positionshown,
the
that
in
connections
for convenience.
through
By tracing through
face
the
connections
end
diagrams) being,at
conductors
end
the
commutator
current
convenient
represent
represent
outside
the
on
lines
winding.
proved
has
which
from
the
paths through
given
in the
six
front
end
is
:
"
60
11
13
15
54
52
50
59
48
57
27
18
29
20
31
22
33
24
35
26
16
25
14
23
12
21
10
19
47
38
49
40
51
42
53
44
55
46
36
45
34
43
32
41
30
39
28
37
58
56
In
to
neighbouring
properties of
radial
direction
the
than
drum
multiplecircuit
The
(inother
along
of
inside
brushes.
rather
adjacent conductors.
drawn
positivebrushes,
are
followinglines
the
drum
Grammemultiplecircuit
is but
there
at the
those
are
arrowheads
shortcircuited
negative to
is that
windings.
brushes
advantages
possessing, however,
diagramaticplan
end, and
multiple
peripheralposition of
windings.
the
to
valuable
most
diagram
a
the
potential between
armature
connectinglines
The
without
the
of drum
at the
those
given
according to
study
conductors.
The
is
relating
given voltage,only
type,
Grammering
potentialbetween
Fig. 71
be either
having
relative
shortconnection
of the
one
outputs.
section
the
as
desirable
the
full
for
case,
the
to
quite analogous
of
much
as
small
comparatively
multiplecircuitdrum
feature
of
former, and
in the
Owing
to
are
the
machines
coils.
or
generallyfound
now
latter
the
of twocircuit
longconnectiontype
for
turns
output.
conductors
analogous
are
it is
in
the
explained hereafter, in
as
property.
successivelyconnected
windings
but
around
their
through
passage
Grammering windings,may
conductors
many
as
used
even
twocircuit, requiringin
times
cases,
output;
electromagneticlimit of
to the
2/N
some
reasons
direction
same
multipolar generators
employ
The
kilowatts
200
even
or
in
are,
63
their
by
turns,
in the
act
Bipolar windings
100
the
composing
conductors
the
Windings.
making
the
connections,
each
conductor
17
at
the
connected
to
the
eleventh
ahead
of it ; and
at
the
back
to
the
ninth
behind
Electric
64
it.

In
other
In
9.
such
either
one,
the
there
conductors,
numbers.
lower
order
two,
be
four
or
to
the
that
end
connections
other
of
be
may
slot.
; then
the
represent
upper
with
conductors
being represented by
ones
in each
the
above
considered
would
conductors
the
conductors
slot, one
pitch is
end
back
the
diagram,
per
could
conductors
the
In
conductors
two
were
odd numbered
with
11, and
pitch is
practicallyapplying
generallybe arranged
Suppose
end
front
words, the
Generators.
even
ordinary
the
Fig.71.
doublespiral
arrangement
be secured
conductors
been
than
in
on
only one
to
at
the
section
of
conductor
The
two.
intended
sketch
small
indicate
an
of
the
armature.
lower
conductor
There
more
actual
might,
desirable,there
when
with
the
shows
in
conductors
arrangement
it will be
to
Fig. 7 1
; or,
of the
equidistantly.
mechanical
;
result
will
hence
the
odd.
top
slot
per
grouping
subsequent diagrams
conductors
upper
pitchesbeing chosen
the
best
equivalent,the
by always connecting an
necessityof
The
its
or
two
the
of
to
of the
have
course,
could
diagram
conductors
convenient
location
per
arrange
be
in
more
pairs is
slot.
the
But
face
Circuit
Multiple
following is
The
circuit
There
be any
may
windings
the
of
summary
singlewindings,such
a.
clad
that
as
number
the
of
65
conditions
shown
number
even
Windings.
governing multiple
in Fio. 71
of
in
conductors
must
also
be
odd,
and
iron
multiple of
the
of slots.
number
b. The
the
therefore
c.
The
of
number
front
back
and
pitch is
average
average
both
pitchesmust
differ
by
c/n when
must
2 ;
even.
pitchy should
conductors, and
be
not
be very
different from
of
For
number
poles.
chord
windings,y
Fig.72.
be smaller
should
permit,or
as
may
than
c/n by
as
great
in the
also be
may
furnishingbut a part of
governing such windings are
the
more
or
each
present
double
with
to
go
fully into
winding.
six circuits
Each
of
through
will
conditions
other
as
the
refer
of the
total current
elaborate, and
In
matter.
two
to
superposed upon
somewhat
the
the
be
Fig.
windings
armature,
so
instead
wound,
multipleWe
instance.
above
singlewindings
two
amount
an
desirable.
be deemed
windings may
Multiplecircuit
singlewound,as
WINDING.
DOUBLE
SIXCIRCUIT,
is
that
72
in
method
the
The
machine.
is shown
being
which
armature,
same
it is not
of
necessary
a
rules
at
sixcircuit
winding,
multiplecircuit
the
arrangement
results in
K
Electric
66
positivebrushes
and
of
twelfth
the
the
through
form
conductors
an
if
are
i.e.,the
whole
the
by
A
and
when
becomes
be
to
traced
of the
in
far
so
as
con
fiftyeight
singlyreentrant,
before
through
only
half
other
If
traces
the
original
con
again reached.
double
singlyreentrant
doubly
The
brushes.
is
reentered
through.
sixty,the winding
of
has
winding1
ductor
be
will
one
doubly
1, and
conductor
at
chosen, instead
ductors
traced
are
starts
one
conductor
been
have
conductors
is of the
particularwinding
is to say,
conducting system,
the
half of
This
current.
That
variety.
reentrant
they
total
negative
conductors, consequently,carrying
of the
each
between
series
in
being
sixty conductors
of the
only onetwelfth
Generators.
Thus
arrangements.
we
winding by
double
reentrant
is
winding
symbolicallydenoted
O.
is
There
thus
(p\
no
have
may
by
choice
of
total
applicableto
are
of sufficient
of
onethird
points of
three
tending to
as
the
facilitate its
property is
or
copper
that
carbon
winding, and
from
any
the
an
the
does
brush
brush,
is much
less
will
be
such
brushes
four
equivalentsinglewinding.
two
adjacent
likelyto
part of the
be established
on
of
current
has
twice
Another
segments by
commutator
any
and
each
at
of the
winding
at
should
segments,
collected
division
double
shortcircuit
not
least
at
on
collected
to be
are
Such
used.
the
armature
commutator
cause.
Twocircuit
drum
always forward,
the
once
of the
DRUM
TwoCmcuiT
is
at
the
as
bridging of
dust
arc
sparklesscollection.
segments
be
triplewinding, the
of
passing from
bearing surface
commutator
many
bear
to
practice,multiple
seldom
large currents
where
case
In
pitch.
triple,would
most
cases
width
current
the
at
in the
Thus,
commutator.
be made
or
and
conductors
windings
instead
of
are
being
multiplecircuit
windings.
WINDINGS.
distinguishedby
alternatelyforward
the
fact
and
that
the
backward,
pitch
as
in
Electric
08
different
the
at
all the
sets of
windings
between
features
no
is any
each
When
be
brushes
different
of
possibility
sometimes
excessive
made
From
the
respect
above
the
to
therefore,
with
the
the
But
in
drop
in
which
the
of
division
the
the
of
case
is
current
from
features
(together with
brushes
as
the
poles
the
shifting of
case
been
has
of the
of
twocircuit
armature
windings, be
different
the
of the
the
poles,and
to
armature
of
sets
current,
the
to
respect
in the
the
windings increase
change
subdivision
action
likewise
any
between
the
of current
statement
twocircuit
the
the
tend
twocircuit
the
to
set
to
prevent
of brushes.
that
prevent
when
the
on
On
when
be
noted
the
account
there
the
are
that
field
in
flow
of
excessive
an
require
armatures
poles as
it will
reaction
armature
consideration
the
generallypreferable,even
are
the
the
multiplecircuit
windings,
generated,
respect
to
of
current.
corresponding
the
correspond
of sets
reason
that
counter
no
each
sets
possibleexcess
positionwith
circuit, likewise
any
adjustment with
is
to
number
this
proper
one
respect to
different
the
prevent the
The
current
in
the
current
latter
concluded
maintain
to
since there
exactness,
unequal
be
poles will, in
with
of
sets
current.
other
the
For
poles.
be maintained
must
armature
with
of
shifting of
accompanied by
brushes
it may
different
multiplecircuit windings.
disadvantages of
number
the
each
in consequence,
and
lead
position of
to
equally
poles,the density at
as
another.
to
increases
the
of the
twocircuit
the
the
proper
difficult to
sparking.
that
proportionto
found
brushes
brushes
of
set
the
in the
as
been
of
set
one
division
respect
same
the
currents
subdivide
to
between
of brushes
otherwise
with
set
in
sign ;
same
of the
sum
are
current
resistance
sets
many
same
of the
unequal
be shifted with
from
one
with
as
practiceit has
current
not
an
intensities,the
In
in
are
the
must
at any
will be
there
pole must
in contact
are
the
cause
of brushes
brushes
other, there
to
the
There
sign.
same
tend
sets
difference
if the
brushes, or
at the
that
different
the
if there
brushes
of
sets
Generators.
of these
as
many
nicety
same
of
multiplecircuit
windings),the
additional
the
cost
is
taken
into
consideration.
In
be
the
shown
section
that
the
magnetic
constants
machines
of
"
upon
The
limitations
restrict
relativelysmall
Twocircuit
windings
may
Electromagnetic Limit
imposed by
the
the
of
use
application of
of
Output,"
it will
practicableelectro
twocircuit
windings
to
output.
be
multipleas
well
as
singlewound.
Thus
Circuit
Two
in
Fig.
74
of two
double
of
be
that
may
The
the
given by
winding
pitch
each
at
17
winding, by making
second
onehalf
the
would
the
FORMULA
The
or
CIRCUIT,
as
"_
DOUBLE
the
the
current.
same
conductors.
of
face
of
poles.
average
pitch.
number
of
windings.
twocircuit
end
watt
and
output
WINDINGS.
windings
2m.
number
the
with
winding.
either
where
number
104
An
of face
armature
singlewinding
doubly
19
at
reentrant
the
other.
WINDING
TwoCmcuiT
number
case
twocircuit
one
where
C
changing
as
at
17
for
FOR
sixpolemachine
for twocircuit
general formula
C
of
pitch
twice
and
without
end,
be suitable
voltage
winding, in
be connected
may
TWO
The
double
be obtained
conductors.
by making
convenience
voltages could
conductors,
69
of the
illustration
one
have
we
Windings.
is
as
the
but
first,
at
Electric
70
The
windings, equal
that
system, it will be
made
equal to
Also,
(y
the
to
it is desired
where
will consist
windings
that
necessary
y is
an
in the
in double
of
of
of the
case
curious
many
of
number
relates
as
delivered
at
divided
to their
in
"
reentrant
one
of
y and
these
points.
of
given
be taken
as
alternately,
y.
have
we
have
we
4.
laws
controllingthe
relations
whole
found
are
in the
certain
at
points of
which
such
following Table
being
converter
converter
...
pitches at
...
...
3 and
the
two
instance, it would
...
ends
be
would
make
permissible with
above
Multi.
Circuit
Single
Winding.
use
very
very
Pair
per
Poles.
...
...
figuresapply
systems, but
reentrant
their
sub
...
converter
the
or
...
converter
multiple windings,
con
XVIII.
Sections
Threephase rotary
be
con
Sections.
Singlephase rotary
of
received
should
windings
Single
Winding.
Quarterphase rotary
with
winding,
the
rings,alternatingcurrents
into
consist
converters
TwoCircuit
exist
CONVERTERS.
ROTARY
windings, rotary
sections
Sixphase rotary
subject
to
properties.1
TABLE
For
be
important
which,
to collector
are
to form
singlewindings
other
FOR
made
number
The
and
other
machines
tinuouscurrent
are
and
WINDINGS
nections
Therefore,
and
regard to reentrancy
far
reentrant
m.
factor
equal to
twocircuit
of these
consequence
the
As
taken
windings,
between
shall combine
greatest common
being
As
y and
of
even
and
factor
common
the
independently
of
1.
when
Thus,
number
windings
"
of
greatest
the
Generators.
undesirable
large number
the
number
the
great difference
except
of
to
in
conductors
special
per
between
cases
pole.
of
the
thus, for
Converter
Rotary
sections
double
which
the
is
conductor
From
have
twocircuit
until onethird
this
of the
another
to
the
be found
to lie.
which
is
ductors
in each
of
It is desirable
branch.
conductors
of
thus
pairof
giving an
a
information
resultant
section
distribution
on
"Rotary
equal
should
current
Converters."
in
their
be traced
ring.
connection
which
of
and
the first
would
conductors
half
of conductors,
number
of
be twice
winding
pairs of
is
windings,
used,
multiple of
is
of
con
the
three.
from
traversed.
which
multiplecircuit
winding
converter
made
WINDING.
number
number
poles should
multiplecircuit
threephaserotary
Further
the
Fig. 75,
collector
another
ring,between
total
in
been
have
In
poles.
be
winding
SINGLE
TWOCIRCUIT
the
to
twocircuit
shown
point from
to the
select
to
Where
per
the
made
collector
third
multiple of three,
number
A
CONVERTER,
be
of
should
connection
rings,and
leads
remaining
collector
winding
converter
should
ROTARY
with
pair
per
third,
THREEPHASE
be made
sections
collector
point, connection
Tracing through
should
3x2
singlewinding,
of the
one
71
threephase converter
threephase rotary
to
through
thus,
would
winding
of
case
winding
per
Windings.
is reserved
and
the
for
the
Electric
72
of
general,any
for
alternating current
leading to
the
use
abandon
to
best
adapted
windings specially
use
suited
the
to
it necessary
continuous
to
to
work, and
current
alternatingcurrent
of
conditions
be
may
considerations
special
the
generally make
alternatingcurrents
styles of winding
the
but
work,
windings
armature
continuouscurrent
the
employed
of
WINDINGS.
CURRENT
ALTERNATING
In
Generators,
practice.
Attention
should
fact that
be called to the
circuit)continuouscurrent
multiplecircuit
windings,
generallydo,
one
circuit per
winding
be
may
words,
nonreentrant
connected
windings.
the
alternatingcurrent
used
cannot
this
From
for
windings
(or open
of
These
latter
it follows
that
circuit)windings, with
are,
which
armatures
any
work,
may,
are
therefore,
or
continuouscurrent
but
armatures
the
reentrant
the
and
windings, i.e.,
an
alternating
work.
for continuouscurrent
used
alternatingcurrent
polyphase windings,
twocircuit
onecircuit
have
alternating current
generallybe
closed
Winding
practicalconsiderations,
phase.
winding
current
other
from
while
SixCircu/c
(or
reentrant
necessarilybe
must
windings
all the
essentially
are
exception of
(or
closed
only windings
to alternatingcontinuouscurrent
applicable
commutating
In
the
circuit)
which
machines,
ring
are
Alternator
for
Usually
used
dispositionof
electromotive
the
force.
face
the
various
But,
the
on
utilises
the
used.
of the
where
cases
the
conductors
of
the
most
of
in
or,
evenly distributed
more
forces
generated in
total electromotive
the
subdivision
the
in
78),which
the
force
forces induced
latter
electromotive
as
allowance
It is desirable
unicoil
and
will be less at
arranged
in
for insulation
in
unicoil
no
But
reactions
the
when
load
about
There
less extent
high potentials
very
is
also
insulation
greater or
where
cases
the
It
conductors.
subdivision
said to
adopted, are
windings.
entire
play
often
for
involves
construction
will
only very
to
great
as
armature
With
and
the
be
would
than
the
extent
an
permit.
the
if
case
which
the
spacing of
the
conductors
of
force at the
had
they
discrepancy will
relative
number
given
electromotive
winding, the
coils into
that
be
been
greater
of conductors
groups
an
is loaded, the
important part
designated
"smooth
core
in
current
in
the
armature
determining
windings,"
as
"
as
opposed
to
causes
will be shown
"slot
in
polepiece
per
periphery.
the machine
which
Otherwise
multicoil
of
subdivided, assuming
over
to
construction.
winding ;
number
the
force
multicoil
terminals
uniform
and
core
bring
to
to
arranged
proportionto
tends
conductors
decreases
correspondingnecessary
in
called unicoil
are
conductor, and
of
windings, their
disadvantages.
spread out
face
several
are
in
space
of
and
space,
in
conductors
case
attendant
the
sometimes
the
peripheral surface,
multiphase windings,multicoil
most
proper
the
heating of
necessary
are
of
construction
slight sacrifice of
merits
the
over
voltage and
conductors
the
permits
effective electromotive
multicoil
In
are
the
polepieceis
regards generation
as
are
phases, and
permit,the
which
this
used
are
coil per
or
electromotive
the
distribution
hand,
distribution
more
fore, in
and
other
of
inductance
have
coils
or
the
of
and
conductors
in different
are
algebraicsum
the
uniform
more
are
slots
armature,
slot
conductors
armature
more
78),
or
from
and
77
73
conductor.
in each
better
If
of the
conductors
is less than
slots
Figs.
the
of
case
over
singlephasealternators,one
represented in
(ns
effective
Winding*.
windings."
L
is
Electric
74
later
voltage
the
"
maintained
often
by
very
as
the
load
comes
considerable
the
conductors
armature
and
this
with
Now,
given current,
are
concentrated
these
in
given
reactions
one
only
may
be
field excitation,
by increasingthe
on,
amount.
conductors, carrying
armature
when
constant
generator terminals
the
at
Generators.
group
number
greatest
are
per
of
polepiece
Fig.80.
Uni Coil
Thre.e Phase
non
overlapping
Fractional pitch minding
i4 Field Poies ZlArmatvrecoi/s
(Figs.
they
77
decrease
subdivided
that
and
78) ;
to
into small
is, they
that
certain
groups
decrease
Consequently, there
is, when
when
may
the
degree
in
distributed
the
be little
unicoil
proportion
no
the
over
multicoil
or
construction
gain
as
the
entire
construction
in
voltage
is
at
adopted
conductors
and
are
armature
surface,
(Fig. 79)
is used.
full load
by
the
Electric
(jemrators
Induction
coils
there
as
many
in
concentrated
windings
where
the
is
motor
phase
is
crosssection,
per
and
slot,
windings
rotor
winding
ductors,
generally
The
considered
for
either
represented
replaced
matter
in
the
stator
by
by
of
section
fe\v
of
radial
the
86.
with
rotor
lines,
but
induction
of
being,
gives
87
in
the
three
of
of
these
useful
of
case
large
stator
of
type
the
motors,
the
The
conductor
one
in
case
each
diagrams
Fig.
the
phase.
per
conductors,
connection
Fig.
or
few
arranged
The
in
of
of
fourpole
polepiece
per
up
is
horsepower
being
motors
This
as
becomes
smaller
coils.
7^
slots
made
85.
given
the
capacity
of
This
in
in
instead
each.
turns
conveniently
Fig.
are
on
large
distributed
surface,
the
many
two
generally
most
in
shown
as
into
up
often
of
winding
divided
is
of
comparatively
stator
winding
whose
room
77
generally
are
for
coils
motors
of
Windings.
stator
found
large
in
consist
may
85,
rotor,
can
few
and
rotor
be
importance
especial
Fig.
the
for
both
windings
Motor
the
con
stator,
coils.
induction
devoted
to
will
windings
motor
the
design
of
be
induction
completely
more
motors.
Electric
78
FORMULA
In
this
ELECTROMOTIVE
FOR
will
electromotive
force to be
Generators.
generated
FORCE.
considered
be
in the
convenient
most
is
dynamos
current
for
formula
reference
the
to
armature.
DYNAMOS.
CONTINUOUSCURRENT
The
with
obtaining the
voltage
of continuous
4.00
TNM
108'
in which
V
the
voltage generated
number
of turns
of
the
the
number
the
magnetic
of the
and
integralof
is the
coils
armature
in this case,
all the
and
is unaffected
of the
will
be
may
by
specific
cost
armature
by
and
formula,
be
the
that
lines)included
during
the
excluded
or
each
by
period considered,
any
in the
up
magnetic
field
resultant
the
magnetic
the
shape
flux
may
the
magnetic
and
curve,
since
voltage
vary
for continuouscurrent
of
different
is
through
dynamos,
the
i.e., by
the
flux.
the
relative
within
wide
considerations
of
magnitudes
limits, their
of
T, N, and
individual
may
magnitudes
heating, electromagneticreactions,
weight.
if
ring,
drum,
multiplecircuit
windings,
"c.
triple,
considered,
that
say
magnetic
found
controlled
This
positionin
in which
we
brushes.
voltages successivelyset
voltagesare
of
the
second.
magnetic cycle.
their
manner
any
Therefore
distribution
It
(number
in
turns
only average
coils.
voltage
between
flux
according to
independent of
the
armature.
the
V,
in the
in series
and
or
whether
disc
the
likewise
winding
for
be
whether
twocircuit
the
and
single,double,
in
E.M.F.
To
insure, for
be desirable
T
all cases,
to consider
total
turns
on
negative
a
Grammering
For
drum
With
brushes
depend
For
brushes,
divided
total
armature,
total
turns
of
turns
total
the
formula, it will
of
paths through
from
armature
number
of face
number
of face
turns,
the
conductors.
conductors.
in
turns
series
between
winding,
single,two
of the
paths, independently
If
double,
If
For
number
by
the
twocircuit
If
between
number
upon
in detail
more
armature
armature,
given
terms
79
positivebrushes.
to
For
Dynamos.
of
interpretation
correct
these
in series
turns
ContinuousCurrent
four
number
of the
paths, independently
of the
of
poles.
of
number
number
of
poles.
poles, "fec.
multiplecircuit
winding,
If
single,as
If
double, twice
If
triple,three
paths
many
as
paths
many
times
as
as
poles.
paths
many
the
poles.
as
of
number
R.P.M.
poles,"c.
as
second
number
pairs of poles
60
It
second)
with
been
has
determines
periodicity,
the
loss, and
current
sparking
the
the
at
in
minute, the
M
In
the
case
(M
of the
design
of
rotary
each
of the
the
density,
also
affects
necessarilya
also
converters.
expressed in
N,
Thus
density,tooth
course,
generallyexpressed in
successivelywith
machine,
the
flux
teeth,
thus
flux
from
flux from
one
generated in
one
total
deducting leakage,finallynot
roots
is, of
It
it also
use
revolutions
cycles per
per
second.
turns.
of the
machine,
is not
is
to
it.
upon
and
loss
(cyclesper
term
armature
the
depends
core
this
it is desirable
practice,
dynamo speeds are
linked
Grammering
Drum
in
periodicityN
flux
the
commutator.
leading consideration
Although
limits
or
of
use
but
much
because
currents,
the
work,
alternating current
to
continuous
eddy
confine
to
customary
only
linking itself
crosses
with
one
polepiece into
polepieoeinto
polepiece,but
the
the
armature.
armature.
that
airgap, but
armature
which,
passes
turns.)
to
after
the
Electric
80
Armature
cores
ventilation, and
be, and
are
Grammewound
the
of
use
wound
usually are,
of
means
XIX.
CURRENT
dynamos
alternatingcurrent
force is
of electromotive
and,
consider
will
as
the
presentlybe
conditions
actual
electromotive
force
CURVE
OF
to be
sine
for the
the
being
electromotive
force
whose
In order
must
be
that
these
sine curve,
practicableand
with
4.44
of
the
maximum
=
formulae
i.e.,the
affords
windings.
of
to
that
assume
the
frequentlynot
often
assuming
necessary
to
the
of
wave
curve.
ASSUMED
effective noload
is
This
wave.
it is
FORCE
root
square
drum
convenient
practiceinstead
of
this
confounded
may
DYNAMOS.
it is often
sine
seen,
ELECTROMOTIVE
formula
The
they
CONSTANTS.
DRUMWINDING
"
ALTERNATING
case
but
of
sake
the
constants
relatingto
rules
the
applying
TABLE
curve
be
not
drumwinding
of
Table
accompanying
convenient
the
material
should
and
for
rings
as
unnecessary
drums,
as
up
rings.
The
For
built
often
very
avoid
to
Generators.
mean
may
is
M
SINE
WAVE.
collector
the
ring is
value
of the
sine
of
wave
108.
be used, the
magnetic
108,
square
BE
voltage at
value
6.28
TO
flux
must
electromotive
be
so
force
distributed
wave
as
to
in
E.M.F.
result.
this
give
winding
the
over
T
N
of turns
of
number
of C
will
flux
The
of unicoil
case
that
they
words, they
The
will be
be
case
in
"
S lines
when
simultaneously
linked
until,when
at
in
in which
case
the
entire
the
relative
value
be .637
surface,
of the
of the
that
of
the
only in
the
turns.
turns
are
grouped
so
flux ; in other
magnetic
given number
if the
voltage
with
the
for
such
arranged
values
same
for
conductors
the
of turns,
of conductors
relative
in which
winding
number
the
T,
"c. ;
distributed
are
ordinary continuouscurrent
in
as
alternatingcurrent
number
same
of
voltage
results
have
we
unicoil
winding
will
XX.
Correction
Factor
of Distributed
Unicoil
winding
Twocoil
Fourcoil
winding
the
per
conductors
are
forces
.654
conditions
generated in
84, will be of
one,
each
the
are
group
number
assistance
in
winding.
,,
.,
,,
.,
,,
,,
.637
arranged in
combined.
designating these
threecoil, "c.,
they
page
unicoil
...
of
phases, irrespective
on
different
Fig. 88,
.GC7
...
polepiece. The
electromotive
.707
V
...
winding
uni, two,
terms
1.000
V
...
Manycoil winding
The
for Voltage
Winding.
...
winding
Threecoil
are
compared
as
IT/
TABLE
groups
in
arranged
turns
load,
no
the
Tabulating these
whether
at
dynamos,
(which 2).
\
in the
over
in
conductors
the
and
same
load)voltages of
with
the
the
the
respect to
is the
unity,then
with
load, generated by
no
that
to
come
we
distribution
the
with
N, M, generate (at no
flux
phase.1
same
voltage
representedby
of
magnetic
second.
simultaneouslylinked
all in the
are
the
brushes.
between
be
maximum
in series
similarlysituated
effective
function
windings,i.e.,
windings
all
are
of
81
surface.
armature
number
"
Dynamo*.
distribution
this result, is
number
of
manner
attain
to
necessary
gap,
The
Alternating Current
in
the
Table
above
equivalent
;
beii g
in one,
of resultant
understanding
to
the
indicate
equallyspaced
the
component
windings into
which
employed
nomenclature
windings.
M
Electric
82
given
values
The
Generators.
Table
in the
easilydeduced
be
may
by simple
vector
diagrams.
of
Instead
formula
preceding cases,
the
value
maximum
VALUES
VARIOUS
OF
FOR
exert
great
influence
by
being
assumed
the
that
than
more
of
widths
as
pole
out
the
face
giving the
results are,
in mind
in the
that
flux
along lines
gap
far
and
actual
the
from
results which
normal
would
of
various
in
practicalvalue, provided it
where
which
by
from
face.
the
This
must
be
relative
coil,rather
armature
be observed
armature
are
formula
pole
the
to
arrangements of
the
is shown
uniformly
emanates
extent
in
This
the
various
of much
shapes of
in the
of K
coil
(and maximum)
force.
values
AND
armature
different
the
nevertheless,
winding
and
arc
effective
the
to the
total
FORCE
KTNM108,
magnetic
the
traverses
pole
of
the
the
curves,
GAP.
IN
electromotive
given
are
it
of
because
induced
where
followingTables,
of
magnitude
T, N, M,
and
distribution
of gap
waves
of
values
wave
ELECTROMOTIVE
OF
arrangement
the
upon
to sine
DISTRIBUTION
FLUX
and
widths
relative
The
WAVES
MAGNETIC
OF
value.)
effective
the
times
1.414
may
XXI.
as
will be
ICT8
TABLE
(In all
followingvalues
factors," the
correction
"
in the
for
be substituted
such
using
practice. The
is
the
clearlykept
flux
spreads
face.
the
equidistantlyover
various
the
components
armature,
of
Electric
84
Generators.
CONVERTERS.
ROTARY
In
have
we
voltage
therefore,
commutator,
same
voltage and
for
rings.
continuouscurrent
for
both
serves
the
at
The
collector
the
voltage at
alternatingcurrent
continuous
ordinary distributed
an
current
and
converters
rotary
wii
ding,
alternating
voltage.
M,
and
generates
of
the
For
winding.
the
on
voltage
speed
same
armature
same
with
series,but
in
turns
winding, with
distributed
continuouscurrent
superposed
Imagine
number
such
that
Suppose
and
vr^s
the
at
assuming
with
sine
T, N,
commutator.
in
concentrated
turns
flux, and
of
values
winding,
these
given
the
same
unicoil
curve
wave
of
"f.:ja.'Hs
OF
P"an3Q%oF
?ok
pitch
JU%of
arc
pitch
Four coilwinding
I
vmnnni
uuuuvu
50%ef pitch
FJearc

mnmmr
s.naiisf^g.6oiafpitch
PolearcWofpitch
ofpitch
Spread
ofn'dgIOC?'
In the above
Slotted
diayraais,th6
aflhe
representedThe application
i cans
to
force, this
electromotive
V,
1.11
this
for
the
of
number
same
speed and
same
in
turns
obtained
.707
V,
the
But
value
of
often
the
the
case
the
Tables
distributed
of
assumption
the
for
single
K,
electromotive
voltage becomes
a
the
or
"
.707
sine
wave
force
function
and
given
V.
T turns
series,there will be
of electromotive
is not
curve
below
in
alternatingcurrent
voltage
an
the
are
sine
pole arc.
quarterphase rotary
results
supply
ring voltage to
curve
of
would
(distributed)winding, would,
collector
voltage V,
of
rslattre
collector
the
winding, with
continuouscurrent
on
in
: stnr
superposed winding
the
1.11
manycoil
flux, reduce
.637
Therefore,
"
of
theconductors be supposed
imaginary
to
is
13 the case
] effective volts
y
merely
rtj"irsi Uiat
armature
on
begroupeot
type of armature
iltMtrationt
converter
obtained.
force.
and
wave,
the
Thus, examining
by
the
aid
of
E.M.F.
TABLE
XXI\r.
itL
SINGLE
"
Rotary
QUARTERPHASE
AND
THREEPHASE
An
examination
conductors
of
belonging
ROTARY
the
to
three
may
CONVERTERS.
CONVERTERS.
phases
be
85
ROTARY
threephase rotary
periphery, which
armature
Converters.
will
converters
relative
have
represented thus
show
that
positionson
the
the
222221111111111333333333322222222221111111111333333333322222
333333333322222222221111111111333333333322222222221111111111
Consequently,
it appears
equal
per
to
66.7
that
of
cent,
phase alternatingbranch
collector
tator
rings as
brushes,
we
has
has
each
obtain
the
the
coils of
the
pitch. Observing
twothirds
branch,
as
considered
following Table
many
with
also
turns
XXV.
"
THREEPHASE
of values
ROTARY
that
in
reference
:
TABLE
have
phase
one
CONVERTERS.
each
series
to
the
spread
three
between
commu
Electric
86
last
The
collector
between
the
equal to
This
pitch,up
to .815
driven, unloaded,
as
to
ratio
the
wide
from
are
of the
range
counterelectromotive
be
conditions
of
Three,
phase, evnAnafna
Jteiatuzv
betmrxn,
made
Z5
cen"zrter,
current,
CGntuiu0u4
through
vary
lead
of the
very
current
in
fecand.
Cycles pa
to
forces
synchronously,
driven
and
lag
electromotive
the
When
unloaded
driven
when
or
say,
forces.
voltages may
the
by varying
is to
is
pole arc
independently
when
converters
source,
That
the
pole arc.
cent,
per
rotary
to
motor.
terminal
10
.495, when
from
mechanical
some
continuouscurrent
referred
with
is the
voltage at commutator,
varies
ratio
only apply
results
These
alternatingcurrentvoltage
of
ratio
the
continuouscurrent
rings,to
interest.
of chief
one
giving
column,
Generators.
Kcire"5fternusicU4
rofos
jfl
commutator.
Tctrard,
left fto/irfTo*ard
right hand:Strona csnrertfr exaCat^'iStraqp
generator
"
_jf
Converter
AUpcintt
Mtfr"
the
armature.
very
of
extended
load
and
In
Fig.
range
89
is
this ratio
given
may
be
(e
fielct'zero.
Outrighthare,
ccmrertiJfvelaL
neaature
,_
110
"KO
showing through
curve
varied, according
to
the
excitation.
TABLE
XXVI.
Proportion
that
is of Turns
on
Arm.
what
conditions
E.M.F.
In
in
Table
converters,
rotary
of T
value
determining the
Polyphase Apparatus.
XXVI.
of
(number
will
in
turns
87
be
of
series
assistance
between
in
collector
rings).
Machines.
Polyphase
it may
be said that
the
of
case
winding
collector
each
to
one
the
phase,
is
the
Thus
considering the
calculations
the
the
turns
for
the
results
of
of
the
other
collector
rings
will
calculation
should
be
on
interconnectingthe
one
the
relations
volts
Thus
volts
T.
per
Then
between
hand,
be
the
phase,for
in series per
general,
phase.
one
calculate
would
one
rings). If,
volts between
phase.
make
in
machines
is "delta"
pair of collector
volts per
formula
the
rings(sincethere
connected,
to
of
way
threephase machine,
phase, by placingin
if the
consideringpolyphase
convenient
most
M, is
V, T, N, and
between
in
the
In
"
winding
the
carried
out
windings
with
of
the
is Y
the
reference
different
Generators.
Electric
FORCE
ELECTROMOTIVE
In
the
dependent
the
upon
the
to
curve,
the
by
value
electromotive
"form
of
equispaced ordinates
equispaced ordinates.
letters R.M.S.
the
of
The
mean
square),and
(root mean
is
factor,"
ratio
the
as
flux
force, and
term
factor
of the
of the
the
by
and
voltage
of the
use
form
squares
value
mean
denotes
he
the
of
mean
true
value
square
mean
of the
the
the
defines
He
proposed by Fleming.1
between
applied
the
quantitiesinvolve
of these
root
of
form
wave
TRANSFORMERS.
IN
relation
of transformers, the
case
determinations
square
FLUX
AND
the
(true mean).
letters T.M.
R.M.S.
factor
Form
T.M.
In
and
In
the
this
the
relation
has
high
have
waves
the
R.M.S.
the
form
equal,and
are
factor
form
the
case
rectangularwave,
value
maximum
Peaked
the
of
case
and
voltage,turns, periodicity,
between
becomes
equal to
form
the
Denoting
factors.
form
factor
value
1.
value.
minimum
the
T.M.
value, the
flux
factor
be
may
byy,
expressed
by the equation
V
The
and
the
more
of the
winding
Tables,
the
second
or
of the
extent
generator
less
windings
spread
alternatingwith
unwound
TABLE
may
in which
108.
of the
appliesto
the
be
factor
form
upon
from
obtained
the
the
equidistantlydistributed
face
conductors
surface
the
over
NM
4.00/T
dependence
first of which
to
of
the
are
gathered
armature,
"
VALUES
Pole
Arc
FOR
FORM
(Expressed
FACTOR
in Per
Cent,
these
(/).
of Pitch).
Winding.
Alternate
Current
Transformers,
vol.
i.,second
edition, page
following
windings, and
spaces.
XXVII.
proportions
two
583*
in groups
groups
and
E.M.F.
XXVT1I.
TABLE
From
voltageV,
effective
is
This
high.
their
V=
formula
the
is
flux
the
distinct
VALUES
"
4.00
Transformers.
FORM
FOR
fT
may
be low
in
in
FACTOR
s,it
10
advantage
89
(/).
that
appears
proportion
the
case
given
factor
of transformers, since
flux
the
for
the form
as
densityof
the
core
in
Flux
in
circulating
their
If
cores.
regards the
form
determination
interest
factor
form
of the
in the
the
motive
the
less
have
is
in
more
peaked
electromotive
force
becomes
thus
It
curves
to
of
Figs.90
The
waves.
pre
of considerable
matter
show
the
extent
core
an
the
87,
transformers
maximum
force
electro
than
generally undesirable
peaked
excessively
91, page
of the
losses for
effective electromotive
is, therefore,
obtain
and
low
disadvantage that
of the
excess
as
insure
waves
the
waves.
proportiona generator
The
factor
peaked
circuits,they
force
their
design of alternatingcurrent
generators.
While, however,
on
of
correspondto
variations
to
for
so
wave.
values
given
obtainable.
.N
in
Electric
90
machine
from
the
maximum
good working.
The
limitingincrease
determined
with
determined
and
efficiency,
the
in square
increase
also,
of
the
of
temperature
inch,
be
may
For
per
per
40
deg.
Cent.
about
The
peripheralvelocityof
deg. Cent,
minute, and
speed
inch
square
remains
is about
le
The
from
various
35
deg.
increase
50
tests
per
Cent,
of
cent,
described
by
^
per
temperature,
to
with
the
100
in the
per
as
cent,
of
watt
per
oil
excess
following pages.
from
of
these
in
used
in
for
of
iron
inch
resistance
values.
at
ft. per
with
Cent,
of
and
3,000 ft.
peripheral
per
watt
per
surface, but
the
practice.
of
of
rise
the
cases,
resistance
square
determined
in
greater
deg.
temperature
temperature
increased
the
smoothcore
cent,
Cent,
inch
for
15
deg.
12
and
square
peripheralspeed
temperatures
in
between
increase
submerged
measured
as
and
for the
transformers
temperature,
deg. Cent,
The
per
Cent,
per
Thus
25
with
temperature
deg.
30
watt
per
rotated
of
increase
between
about
is
for
somewhat
varies
the
per
cylindrical
ordinarydesign, i.e.,armatures
inch
minute.1
watt
per
but
increase
peripheralvelocityof 3,000
temperature
square
10
fairlyconstant
In
between
of
per
Cent,
nature,
be
is
of
armatures
watt
per
at
radiating
the
magnets,
deg.
is diminished.
ft. than
of
field
minute,
temperature
2,000
increase
interstices, the
per
of
of
same
to
The
temperature
speed
ventilated
the
radiating
inch
square
taken
of
increase
increase
For
be
may
surface
the
the
minute.
of
the
to
radiatingsurface.
per
80
thermometer
be
may
the
about
inch
square
as
armatures
cylindricalsurfaces
watt
increases
by
in watts,
of the
be
to
con
commonly
inch
surfaces
the
as
temperature
temperature
energy
nature
taken
measured
as
peripheralspeed of
20
of
temperature
is
of
above
surface
the
according to
For
square
of any
of
used, the
square
per
permissible expenditure
surface.
a
watts
inches,i.e.,
of
electric
an
insulatingmaterials
generated
heat
of the
temperature
surface, varies
"c.
ratio
the
increase
The
regulation.
the
expressedby
surface
respect to durabilityof
with
of
output
increase
by
is
sistent
maximum
standpoint,the
thermal
OUTPUT.
OF
LIMIT
THERMAL
Viewed
Generators.
the
windings,
radiating surface
measurements,
This
is
in
will
of
generally
clearlyshown
in the
Electric
92
and
overheats
dependent
as
of
nature
insulated
are
does
to
it.
preserve
But
insulation, in
of
the
upon
conductors
tend
thus
with
the
large to
being sufficiently
it
as
is
railway motors,
covering,as
asbestos
an
their
of
permit
not
In
insulation.
the
it is
far
so
regards preservation
The
it.
deteriorates
permissible temperature
disadvantageous
motors
and
thoroughly dry,
insulation
Generators.
thus
field
the
location
of the
cool under
run
heavy loads.
MAGNETS.
of
diameter
the
in
ends, which
the
however,
the
surface
cylindrical
generalare
magnets
approximately equals
coil
not
are
short, and
very
radiation
surface
the
which
length, is
the
being taken
account
no
very
in
ordinary design,i.e.,those
of
magnets
magnet
to be the
taken
ordinarily
they
of
radiatingsurface
The
of
of the
of heat
the
when,
ends
large,
be considered.
should
ARMATURES.
parts in which
those
Due
allowance
portions of
of
due
per
twothirds
large diameter,
very
are
not
the
diameter
very
the
considerablyexceed
for
special
means
In
the
connections
When
long.
of
are
of the
"
of
type
approximately
have
spider.
Here
the
peripheralspeed,and
The
varying
radiation
the
surface
of
entire
is in the
winding,
in
the
heat
of the
armature
best
from
at
the
ends,
difference
of armatures
becomes
ends
the
armatures
ends
ends
the
of the armatures,
largely used,
now
may
unless
as
cylindricalextension
winding
revolves
the
at
end
the
from
same
regards ventilation.
is not
armature
within
polepieces,
the
cylindricalsurface
same
position as
an
type of
the
case
the
air.
to.
the
emissivity at
the
resorted
ventilatingare
In
of
of different
at
eniissivity,
surface,
cylindrical
thermal
between
midway
thermal
cylindrical
portion when
the
to the
ordinarySiemens
in the
emissivity
armatures
surface
the
velocities
linear
speed.
thermal
the
that
the
at
surface
armature,
barrel
"
the
that
approximately equal to
that
in
different
Thus
to be
taken
directlyexposed
are
inch, or
square
difference
the
general,is
for the
windings.
armature
radiation
to
in
generated,that
be made
only about
averages
being
the
is
heat
should
the
armature
of armatures
surface
Radiating
the
affected
limits attained
greatly by
in
ordinary
Estimation
the
considerablyrestricted.
each
respect to
of
that
the
other
magnets
of
Further,
that
the
values
and
the
two
mentioned
above
given
will not
EXAMPLE
of
Diameter
certain
ironclad
the
magnets
Such
for
18
...
...
...
25
360
18
min.
per
sq. in.
2750.
1420.
revs,
in.
...
25
in.
...
...
TT
as
...
=
...
last
...
25
(252182)
35
...
to,
the
...
diameter
x
resorted
RISE.
TT
with
to be
...
placed
independently of
have
TEMPERATURE
OF
...
Internal
x
so
general practice.
Speed
35
off
armature
...
be
constructions
...
Length, overwinding
are
placed
may
armature
is carried
hold.
ESTIMATION
OF
93
the
ventilatingwill
recommended
not
are
from
of each
for
others, specialmeans
heat
unless
heat
Rise.
are
radiation
the
closely together,
of Temperature
470.
"
...
"
Total
radiation
surface
4640.
=
...
,,
...
35
ventilated
If well
22
deg.
rise of
Cent,
360.
temperature
min.
be
should
watt
per
ft. per
3300.
it
ducts,
internal
by
IT
Peripheral speed
per
safe
very
take
to
inch.
square
Watt*.
5000
loss
Core
C2
Armature
2600
7600
loss
Total
7600
=
1.64
watts
per
sq.
in.
4640
.'.
1.64
22
36
deg. Cent,
INTERNAL
The
importance
resistance
thermometer
of
placed upon
An
of
temperature
determining
instead
the
the
of
surface,
end
is well
No.
B.W.G.,
turns
from
21
the
leads
of
temperature
upon
shown
the
by
was
brought
coils, by
of
indications
the
wound
out,
of
results
winding consistingin
were
full load.
at
run
COILS.
OF
internal
relying
hours'
of 10
experimental fieldmagnetcoil
2,646 total
every
at
TEMPERATURE
SURFACE
AND
measurements,
following test.
rise of
to
with
up
38
the
layers,
enable
the
94
Electric
Generators.
Experimental
of
temperature
all parts
of
the
Heat
coil
Tests.
95
be
determined
the
armature
to
by
resistance
measurements.
Two
other
distinct
with
minute.
the
minutes
reading was
giving
record
dimensional
and
the
and
96.
at
of
sketch
results
For
the
one
of the
on
throughout
in
as
and
coil,polepiece,
tests
armature
at
in
plotted
are
(Fig. 93)
rest
each
pair of
is
the
shows
being
Every
ten
layers,thus
given
of
curves
coil
progressed.
test
armature
the
the
tests.
the
the
both
across
resistance
of
through
current
voltmeter
change
of the
the
rest, and
at
peripheralspeed
ampere
taken
the
at
hours,
two
with
one
running
lasted
test
constant
a
made,
were
armature
Each
maintained
tests
in
Fig. 92,
ultimate
of
Time
temperature
in the
layers;
Fig.
and
layers,the
The
middle
up
by
as
effective
rotation
the
surface
in
of the
revolutions
Figs.
95
coil
air
set
96.
up
by
is maintained
the
is
of
the
the
much
cooler
interior
of
of
the
at
which
that
inner
Figs.
of
93
and
coil may
air set
is
core
the
bathes
peripheralspeed of
with
the
surface
significantconclusion
by
layer
air
armature,
is the
field magnet
plotted in
are
of
circulation
the
is the
as
running
than
most
shown
metal
figure shows
rotation
that
of the
results
the
latter
the
heat,
innermost
the
aid
armature
the
But
tests
temperature
For
The
the
armature,
in
temperature
the
without
the
of
outside
the
minute,
per
fieldmagnet core.
from
of the
spool.
and
that
carrying away
2,000
of
layers, and
well
show
curves
rise
the
shows
94
those
different
of
the
curves
the
circulation
of
outside
the
adjoining the
to
be
drawn
that
the
considerablyexceed
the
95, namely,
Electric
96
corresponding
temperature
Generators.
the
to
of
resistance
of
rise
average
total
the
winding.
In
and
spool of
which
time
and
Figs. 97
the
The
for
the
of
temperature
average
of
means
influence
constants
and
of
of
the
field
heat
of the
of
the
the
field
armature
of field
increase
temperature
it, in
upon
from
determined
spools was
peripheral speed
fieldmagnet
taken
test
measurements
resistance
the
determining
result
of the
sketch
given respectivelya
are
machine,
time, by
to
98
winding.
the
upon
well
spools,as
Fig. 99
as
effect of
the
are
clearly shown
field
spoolsof
The
tests
on
made
In
Figs.
The
100
curves
Fig.
to
of
90
99
with
results
for
is
111
Fig.
with
of
final
wide
afford
of
range
both
upon
the
given
are
112
given
of
curves
summarise
the
of
results
average
of
and
rise of
the
the
resistance
general
more
the
results
output.
excitation, and
field
sketch
the
upon
rated
kilowatts
35
made
thermometric
by
check
serving of protectingcord,
following test
the
generator of
determined
were
The
page
results
the
continuouscurrent
measurements.
given
by
were
temperatures
wire
covering the
values
spools.
machine,
various
obtained.
heat
and
runs.
in
Out
the
taken
On
two.
top
oft",and
on
the
these
of
the
of the
made
the
of the
uncorded
outside
four
being kept
spools
this
armature
was
reaching a
the
it
raised
the
outside
spool
from
of
the
temperature
thermometer.
of
Two
spoolsby
series,
remained
resistance.
the
spools noted.
and
stationary,
results
These
input
amperes
four
the
revolved
tests
results
forth
set
are
were
in
.75
to
.75,
the
ampere,
and
On
the
test
Results
test
value,
value
above
forth
set
are
the
on,
constant
reached
this
of
amperes.
temperature
carried
was
ft.
2000
1.25
the
go.
in
107.
carried
were
to
108
at
adopted.
was
of
peripheralspeed
observed
rises
out
lines, at
similar
on
of
minute, results
Fi^s.
at
and
Figs. 10G
of
across
1, and
this
volts
with
advisable
further
in
drop
,,
four
connected
procedure
to
At
not
was
curves
in the
one
three
Thus,
spool,by
the
ampere.
then
value
constant
amperes.
which
the
105.
different
being
amperes
temperature
of
armature
and
to
case,
the
the
.5, .75
minute, and
were
and
Figs. 100
The
1.25
series.
outside
determined
,,
temperature
first case,
with
of
of
constant,
the
obtained
to
spool on
was
,,
Increase
The
In
remaining
the
corded
3rd.
per
other
was
:"
,,
curves
the
measuring
measurement
spools in
insulation
placed,for
were
four
2nd.
In
purpose
97
observation, ie.,
and
air ;
the
of
for the
temperature
cording
directlyto
the
winding, and
third
were
On
For
under
were
spools the
two
spools, thermometers
increase
measurements
only
winding exposed
the
cording; the
1st.
spools,two
corded.
outside
resistance
of
the
of
temperature
field
one
remained
spools
the
four
Rise.
Temperature
on
which
peripheral
set
are
forth
111.
From
tests
above
On
the
results
on
as
the
the
Fig. 112,
it will
ft. per
rise to any
of
each
and
remain
but
2,000
temperature
data,
of
curves
summarised,
are
speed
the
the
the
are
constant, whereas
this
variation
resistance
at
in
would
20
great
derived
the
the
from
average
that
does
table
figured from
noted
minute
very
curves
constants
be
in which
considerable
this
for
not,
increase
of
reduce
machine,
extent.
is
the
assumption
realitythey
complicate
vary
the
that
as
will be
It
tests.
the
the
the
watts
ohms
noted
per
that
dissipated
temperature
calculations, these
108
working
alters
are
spool.
o
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The
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on
the
thermometer
the
should
the
furthermore
the
end
Heat
had
armature
which
HEAT
air
of
LOSSES
the
correspond
the
the
and
but
in
resistance,
the
the
difference
on
higher
between
uncorded
spools,
the
of
case
the
peripheral
mean
peripheralspeed
the
surfaces
the
rise
temperature
of
the
corded
and
to
this
than
DUE
resistance
each
half inch
one
wide,
USEFUL
TO
the
to
factors.
temperature,
is most
out
temperature
thermometric
HOURS
spider.
armature
two
IN
ventilatingducts,
two
generated, due
these
reliable
that
readings
thrown
was
C'2 R
"
directly from
determine
corded
;
therefore, in figuring
spools.
through
open
by
noted
TIME
The
case
used
spools differ,owing
two
one
the
are
rise
be
thermometric
from
uncorded
surfaces
less is the
the
armature,
observed
the
101
is taken.
radiatingsurface
It
of
of
temperature
Conductors.
in the
measurements
of
measurements
the
removed
respective radiating
their
of
Dissipated in
the
CURRENTS
The
resistance,
and
current
resistances
measurements
measurements.
convenientlydetermined
should
attain
conductors
resistance
CONDUCTORS.
THE
IN
For
in
are
standard
is
calculated
be
taken
practice.
much
sizes
by ascertainingfrom
to
To
more
of
wire,
tables,
Electric
102
the
of
ohms
wire
in
ft. of
1000
per
the
computed
from
The
resistance
total
The
B.
namely,
other
purposes.
also
the
section
No.
Total
in
in
useful
the
They
serve
certain
"
B.
design
and
length 2.
Appendix),
S.
33
at
primary
resistance
at
full load
current
=13
20
for
the
of
turn
one
No.
2.8
do
they
wiring
and
calculations,and
considered
as
in
.497
the
S.
and
primary
C2
(see
Therefore
ohms.
1.40
.R
ft.
2.33
has
ft.
turns
1200
in.
28
1000
per
x
Then
especial
but
primary,
B.
ohms
.497
gauges,
circuit.
has/ in
2800ft.
thermal
give
B.W.G.
with
exterior
spool windings,
length
deg. Cent.
of commercial
Table
the
Suppose
169
1.40
per
cubic
centimetre.
.00000063
ohms
per
cubic
inch.
unit.
The
of
other
nection
with
about
changes
where
factors
than
them
per
greater
by
which
obtain
to
the
cubical
be
cent,
accuracy
the
of
standard
it should
.39
deg. Cent.
ohms
opposite faces
when
at
copper
.00000160
i.e.,between
order
turn.
one
and
Trade);
arranged
for
magnetic
amperes.
Specificresistance
and
be
watts.
237
use
of
been
basis
of
of the
==
should
standard
three
arranged
a
as
Mean
length
description,which
(Board
Tables
deg. Cent.,
20
of
length
mean
for
have
transformer
1200
be,
may
designingelectrical apparatus,
calculation
the
the
on
Example.
of
from
greatly
are
S.W.G.
They
in
convenience
to
differ
not
Gauge).
case
this
wire
copper
(American);
Wire
(Birmingham
reference
S.
and
the
of
Tables
commercial
the
the
obtained.
be
contains
Then
question.
as
and
turns
then
can
Appendix
properties of
the
armature,
or
of
number
the
in
wire
size of
the
spool
magnet
Generators.
sizes
is
resistance
deg.
resistance
at
TABLE
deg.
the
constants
the
resistance
Where
be made
of
Cent,
should
be
the
following
multiplied in
employed
"
XXIX.
1.000
...
...
20
1.080
40
1.160
60
1.250
...
...
80
...
1.337
...
1.422
100
con
of copper
Cent.
Deg.
are
convenient,
more
may
temperature
In
employed.
are
that
Cent.
desired,use
at
wire
in mind
kept
per
of
above
Foucault
Example.
An
"
Total
turns
brushes
between
It
has
length of
Mean
by
in.
.30
double
eightcircuit
an
turn
one
in.
.GO
60
.180
winding.
in.
Turns
of
windino
Therefore, length
=50.
103
conductor
crosssection.
800.
has
armature
in
inches
square
Currents.
in
series
between
8x2
positiveand
.18
8x2x
2. 88
3000
50
60
Therefore
inches.
square
in.
3000
Crosssection
resistance
at
deg.
.00000063
Cent.
brushes
negative
ohms.
.OOOGSo
Suppose
the
full
to 60
deg.
Cent.
1.25
load
Z.oo
of
current
Then
the
by
60
at
the
propertiesof
in
propertiesof
with
C2
of
Table
the
the
deg. Cent.
and
metals
various
of
"c., of various
alloys.
often
conductors,
if
fields
magnetic
in
magnetic fields,except
these
magnetic
In
from
loss in the
with
the
In
be
cannot
and
loss
of wire
twistingthese
can
be
of
the
moved
are
losses
due
solid
when
varying induction
through
solid conductors
constant
from
shielded
are
be
may
loss has
insulatingthem
and
bars
in
The
cable.
this
The
last
winding
method
of
is
certain
found
been
which
the
case
armature
of bar
consisted
or
diameter,
foucault
forcibly illustrated
to
in the
other
each
^ess
or
xV"^11
by
amount
from
not
are
considerable
in the
loss
into
conductors
density of magnetism
and
lessened
followingexample
there
This
currents.
distribution
the
the
accuratelypredetermined.
small
is kept as
as
possible;
practicethis
case
influence
construction,
foucault
connection
are
currents,
they
where
there
foucault
magnetic field,consequently
conductors, from
airgap,and
or
the
to
whenever
smoothcore
greatly,according to
vary
in
used
influences.
armatures
screened
Table,
conductors,
eddy,
exposed
cases
This
electrical
CURRENTS.
termed
and
physical
supplemented
and
materials.
losses in the
stationary,are
the
is
conducting
C2
to the
addition
parasiticcurrents,
from
.000655
wire
copper
giving
FOUCAULT
to
40002
commercial
Appendix,
others, permits
dimensions,
In
conductors
armature
watts.
Tables
The
heats
amperes
armature
13,100
4000
current
by
the
of
four
Electric
104
parallel,each
in
wires
replacedby
the
ironclad
In
currents
losses
depends
teeth
the
Fig.
plane
of
set
currents
of
from
with
in
20
of
the
The
necessary.
objectionsof
per
cent,
sometimes
cited the
teeth.
of
case
in
first used,
at
were
from
the
the
eddy
should
twist
the
be
first cost,
higher resistance
for
entirely due
given
the
in
them
No
originallymaking
first
place,
precautions, such
of the
surface
suffices
resistance
contact
the
to
required rectangularsection,
pressure.
the
given
coating
mere
increased
is not
component
by
stranded
otherwise
oxidising,or
must
conductors
the
resistance
operated by hydraulic
press
the
resulted
Stranded
crosssection, is pressed to
circular
to
increased
length,caused
The
to
open
cent,
per
This
conductor.
the
through
perpendicular to
was
heating
conductors.
are
crosssection
their increased
up
15
dimensions.
total
lesser
solid
the
conductors
having
outside
excessive
and
lines
proportions shown
the
current
the
upon
case.
Stranded
and
in
up
in such
used
armature
by
up
of
such
along
be
may
proportionsshown
the
set
slot
of the
conductors,
the
with
armature
from
and
of the
conductors
instance,
an
solid conductors
crossflux
the
but
Here
113.
As
armatures.
alternatingcurrent
an
overhang,
all to be transmitted
stranded
and
protected from
exemption
density is low,
tooth
This
teeth
the
which
to
of copper,
less
or
more
are
were
onethird.
by
in. slots.
permitting them
in ironclad
be used
diminished
embedded
extent
crosssection
same
conductors
the
very
of
the
where
Even
the
upon
the
having
was
dynamos,
slots,instead
the
armature
by being
eddy
density in
of cable
conductors
These
diameter.
in
in.
0.165
strands
19
Generators.
wires,
component
break
to
as
the
up
are
cross
currents.
Closely related
in
in
polefaces
;
in
passing the
varied, eddy
entire
in the
case
in
made
In
if
but
the
proportions
will
currents
reluctance
be
circuit.
the
has
of
just described,
magnetic
construction
losses
the
polepieces,
but
polepieces,
a
the
to
unislot
and
efficiency
continuouscurrent
magnetic
used
in
the
of
the
in
yoke,
very
This
such
circuit
solid
cases,
should
be
the
chiefly
occurs
magnetic
all
losses
current
are
such
marked
eddy
armature
throughout
alternators,with
armatures,
in
influences.
of
Consequently,
entire
been
found
the
are
that,
is much
parts of
the
only
the
not
laminated.
result that,
improvement
Such
especially
has
been
heating.
machines,
the
surface
of the
armature
is broken
Foucault
up
by
of
the
Nevertheless,
be
gap
as
in small
J in.,
in such
where
slots
Polefaces
sometimes
with
frequently
type of construction
it into
the
solid
In
the
neighbourhood
remaining
the
the
of
of
unchanoed.
the
poleface
of the
depth
have
such
steel.
greater losses
while
projections,
if the
the
the
which
For
this
reason
losses
in
of
square
the
the
of the
square
the
slots
are
eliminated.
practically
of
laminated
portion of
upper
laminatingthe
of
structure,
the
magnet
entire
and
conductors
magnet
in,
cast
or
Another
core.
core
coils which
spool flangescould
avoid
insulation,and
are
more
sheets
of
the
of the
thickness
insulated
millingand
makes
conductors.
the
density
laminations
important to
copper
in
and
casting
the
seat
yoke.
Eddycurrent
and
to
are
also
well
be
should
as
of
be
man
made
of
steel.
manganese
upon
Jin.
polefacelosses,
air
occurred
airgapfrom
much
course,
105
mainly local,the
Instances
of
magnitude
consist
consists in
is
neighbourhood
depth
give, of
loss is
to the
on,
whole,
opening.
overhanging
the
over,
bolted
slot
the
slots
disturbance
increasingthe
Straightsidedarmature
completely closed
the
modified
greatly
as
of Dynamos.
depend chiefly
upon
to
of
Parts
the
loss in the
be found
width
to the
polefacethan
Laminated
slots,and
the
cases,
will
machines,
has
Non
magnetic circuit,
large,and
related
in
of small
large number
reluctance
may
Currents
of
armature
flux, the
square
sheets.
Also
from
each
filingin slots,as
or
less
Consequently, the
continuous
of
this tends
the
with
destroy
the
parallelto
the
to
is
care
is, therefore,
It
conductor
eddycurrent loss
periodicity,
the
upon
other.
dependent
are
cores
quite largely
Electric
106
dependent
length of
volts
the
armature
the
to
(seepage
millingor
Even
riling. Cases
the
these
from
on
are
loss
core
is due
cases,
less continuous
In
loss
Fig.
be
the
the
smoothcore
in the
anticipated from
are
safetyfactor applied
the
of
curves
to
114
modern
at
the
and
Figs. 35
represent
Curve
stages
the
was
of
average
taken
2
11
,,
3
11
,,
4
"
without
where
the
milling of
three
times
its
originalvalue,
thin
loss
layer from
by
of the
there
36
this
results
after
from
was
of
tests
the
wedged
were
winding.
studied
manufacture.
teeth
slots
metal
of the
of the
a
slot.
increase,
or
more
slight increase
assembling
were
Most
the
due
to
shock.
matter
process
sides
any
slots
armature
edges making
is also
mechanical
the
the
considerably.
burring
railway motor,
various
assembled
record
to the
iron
be
possible,
when
conductor, although
injuringthe qualityof
of
derived
as
by millingbeing merely
increases the core
lightfiling
in both
core
should
work,
in
parasiticcurrents
currents
and
turns,
quantities depends
machine
from
eddy
of
parasiticcurrents
up
of
greater
punchings should,
increased
removed
design,the
loss
set
free
be
to
these
upon
to
number
flux,
34).
Armature
has
shaft, as
from
losses
core
of
less amount
apt
such
of the
value
the
to
more
of the
nature
the
much
more
the
length tending
Owing
are
The
core.
of
unit
core.
armatures
magnitudes
parallelto
armature
per
relative
the
upon
Generators.
of two
punchings.
straight.
slightlyfiled.
by testing the
The
armatures.
curves
Electric
108
direction
plane
of
In
sheets.
the
for
favourable
very
of
setting up
the
Figs.
and
139
140,
on
in
convenience
arranged for
especially
curves
Generators.
eddy
in
currents
136, will
page
be
the
found
losses.
addition
In
degrees
of
of
temperature
certain
in
useful
is
it
surface,
of
rise
per
the
generation
given
in
manner
in
of
Fig.
which
117
showing
curves
of
Figs. 35
the
rate
the
inch
it
the
pound
per
from
square
consider
in watts
curves
per
by hysteresis and
iron
in
heat
the
watt
to
cases
to
subject of heating
consideringthe
to
on
of
and
motor
core
36
give
of these
of the
heat
rate
there
of
are
in copper,
Uaarrnealeet Iron
Amperes
ohmic
One's
resistance.
quantitiesin
values
given
and
copper
in Tables
Rate
Density
in
conception
of Generation
of
iron is rendered
XXX.
TABLE
Current
the
tots
,,.
to
of rate
Similarly
eddy currents,
(W76)
due
radiating
basis
of
material.
generation of
of
standpoint
and
XXX."
of Heat
definite
more
XXXI.
magnitudes
relative
the
by
:"
COPPER.
by
Ohmic
Resistance.
Watts
per
Pound.
study
SpecificRate
TABLE
should
XXXI.
Table
Generation
of
XXXI.
also
SHEET
"
109
IRON.
in
be used
Heat.
of
losses
iron
calculating
high
at
it extends
densities, as
Smoothcore
ironclad
ironclad
with
wise
designed
into
is subdivided
Table
In
densities
smaller
many
XXXII.
in
used
densities
current
various
cases
few
than
coils have
which
in
36.
densities
large
those
rough figures
some
the
than
Like
to
be
winding
for
the
current
:"
XXXII.
TABLE
Small
Figs.35
coils.
given
are
curves
and
with
those
of
higher current
at
run
better
the
to
armatures,
lower
with
be
can
owing
armatures,
the range
beyond
armatures
of the
highspeed armatures
Large
"
,,
Small
lowspeed
Large
armatures
"
"
Large
in oil
immersed
transformers
of oil
circulation
forced
with
Transformers
or
air
or
air
Small
In
the
much
case
higher
formers
would
current
full load
have
them
up
pages
29
to
32
are
so
to
above
both
should
deg. Cent,
See
from
of
be
100
aimed
at,
considerations.
thermal
that
deg. Cent.,
even
of deterioration
hand,
regulationthan
better
and
rise,but
other
the
poorly designed
insulation
for discussion
On
of
with
be
density could
current
temperature
regulation.
poor
deterioration
60
excessive
heats
causes
than
causing
large transformers
many
it
without
the
transformers
properlydesigned,have
formers, when
the
small
of
this
iron.1
few
is bad
A
trans
large
trans
is necessary,
Although
hours'
at
run
at
as
practice,
rise of not
large transformers.
of iron
very
such
high temperatures.
more
Electric
110
The
of
curve
insulation
the
resistance
Fig.
shows
118
resistance
when
of
In
cold.
was
immersed
the
in
oil with
which
and
of
have
the
very
insulating
transformer
the
its
being
thoroughly impregnated,
was
between
reduces
percentage
where
case,
cloth,
insulation
coefficient
small
this
In
mica
the
cleg.Cent,
60
insulating substances
coefficient.
temperature
average
to
words,
of
of
rise
even
transformer
composition
that
other
Generators.
deg.
20
Cent,
and
80
deg.
per
cent,
per
2600
2100
1200
eooo
isoo
1600
HOO
1100
woo
BOO
600
WO
200
133TI
I
""
rkANSFORHEH
Ae
Voltane
10
"f Tranf
was
deg.
.8, that
"
Cent,
material
is, the
decrease
of
withstand
to
and
the
the
insulation
resistance
transformer
in
is
again
cold.
returns
20
SI
"
13
"
resistance
But
it
is
in
80
ability of
of
the
its
increased
the
effects
measured
to
13
in 'C
abilityto withstand
megohms
IS
by Res
Consequently,
as
17
Coila
disruptive
resistance,
If
Volts
measured
temperature.
the
practicallyunimpaired.
carefullybetween
insulation
IS
"
to 100
former
Temperature
II
V^sf
testing
For
20
13
IS
INSULATION
used
From
ranges
f Temperature
Cent,
II
very
this
insulating
high potentials is
important
to
distinguish
The
original high
value
insulation
when
the
and
Heating
Efficiencyof Electric
Machines
RAILWAY
necessityin
The
lightloads (which
is the
greater part of
the
curve
efficiency
which
at
operated for
In
is
matter
high temperature
section
the
dynamos
large number
run
As
cooler
Such
point.
both
The
the
motor
for
of
design
of
be
reaching an
compactness
condition
an
much
cannot
pull,without
need
the
also
longsustained
railway motors,
would
machine
be
this
to be
at
run
properly designed
at
all necessary
from
obtain
to
lowcurrent
very
will
dynamo
arc
the
large and
course,
requires a
in order
and
of
partly,and
current,
armature,
have
be,
must
constant
selfregulation.This
field and
on
consequence,
than
maintain
conductors
the
efficiency,
much
drawbar
inherent
entirely,by
of turns
densities.
DYNAMOS.
designed to
are
almost
reasonable
and
with
fullyconsidered.
more
sometimes
designed
good railway
under
relatingto
be
maximum,
at
Ill
at
having high efficiency
railway motors
operate the
shall
they
its
consequence,
ARC
Arc
which
dangerous temperature.
requiresrunning
full load.
under
quickly reaches
a
of
apparatus
condition
As
long
and
excessive
class of
Purposes.
MOTORS.
loads.
larger
this
for Various
thermal
stand
expensive
for
its
output.
apparent contradiction
In
all
almost
is because
arc
machines
almost
particularlyat
wasteful
all
arc
in
present
machines
as
less than
anything
continue
to
at
the
to
them
above
operation run
in
now
installing
welldesignedapparatus, the saving in
cover
the
incurred
expenses
by
the
In
constant
potential dynamos
electromagnetic and
Centigrade
considered
and
other
machines
rise
in
limits
thermal
temperature
the
work
is
efficiency
so
are
would
and
quickly
DYNAMOS.
it should
be
coincide.
during
continuous
entirelysatisfactory,
although the
Government
out
change.
POTENTIAL
CONSTANT
this
extremely
all
them
maintenance
that
efficiencies,
it
render
throwing
By
fact
But
low
such
to
as
the
warm.
very
have
use
full load,
service.
in
stands
statement
usuallymore
the
aim
Forty
or
have
to
the
fiftydegrees
running
is
generally
for
Admiralty
requirements
rigid. In constantpotential
when
high (especially
compared
with
the
engine
Electric
112
when
efficiency)
should
seldom
magnetic
is
reached
by
the
in
but
Cent.
deg.
should
it
run
factor.
determining
constants
perature
hours'
be
be
to
machine
Nothing
thermal
Proper
the
quote
end
the
at
of
case
the
efficiency
and
electro
limiting considerations.
the
customary
the
that
satisfactory,
is
limit
temperature
dynamos
In
20
the
Generators.
efficiencyat
of
several
it is
transformers,
the
tem
(generallyten)
generally quoted
except
at
con
tradictorymethods.
HEATING.
COMMUTATOR
of
heating
The
the
from
arises
commutator
three
causes
the
useful
the
"
mechanical
caused
Copper
200
per
and
by sparking.
exceed
case
of
oz.
per
per
jarringto
inch
square
this has
which
the
to
seldom
exceed
radiating
surface
20
be
figure may
should
ture
at
The
considerablyincreased,
40
amperes
exceed
per
square
commutators
need
pressure
and
deg.
total
The
upon.
50
In
the
because
of
the
minute,
which
commutator
inch
of
and
with
centrifugal flow
upon
considerablyimproved
with
where,
of the
temperature
watt
per
of
of
small
subjected.
are
depending
preferably not
above
used.
in
higher
of
Cent,
for
rise
peripheral
special
of
of
air, this
tempera
continuous
running
full load.
The
20
be
unventilated
ventilating arrangements
density
machines,
waste
rise
Cent,
the
brushbearing surface,
of commutator
deg.
for
of
brushes
be
may
inch
square
peripheralspeed
densities
up
run
small
in
to
even
be
preferablynot
surface, except
higher
railway motors
excessive
At
much
run
surface,and
of contact
should
of contact
2 Ib.
of 20
pressure
brushes
the
conditions, be
good
inch
square
good conditions,
seldom
under
may,
inch
current
of adjacent segments,
by shortcircuiting
resistances, and
contact
Carbon
square
to
to
per
machines.
due
due
brushes
amperes
C2
the
brushes,
heating
the
flowing across
currents
of the
friction
oz.
resistance
contact
per
densities
square
and
inch
of contact
and
four
inch
offered
of
That
negative brushes,
carbon
bearing surface,
peripheralspeeds,
surface.
by
may
be
is, if
there
are,
with
1.25
each
taken
brushes
at
and
ordinary
at
for
at
.03
ohms
pressure
per
of
current
square
instance, four
positive
inches
bearing
square
of
Estimation
of Temperature
of
the
Rise
brushes
positive
Commutator.
of
will
be
this
the
total
resistance
contact
resistance
contact
resistance
will
the
at
be
negative
1.25
brushes
from
ohms
.012
ohms
.006
=

4x
and
113
consequently,
positive to
negative
brushes.
The
per
inch
square
In
with
and
equal to
To
illustrate
a
generator
with
shaft, is
in.,and
of
set
x
tive
the
The
and
case
conditions
good
brushes
in
ohms,
.003
will be less.
standard
condition
good
brushes,
each
inches.
1.13
be
may
capacity of
machine
ohms
at .03
length,parallelto
is
per
pointswith
surface
bearing
total
the
of
in.
1.5
twelve
being
crosssection
of
posi
for
contact
inches.
square
density is 36
current
resistance
the
of
each
estimating the
sixpole120kilowatt
Consequently, there
13.5
of
whose
having
negative brushes,
x
be taken
at
in
constants
commutator,
is furnished
square
these
may
in. diameter
carbon
is 12
quently,the
contact
the
which
twelve
current
exceed
not
applicationof
30
1.13
and
the
commutator,
four
in.
.75
with
loss,the
commutator
need
.3.
heating of
friction
the
brushes
copper
surface, and
contact
estimatingthe
pressure,
taken
of
of
480
amperes
per
volts
250
inch.
square
inch,
square
at
amperes
conse
Taking
total contact
the
the
resistance
.03
amounts
to
A.
"
minals.
sure
13.5
the
34
C2 E
about
.3
Ib. per
positive
.0045
to
negative
ter
revolutions
Therefore,
foot
pounds
horsepower
Peripheral
minute.
per
1.25
pressure
footpounds
.73
Total
Pres
watts.
1050
inch.
square
300
minute.
24,000
loss is 4802
1^
Speed
ft. per
2360
from
J. O
"
Ib.
34
ohms
.0045
L
XN
adjusted to
2
speed
2360
Therefore
is
"
per
minute
watts.
545
Watts.
C2
1050
545
Friction
...
Allow
for
100
losses
stray
Total
Radiating
Watts
Figuring
obtained
the
rise
at
20
...
...
...
surface
per
sq. in.
deg.
Cent,
...
loss
commutator
=
...
...
=
...
30
1695
TT
760
r
per
760
=
watt
1695
...
sq. in.
2.2.
per
square
inch,
there
:"
Total
rise
temperature
2.2
20
44
deg. Cent.
Q
is
Electric
114
Careful
of
contact
inch,
does
nor
at
it
change
least
not
necessarily
rough
stood
when
C2
that
and
show
to
increasing
on
densities
fail
tests
brush
enough
be
to
worth
loss
dependent
upon
When
armature
the
and
engine
the
the
with
provided
is
sometimes
properly
ascribable
furnished
with
the
advantage
friction
loss
the
loss.
being
the
400
one
sizes,
and
The
Large
less
than
and
over
friction
2
per
per
should
cent,
have
the
from
or
beltdriven
ranging
slowspeed
friction
friction
loss,
from
less,
rather
and
losses
for
minute
in
.8
the
well
losses,
per
will
machines
within
the
J
per
kilowatts
however,
for
500
rather
kilo
sizes.
have
for
in
cent,
for
kilowatt
500
are
kilowatts.
60
in
cent,
not
minute
per
the
is
friction
per
generators,
generators
such
the
60
revolutions
360
per
to
belt
the
beyond
increased
three
to
both
arrangements,
designed,
up
not
spider
involves
kilowatts
400
from
current
cent.,
thus
is
by
and
necessarily
sizes
and
friction
ventilating
beltdriven,
were
belt
to
very
driving.
bearing
armature
other
or
large
revolutions
losses
under
is
shared
third
due
alternators
being
1500
the
friction,
of
shaft,
be
to
a
the
gained
being
speeds
directcoupled
1
in
be
method
engine
has
loss
If
highspeed
cent,
the
dynamos
flues,
thereby
continuous
had
to
to
up
similar
up
and
machines
the
speeds,
fans
range
included.
Some
dynamo.
of
in
account
necessarily
the
loss
the
The
the
per
the
kilowatt,
sizes
line
current
condition,
friction
from
beltdriven
cooling
a
from
small
not
watt
In
ranged
capacity,
lower
internal
in
driven
necessary.
to
and
course,
poor
and
design
bearing,
With
of
square
increase.
bearing
the
directly
outboard
dynamo.
pulley
of
nature
is
an
and
windage
through
per
Loss.
FRICTION
The
in
are
greatly
to
into
will,
It
resistance
oz.
speeds
taking
commutator
certain
20
different
calculations.
or
are
beyond
for
in
decrease
pressure
greatly
very
approximate
losses,
stray
considerable
any
the
brushes
Generators.
considerably
1000
cent.
kilowatts
Electric
116
in
Tnis
secondary member.
in tho
in
member
secondary
the
two
acting
of
distribution
magnetic potentialand
first
ways,
forces
resultant
the
circuit
magnetic
magnetic
flux
magnetic
by reducing
the
on
the
change
to
acts
and,
differences
secondly, by affectingthe
of
reaction
force
magnetomotive
effective
Generators.
around
the
mag
circuit.
netic
In
the
of
case
is such
reaction
generator with
as
to
of
brushes
field
the
demagnetise
with
set
forward
and
magnets
the
lead,
increase
the
leakage.
In
the
case
is such
reaction
force
magnetomotive
In
of
case
current
increase
to
In
the
diminish
the
effect
increase
this
effect.
flux
in
force
divided
in the
be
flux.
transformer
of
the
the
by
design of
effective
These
flux
the
for
reactions
density and
total
given
efficiencyand
and
copper
ing
of
ing
in
the
given
with
of
amount
minimum
in the
to
at
field
force
by
of
fixed
no
consideration
produce
then
be
given
expended
material
means
magnets
of
certain
and
a
should
in
said
cases
vary
effective
the
between
magnetic
to
be
the
in
the
Obviously,
widely
very
the
as
The
design
of
magnetic flux,
to
of
amount
question
on
conditions
flux.
of
produc
and
with
labour
and
the
most
not, in
to
reaction.
armature
subsequently.
in all
ratio
have
reaction
maximum
may
effective
fieldmagnet circuit
into
discussed
according
The
reactions
armature
taken
to
Obviously, then,
these
the
the
definite
be
is
may
member
energy
cost
of
to
magneto motive
Therefore, fulfilling
equivalent
circuit
secondary
result is arrived
wasted
required
magnetic
will
heating, there
iron
be
may
of
is
current
affected
circuit.
of
leading
effect
the
leading
resultant
the
with
or
points.
two
effects
influence
magnetising
flux.
to
design
certain
with
and
is such
reaction
lagging current,
magnetic
the
the
force
by assuming
equal
circuit
the
alternators,
armature
the
current,
any
of the
In
magnetomotive
calculations
is
the
added
by
armature
leakage in general is
between
reluctance
carefully calculated.
and
with
the
circuit
magnetic
armature
primary current,
force
magnetic
any
dynamos
the
magnetomotive
the
to
with
above, however,
stated
As
the
through
lead,
leakage.
lagging
flux
forward
alternatingcurrent generator,
of
case
with
set
flux
diminished
and
an
the
diminish
to
as
the
brushes
the
increase
to
as
with
motor
the
case
of
economical
The
energy
continuouscurrent
Armature
exceed
machinery, generally
permissible
values
In
there
all
shall
cases
be
In
is
the
of
amount
Transformers
load
mean
of
full load
seldom
the
of the
circuit
stated
output,
iron
the
both
In
the
factor
in
tance
now
reduced
been
in
Thus
the
much
output
Taking
the
through
the
from
at full load
so
long
greater than
turns
time
the
It is found
motive
force
from
This
18
force
in
Mr.
H.
there
is
of
the
in
30
corresponds
from
the
field
lead
of
the
labour,
which
of the
to
full
field
has
sparking.
a
magnets.
line
integral
examples
In
magnets.
have
of
force
several
been
now
in
satisfactory
operation,
load
50
was
and
the
per
the
cent,
number
potential was
initial
armature
magnetisa
magneto
demagnetising component,
magnetomotive
armature
from
has
greatly
field
numerous
give the
of
so
brushes, and
constant
coils to
of
dynamos
the
magnets
component
brushes
of
the
which
maintain
total
of
as
field
at
has
armature
magnetomotive
question as
of the
as
naturally become
are
the
Parshall,
shunt
the
for
reaction
carbon
force
magnets, i.e.,the
of
cent,
the
has
brush,
F.
the
and
standpoint of
the
there
coils to
in the
circuit
and
efficiency
commutation,
armature
that
force
practicethat
per
to
that
of
the
in
no
"
day
the
consist,
to
armature
of
in
armature
series
the
the
armature
of
to
time,
with
magnetic
said
ventilation
the
equal to
that
opposing
to
is
the
loss.
of
consistent
is
magnetomotive
magnetomotive
required
field
actions
force
total
length
of
load
considered.
the
the
brush
designed by
approximately equal to
tion.
of
There
no
the
of material
cost
dynamos,
magnetomotive
of
the
magnetomotive
large dynamos
the
being
force
of
factor
armature
armature
for
minimum
at
of
all
satisfactory
this
of
coils
any
be
"
good operation
magnetomotive
greater
very
for
then
general introduction
thorough knowledge
the
made
may
Thorough
The
be
should
coils
hysteresis. The
to
general design of
for
from
heating,that
the
increased
is
The
heretofore.
different.
fraction
for
speed
limit.
becomes
load
and
magnetising
safe
the
output,
size
the
beyond
full
at
that
considerable
losses
rated
the
magnetising
of continuouscurrent
case
greatly increased.
more
use
the
securing
copper
the
upon
condition
losses
conditions
and
117
magnetic circuit,due
in
transformer.
thermal
satisfactory
the
heat
worked
open
mainly
the
it is
of
condition
to
in the
Force.
cent,
per
alternatingcurrenttransformer
an
given
of
not
as
consumed
are
consequently
the
transformers
energy
negligible. At
1^
or
course,
loss of energy
constant
is,of
of
case
being dependent
proportioned
so
Magnetomotive
to
15
per
cent,
force.
of
the
Electric
118
total
angular distance
lead
of
from
The
the
deg.,the
27
(north and
required in
of material
practicehas
total
the
not
required
working
give
to
ventilation
in
tendency
The
of
laid
designed
been
has
output
conditions
down
work
to
frequently designed
in the
in
of
case
full
inductive
with
onehalf
of
discussion
becomes
with
being
the
great
an
magnetic
of
respect
the
of
of
amplitude
as
possible,
the
the
thermal
with
the
Alternators
are
purposes
reaction
of
output
conform
power
armature
substantial
reaction
of
value
very
would
that
be
upon
the
poleface;
hence
make
it
iron, otherwise
loss of energy
in
multislot
alternators, it should
be
of
variation
important
the
to
of
the
is
armature
undergoes
armature,
of
so
and
entire
the
becomes
the
Although
currents.
singlephasealternators
considered
unislot
generally
construct
be
magnetic
the
field frame
through eddy
carefully
the
reluctance
revolution
per
of
position
in
that
here,
the
will
alternators
reluctance
the
fieldpoles. The
to
of
stated
be
may
cycles
of laminated
phase
limit
to
been
vastly increased.
inductance.
for
armature
It
the
to
number
very
the
been
to
determined
lines
dependent
very
circuit
the
section.
later
over
become
regulation,and
of inherent
regulation and
to
as
been
has
lightingmachines.
periodic variation
seat
are
whole
introduction
the
have
has
armature
generally
singlephase alternators,
slot
as
the
output
By
armatures
practice has
recent
of
limit
machines.
shorter
of the
standpoint
the
from
alternators
thermal
commutating
in
of air passages,
consequently natural
circuit
potential over
constant
alternators, the
of
case
general system
given
course,
general
armature
compound dynamos
of such
case
approximately
an
by ventilation, as
increased
used
in the
in
the
to
which
armature
considered,
limit, of
The
member.
beyond
increasing the
therefore, be
there
yet, however,
limit
the
reach
increased, by
may,
As
core
range.
the
In
limit
magnet
is frequentlyreached
reaction
is
dynamo
subservient
practice,a
the
magnetic
the
circuit.
field
the
magnetic leakage,and
magnetic
of
crosssection
field
The
reaction.
the
developed to
sufficiently
been
of
cost
length of
economical
in
and
fieldmagnetcoils
to increase
tends
turn
requiregreater
fore to
of
in
coils,which
practicegreatlyincreases
in modern
the
deg.
360
as
reaction, therefore,
armature
amount
points,i.e.,to an angular
angular span of two magnetic fields
neutral
successive
between
deg. to
16
Generators.
and
in
poly
it will often
be
of Magnetic Leakage.
Coefficient
found
in such
desirable
field frame.
entire
wider
the
polepiece,
in
face, and
of the
the
requiresthat
periodic variations
of
inductor
type
varieties
of this
in
the
flux
the
reluctance,
the
alternator, and
constitute
linked
derive
with
and
coefficient,"
evident
since
that
the
of flux
component
Fig.
122
are
of
above
the
values
for
thermal
at
which
with
the
in
extent
to
the
most
conditions,
core
should
multipliedin
to
raise
the
than
of
It
and
without
is
It
load,
the
magnetic potential
tend
armature
cases.
to
leakage
unity.
to
will
current
increase
the
the
surface
conductors.
The
over
leakage coefficients
the
several
with
the
order
"
with
the
as
increase
and
armature
determined
as
be
noted
in
the
that
in
armature.
124.)
reluctance
the
"
serve
leakingbetween
the
be
must
the
and
adjacent polefaces,
of
which
is run,
permissiblecore
the
armature
core
reluctance
loss.
proper
upon
the
being
chosen
dependent
are
the
RELUCTANCE.
CORE
ARMATURE
The
entire
objectionsto
reaches
considerablygreater
coefficient
the
measurements
for the
the
turns
ampere
which
turns
is
cases
leakage
diagrams give
actual
flux
the
armature
most
"
teeth
armature
from
practice
present
COEFFICIENT.
generated by
surfaces
the
annexed
the
armature
between
of the
in
the
which
by
total flux
the
pole
polefacesonly.
greatest
of the
one
the
to
type of alternator.
coefficient
becomes
the
But
magnetic circuit,due
the
their
reach
per
slots
vicinityof
armatures,
throughout
slots
always enough
laminate
may
air gap.
the
the
the
loss
the
at
LEAKAGE
The
shorter
multislot
with
the
fewer
the
almost
are
practice to
cores,
pulsationsof
The
length.
there
the
of
construction
machines,
magnetic pulsationsto
even
magnet
and
openings
it is often
hence
all alternators,
in
But
laminated
continuouscurrent
machines,
restriction
the
slot
the
continuouscurrent
insure
in
Even
adopt
to
be
sometimes
machines
119
is
generally fixed by
density
as
and
high
as
periodicity
is consistent
120
Electric
Generators.
Reluctance
of Magnetic
AIR
The
reluctance
piecesis
the
between
determined
mechanical
necessary
the
the
by
GAP
Circuit.
RELUCTANCE.
armature
and
core
the
requiredby
space
clearance
121
between
the
faces
the
pole
conductors
armature
the
of
surface
armature
and
and
the
polefaces.1
RELUCTANCE
reluctance
The
that
combined
the
minimum.
what
The
iron is
length of
conditions, that
In
air gap.
But
diminished
to
the
the
into
the
certain
the
limit, since
now
mechanical
reaction
density in
The
the
in
distortion
the
air
gap
the
worked
of
case
the
in
the
inductance
circuit
of
surrounding
broadly by saying
in
the
air
gap,
the
nature
to
the
armature
of
the
the
without
coils
the
that
for
and
It
the
distortion
to
given output
both
the
collecting brushes.
to
to
be
smaller
and
All
there
is
and
considered
of
the
the
as
of
pointed
magnetic
the
conditions
not
made
only
the
the
As
visible
that
in
also
reluctance
to the
in
or
the
included
be
will be shown
sparking,
of
case
armature
reluctance
may
in its relation
reversing field,but
greatly
machine
limiting minimum
selfinduction.
high
coils,it appears
armature
these
greater
smoothcore
in
being
that, with
out
be
may
the
are
with
it
alone,
proportionalto
certain
Generally speaking,
In
permissible
poleface,the
air gap
gap.
sparking
(which
reaction; whereas
of
inductance
distortion
strength
the
in
armature.
the
condition
been
has, however,
in
in the
high value,
very
the
satisfy this
armature
increased.
at
smaller
becomes
has
to
the
to
have
is consistent
as
the
magnetic
the
armatures
small
as
density
To
distortion
magnetic
becomes
coils
having regard
coils
magnetic
sparking.
toothed
carried
projections is
the
necessary.
relation
made
good practice is
the
on
of
been
of
necessary
to
that
has
appreciably
magnetism
such
flux
brushes
is not
of
becomes
case
the
relation
no
thermal
it
is not
where
of
depth
the
deleteriously
acts
gap
the
of
commutation
has
copper
proper
armature,
distribution
air gap
in the
In
proportional to
in
out,
is
with
the
flux
the
function
amount
fixed
poletip,which
the
welldesigned smoothcore
gap
Considered
is
under
the
the
small.
greater
possible
magnetic
projections becomes
the
of
alter
of
depth
is very
that
is
smoothcore
except in machines
air gap,
it may
as
density in
projection normally
less than
the
of
commutation
safety.
armature
far
so
distribution
generally recognised
the
in
practice),the
common
of
generator
neighbourhood
near
of
range
will maintain
is
of the
give, under
such
that, with
that
that
be
copper
such
cost
to
coils when
the
be
is meant
of
should
coils
should
magnetising
copper
output
of
armature
set
angular
of the
of
limit
circuit
densities,the
force
limit
sparking
inductance
forward
economical
magnetising
sparking
that
CIRCUIT.
and
circuit
magnetic
most
the
welldesigned generators.
Beyond
the
By magnetising
the
discussing
iron
magnetic
magnetomotive
frequently asserted
be
the
required by
copper
of
minimum.
MAGNETIC
cost
be termed
may
and
for
COMPLETE
OF
later,
inductance
respect
to
the
external
that
commutator.
R
Electric
122
the
through
correspond with
tions
of the
For
if too
the
be
taken
The
correspond
to
be
taken
The
armature.
coils should
be excessive
iron will
the
the
of
depth
otherwise,
should
with
the
to
propor
magneto
full load.
excessive, since
will be
restricted.
restricted
should
of the
cost
the
voltagegenerated by
requiredat
long,the
densities
The
load.
copper
too
full
the
magnets
force
motive
full
at
armature
Generators.
the
be
;
of
if too
short,
radiatingsurface
coil
magnet
of
temperature
of
length ;
the
of
cost
coil will
the
be
practice, be
layers will become
in
must,
inner
the
certain
excessive.1
ESTIMATION
magnetomotive
The
maintaining
length
follows
flux
of
(expressedin
force
GAP
OF
RELUCTANCE.
(expressed in
lines
per
inch,
square
inches)is.313
turns) expended in
ampere
L.
across
The
air
an
proof
of
gap
of this
is
as
lines
per
sq. in.
lines
per
centimetre.
square
6.45
B=
6.45
For
air
H
B.
D.
H=
6.45
But
nC
it
=
7
1fl
(number
turns
ampere
and
being
current).
1"
n
=
_
u
H
10
"
in
is very
be
not
at
The
their
increase
of
resistance.
shallow, is
so
hot
as
temperature
Placing
not
to
the
of
the
the
resistance
of
coils
on
satisfactoryindication
increase
magnet
thermometer
L.
6.45
TT
.313
2.54
".
TT
as
the
the
to
coil
L.
should
external
whether
so
much
determined
be
by
surface, unless
or
not
that
the
its
inner
the
the
increase
winding
layers
magnetomotive
may
force
Electric
1 "24
If in any
calculations
new
to
breadth
.33
there
of the
25
of
cent,
per
itself
tooth
It will be
k.
of the
magnitude
the
is
from
proportion varies
this
made, if
Moreover,
in the
.25
be
may
it.
warrant
insulation
be
particulardesign
Generators.
The
convenient
25
variation
is sufficient
ventilatingducts
crosssection
add
to
this
to
and
of this
the
_
will
slots,and
./
denote
cent.,
per
total
the
air
the
as
Cross^section
path.
of air
path
.33
=

1.34
b k
4
.33
k.
.75
air rath,
This
Let
I
X
thereioie,
lines
to
in all
and
of tooth
depth
takes
Let
the
permeability
lines
of iron
divide
so
in tooth,
that
at
and
path,
density
slot,and
and
tooth
density.
true
shall be
there
in iron
combined
the
by
"
lamination.
slot.
transmitted
be
iron
the
jaths except
in air
in iron
path.
path.
at
and
X
b k
Conductivity
Xow.
tional
to
the
the
fluxes
and
path
path
b k
1.34
air
respective conductivities
iron
in
"
.33
of
Conductivity
path.
"
of iron
f,
.03
in air
density
"
1.34
will
air
and
be
directlypropor
aku
b k
1.34
.33
1.34
.33
~~i~
1.34
(1.34
.33
Let
assumption
X
that
true
the
density in
iron
1.34
a"
.33a
b
iron,
transmits
(those in
a"tX
.33a
and
the
"
")
+
B1
"*
"
entire
iron*, i.e.
density
flux.
will
"
calculated
Therefore,
equal
the
the
ratio
the
on
ratio
of
of
B1
Reluctance
that
assumption
B1
1.34
XXXIII.
Table
In
Projections.
all the
125
lines
in
are
iron), to
density in iron).
actual
(the
the
Core
of
.33a
ft
calculated
are
ft
values
some
of
TY
for
different
values
of
TABLE
XXXIII.
f
1.
(i.e.,width
tooth
width
"'
slot)
B
"
2.
.75
2.12
B1
3.
.50
Fig.
126.
next
From
"
3.00
1
_
~~
T"~
The
D
step
in
these
this
curves
process
requires
Table
XXXIV.
TABLE
XXXIV.
reference
"
to
is derived
the
:
iron
curves
of
Electric
126
In
Tables
the
been
have
available
thus
in
consists
flux
in
it
30
transposedinto
for
in
use
force.
has
of
to
be
to
the
"
sa
of
HO
eo
HO
tot
uoc
IIM
not
aoo
ittt
for
be
taken
by judgment,
and
is
figuringthe
transmitting
as
influenced
the
one,
entire
the
in
are
simply
process
use
to
teeth
Generally, increasing by
34
the
value
corrected
the
inch, and
square
transmitted
iron
in
densities
the
density per
if the
as
determined
gap.
to
re
curves
number
The
of
calculations, where
density
the
values
the
kilolines
dynamo
iron
figuringthe
magnetomotive
length
Fig. 127,
obtainingfrom
flux, and
the
of
curves
Generators.
by
number
the
lying
aa
Fuf.126.
= :
xteeot
ran
KM
directlyunder
small
air
the
gaps,
"M 'KM
imatt
results
polefacegives good
while
two
three
or
for
should
teeth
extra
machines
with
be
added
very
for
larger gaps.
CALCULATION
The
as
lines
and
The
50
following example
giving
A
idea
some
certain
(per
in
MAGNETIC
FOR
ironclad
tooth
dynamo
magnet
yoke
method
density
is
110
has
of
the
kilolines.
DYNAMO.
case
be
may
handling
such
airgap density
an
density in
80
OF
simple
very
general
inch),the
square
the
of the
of
CIRCUIT
magnet
The
kilolines, and
the
is
of
interest,
problems
of
40
is 90
core
frame
of
in.
"
"
of gap
magnet
.25
core
(as related
yoke (correspondingto
to
one
the
magnetic circuit)
spool)
armature
,,
10
6
tooth
1.5
,,
(correspondingto
one
spool)
4
...
steel.
density
kilolines.
Length
kilo
kilolines,
cast
armature
is
Field
number
Required
of
for gap
Ampereturns
for magnet
47
Calculation.
ampereturns
Ampereturns

Winding
.313
(from
core
spool at
per
40,000
127
load
no
.25
curve
3130
of
Fig. 14,
21)
page
10
470
Ampereturns
for
Ampereturns
for teeth
Ampereturns
for armature
yoke
29
170
...
(from
core
...
...
curve
of
Fig. 22)
150
==
230
1.5=
6x4
20
Total
Therefore
ampereturns
It thus
tion of the
total reluctance
above
permeabilityand
making
of the
other
field
than
example,
to
4020.
it is much
through
go
direct
more
laborious
described
WINDING
in many
to
calcula
magnetic circuit,incidentally
bringing
factors,as
FIELD
In
load
no
appears
proceed as
the
polepieceat
per
in
the
4020
in
textbooks.
FORMULA.
is of great
service.
Lb.
=
watts
in
which
Lb.
Amperefeet
Watts
This
.00000068
If
formula
Resistance
=
length
Pounds
of copper
Ampereturns
is derived
between
opposite
length
of
spool at
20
mean
consumed
watts
spool.
per
in the
follows
as
faces
of
one
expressed
turn,
deg.
inch
cubic
of
commercial
copper
ohms.
in inches
L, and
crosssection
in square
inches
.00000068
.00000068
L2
S, then
T,
l\i
Li
"
"
Let
mean
number
It
length
.00000068
O
Ju
of
one
of turns.
L.
/'f2
.00000068
C2
e
in feet.
Cent.
F P
turn
in inches.
at
20
deg.
Cent.
Electric
128
Generators.
Git
amperefeet (ampereturns
Git
G
P?
C2
12
144
length
mean
of
in
turn
one
feet).
amperefeet.
(amperefeet)2.
watts.
/amperefeet
.68
b
Li
x!44
( ^00
"
watts
amperefeet
.32
Lb.
S L
.32
.68
144
^^
"
watts
feet
/ampere
(
Lb.
\'
1000
watts
APPLICATION
CALCULATION
TO
OF
WOUND
that
the
Thus,
suppose
5,000
ampereturns
length of
mean
ft.
1000
The
600
inches.
square
ventilation, it
per
of
inch
square
increasingto
be
may
due
of
assumed
higher
value
watts
600
surface
This
illustrates the
proceed further
to
determine
250
allow
volt
for
per
In
order
probable
lack
of
values, it
under
normal
is desirable
conditions
to
of
that
the
have
winding
(it, of
Cent,
watts
.40
course
up).
=52
Ib.
it will
but
for
room
for
of
interest
volts
This
is
at
separate
to
excitation
adjustment, as
between
agreement
220
be
be used.
to
designed
have
operation.
permit
for
4
400
formula,
but
been
have
spool.
"
to
to
opportunities
to
deg.
~j7j
~240~
taken,
the
decided
warms
240
the
be
exciter.
actual
spool.
spool
the
will
Assume
supposed
of
20
machine
.40
applicationof
sixpole machine
A
from
and
per
be
may
at
31
Ib. copper
determined
been
have
the
as
been
4\2_
consideration
to
radiating
required.
1000
spool
the
After
it had
which
be
/5000
radiating surface
SHUNT
Then
/amperefeetV
V
for
machine
FOR
DYNAMO.
spool would
per
is 4.0
turn
one
of
case
WINDING
SPOOL
the
the
220/6
calculated
winding
=
well
36.7
as
and
terminals
volts
per
Typical Magnetic
/?/
Circuits.
129
3
"3^Od
O73"
HOV3
HOUJ
HOYS
suruvHUV
ONuajLN?
xmj
JUniVWUV
MOUJ
130
Electric
Generators.
(O
O
tt
i
o
TJOd
O13IJ
H3V3
NOVJ
SJW/7V03JT
J
0
c.
nod
cnau
ONIUSJLNS
HOYS
xrnj
132
Electric
Generators.
31Od
H3V3
3NIU3J.N3
HOUJ
MU
013IJ
ZU/UVNUV
S3NI1V03H
'"
Field
The
in the
Then
conditions
as
the
watts
spoolwinding
spool are
per
Calculation.
ventilation
regards
of the
temperature
Winding
1.17
indicate
under
rise of 30
the
conditions
of
deg. Cent,
operation.
240
133
280
at
watts
50
deg.
Cent.
280
Amperes
7.6
36.7
5000
rp
lurns
per
spool,
655
7.6
MAGNETIC
TYPICAL
CIRCUITS.
Rg.186.
depth
4
of armature
POLE.
ARMATURE
IN
FIELD
FLUX
PER
NES
And
as
winding
the
is
mean
length
of
one
is
turn
PIECE
4.0
1Z
13
14
+/03
ft.,
the
total
length
of
wire,
it will
be
655.
Pounds
From
POLE
PER
TURNS
AMPERE
10
46
the
Table
of
per
1000
properties
ft.
of
2620
ft,
=19.8
commercial
copper
Electric
134
found
size.
proper
not
the
smaller
B.
12
and
the
the
Suppose
then,
From
the
to
take
the
of
propertiesof
probably
commercial
t
.
be
4 ""
XJ
'
double
that
Therefore
100
per
warm,
No.
it
given later,after
curves
now
B.
12
105
to have
as
will
S., and
wire,
one
Generally,however
it
have
been
wire
10
for
it
in.
long,
winding.
be
will
found
scale
SOOO
and
S.
turns
per
has
of .091
diameter
layer.
Plan
to take
in.
only
margin.
layers
consist
655/100
of
6.G
6.6
layers.
layers of
will
require 220
the
compounding
turns
100
volts at
each, of
its terminals
when
amperes.
relatingto
theory
proposed
for several
4000
9.5/.091.
winding
the
3000
No.
of
carrying 7.6
It is
2000
Number
B. and
12
Calculations
tion
have
layer,so
Therefore,
D.C.C.
1000
cottoncovered
it should
turns
"""".;/
such
A IIessentialparts
to
substanba/fy
'"
of
available
copper
'
sizes
In
size of wire.
spool flangesto
in. would
insulating,9^
Table
the
size.
standard
nearest
inside
space
desired
the
ft. does
1,000
per
size of wire.
different
two
is,therefore, the
pounds
standard
of
up
largerthan
other
exact
sufficiently
of any
that
1,000 ft.,and
for the
value
made
be
may
Ib. per
19.8
desired
nearly like
very
winding
after
S. has
and
Generally,the
out
come
case,
is
No.
that
Generators.
to
of armature
reaction
coils of
has
been
machines
types
of
machines,
be
developed.
different
will
together
noload
with
satura
sufficient
Magnetic Circuit of
of
the
leading
dimensions
and
profitablystudied
In
the
C,
D,
and
Fig. 128,
slots
The
taken
was
the
of
case
the
to
The
reluctance
data
of
cannot,
transformer
example
will
will
give
illustrate
the
former
is to
force.
The
be
E
used
"form
factor"
F
A.
the
for
same
total
the
two
given, the
are
the
with
later
until
the
is
sine
in
the
volts.
2,000
==
and
curves
shown
periodicity80
that
Assume
following
current
2,340,
10~8.
rs
eddy
of
matter
involved,
voltage
turns
having
wave
But
circuit
transformers
whole
the
section.
Primary
of
case
considerations
the
Primary
sine
in
the
trans
of electromotive
wave
hence
1.11
1.11
of
crosssection
lines
2340
=
80
.24
magnetic
1Q8
megalines.
circuit
3.13
3.13
.901
8.8
inches.
First
B
show
examples
magnetic
138).
240,000
Density
curve
corre
for
1.11
4
square
of
2000
Effective
The
circuit
on
have
employed.
results and
hysteresisand
F.T.N.M.
1.11.
as
used
that
form
"
TRANSFORMER.
circuit
of
and
volts.
=100
taken
the
substantially
idea
(Fig.
the
probably
at
in slots A
of A,
was
not
other
shown
as
those
from
were
fields,but
other
case
would
the
THE
in
"
second.
exhibit
OF
up
Transformer.
Secondary voltage
be
to
figures.
BH
of
the
factor"
completely dealt
general
sketch
accompanying
results
Same
were
factor"
slots B
magnetic
taken
use
Tenkilowatt
the
of the
is
form
CIRCUIT
be at all
form
inclusive,nine
to 137,
design
cyclesper
and
accompanying
course,
the
the
tests
in
results
circuit to be
magnetic
calculation
in the
"
the
"
B, and
flux
the
in the
MAGNETIC
The
C,
B,
at
curves
Figs. 129
necessary
For
winding
of the
In
cases.
figuring the
1.25.
saturation
and
coils used
coils contained
the
135
tested.
were
at
appreciablydifferent
an
tests
enable
to
machines
shown
armature
as
machines
two
as
respectively. For
sponded
In
E.
"
factor
In
and
the
Transformer.
compared.
having
armature
one
of
case
of
the
calculate
of
Ninety
being japan
Fig.
per
varnish
cent,
or
27.3
kilolines
per
magnetising component
22
of
paper
find
(page 26), we
the
total
for
depth
of
insulating the
inch.
square
that
laminations
laminations
of
leakage
at
in
density
iron, the
from
each
From
current.
of
remaining
other.
27.3
10
per
kilo
cent,
Electric
136
inch
per
required about
is
lines, there
length
..
There
of
three
circuit.
Mean
of
length
of
ampereturns
magnetic
circuit
magnetic
force
Require magnetomotive
of 59.5
59.5
in.
179
force
magnetomotive
turns.
ampere
turns.
2,340
are
Generators.
179
.".
Require
maximum
of
current
.077
2340
amperes.
.077
R.M.S.
current
.054
amperes.
1234
Watts
per
pound
100
at
Sec.
Cyclesper
Fig14(j.
degree
oF
Centegraote,increase
temperature.
Thickness
i"
4S1SR
40
20
Next
estimate
iron
sheet
59.5
lines,Fig.
139
watts
pound.
per
T7
U
Volts
per
loss
core
shows
8.8
that
turn
per
per
100
at
120
there
will
of
be
inch
square
tBO
Z00
leakage
At
80
cycles and
x
.8
.097.
per
From
Fig.
140
the
eddy
.48
to
be
.21
8.8
watts
pound.
Consequently hysteresisand eddy
watts
is found
loss
current
2"000
=
2,340
=
of
kilo
27.3
of .6
4.'
crosssection
iron
Weight
current.
hysteresisloss
01
160
140
Ib.
148
OI4'.
Centigrade.
20'
component
.282
80
pound
60
Watts
pF plate*
per
component
pound.
of
Total
leakage
iron
current
loss
=
102
current
148
=
2,000
loss will be
.69
=
.051
102
.48
watts.
JR.M.S.
I .21
Core
amperes.
.69
loss
Circuit
Magnetic
Resultant
i
load A
leakage current
Induction
the
of
/y/.0542
+
Motor.
.05 12
13;
.074
Full
amperes.
10,000
current
5.0
amperes.
2,000
Consequently
Core
current.
loss
Example.
former
with
resultant
1.02
Find
"
the
leakage
loss
and
leakage
when
winding
same
1.4
of fullload
cent,
per
core
current
rated
for
on
the
trans
same
2,200volt
fullload
output.
current
running
of
cent,
per
cycles
60
circuit.
CIRCUIT
MAGNETIC
In
Fig.
is
141
phase induction
OF
INDUCTION
THE
representedthe magnetic
The
motor.
MOTOR.
of
structure
is located
primary winding
sixpolethree
in
external
the
JKgMI.
Fuj.138.
CIRCUIT
MAGNETIC
MOTOR.
INDUCTION
Of
",""
12
per
54
The
phase.
face
There
connected.
turns
tn
64
slots,delta
per phase, for
per
and
turns,
324
and
from
run
has
series
conductors
volts,
100
When
(primary],
108
12
are
conductors,
is for
motor
are
slots.
54
total
648
windings
has
stater
minding,with
dphase
stator, which
Poles,
110 volts
at
sine
60
Cycles.
slot, consequently
108
in
turns
cycles,and
60
a
connected
its
series
primary
circuit,we
wave
have
110
M
Before
termination
induction
.38
proceeding
of
the
to
1.11
force
will
and
108
60
10~s
megalines.
the
be
directly concerned
calculations
magnetising
it
motor,
magnetomotive
and
current
necessary
flux distribution
for
to
the
in this
the
type
relations
of
the
de
of
this
circuit
magnetic
study
in
between
magnetic
circuit
winding.
In
along
Fig 142,
a
portion
straightline, and
of
the
the
slots
gap
face
of the
occupied by
the
primary
three
is
developed
windings
are
Electric
138
lettered
B, and
A,
in the
indicated
are
is that
chosen
by 1,
the
by points and
manner
in
density is at each
magnetomotive forces at
conceived
be
itself,may
the
to
the
magnetic
the
cross
assumption
the
on
gap
the
shows
diagram
this
Thus
point.
that
denoted
.5.
point directlyproportionalto
gap
closing upon
value
this instant,
at
instant
The
its maximum,
the
above
currents
of these
crosses.
is at
having
then
and
phase
the
given numerically
are
directions
relative
the
current
B
in
consideration
in
currents
of the
magnitudes
plotted immediately
magnetic flux in the gap,
curve
the
of the
in
under
which
at
distribution of
that
instant
customary
currents
The
relative
letters,and
the
under
immediately
The
C.
the
at
windings
three
Generators.
at
total
sum
line
which,
points
the
JNDtJCTIQN
Di"trib
and
instantaneous
C
6, and
In
appears
at
one
for the
total
slot,the
the
the
that
points M
Moreover,
1.6
times
as
particularcase.
would
vary,
the
This
an
ampere
is
other
of the
resultant
and
alone.
is two
as
With
phase
is
the
ordinates
be
line
this
the
curve
point
maximum
ordinate.
numbers
to
the
is 3
with
But
this
of the
three
increased
6.
it
curve
phases
force
of
threephasewinding.
this
of slots per
x.5
value
the
From
maximum
the
per
G
magnetomotive
of such
and
phases
conductor
one
are
shows
in
but
plotted.
magnetomotive forces
average
partly
to
the
general property
different
and, owing
with
1, and
as
the
Taking
turns.
ampere
plotted at
times
analysisof the
great
of
turns
ordinate
way
the
maximum
the
consideringthere
monent
linkage of
same
titan
of Res
in conductors
maximum
the
phase
with
current
.5,and
as
linked
is
N,
it/an
ordinate
is
only
to
in
this
polepiece,
reluctance
in
the
be
this
value
high
Electric
140
Generators.
In.
Sq.
air gap
per
exposed
iron
Crosssection
A.
of
area
polepieceat
of
stator, i.e.,surface
of
face
21
projections
...
21
face...
for rotor
B.
Ditto
C.
Crosssection
at
narrowest
D.
Crosssection
at
narrowest
E.
Crosssection
in laminations
back
of slots in
F.
Cross
in laminations
back
of slots
...
section
part
of
projectionsin
stator
part
of
projections in
rotor
10
...
8
...
...
10
stator
...
...
in rotor
8
...
...
DENSITY.
FLUX
Maximum.
Average.
kilolines
18
A.
...
...
...
25
kilolines
...
18
B.
25
,
...
38
C.
54
"
...
48
D.
68
"
E.
38
F.
48
"
The
air
the
.313
For
25.000
allow
.047
about
of the
9
iron, should
the
the
ampereturns
for
to
amount
gap
is
air gap
of the
depth
370.
ampereturns
the
through
inch
per
of
length
teeth, is about
high density
in.
for iron
Ampereturns
Total
ampereturns
force
Magnetomotive
maximum
ampereturns
polepieceper
we
phase,
of
per
per
polepiece
the
three
370
phases
polepieceper
9
+
72
is
R.
442.
equal
to
There
phase.
therefore, lettingC
72
M.
S.
two
times
the
turns
per
18
are
amperes
per
phase,
have
1.41
18
442.
442
C
=
.11
1.41
8.7
amperes
"
18
magnetising
current
per
phase.
w*)R
the
Taking
C2
loss
500
watts,
per
phase
loss at
core
running light,at
or
167
watts
per
watts, the
300
50
watts,
phase.
167
=
1.5
amperes.
gives a
friction
total
at
power,
Energy component
volts, and
150
the
running light,of
of
leakage
current
Examples.
Resultant
Ditto
leakage
line
per
current
leading to
Letting power
phase
per
motor
141
A/
/"/3
8.72 +
15.6
110
168
.17.
1.52
amperes.
amperes.
have
we
EXAMPLES.
The
sections
Volts
of
in
the
minute
the
armature,
force
be
to
sine
wave
collector
foregoing
the
assuming
of
(For type
is
conductors
20
rings
What
3500.
slots,
poles, 36
24
between
per
polepiece into
motive
at
the
flux
of
curve
winding,
load
no
from
electro
Fig. 82,
see
74.)
page
continuouscurrent
2.
Its
connection.
revolutions
500
each
treated
matters
has
threephase generator
slot, Y
and
to
1.
per
relate
followingexamples
is
output
kilowatts
100
is
conductors
armature
conductors.
Mean
What
is the
is
What
brushes
at
The
60
1200
six
the
from
armature
has
the
face
668
in.
conductors
armature
the
It
inch.
is 75
turn
in
density
current
square
armature
of
The
per
of the
singlewinding (drum).
twocircuit
positive to
negative
has
is
volts.
550
one
resistance
deg. Cent.
has
amperes
crosssection
the
what
at
length of
dynamo
minute,
dynamo
If
poles.
flux
magnetic
the
is
speed
the
entering
revolutions
200
per
from
armature
each
?
polepiece
sixpole continuouscurrent
3.
winding, gives
are
face
560
is
winding
minute
oft' at
would
rings connected
4.
the
conductors
be
these
to
armature
arranged
twocircuit, single
field excitation
certain
arranged
two
slot
per
in
speed.
280
slots.
If
this
reference
to
the
voltage
alternatingcurrent
There
and
points,equidistantwith
two
the
at
two
collector
points ?
pole arc
100kilowatt
;
with
conductors,
tapped
winding, what
Assume
volts
600
with
generator
to
be
dynamo,
wound
in 201
60
per
volts,
250
with
slots.
cent,
of the
polarpitch.
poles;
500
revolutions
twocircuit, triplewinding
;
Therefore
201
total
402
per
face
turns.
Electric
142
Generators.
500
in
turns
33.5
brushes.
between
series
cycles
16.7
per
second.
250
M
..
in
Flux
of
magnet
and
steel,
cast
cores
16.7
1.20
of
Magnet
megs.
per
"
cores
inch, therefore
square
i
inches.
square
1.20.
13.5
kilolines
95
=142
Diameter
factor
13,500,000
,.
crosssection
10~8.
leakage
Take
11.2
density
at
run
33.5
megalines.
11.2
r"Circular
crosssection.
i.
in.
13.5
"
Length
solid
the
by
gap
density
in
of
10
in.
section
per
of
in.
24
ducts
Diameter
magnet
Tooth
cores
the
30
in.
Yoke
iron
in.
Length
of
cast
kilolines.
=120
of
space
12
density
depth
and
is
in.
12
armature
polepiece.
per
which
under
iron
Core
teeth
"
0.7
70,000
by venlilating
Therefore,
11,200,000
2
Length
in., of
16
sheets.
kilolines.
35
kilolines.
70
iron
about
shaft
to
occupied
the
in.
yoke
density
at
run
of
circuit
magnetic
being
japanning
air
Length
parallel
core
remainder
the
iron,
lost
and
armature
Length
in.
.,
circuit
magnetic
armature
in
polepiece.
Pole
poleface
16
measured
arc
in.
in.
17.5
along
the
280
arc
17.5
in.
inches.
square
11,200.000
Poleface
density
=

40
kilolines.
2bO
Ampereturns
per
Ampereturns
netic
per
polepiece
for
yoke...
for
polepiece
24
12
Ampereturns
per
per
polepiece
polepiece
for
for
teeth...
1.5
==
10
...
...
Total
per
pole piece
ampereturns
50
600
350
525
12
...
for
per
1400
arma
core
Ampereturns
60
mag
core
Ampereturns
ture
12
air
gap
polepiece
.25
at
no
load
40,000
and
250
.313
volts
120
3130
5775
Cross
Potential, Continuous
Constant
CONSTANT
POTENTIAL,
Current
Dynamos.
143
CONTINUOUSCURRENT
DYNAMOS.
THE
those
are
the
problems peculiarto
relating
commutation.
to
the continuouscurrent
design of
The
and
considerations
and
to
relatingto
factoryresult, are
they
the
design
will
Under
the
nals
for
all
maintain
latter
values
the
current
of
output,
in
the
efficiency
to
obtaining
question of
incidentallyto
satis
commutation
the
of
treatment
potentialdynamos
maintain
distant
some
also
point
generator terminals
the
for the
compensate
loss of
included
are
potentialat
constant
output, but
current
potential at
to
of
importance
of constant
to
the
voltage at
output,
considered
circuit,
limit
secondary to
general class
constant
case
magnetic
commutating standpoint.
not
of
matters
consequently be
the
thermal
the
nevertheless
from
the
regulation,although
and
of
design
dynamo
those
their
termi
designed
points, in
or
increase
must
potentialin
to
which
with
the
transmission
the
system.
In
the
the
last few
current
in
years
in
output,
sary
by
operate
that
with
constant
the
conditions
and
of the
matter
the
forward
course.
The
of
of
the
of
to
the
data
most
highresistance
resorted
but
brushes
acquisitionof
of
service
in
under
of
change
machines
years
ago,
the
has
been
is in
in
load
brought
satisfactory
the
use
has
of
been
copper
the
very
brushes
made
about
have
neces
must
contrast
to
necessityof
the
was
and
rated
machines
marked
which
constants
important factors
been
of these
many
of, its
excess
has
during commutation,
which
brushes,
which
proportion to
occurrences
from
such
few
This
brushes.
the
deliver, without
to
considerablyin
to, and
up
performance
of
requirethe dynamo
to
positionof
dynamos
understanding
One
load
of
in
customary
sparking, any
shiftingthe
a
it is
made
of
matter
of
consequence
deterioration; and
harmful
the
been
has
looked
by
to
upon
the
the
been
as
better
gradual
deduced.
general introduction
now
generallybeing
although they
increased
justifythe
sidered
to
brushes
have
copper,
and
grades
different
ment
of the
construction
by mica,
longer give
whereby
Of
concern.
durabilityof
of the
the
in
large commutators.
various
types
the
careful
has
been
choice
in
portions,has
enabled
use
of
accompanied by
when
manufacturers
various
and
devices'
standing
the
not
to
have
appear
them,
and
the
the
stage of development
field is reached
Further
it
careful
alreadybrought
disturbance
employed
much
which
dynamos
illustrations
of
design and
in
mechanical
holders, and
the
commutators,
in
improvement
corn
electromagnetic
pro
correct
arranged
the
ingenious
many
modify sparking by
to
additions.
other
their
purpose
will
be
very
in
where
that
output
rendering
limit
application,it
their
methods
where
of
to
of
resort
to
more
to
that
armature
sparking
use
does
appears
dynamo
output
harmful
permissible
non
notwith
commercially profitable to
thermal
it
these
effectively
; but,
potentialcommutating
the
of
Some
applicationof ordinary
constant
below
improvement
no
without
found
dispense with
ingenuity displayed
likely that
since
now
accomplish
care
to
devices
days
construction
of modern
in the
responsiblefor
complicated windings
making
up,
measure
stage
of
method
be
copper
greatly increased
modes
as
construction.
of material
small
no
is
examples
brieflysummed
thus
advance
The
the
to
design, will
of
earlier
the
segments
the
reached
now
renewed
This
the
matters
of commutator
be
and
In
the
rate
of
the
are
and
grain
coarser
same
has
importance, owing
may
of
to insulate
trouble
commutator,
carbon
corresponding develop
taken
of
of
types
brushholdingdevices.
now
commutator.
of
commutator
sources
Amongst
discussion
the
of
between
con
highresistance
grades
possiblethe
as
of the
commutator
of the
remainder
to
follow
near
less
modern
the
sectors
as
other
and
bars
uneven
at
wear
is
care
construction
the
and
design
commutator,
shall
which
segments
where
takingplacein the
been
has
extended
Various
grades
to
not
advantages being
brushes, from
of carbon
lower
the
would
been
has
use
in resistance
developed,intermediate
been
their
commutator.
fine
with
but
of the
cost
collected
be
to
current
fairlylarge output,
of
lowvoltage machines
to
of
extensively,and
very
expensive a commutator,
and
large
require too
be
to
quantity
the
where
used
now
are
first considered
at
were
machines,
tial
brushes
bearing carbon
Radial
and
Generators.
Electric
144
occurs.
highly
Armature
brushes
conducting
in
in
saving
such
without
improvement
effected
the
at
than
more
windings
of the
may
appear.
and
the
by
But
increased
devices
of
cost
of the
the
study
be considered
and
illustrated
of
commutating
by descriptionsof
When
of the
to
formula
been
of
when
for
given.
the
giving T,
fulfil
The
coil
is
in
other, consist
positionof
a
magnetic
to
become
to
it
is
in
distort
the
the
will
But,
the
turns
magnetic
brushes, and
also
such
propor
to
case,
side
build
in
field
armature,
so
the
to
to
the
the
to
the
arrived
in
the
reverse
current
it is
of which
circuit
no
spark
when
under
the
brush.
be
the
from
in
reverse
position in advance
the magnetic flux.
load.
in
reversed
of
presence
the
reaches
just
to
as
of
brush
coil
the
magnetises
necessity
values
current
have
will
already
varying
the
circuit
short
The
collection
the
the
there
unfortunately, the
weaken
of
up
relating
has
10~8,
relative
when
design
conclusions
imposed by
such
delivered
current
reversing the
that
the
the
voltage, with
current
a
and
intensitynecessary
stronger
field into
to
the
now
consideration.
sparkless
one
and
the
the
on
or
position of
as
require
current.
current
In
the
plain that,
increased, it
stronger
from
out
the
of
brushes, it shall
the
of the
that
to
will
considerations
flux,
brushes
the
obtain
carrying, and
been
itself down
upon
force
out
however,
from
direction
part.
coil passes
Now
to
under
the
strength equal
about
the
field of
left
commutating
placing
so
just
auxiliary
which
modify
to
the
M,
transferred
shortcircuit
it has
current
be
to
be
to
of
that
out
are
are,
necessary
for
resolves
its influence
necessary
force
and
turns,
requirements
that
it
satisfactoryregulation of
and
current,
not
of the
armature,
choice
pointed
wTas
conditions
conditions
the
amount
any
electromotive
for
phenomena
Additional
to
the
formula)
electromotive
the
in
be
dynamos.
make
these
of the
relation
modern
some
reaction
at
sufficient
resortingto
reaction
with
magnetic circuit, it
arrived
other
or
REACTION.
dynamos,
discussingthe
armature
source
apparently only
to
principally
tioning
result
course
yet proposed.
of the
study
of
some
saving can
be
not
ARMATURE
The
the
as
from
and
commutator,
it will
commutator,
offset
145
cost
the
Reaction.
the
the
this
The
this
coil
stronger
armature
of the
is
machine
as
to
positionof
brushes
must
Electric
146
is
armature
it
to
an
the
intensified.
Finally,
current
nowhere
distorting and
made
in
which
and
reverse
any
moved
are
build
up
time
the
current, during
armature
effects
into
of the
in
diagrams given
the
is divided
winding
impossible at
brushes
of field to
strength
strong
be
the
time
the
by
will
current
demagnetising
quite plain by
the
of the
brush.
the
passing
the
"
the
under
coil is
are
of
sufficient
place with
any
"
the
being
position, there
to
whereupon
sparkless collection
which
at
again
demagnetising effect
still further,
be shifted
therefore
Generators.
armature
Figs. 144,
and
145
146,
distortingbelts
and
demagnetising
current
of conductors.
In
is
a
Fig.
distributed
flux
in
be
toward
the
set
field.
the
the
is
armature
brushes
position,current
(the
this
position of
be
the
field
and
instance, as
armature
and
due
drawn
in
that
current
to the
ampere
the
the
and
zone,
being
In
the
this
armature
generator
the
passing through
other
component
the
conditions
limitingcases,
connection,
under
17kilowatt
singlewinding, was
tested
its
for
results
certain
with
regard
would
distort
to
two
actual
of
lines
force
position of
the
(a a)
of
the
lying
turns
ampere
of
demagnetising,
one
by
tendency.
the
two
outside
of course,
Fig. 146,
practice,
Figs. 144
and
explanatory purposes.
will
of
be
conditions.
capacity,
armature,
magnetomotive
the
occurringin
shown
the
in
the
if in
and
armature
the
forward
the
until
deg.
90
tending
defined
of the
to
electro
Similarly,if, as
the
components,
zone
due
direction
electromagnetic effect
the
in the
direction
purely distortional
reaction
of
lying
turns
the
being incapable
of
position of
into two
to
into
component
no
Fig. 146,
be resolved
may
represents roughly
145
in
shown
perpendicularlyto
brushes, and
being
intermediate
any
electromagnetic effect
current,
pole faces,
brushes
the
up
distorted
through
the
set
be
brushes, the
brushes
the
through
sent
generating current),the
the
of
middle
to
will
reference
forward
moved
were
current
carrying no
flux
distortional.
purely
were
with
armature
with
the
tend
to
as
armature
position of
this
at
so
resultant
The
the
and
zone,
conductors,
of
the
Fig. 145,
of
neutral
the
which,
that
to
Therefore,
effect
magnetic
in
are
sets
two
by
up
forward
rotation.
in
the
right angles
at
would
of
brushes
the
144
at
250
to
the
interest
small
of
test
of
fourpoleironclad
volts, with
distribution
fourcircuit
of the
magnetic
only by
not
the
last
This
in the
depth
Dr.
the
of
the
dynamos,
the
calculations
flux
similar
analysis of
armature
reaction.
"
Whittaker
has
Original Papers
and
in
results
with
corresponding
possibly being
symmetry
is
distortion.
any
distribution
the
which
area
due
to
have
variation
gap.
Hopldnson1
magnetic
of
lack
of
longer
no
flux
middle
the
at
is
there
but
its total
by
but
curve,
flux,
brushes
the
symmetrical, its
been
of
total
the
curve
positionof
the
of
shape
the
proportional to
to
Generators.
Electric
148
the
of
reference
the
on
air
to
1893.
gap
of
two
influence
Fig.
147
Siemens
and
Allied
very
closely
armature
also
confirms
upon
Subjects."
distribution
Brothers'
of
experimented
Machinery
the
upon
correspond
the
of
machine
Dynamo
experiments
which
curves
The
Co., London,
made
bipolar
with
reaction.
the
had
By
John
theory
his
A
of
fourcircuit
Hopkinson.
Experimental Investigationsof
drum
with
winding,
coils
79
of
six
Armature
Reaction.
in
each,
turns
149
slots
79
in
the
79x6
periphery.
the
on
There
The
armature.
71.514
18
turns
amperes
proportionalto
are
armature
the
on
flux
the
A.
49
B.
49
centimetres
square
E.
in
being, however,
been
have
piece.
In
the
This
tabulated
as
of
due
"
of
strength
follows
E,
the
the
2,140
with
is
the
explainedby
percentage
the
there
zero,
which
would
density
gap
field ampere
to
as
turns
per
of the
armature
pole
case.
C, f
at
turns
ampere
2,140
==
1,420
at
E.
These
at
results
D,
can
and
be
large percentage
small
maximum
3,000
710
TABLE
The
is
distortion,
demagnetising component
2,140
the
the
to
maximum
B,
increase
so
flux
"
demagnetising component
not, however,
to
))
41
"
case
to
C, D, and
rose
full
the
total
was
curves
strength
to
expected
down
cut
the
,,
j"
the
follows
55
B.
which
curves,
74
"
20
and
A.
ampere
"
,,
"
as
2140
were
cent.
per
"
there
100
"
18
of the
are
pole piece
per
amperes,
x
area
=100
27
1
71.5
enteringthe armature,
"
curves
The
armature.
36
"*'"
For
being
turns
consequently,lly
"
C.
119
current
turn;
per
pole piece
per
therefore,
were,
fact that
of
flux
of
with
XXXVI.
in
curve
resultant
the
brush
ampere
at
the
turns
middle
(29
of
the
compared
per
cent.),
pole face,
Electric
150
as
the
was
in
be
cannot
turns
placed
is
of the
armature
of
flux
resultant
to
APPLICATION
OF
for
coil
this
non
positionsof
the
and
proportion
the
D,
close.
is very
CONSIDERATIONS
THESE
with
in
of
extent
but
B, C
A,
curves
turns
ampere
concentrated
The
arc,
armature
fullyeffective.
be
would
that
being
the
in
turns
observed
pole
the
occur
ampere
will be
It
would
of
situated
so
consequently
words,
other
In
are
flux, and
entire
field coils.
the
turns
armature
the
instead
proportional to
which
brushes
the
demagnetisation.
in
fully oppose
to
as
so
effectiveness
the
with
uniformly distributed,
are
of
many
linked
be
effective
so
E,
curve
to
not
as
space
in
case
Generators.
TO
PROPORTIONING
THE
OF
DYNAMOS.
it
If
of
the
into
10~8, which
desired
iron
the
Then
250,000,000
lines.
than
100,000
the
the
of
have
equally
the
be
need
calculations
alone,
the
Then
lines.
for
any
is
hand,
suppose
500
Necessary
flux.
diameter.
to
have
cost
of
material, give
of
could
for
The
winding
M
least.
It
and
diameter
be
would
apparent that,
be
at
run
that
appears
50
in.
long, or
would
high,
very
regards cost
as
Without
turns.
ampere
lO"8, M
field turns
The
density
thus
face
10
crosssection
Therefore, the
at
current
with
properly
not
Thus
500volt
minute.
10
and
copper
heating.
design
be
there
carrying
of materials
poorly designed.
crosssection
transmittingthe
But
field
be
gap
many
would
other
1000
very
dimensions.
air
the
per
in. in
50
extreme
farther,it
machine
the
On
as
inches
be
formula
best
the
inch.
square
to
the
excessive
from
iron
square
in
twopole drum
10 ; 500
per
2,500
would
try
us
itself
revolutions
600
armature
lines
would
at
5 ;N
==
The
other
some
arise, of
resolve
crosssection
suitable
should
run
and
minimum
immunity
would
dynamos
of
a
voltage ;
Let
armature
armature
else
with
amperes.
conductors.
more
would,
generator, to
is 200
output
values
secure
to
problem
100kilowatt
those
and
current
being chosen,
suppose
of
of
electromagneticreaction
to the
of
proportioning
determination
KTNM
effects, due
these
the
armature,
the
for
not
were
the
1000
=
Therefore,
on
the
12.5
the
had
armature
10
10~8,
inches
square
magnet
armature
2000
.'.
as
far
would
cores
face
conductors.
face
2000
1,250,000
regards
as
be
conductors,
in. in
each
Influence of
carrying
large
as
100
diameter
question
of
the
look
of
score
into
material
found
INFLUENCE
In
the
first
have
been
of
flux
be
the
be
200
size
relates
we
that
to
nevertheless,
of
of
if
much,
cost
than
the
on
conductors
EXTREME
TWO
with
only
turns
ampere
reaction
relates
as
would
CASES.
five
there
turns,
of
the
commutator
the
on
would
concerned,
are
collection
between
polepiece
per
effects
the
to
volts
average
"
THESE
armature
armature
as
entirelynegligible; but,
would
not
But,
the
large weight
very
copper
was
100
far
number
IN
=250
as
it
then
result.
REACTION
of
but
probably
determined
would
intermediate
some
but
which,
have
load.
no
case
flux, which
field
at
armature,
former
material
matter
that
case,
5
would
the
ARMATURE
OF
the
1 5 1
large armature,
very
should
economical
more
in
we
required
alone,
give
to
case
the
the
Reaction.
large magnetic
otherwise
but
obtain
to
require
necessary
this
In
further
no
was
carrying
of
copper,
necessary
be
as
armature.
armature
would
amperes,
Armature
there
current,
and
segments,
Zi. 0
this
to
would
have
have
rendered
In
would
the
construction
indeed
one
volt
would
there
reversal
would
the
on
100
and
armature
which,
with
to
armature
brushes.
turns),there
the
very
as
times
20
amperes,
1000
coil
per
commutator
correspond
been
have
of
value
inductance
of
with
machine
turn,
per
generally employed,
but
of the
(that
case
been
the
high
ordinary arrangement
any
other
have
such
to
quite impossible
with
second,
per
corresponded
methods
low
of
inductance
50,000
"t
turns
ampere
excitation, and
We
is
is
the
design
find, therefore,
small,
second
polepiece,which
per
case
the
altogether
would
have
turns
would
to
inductance
too
give
per
sought
a
of the
in
case
the
for
fairlygood
both
but
first
segment
commutator
With
completely
entirely out
commutator
per
strong.
be
be
while
that
inductance
the
would
would
segment
two
poles, some
question.
the
armature
is
excessive.
is small
the
intermediate
result.
field
the
overpower
reaction
In
the
armature
value
like
100
Electric
152
CONDITIONS
As
but
(at full
amount
load
and
distribution
It is furthermore
commutator
the
best
should
definite
method
proportionsto
the
Suppose
conclude
OF
limit
to
the
piece,and
Amperes
output
NUMBER
of
commutator
125
these
fulfilling
400volt
GIVEN
lead
3,000
reference
to
OUTPUT.
turns
ampere
volts
16
(a very
We
pole
per
high limit).
conductor
each
Therefore,
amperes.
to
up
bipolar generator.
125
carries
conditions,
FOR
to
the
electromagnetic
poles.
segment
by
reluctance
the
particularlywith
strength to
armature
and
desirable
POLES
OF
50kilowatt
volts per
the
number
proper
brushes
most
of
complete
commutating
which
followingillustrations,
the
adjacent
flux is determined
the
method
the
assigning
THE
want
we
positionof
the
magnet spools.
in the
flux
residual
the
an
with
of the
permit
to
not
such
to
coil between
armature
as
the
by
up
of this residual
the
strength
greatly interfere
set
potentialdynamos,
of the
DETERMINATION
each
of
to the
for
constant
determination
too
means
and
given
not
inductance
understand
be
shall
make
amount
armature,
To
gap.
attention
very
and
armature
low
so
by
current
location
The
the
of
the
flux
it becomes
inductance,
limit
magnetic
to
necessary
of the
strength of
of
of the
segments
reversal
field.
current)as
amount
and
reaction
to
necessary
COMMUTATION.
SPARKLESS
TO
of armature
consequence
desirable
only
ESSENTIAL
Generators.
3,000
62.5
"
_
Turns
amperes.
polepiece
per
total turns.
^
commutator
segments between
commutator
=25
"
Therefore
segments.
'
about
brushes,
turns
two
48,
r9
()_..'
per
total
50
or
coil
96
i.e.,
(i.e.,
per
o u
commutator
In
segment).
the
strength
must
For
segment
What
200
of
have
have
we
if the
turn
the
per
of
in the
type
per
for the
case
of
voltage,to
same
volts
same
retain
commutator
per
the
same
segment,
we
coil.
the
of
volts
limitingoutput,
a
machine
winding
commutator
and
strength
armature
reached
now
be done
kilowatts,
one
turn
one
values
these
machine
and
armature,
only
shall
less than
kilowatt
100
remains
segment,
of
twice
the
so
and
same
we
the
the
?
find
per
commutator
problem
arises
size,in this
We
that
cannot
in
case
have
bipolar
Determination
it will be
machine
which
case
we
double
can
of
strength
voltage per
the
would
would
be
made
adopted
passableat
Therefore
amperes
16.6
=
volts per
can
is that
result
it could
arise with
400volt
paths through
the
Amperes output
have, also,
We
24.
four
the
though
even
we
plan
But
we
armature
or
latter
bipolar design.
200kilowatt
our
conductor
per
This
questionwould
same
the
keep
or
be
the next
is entirely
multipolardesign,the difficulty
total current.
of the
quarter
of
let
will be
there
Then
poles.
the
segment,
previous cases
less extent.
153
strength, in
armature
and
regards sparking,and
use
we
in the
retain
to
output, the
the
by
Suppose
overcome.
giving
But
this
used
Windings.
commutator
segment,
limits to
as
unsatisfactory
largersize.
be
the
voltage per
value
compromise by raisingboth
which
double
commutator
low
same
low
the
either
to
necessary
retain
can
the
of Poles
Number
of
The
commutator
24
commutator
turns
amperes.
polepiece
per
segments
carrying
500
four
have
each
armature,
=
125.
machine,
polepiece,
per
segment.
24
A
as
machine
regardssparking,by designingit
number
are
that
be
4,000
may
be reduced
of
poles. Thus,
commutator
as
with
follows
to any
desired
suppose
number
proper
extent
poles.
certain
the
case
armature
conditions
segments
polepiece
per
"

be
be
15
volts
Full
load
40
100
turns
per
40.
"
current
pole piece.
armature
per
amperes
5"~^
833
branch.
amperes.
000
833
Therefore
we
want
shall
per
determined
10
Therefore
given
generator
Commutator
volts
the
by sufficiently
increasingthe
600volt
strength of a 500kilowatt
and
there
that
may
ampereturns per polepiece,
of
would
number
Then
the
poles
segment.
the
of
strength and
armature
in
that
operate entirelysatisfactorily,
WINDINGS.
windings, the
multiplecircuit
With
bar
to
CIRCUIT
MULTIPLE
per
made
consequentlybe
can
poles.
X
Electric
154
But
only
have
should
it
suppose
8 volts
but
have
advisable
considered
were
ampereturns
3000
Generators.
this
the
polepieceon
per
commutator
per
that
segment,
and
armature,
then
should
generator
turns
it
that
polepiece
per
600
/a.
3000
A
Amperes
j
conductor
armature
per
40
=
75
QOO
Therefore
number
of
TwoCmcuiT
But
in
the
adjusted by changing
into
divides
of
of
poles,instead
Suppose,
in
for
Then
segment.
into
dividing
it
poles,for
armature,
as
example, that
500kilowatt, 600volt
the
paths through
two
windings,
of
number
the
=20.
WINDINGS.
twocircuit
of
case
poles
the
the
current
independently of
the
number
generator,
and
to
use
have
to
reason
there
as
desired
were
be
cannot
that
paths
many
values
these
poles.
are
twocircuit
volts per
15
winding
commutator
of
Number
segments
per
polepiece
40.
"
i o
T?
m
Full
loadA
Amperes
Therefore,
=
ampereturns
500,000
'
amperes
per
turn
=417.
polepiece on
per
833.
armature
would
have
turns
be
to
40
be
impracticable. To
14
and
reduced,
reduce
consequently the
polepiece. There
per
this to 6000
would
ampereturns,
commutator
then
be
to
this
high
so
reactance
voltage in
not
method,
windings.
are
which, with
be
to
Such
methods
windings
used,
by
or
are
in such
ordinary construction,
the
shortcircuited
permissible.
commutator
by interpolating
wellknown
circuit
segment,
output) as
obtained
they
43
to
volts
14
commutator
pond
the
segments,
16,700
of
417
16,700.
This
per
40
the
Moderate
segments
use
of
in
coil
values
would
corres
(in a
machine
accordance
double, triple,or
only
can
with
other
cases,
used
for
machines
exceptional
care
has
and
of
large output.
to
be taken
to
some
multiple
seldom
be
two
When
counteract
Electric
156
Generators.
machines
out
volts
certain
commutator
100volt
generator,
desired
segment
may
poles, but
with
with
and
polepiece,
volts
of
use
for
commutator
per
strength
by
not, however,
number
instance,
of
follows
It
armature
suitable
strength
armature
an
of
of turns
10kilowatt
2,000
to
chosen,
are
segment.
per
obtained
Suppose,
segments.
constants
values
be
the
by
good
turns
any
properly applied
very
when
more
or
ranges,
of
choice
between
per
one
commutator
per
suitable
have
to
be
can
capacity,that,
small
such
within
that,
and
of
work
they
single windings
twocircuit
But
WINDINGS.
"CoiL"
TWOCIRCUIT
turns
ampere
segment.
Then
100
o
Segments
polepiece
per
20
"
"
10,000
Full
load
'
current
Amperes
per
conductor
Turns
per
polepiece
100
50.
=
_
amperes.
2000
"
40.
"
50
Therefore,
turns
two
"
commutator
per
segment.
20
If
had
ampereturns
3,000
been
should
permissible,we
have
used
built
multi
3,000
27)7)0"
turns
Finally,it
be
may
whenever
of
from
it
output,
the
brushes
brushes
be
may
the
carrying for
becoming
so
the
heated.
of
brushes, and
said
to
be
inverselv
the
as
the
should
be
not
the
used
of
of
trouble
is
the
number
of
for
current
the
total
greater
of
this
set
the
of
sets
in
of
of
brushes
brushes
number
windings
If, however,
sets
property
of
set
two
reasonable
all the
greater
twocircuit
poles.
the
among
current
the
than
within
one
limit
unsatisfactory
more
commutator
occurs,
of
practicability
the
use
magnetic
are
windings lacking
commutation
large part
the
of
cost
subdivision
This
sets
are
windings
requirethe
to
twocircuit
Selective
time
twocircuit
that
large as
keep
to
equal
used.
and
cost,
dependent strictlyupon
said
output is
of
of
armatures
specialcases.
reasons
(inorder
compelling
twocircuit
that
stated
in
the
limits),because
segment.
considerations
from
polar mainly
commutator
per
may
of
be
multiple
circuit
windings
should
tend
the
and
it
although
is
specialcases,
different
in
if the
be
to
segment
be
be
If
the
well
as
as
this
There
in
has
For,
for coils of
commutator
per
inductance
the
In
latter case,
this
commutator
per
the
with
construction
low.
are
high, and
very
open,
core
current.
times
lately been
as
segment
it is
in combination
and
field ; and
perhaps
with
feel
reversing of
that
while
of still
more
the
copper
designers
some
but
inclined
that
to
current,
the
carbon
importance
hold
commutator
in
aids
virtue
segments
of
which
an
to
the
the
other
important part,
building
main
the
in
still
attribute
to
and
density in
the
is attributable
brush
permitted
without
they play
that
brushes,
accelerating the
in
the
commutator
of the
injury
to
brushes
be
may
copper
ot
shortcircuited
copper
increase
to
resistance
subject
with
or
correctly
less
the
so
or
maintain
to
in
with
carbon
high
segment
brushes
amongst
much
the
case
of the
current,
would
one
the
as
even
be
not
are
desirable
and
whether
current
great
tendency
to
to
commutator
found
shortcircuit
the
However,
commutating
may
due
of
be
volts per
average
this, it is
limiting
according
brushes
would
highresistancebrushes,
original current,
inertness
coil.
in
used
conductors
the
will be
are
volts
brushes
the
as
commutating, i.e.,stopping
residual
is
care
value
same
which
is very
variation
because
four
or
of
account
reversed
smooth
Carbon1
extreme
cause,
three
only
segments,
of
voltage
slots
sparklesscommutation,
limiting
propertiesto
not
in
the
varies
the
average
average
also
used.
are
consequently,the
on
if
inductance
inductance
the
inductance
the
for
value
still have
be
the
have
the
in
and
possible value
through
to
surface,
value.
surface,
the
brush
coil,
of
armature
an
limit
to
lower,
brushes
and
the
commutator
used.
The
set
the
low
very
higher
copper
INDUCTANCE.
TO
criterion
is for
necessary
a
on
much
could
RELATED
AS
expression may
design
somewhat
winding
a
this
equilibrium, this
restore
voltage between
to
upon
true
beneath
in holes
would
will
not
types,
Thus,
it
SEGMENT
average
relied
to
increased
the
current,
inductances.
different
located
be
can
tends
the
polepiece
one
any
157
advantage.
great
As
of
Inductance
to
winding opposite
drop
COMMUTATOR
PER
Related
as
its share
CR
property constitutinga
VOLTAGE
the
than
more
reaction
armature
of
part
take
to
Segment,
Commutator
Voltage per
up
element
influence
of
the
in
the
of the
promptly arresting
its
possessing
renders
the
the
certain
sparking
Electric
158
air
with
coiTespond
to
gap
Generators.
this
between
inductance
higher
commutator
segments.
We
have
machine
commutating
armature
for
necessary
commutator
coil
the
ultimate
field, so
that
circuit around
which
The
and
dissipationof
from
less destructive
the
The
the
Also
"Sparking
"
Sur
in
des
Electr., May,
Dick
die
Ueber
Arnold;
rhohung
Kapp
vol. xx.,
page
Arnold
Stromes
eines
in
the
the
magnetic
one
wattless
due
coil, and
to
firstly
secondly
and
conductors,
copper
the
is determined
current,
to
in the
der
"
Ueber
die
Kollektors."
"Die
Funkengrenze
contributions
Am.
Inst.
Elec.
Electrician,February
les
page
has
the
property
the
to
discussion
of
Engrs.;
December
15th,
Dynamos
18th, 1898.
Courant
Continue.'"'
Bull,
de
bei
Gleich
la
183.
Kollektor
an
von
bei
It
1898.
Funkenbildung
Elek.
There
currents.
segments.
copper
recent
Funkenbildung
Kontactwiderstand
"Die
the
in
eines
and
of
load
the
refractory surface.
most
The
xv.,
increasingwith
Commutators."
llth,
Zeit., December
and
the
dans
1898, vol.
loss
commutation
Effects;"
Dynamos."
Ursachen
Elek.
FischerHitmen
22nd
components
energy
the
lustrous
and
Cause
Commutation
la
Girault
Int.
December
an
dynamos
Electrician, February
stromdynamos."
ture
it
and
Armatures
Its
Thomas;
"
speed.
brushes
copper
giving
commutating
Drum
"
The
commutator
is
the
to
between
in
"Sparking;
Reid;
reversal
loss
there
Weymouth
Soc.
than
due
commutator,
subject of sparking
1897.
that
this
machines
commutating
burnishing
of
from
of metal.
It follows
much
C2
by
energy
calculated
frequency of
other
inductance
feeblymagnetised
reluctance
of two
generated internallyin
currents
surrounding mass
of
the
coil is in
the
the
consists
current
magnetising component,
eddy
and
brush
of the
com
bars.
approximately
The
coils act.
the
commutated
be
the
regards
as
commutator
coils, and
the
the
of
thickness
the
of
force
when
can
in terms
pair of
occurs
inductance
the
magnetomotive
the
between
coils included
or
be
expression must
pole
per
between
voltage
expression
for
permissible
segments
average
ultimate
the
not
general,commutation
In
from
is
maximum
the
commutator
the
commutation,
good
The
of
preliminary design
from
at
number
the
segments
mutation.
of
may
and
reaction
arrived
be
the
although
that
shown
now
850
Biirsten
Gleichstrommaschinen."
an
and
Kohlen
Zeit., January
und
802.
Elek.
Zeit.,
867.
und
vol. xx.,
5th, 1899,
Gleichstrommaschinen."
und
Kupferbiirsten
Elek.
die
Tempera
5.
page
32.
and
Mie
"
Ueber
Gleichstromankers.
den
Elek.
Kurzschluss
der
Zeit., February
Spulen
und
2nd, 1899.
die
Kom
vol. xx.,
mutation
page
97.
des
Inductance
are
also
the
distortion
load
other
and
hysteresisand
the
also
been
the
armatures
of
losses
The
in
effect
cycles per
700
reference
of
therefore, best
are,
good
out
according
direct
As
one
of
shall
of
to
value
the
experiments
of
this
1
2
See
as
Fig. 114,
Rotary
in
on
lines
practicableinductance,
suitable
value
for
is, in
relation
to
of
the
that
the
while
inductance
the
coil
of the
entirely other
which
which
down
and
to,
or
than
both
out
of
afford
of
the
of
related
to
the
length
of
slot
indication
an
in
such
that
concerned.
commutating
winding
armature
but
to
the
this statement.
types, and
between
to
such
designer is
commutation
coils in series
those
these
particularline
the
on
below,
use
desirable
very
these
undergoing
of
even
inch
per
tests
inductance
of
have
study
inductance
to
corrected
satisfactory
most
of
work
to
be
alternatingcurrentdynamos,2
elements
field of
proportions to give
contain
practice,a
give
upon
the
individual
the
the
to
inductance
In
results
the
value,
which
is
inductance
to
impracticableto
carried
case
page
reasons
it is
independently
with
proper
reference
as
By
turn
course,
that
the
the
is, of
It
is
inductance
minimum
the
to
by
figuresshould
This
ampere
general of
on
will
constant.
where
cases
with
basis
desirable
the
per
used.
the
appear
as
the
most
attaches, not
converters
it will
of
load.
core.
described,
bring
to
be
be
the
give the
should
interest
whole,
treatment
value
In
connection,
dynamos,
as
the
be
as
in
generally from
measurements.
selected.
tests
commutating dynamo
In
this
is
turn
It
commutation
Constants
of armature
the
is in
on
considered
ampere
losses
with
calculations
reason,
core.
one
assume
C.G.S.
proportions as
currents
the
load, as
these
extent
commutation
actual
by
will
order
20
of
full
alternators,due
greater
by
that
themselves
increase
in
about
so
to
exist, and
eddy
armature
dimensions
in
does
losses
be
iron,
load
no
not
lamination.
armature
to
length
determine
slot
value
the
upon
may
armature
the
of
do
this
For
the
designers that
to
frequency
have
to
several
bearing
results
the
inch
the
to
and
method,
the
determined
lines per
design.
of
in these
brought
conductors
increase
induced
the
of
is convenient
It
part
average
C.G.S.
the
restricted
second.
particularconstruction
20
be
commutation
to
armature
The
may
appreciable,since
to
on
from
the
increase
the
200
in
is incorrect.
as
machines,
increase
commutating dynamos
nature
designing.
commutating
losses
current
generallyassumed
same
often
in
159
increasingmagnetisation in
current
This, however,
the
the
eddy
eddy
has
losses
Constants.
in
should
collector
commutation.
their
have
rings
subsequent
the
must
least
have
Electric
160
of
inductance
The
inductance
of this
measurement
space
the
tests
to
now
described.
be
DEFINITION
PRACTICAL
coil has
of
medium
sets
coil is
the
equal
to
the
with
T
coil has
turns, then
great (except in
turns
of
in the
dynamo
winding.
product
of flux
that
but
10~8 times
is
one
the
of
in),but
and
turns, i.e.,the
the
this
turn, then
its
force
lines
If
it.
T
total
of
of
the
times
is linked
flux
square
product
in
passing through
sets
of
turns
number
the
in
current
that
magnetomotive
coil, is proportional to
the
as
with
linkage,the
the
number
of
coil.
Experiment.
"
with
The
In
Fig.
calculation, are
set
forth
TABLE
in
position
of
is shown
148
projection type
inductance
TESTS
EXPERIMENTAL
OF
of
of
sketch
coils
commutating
four circuit
was
the
measured
the
single
with
steps
XXXVII.
"
between
INDUCTANCE.
MINIMUM
inductance
are
pole
in the
corners.
commutating
zone,
of the
followingTables.
in the
minimum
INDUCTANCE.
with
of
groups
OF
armature
of several
2 5 cyclealternatingcurrent, and
Conductors
coil has
the
situated
number
the
coil, by
is the
only
is
magnitude
ampere
saturation
as
DESCRIPTION
First
one
not
far
so
the
hence
inductance
turns
when
turn
such
henrys, becomes
in
it
dimensioned,
so
the
If
100,000,000.
inductance, expressed
linked
with
linked
lines
of
of
when
henry
is
flux
magnetic
up
INDUCTANCE.
OF
one
permeability,and
number
the
of
of
inductance
an
such
ampere
one
object of
the
was
the
inductance.
minimum
position of
the
poletips,practicallyat
between
in
located
be
of commutation,
time
the
coils will,at
such
this
of
welldesigneddynamos
In
brushes.
the
at
simultaneously
which
winding
the
of
components
commutation
undergo
type
those
Generators.
i.e.,midway
Experimental
depth
of about
this machine
of
air gap
The
inductance
maximum
inductance,
values
the
in.,and
.1
again
was
measured.
unaffected
are
of
Inductance.
afterwards
was
about
in. to
.188
Tests
by
the
1(51
from
shortened
in the
inductance
the
In
of
the
original
positionof
position of
the
depth
its
minimum
air gap.
Rg.148.
Gap
"
'/#75
slOCS
Conductors
Turns
ft?
per
coil
per.
slot
lengthof Armature
Ho
of slots
110
No of Poles
Ho
of
Conductors
slot
per
commutator
Polea.
No.of
No
of Slot*
Conductors
slot
Turn* per
No
6f
Turns
3
per
No of
of commutator
per slot
12
"
Commutator
Length
slot
segments
of krmaburt,
159
tT'
Eg.160.
(SOSIK]
N9
of
Gross
Second
has
fourcircuit
arranged
on
the
forth
Experiment.
in 75
in Table
XL.
166
ofATrnntare^
==
commutating
lamirvcutions
dynamo,
singlewinding consisting of
slots.
inductance
"
Slot*
length/
of
Tests
from
with
one
to
75
1125.
illustrated
coils of
three
adjacent coils,and
the
in
Fig. 149,
each,
turns
were
results
made
are
set
Electric
162
XXXVIII.
TABLE
in
Conductors
Hence
by about
position of
shortening
27
per
the
air
has
MAXIMUM
increased
the
INDUCTANCE.
the
under
are
inductance
in
the
middle
of the
pole
position of maximum
faces.
inductance
cent.
TABLE
XL.
"
Position
the
"
inductance
maximum
gap
Generators.
Attention
should
inductance
in the
POSITION
OF
of Maximum
MINIMUM
INDUCTANCE.
Inductance.
again be drawn
to the fact that it is the
minimum
position of commutation,
which
is of chief interest
inductance,
in the
present
which
section.
corresponds
to
Electric
164
"
coils, of
four
Only
slots.
armature
its
equivalentto
current
three
The
armature
being in
suppliedat
was
lamination
of armature
followingTables
frequency of
8.5
XLTI.
of the
four
results
""
,,
"
,,
of
The
are
indicated
in
inductance.
second.
obtained
are
Fig. 151.
four
set
adjacent
which
was
The
testing
Gross
length
forth
in the
POSITION
for three
OF
MINIMUM
INDUCTANCE.
37.5
turns
26.4
six
"
caststeel
second.
"
observations
""
,,
the
,,
frame.
given
19.1
twelve,,
dynamo
gross
21.3
nine
"
in the
horsepower
30
position in
cyclesper
results
The
Fifth Experiment.
dimensions
in.
minimum
100
of
of
out
was
are
in
were
positionof
the
TABLE
Mean
each,
turns
carcass
of which
leadingdimensions
the
railway armature,
the
relates to
This
Experiment.
Fourth
Generators.
Fig.
gives
experimented
Testing current
length
in Table
152
of
XLIII.
the
sketch
The
upon.
had
armature
armature
periodicityof
lamination
leading
the
showing
was
in
place
100
cyclesper
8.7
in.
The
Experimental
TABLE
Sixth
XLIII.
Experiment.
inductance
of
of
armature
an
POSITION
"
This
"
of Inductance.
MINIMUM
OP
experiment
165
INDUCTANCE.
in
made
was
horsepower tramway
25
followingdata appliesto
The
Tests
this
armature
respect
motor.
:"
of armature
Diameter
16
...
...
...
...
105
...
...
...
...
...
...
coils
"
per
The
of 100
four
which
with
was
air
laminated
...
iron
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
tests
...
...
..
Sin.
laminations
...
were
made
...
...
...
with
of
current
periodicity
second.
measurements
series, and
considered
gaps
...
12
of armature
inductance
in
...
slot
per
cyclesper
coils
...
...
4
...
length
Inductance
...
...
coil
Conductors
Gross
105
...
Turns
in.
...
...
of slots
Number
the
to
of
of
to
various
the
made
were
under
the
correspond
of
condition
with
the
shown
in
radius
three, and
inductance,
in
air, and
then
special polepiece of
Fig. 153,
between
two,
minimum
armature
lengths arranged by
dimensions
one,
upon
which
it and
as
the
the
shows
the
armature.
armature,
on
Electric.
16G
insertingthe
inner
the
edge
of
calculations
leatheroids
the
and
Generators.
polepiecethan
curves
at
mean
the
is
gap
C.G.S. LINES
PER
.OFARMATURE
which
obtained
was
gap
outer
that
the
in
given.
AMPERE
FOR
larger at
was
TURNS
VARIOUS
INCH
PER
TURNS
IN
LENGTH
SERIES
,
TURNS
PER
COIL.
GROSS
LENGTH
OF
ARM.
'
LAM'.'.S
16
In
Figs. 154
Tables
and
XLIV.
155,
are
to
given
XLVII.
the
results
inclusive, and
of these
tests.
in
the
curves
of
Experimental
TABLE
XLIV.
TABLE
XLV.
"
"
ONE
Two
COIL
COILS
OF
OF
FOUR
FOUR
Tests
TURNS
TURNS
of
PER
PER
Inductance.
COIL.
COIL.
167
RESISTANCE
RESISTANCE
0.014
OHMS.
0.033
OHMS.
Electric
168
TABLE
XLVI.
TABLE
XLVII.
THREE
"
"
The
FOUR
curves
Generators.
COILS
OF
FOUR
TURNS
PER
COIL.
RESISTANCE
COILS
OF
FOUR
TURNS
PER
COIL.
RESISTANCE
in
Figs.
154
and
155
are
plotted
from
the
above
results.
.0473
.0637
OHMS.
OHMS.
Data
Experimental
No
results
inaccuracy
magnetic
was
the
in
by
as
of many
of
length of
with
slots and
many
but
of
few
slot,the
lines per
is but
of
of slots
number
each
very
conductors
principaldimensions
great
uniform
horsepower railway
20
interestingto
C.Gr.S.
lamination,
armature
The
Fig.
number
the
making
it is
in
turns
of
since
gap,
replaced.
especiallysmall
an
1G9
air
zero
polepiece not
armature
inductance, and
to
Inductance.
position of
the
was
The
Experiment.
concentration
terms
it
"
measured
the
by
time
each
contact
characterised
motor
for
introduced
was
Seventh
given
are
of
the
per
inductance
turn
ampere
little
note
greater
than
(twentynine)
that
despite
expressed
as
and
per
in
inch
machines
slot.
armature
are
given below,
and
in
156.
Diameter
11
of armature
Number
in.
29
of slots
...
87
coils
,,
Turns
...
per
Conductors
Gross
Length
The
per
length
out
36
slot
for
9 in.
laminations
of armature
of air gap
values
the armature
coil
wV
average
the
positionof
of its frame
minimum
i.e. in air.
,
inductance
were
in.
taken
with
Electric
170
Generators.
VIEW
SECTIONAL
OF
RAILWAY
MOTO
(50S7.E)
(5087.F)
ARRANGEMENT
OF
COILS
IN
SERIES
IN
SLOTS
no
u"
,;
70
IB
(soar
o)
TURNS
Electric
172
XLVIIT.
TABLE
Coils
Four
10.17
15
11.5
.767
17
13.08
.769
and
1, Coil A
Slot
B.
2, Coils
6.02
.752
6.97
.732
.743
10.5
7.62
.746
.74
Slot
1, Coils
and
6.27
.627
7.30
.608
Slot
.525
13
6.65
.512
15
7.47
.498
of
Slot
15
2.16
.144
13
1.89
.145
10
1.42
.142
Coils
5.6
.56
4.94
.55
4.4
.55
Slot
1,
.098
ohms.
.001223
96
3, Coil
Slot
Resistance
B.
Slot
3, Coil
23.6
.0984
ohms.
1,
Position
B.
of
Maximum
Position
C.
and
1, Coil
11
4.81
.437
12
5.32
.443
ohms.
15.9
ohms.
.000224
ohms.
.0469
.000877
100
Resistance
69.2
Inductance.
Maximum
.551
2, Coil B.
Slot
B.
of
Resistance
.0984
Inductance.
.0232
.000824
101
Coil.
per
Coils
Resistance
B.
97
Resistance
19.7
.001020
4, Coil
Slot
B.
.501
6 Turns.
Coil
97
.620
.553
4.35
.0479
67.7
ohms.
.435
Coils
of
Slot
.438
6 Turns
1, Coils
15
19.2
14
18
1.28
13
16.6
1.28
Slot
B.
24.6
.001272
Resistance
B.
and
.144
10
Three
2, Coil
6 Turns
of
Slot
10
96
.736
.511
Coil
One
Two
.626
2, Coil B.
5.25
10
Slot
B.
10
1, Coil B.
ohms.
.0976
.642
5.45
12
Slot
Resistance
.765
.772
9.5
8.5
Inductance.
.782
13
Slot
Minimum
of
2, Coil B.
Slot
C.
Continued.
"
Position
Coil.
per
A, B, and
1, Coils
Slot
6 Turns
of
Generators.
per
.436
Coil.
A, B, and
C.
.000687
101
of
Position
Resistance
Maximum
=
53.0
Inductance.
.0735
ohms.
1.28
1, Coils
9.6
1.07
10
10.7
1.07
11
11.85
1.08
1.28
and
B.
Slot
1.07
1.28
2, Coil
B.
1.07
102
Resistance
101
68.9
.0020
.0748
.00169
ohms.
58.3
Experimental
TABLE
Slot
1, Coil
B.
Slot
9.2
11
10
.834
13
10.85
.835
Coils
Four
13
25.3
1.95
27.3
1.95
1, Coils
13
24
1.85
15
27.6
1.84
1, Coils
and
1.59
15
23.6
1.57
17
26.5
1.56
1, Coil B.
Slot
in
the
shown
results
and
Maximum
Position
coils
B.
B.
Resistance
from
A
and
101
3, Coil
Slot
B.
and
course,
the
the
the
Fig.
shown
in
48.7
.0986
159
of
an
commutating
connected
were
cycles
30
the
inductance,
positionof
ohms.
of
armature
an
periodicityof
maximum
observations
ohms.
position
inductance.
maximum
:
were
"
20.
C.G.S.
per
lines per
inch
ampere
turn
length
gross
of
lamination.
inductance
in
turns
.101
of slots,however,
standpoint
inductance
minimum
to
number
at
57.6
Resistance
B.
of
ohms.
.00247
related
.0992
Resistance
4, Coil
the
59.2
.00292
101
measured
was
armature
as
ohms.
.0030
considerable
The
from
and
measurements
minimum
deduced
of
1.57
These
"
maximum
then,
46.8
.0984
and
and
ohms.
Inductance.
103
Slot
3, Coil
Slot
being,of
159
values
Then
.0739
.00136
Resistance
B.
1.85
2, Coil B.
inductance
the
Fig.
2, Colls
instructive
position of
The
of
1.94
dynamo.
First, the
in
2, Coil
1.57
2, Coil B.
alternatingcurrent
in series,
97
Position
Slot
Slot
Slot
Eighth Experiment.
machines.
C.
B.
B.
20.7
the
Coil.
per
1.85
13
make
Resistance
B.
.830
1.94
and
1.87
Slot
3, Coil
Slot
1.94
22.4
Slot
B.
173
Continued,
"
.835
A, B, and
1, Coils
23.3
Slot
2, Coil
6 Turns
of
12
12
XLVIII.
of Inductance.
.837
12
Slot
Tests
four
adjacent
Fig. 160,
inductance
slots
was
were
in
connected
measured
in
the
series,
positions
Electric
174
of
minimum
obtained
and
maximum
Generators.
The
inductance.
results
following
were
:
minimum
of
Position
C.G.S.
13.
inductance
and
per
gross
turn
ampere
length
of
10
inductance
"*
net,
per
inch
lamination.
armature
maximum
lines
"
11
11
11
cores
parallel'
to shaft
IX,'.'
JDepth,
of
CciL
CdL
AA
BB
?
=
txtrne
in/
tarrte
vuSert"s
Gross
depth/
depth'
'31'
Series
W"
12
Net/
Gap
12"
~LcaninMULone
"
66"
"
Fy.160.
practicableto
flux
the
regarding
data
The
the
per
for
conditions
which
more
should
of
which
be
projectionarmatures,
conductors
and
per
of
inch
positionof
to
obtain
to
as
experimental data
gross
minimum
any
is
as
it is
small
length
of
inductance.
particular case
available,this
more
employed.
in the
are
the
in
approximately
definite
they
turn
coils in
conform
course
that
slots and
ampere
the
experimental data
types with
indicates
tests
lines
lamination
armature
When
these
proportionthe
so
C.G.S.
20
as
exact
of
study
possession of
accustomed
to
other
deal,
may
designers relatingto
lead
them
to
the
Calculation
use
of
numerical
preceding tests
data
lies
the
absolute
all
but
results.
The
between
the
to
upon
cases
OF
that
the
chief value
various
machines,
the
for
applying
the
according
indicated
constant
suitable
most
design,
when
CALCULATION
THE
determination
and
of
extent
some
those
value
to the
by
of such
than
take
degree
of
in
hold
must
to
the
for
the
divergence
types.
ILLUSTRATIONS
the
method
will vary
obtained
175
than
admitted
once
results
Voltage.
other
constant
be at
relative
constant
The
it will
in the
more
equallyfor
for this
values
;
of Reactance
of
the
inductance
method
the
in the
OP
will
be
having
VOLTAGE.
important
so
explained by working
followingsections
HnATURE
onductors
The,
posit
REACTANCE
THE
sho"w.
out
bearing
several
several
CONDUCTORS
fnarjft/otS.are/
short
circuited
the
tyb
at
Fig.161
of
described,
the
value
performance of
the
machine
are
relate to
drum
Case
output
I.
at
240
In
"
per
All
and
the
general
following cases
speed
of 750
revolutions
commutator
has
in
diameter
120
of
kilowatts
the
minute,
per
slot.
The
for 200
dynamo
arranged
singlewinding,
brushes
is the
are
there
in.
.75
is
maximum
armature
slots,with
four
in., and
has
20
thick.
complete
one
number
The
segments
turn
undergoing
segment,
per
circuit
short
.26
are
three
at
one
in. wide;
complete
brush
at
instant.
Considering a
commutating
one
considered.
fourcircuit
consequently as
any
be
the
to
segments.
The
turns
will
related
as
fourpole continuouscurrent
volts
550
is built with
conductors
windings
inductance
the
and
zone
onehalf
group
between
slots will
of
adjoiningconductors
two
be
pole tips,six
in the
of these
shortcircuited, three
slots
occupying the
conductors, occupying
at
one
set
of brushes
Electric
176
and
three
another,
at
this machine
of
fullload current
in
diagrammatically
shown
as
Generators.
is
364
Fig.
the
amperes,
Now
the
current
per
101.
550
OCA
circuit
being
be
must
91
reduced
to
in
the
amperes
This
circuit.
under
91
be
must
by
the
brush,
the
times
is at
change
there
direction
other
of
current
in
amperes
built
up
time
it
join
to
coil is short
one
any
in
direction
one
it
from
emerges
the
of
current
side
other
occurring simultaneously in
the
of
the
of
group
adjacent conductors.
six
coil has
sets
up
of lines linked
with
100,000,000.
If
passing through
but
the
In
it.
the
under
of
going
the
be
the
commutation
great
as
the
at
the
the
hence
its
this
the
It
will
in
number
equal
one
in
different
at
hence
the
voltage
be
one
turn
to the
points
other
not
it is
simultaneouslyunder
five
had
turn,
one
current, but
own
is
ampere
coil is of
the
to
becomes
case
coil
the
ampere
the
voltage induced
the
of brushes, and
In
one
coil is
when
turn
of
of
medium
its inductance
adjacent turns
if
as
voltage
the
in the
varying flux,
moment.
great, since it is
turns
change
sets
this
of
consideration,
brushes.
same
times
six
in
different
determining
in
of
rate
product
by
it,and
with
currents
at
of
concerned
will
the
commutation
surface
the
of
change
case
the
turn, then
one
linked
proportionalnot only to
rate
but
in
of
current
that
number
the
by
of lines
linked
that
magnitude
coil has
the
varying flux
dimensioned
such
it is situated
when
henry
one
so
coil
the
number
the
10~8 times
is
of
flux
magnetic
of
inductance
an
permeability,and
of such
as
the
and
zero,
circuit
short
position of
Consequently, while
amperes.
brush,
the
under
circuited
91
=

alone
the
been
it
are
induced
undergoing
of
square
that
turns
of
is
six times
required
to
determine.
Had
six
the
of six times
great
as
Gross
length
Flux
set
lamination
Hence
of lamination
in
up
20
commutation
10
200
inductance
of
.0000020
Circumference
of
to
the
would
voltage
coil
one
have
been
undergoing
the
square
coil.
in.
in
ampere
that
and
turn
per
inch
of
length
of armature
lines.
flux of selfinductance
=
belonged
oneturn
turn, per
one
C.G.S.
Selfinductance
Mutual
for
as
series
induced
the
then
commutation,
in
turns
one
commutator
10
10~8
with
turn
=
20
20
lines.
200
Henrys.
relation
.000012
=
.0000020
to
the
six
Henrys.
x
TT
62.8
in.
turns
simultaneously undergoing
Calculation
Revolutions
second
per
of
Peripheral speed
carbon
GO
f
commutator
of radial
Thickness
750
brush
of
tion
is
completely
reversed
==
.75
in
177
12.5
785
in. per
second.
in.
^"
the
halfcycle. Consequently,
Voltage.
12.5
62.8
Current
Reactance
of
.00095
reversal
seconds, which
at
occurs
an
is the
time
2
=
530
are
for want
tion of
Reactance
Reactance
is the
the
530
91
of the
reactance
case
unwarranted
very
"
turn, and
shall,
assump
IT
voltage
the
in this
"
of variation
rate
wave
This
to obtain
better, make
sine
prepared
now
of
.00095
second.
cycles per
We
comple
of
rate
average
of
.000012
.040
voltage estimated
be
to
.040
3.6
ohms.
volts.
in
induced
the
during1
turn
the
process
of
the
induced
an
voltage
the
are
surface
of
concerned
most
brushes,
other
is also
there
in the
of commuta
process
at
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
has
per
and
500
commutator
segment.
The
output
volts.
has
in.
in
slots,
126
segments.
252
of the
diameter
is .24
segment
rated
winding, arranged
The
of
width
the
has
dynamo
minute
sixcircuit
amperes
9.2 volts
segment
slot.
per
in series
turns
in. and
turns
ampere
...
91
per
henrys
...
5500
...
...
...
revolutions
600
volts
...
.000012
segment
polepiece
per
commutator
conductors
two
3.6
...
sixpolecontinuouscurrent
armature
eight
coil
...
"
kilowatts
is 20
under
circuit
armature
per
II.
The
tor
of
set
same
independently
brushes, and
...
turns
are
of
sets
the
shortcircuited
commutator
per
ampere
Current
There
of
factors
voltage of
Armature
with
other
five turns
other
following:
Inductance
of 200
of the
volts.
3.5
design,the
Reactance
Case
each
under
bearing
In this
tion
In
commutation
undergoing
parts
of commutation.
commuta
thickness
The
of
the
radial
number
of
three.
is .63
brushes
shortcircuited
at
any
in., consequently
time
at
conductors
3x2x2=12
between
zone
slots,are
one
coils
Hence
neutral
at
bearing carbon
two
of
brushes
and
Gross
the
other
length
six at
of lamination
of
occupying
that
the
"
next
one
is
brushes
in
grouped together
simultaneouslyundergoing commutation,
set
set
one
maximum
the
the
onehalf
and
9 in.
Electric
178
Flux
9
in.
set
of
length
Mutual
in
up
lamination
armature
of
inductance
by
turns
12
Generators.
coil
one
12
20
2160
lines.
six coils
the
to
10~8
with
C.G.S.
2160
and
turns,
relation
with
(two turns)
commutation
simultaneously undergoing
those
in
ampere
.0000432
henry s.
Circumference
of commutator
Revolutions
second
per
Peripheral speed
Thickness
in
628
.63
second.
in. per
in.

seconds.
.0010
=

reversed
completely
10
brush
carbon
f*
Current
10.
62.8
bearing
in.
60
4
commutator
of radial
62.8
600
62o
Average
of
rate
Reactance
reversal
Amperes
Reactance
(This, of
voltage
is
voltage
Inductance
per
kilowatts
at
has
commutator
is 52
The
maximum
per
per
is three.
commutating
17.6
in.
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
has
revolutions
four
the
per
conductors
width
radial
of
six
bearing
conductors,
slot, in
per
is .45
carbon
at
time
concerned
300
10circuit,
slots.
The
of
in.
at
grouped together at
volts
Diameter
is 1 in., and
brushes
any
180
turn.
per
segment
It has
minute.
segment
one
amperes
output of
rated
turns
ampere
..
12
segment
segments,
one
the
set
of
brushes
neutral
simultaneously
the
zone
in
the
process.
Gross
Flux
...
...
henrys
...
5600
of coils shortcircuited
two
any
...
10polelightninggenerator
of the
Hence
between
9. 1 volts
...
...
...
67
100
respects.)
in other
constants
be
only
.000043
...
polepiece
commutator
in.,and
number
would
circuit
360
thickness
volts.
...
singlewinding,arranged,
commutator
amperes.
coil
segment
volts and
125
9.1
"
...
"
bo. 7
=

especially
good
of shortcircuited
armature
Average voltage
III.
with
turns
ampere
Current
.136
ohms.
commutator
per
Armature
66.7
an
connection
Reactance
circuit
.136
200,000
.,
"
course,
permissiblein
Case
armature
per
.0000432
second.
cycles per
"
500
TT
500
set up
length of
in six
length
turns
armature
by
of lamination
one
lamination
in
ampere
=
17.6
20
in.
each
17.6
of them,
2,110
and
C.G.S.
with
lines.
inductance
was
coils
to
Generators.
Electric
180
by
the
is,
no
of
of
of
volts
load
full
this
magnetisation corresponding to
sparkless commutation
to
of the
particularsgiven
coil
full
at
load
is
load
machine,
suit
volts
and
that
the
of
to
The
voltage is
be
that
of
the
that
increase
condition
noted
force
magnetising
approximately equal
and, thirdly,
600.
will
it
armature
railway practice:
of
increase
field
magnetic
to
the
projections,which
armature
machines
the
and
550
the
of the
distortion
overcompounding
favourable
no
down
keeps
extent
some
in
of
from
the
of the
series
shunt
coil
at
load.
Drawings
and
in
this
machine.
given, Figs.
are
and
Figs. 167
The
and
machine
168
SPECIFICATION
and
poles
600VoLT
1,500KiLowATT,
75
of
saturation
the
construction,
compounding
forth
the
for
curves
of
constants
calculations.
the
12PoLE,
OP
Number
showing
166,
sets
following specification
steps in
the
given
are
to
162
REVOLUTIONS
PER
GENERATOR,
FOR
SPEED
OF
MINUTE.
12
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Kilowatts
1500
........................
Revolutions
minute
per
in
Frequency
Terminal
75
...
cycles per
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
second
7.5
...
...
...
...
load
volts, no
...
..
550
full load
GOO
......
...
full load
Amperes,
2500
...
...
...
...
...
...
DIMENSIONS.
Armature
Diameter
all
over
126
...
Length
...
...
Diameter
...
...
...
at
bottom
...
...
...
...
in.
...
conductors
over
48^
...
of slots
,,
12 If
,
"
Internal
diameter
of
103^
core
,
"
of
Length
Pitch
core
all
over
...
...
Effective
length, magnetic
at
...
...
...
33f
...
...
...
...
...
33
...
between
...
...
...
sheets
10
...
Thickness
...
...
...
...
...
of sheets
of slot
Width
of slot at
in.
cent.
per
.014
...
Depth
...
...
...
...
in.
...
2i
.....................
"
root
ii
16
surface
"
"
Number
of slots
Minimum
width
...
......
...
of tooth
...
...
at
...
...
.412
...
...
...
...
face
armature
.763
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
conductor
,,
Depth
7_
...
of
}j
345
...
of tooth
...
Width
"
"
...
...
"
26.8
...
surface
...
Insulation
...
iron
..
...
in.
the
Hundred
Fifteen
Kilowatt
Railway
Generator.
181
Electric
182
Number
Width
Core
Magnet
of
length
of
pole
face
Length
of
pole
arc
of
Thickness
in.
length
length
Width
of magnet
of
Thickness
.795
...
...
...
...
...
of
...
in.
33^
...
24^
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
,,
.73
...
...
...
magnet
core...
...
...
...
...
1T9^ in.
...
"
14
...
magnet
of
...
18
core
core
of bore
Diameter
...
polepiece at edge
Radial
Spool
...
......
total
...
pitch
=
arc
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
"
30
core
..
,,
of field
of air gap
Depth
...
...
Length
Pole
f
core
...
...
ventilatingduct
of each
Effective
ventilatingducts
of
Generators.
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
126
"
yV
"
Length
flanges
over
of
"
winding
Depth
...
space
"
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
17 in.
...
16^
...
,,
3
"
"
Yoke:
diameter
Outside
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
190
Inside
180
in.
168
,,
...
body
Thickness,
Length along
Commutator
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
6^
,,
36
armature
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
,,
86
Diameter
...
of
Number
at
segment
...
...
per
,,
of
...
...
...
,,
...
slot
2
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
.342
face
commutator
in.
.313
root
"
696
segments
,,
Width
"
"
of
Depth
segment
...
of mica
Thickness
Available
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
,,
.05
insulation
length
of surface
of commutator
Crosssection
Brushes
in. and
of
segment
...
...
...
...
,,
1 9
...
1 30
leads
...
...
...
...
"
inches
squaie
Number
of sets
Number
in
12
...
one
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
set
...
Width
2.5
Thickness...
.75
...
of contact
Area
of
...
one
...
...
...
...
...
brush
1.875
...
...
...
...
...
of brush
Type
Radial
...
...
...
...
...
...
carbon
...
MATERIALS.
Armature
Sheet
core
...
"
...
...
...
...
...
Cast
Conductors
...
...
...
...
...
...
iron
...
spider
...
iron
Copper
in.
FifteenHundred
Kilowatt
Railway
Generator.
183
Generators.
Electric
184
Commutator
segments
Copper
...
...
...
...
...
...
German
leads
silver
...
...
...
...
...
...
,,
Spicier
Pole
...
...
iron
Cast
steel
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
piece
Cast
...
Yoke
Magnet
core
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
DATA.
TECHNICAL
Armature,
load
no
550
voltage
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Style
ring
Gramme
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
of
construction
...
Single
...
Drum
drum
or
...
...
...
...
...
...
winding
of
...
...
12
of circuits
Number
...
slot
per
...
1 392
conductors
of face
Number
Conductors
Type
,,
Carbon
Brushes
...
...
end
E volute
winding
...
...
...
...
...
connections
length
Mean
Total
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
58
brushes..
between
in series
...
inch
...
...
...
10,200 in.
.161
deg.
brushes
at
...
...
...
20
at
between
Resistance
...
conductor
armature
one
cubic
per
...
...
...
...
Crosssection,
Ohms
...
brushes
between
Length
in.
696
turns
armature
Turns
1 76
turn
armature
one
...
00000068
cent
20
Cent.
deg.
...
...
,,
...
.050
60
"
"
in armature
drop
Volts
brush
60
at
deg.
10.3
Cent.
...
...
...
2.5
contact
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
,,
,,
voltage, full
Terminal
Amperes
600
load
inch
square
per
...
...
1290
winding
in armature
...
...
3200
connections
...
,,
,,
...
...
620
...
...
commutator
Commutation
...
...
...
load...
voltage, full
internal
Total
1.9
winding
series
...
Average
voltage
Armature
turns
Amperes
...
pole
per
of
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
ampere
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
12,100
6^
10.8
turns
21.6
turns
ampere
distortingampere
78.4
turns
...
pole
per
...
...
...
2610
...
...
...
...
9490
Distorting
(cyclesper
of commutation
of coils
simultaneously
...
...
,,
"
Frequency
per
...
brushes
demagnetizing
Demagnetizing
Number
...
of brushes
lead
,,
Turns
...
...
...
,,
...
208
turns
ampere
Percentage
Number
pole...
per
10.3
segments
58
...
lead
Segments
commutator
turn
per
Armature
between
227
second)
shortcircuited
of
per
brush
...
conductors
commutation
...
...
coil
...
...
per
...
group
ohms.
.043
...
...
...
...
simultaneously undergoing
4
FifteenHundred
Kilowatt
Railway
Generator.
185
Electric
186
Flux
linked
Flux
with
Inductance
1
in
2700
turn
ampere
per
four
length
36.7
of
voltage
full load
for
rated
henrys
the
...
magnetic leakage
brushes
set
are
output
at
temporarily exceed
may
DATA.
1.15
...
...
...
...
polepiece at
per
...
no
load
and
inter,
armature
polepiece at
full
load
and
per
volts
35.6
Section
241
...
...
...
Length (magnetic)
Density
at
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
66
...
...
...
...
...
74
"
...
turns
Ampere
turns,
per
kilols,
...
full load
Ampere
inches
square
1 9 in.
load
no
at
inch
...
length
...
...
...
...
"
load
no
15
...
...
...
...
full load
"
18
"
load
no
290
...
...
...
...
...
...
full load
340
"
Teeth
the
31.6
Megalines entering
620
lead
constant
volts
550
volts.
cent.
per
armature
...
8.0
the
ohms
.0385
...
...
208
machines,
Megalines entering
Armature
coil, in
one
MAGNETIC
of
(assumed).
2700
turn
.0385
output by
Coefficient
.000027
operating these
6segments
20
...
In
20
...
constituting
shortcircuited
Reactance
lamination
armature
10'
Reactance
turns
turn
one
inch
per
Generators.
Transmitting
Section
at
flux
from
polepiece
one
24
...
...
...
...
264
roots
...
...
...
...
...
Length
inches
square
2.125
in.
...
Apparent
density
at
Corrected
density
at
no
load
120
...
...
...
...
kilols.
...
full load
135
...
no
,,
load
116
...
...
...
...
...
,,
full load
126
...
Ampere
turns
Ampere
turns
per
inch
length, no
"
load...
1800
...
...
...
full load
1400
...
...
load
no
1700
...
...
...
...
...
...
full load
3000
"
Gap
...
Section
at
Length
gap
face
pole
820
...
...
...
...
...
,',
load
...
39
...
...
...
full load
inches
square
.43
...
in.
kilols.
...
44
"
Ampere
turns,
no
load
...
full load
"
...
...
5300
...
...
...
6000
Electric
188
Generators.
CALCULATION
Shunt
SPOOL
OF
WINDINGS.
of
length
Mean
Ampere
turns
Ampere
feet
.36
per
full load
spool at
10,840
92,000
shunt
one
inch
per
square
per
spool
watts
1130
spool
20
at
deg.
20
at
And
deg.
,,
copper
Cent.
405
...
468
"
,,
coil
per
inches
square
Cent.
60
Pounds
ft.
...
watts
shunt
Then
8.5
turn
shunt
surface
Radiating
Permit
shunt
one
650
"
Ib.
"
405
leaves
of
margin
83
16.6
available
of the
cent,
per
in
cent,
per
the
volts, or
600
when
rheostat
shunt
500
coils
volts,at
are
hot
terminals
the
f'.'H
600
SSt
too
j;,c
too
3SO
30C
ISO
wo
,'5(7
100
twoo
of
field
This
spools.
spoolshave
when
Hence
is
equivalent to
of
temperature
require"
11.3
lepoo
20
deg.
in shunt
amperes
volts, or
432
36
volts
spool,
per
Cent.
coils.
36
Turns
spool
shunt
per
10,800
960
"
11.3
of 960
Length
Pounds
No.
per
6 B.
and
Cross
section
.162
.0206
Current
density
Length
of
coil
the
9.0
weighs
79.5
Ib. per
in. D.C.C.D.
square
546
ft.
79.8
feet
S. gauge
diameter
Bare
8150
turns
1 000
amperes
portion
of
feet.
1000
inch.
.174
inch.
inch.
square
per
winding
space
available
for
shunt
inches.
"
Depth
Series
ampere
turns
of
winding,
Winding.
"
3.9
inches.
The
at full load.
series
With
winding
4.5
turns
is
per
required
spool^the
to
supply 8,300
full load
current
FifteenHundred
will
give 2,500
be
must
in the
4.5
diverted
series
The
Kilowatt
11,250
diverter
winding,giving 8,300
consist
turns
4.5
of
rheostat,
189
amperes
leaving 1,850
amperes
turns.
ampere
bands
ten
Generator.
Consequently, 650
turns.
ampere
the
through
Railway
in
parallel,each
7 in. wide
by
T\yin. thick.
Crosssection
conductors...
4.375
...
Current
density
Resistance
Series
...
...
...
20
spools at
20
at
...
...
Cent,
deg.
...
deg.
...
...
spool
per
...
Cent.
...
amperes
per
.000855
ohms.
282
"
"
series
copper
"
spool
per
"
650
...
...
ESTIMATED
Total
weight
Cycles
CORE
...
Loss.
...
density
in
Ib.
...
laminations
armature
...
Kilolines
Cycles
...
...
...
26,000 Ib.
...
second
per
watts
60
Weight
sq. in.
...
244
.
inches
square
...
...424
of 12
C2 R
...
7.5
...
...
...
74.
core
...
...
...
Density
1000
Corresponding
Total
watt
estimated
loss per
core
pound
.9
...
...
...
...
...
...
watts
25,850
watts
C2 R
loss at
Core
loss
Total
60
Cent.
deg.
...
(estimated value)
per
in
...
...
...
...
23,400
...
...
...
...
...
49,250
inch
square
armature
...
radiating
feet
...
loss
armature
...
...
...
19, 100
inches
watts
2480
...
rise per
...
watt
per
...
...
...
"
...
minute
...
square
39
...
,,
square
2.6
armature
...
per
deg. Cent.,
15
at
temperature
surface
...
inch
Spool
23,400
CALCULATIONS.
THKRMAL
Armature
...
loss
core
...
deg. Cent.
...
Total
C'2 R
loss at
60
deg. Cent.,
Peripheral
radiating surface
Watts
square
At
per
80
deg.
temperature
Commutator
Area
Brush
Volts
C2
...
...
...
radiating surface,
of
rise
watt
per
of field
per
spool is
.41
rise
in
33
...
...
...
watts
...
...
inch,
inches
square
...
warm
square
watts
...
2080
spool
one
750
spool
Cent.
deg.
...
bearing
Amperes
Ohms
inch
Cent,
per
per
per
surface
all
square
square
inch
of brush
bearing
resistance, positive
drop
at
at
brush
brush
67.5
positive brushes
inch
bearing
surface
...
...
37
...
amperes
...
.03
brushes
of carbon
inches
square
...
surface
ohm
...
negative
.00089
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
ohm
...
2.22
contacts
volts
...
5550
contacts
watts
...
Brush
pressure
1.25
...
...
...
...
...
...
"""
Ib.
Electric
190
.3
of friction
Coefficient
...
Peripheral speed
Brush
Generators.
...
...
of commutator
in feet
...
...
...
per
1700
minute
...
...
1040
friction
lost
Stray
power
Total
commutator
...
Watts
surface
in
,,
...
...
7340
...
...
...
...
"
...
5400
commutator
...
per
Rise
...
loss
...
Radiating
inch
square
temperature
of
radiating
20
at
...
1.36
watt
per
square
27
...
...
...
...
Cent.
deg.
...
...
...
watts
...
...
...
rise per
inches
square
...
...
surface
Cent,
deg.
...
inch
...
watts
750
in commutator
CALCULATIONS.
EFFICIENCY
Watts.
Output
Core
...
loss
C R
full load
at
(estimated)
armature
60
at
Commutator
and
at
25,850
Cent.
deg.
brush
spools C'2 R
23,400
...
...
...
...
...
5,550
loss
...
Shunt
500,000
60
deg.
...
...
...
...
5,650
Cent.
...
...
...
1,130
rheostat
,,
,,
,,
Series
spools
C2
at
60
deg.
...
...
...
...
3,380
Cent.
1,190
rheostat
"
Total
Commercial
efficiencyat
1,566,150
input
full load
and
60
WEIGHTS
Armature
deg.
Cent.
95.7
cent.
per
(POUNDS).
Magnetic
core
Teeth
Copper
Commutator,
Twelve
segments
magnet
cores
...
and
polepieces
Yoke
...
Twelve
...
shunt
coils
series
coils
,,
Total
spool copper
6PoLE
Figs. 169
of
per
200
to
kilowatts
minute.
relate
183
volts
(500
The
of
to
and
also exhibits
poles
six
GENERATOR.
RAILWAY
400
of this
constants
which
specification,
Number
200KlLOWATT
the
amperes)
machine
steps
at
are
in the
speed
set
forth
calculation
in
output
an
revolutions
the
following
...
...
...
...
...
...
200
Revolutions
per
Frequency
Amperes
135
6
...
Kilowatts
Terminal
of
for
in
135
minute
...
cycles per
...
...
...
...
...
6.75
second
...
...
...
...
...
500
volts
400
"
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
TwoHundred
Kilowatt
Railway
Generator.
191
Electric
192
Generators.
DIMENSIONS.
Armature
Diameter
Length
...
...
...
of
diameter
of
Length
...
...
...
...
...
36
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
core
...
9.9
iron
...
...
...
...
...
of slot
Width
of slot at
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
10
...
...
...
...
...
...
.416
surface
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
"
220
...
.384
of tooth...
width
...
...
Width
of tooth
...
...
.429
...
...
...
...
Efficient
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
of
...
...
Length
of
pole
face
of
pole
arc
of
length...
...
T7Tin.
and
in.
.70
...
...
...
13. in.
of
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
polepieceat edge
of
core
...
...
...
...
,,
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
in.
1T9^
15J
core
core
(diameter)
of air gap
...
.74
...
magnet
of field
...
23.1
length magnet
Diameter
Depth
...
...
...
...
pitch
4
arc
Radial
total
=
core
,,
Thickness
...
...
...
...
"
14^,,
59.9
...
...
...
,,
.33
...
...
...
...
...
,,
Length
over
Length
of
of
Depth
Yoke
...
.658
Length
Spool
...
ventilating duct
length
Core
Bore
...
ventilating ducts
of each
Width
Pole
"
...
of conductor
of
,,
.057
conductor
Number
in.
...
face
armature
at
,,
Depth
5,
416,,
of slots
Minimum
in.
If
...
...
,,
Number
cent.
per
.025
root
at
,,
...
...
of sheets
Depth
Magnet
,,
...
sheets
between
Thickness
,,
14^,,
31.1
...
Insulation
,,
"
38
...
...
...
...
length, magnetic
in.
56
...
surface
at
59^
..
all
over
core
Effective
...
of slots
bottom
at
Internal
...
conductors
over
Diameter
Pitch
all
over
flanges
winding
...
...
space...
winding
space
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
15
,,
14^,,
2J
,,
Outside
diameter
...
...
...
diameter
Inside
96i in.
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Thickness
8 in. and
...
...
Length along
Commutator
106.\ in.
...
...
...
...
17
...
...
...
...
...
armature
...
...
...
...
...
...
in.
Diameter
39
...
of
Number
of
"
...
,,
440
segments
segments
,,
Width
...
...
per
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
..
slot
segment
at
commutator
segment
at
root
2
face
.240
...
in.
...
.210
,,
in.
TwoHundred
Kilowatt
Railway
%jr,^
Generator.
*!
193
j"
in"9K
i o,\^
K^7,(d)
Electric
194
DIMENSIONS
Thickness
of mica
Available
length
Crosssection
Brushes
Generators.
continued.
"
.04
insulation
of surface
of
leads...
commutator
in.
segment.
.01
inch
square
of sets
Number
6
...
In
set
one
Length (radial)
in.
2
...
'
Width
...
...
Thickness
...
..,
of contact
Area
...
(one brush)
...
...
...
...
1.00
...
...
...
...
...
of brush
Type
j"
...
Radial
...
...
...
...
...
...
,,
square
inch
carbon
...
MATERIALS.
Armature
spider
"
Steel
Sheet
core
Cast
iron
...
Copper
Conductors
Commutator
segments
leads
)i
Rheotan
"
spider
"
Polepiece
Castiron
Cast
steel
...
Yoke
Magnet
Brushes
core
Carbon
Electric
196
Generators.
DATA.
TECHNICAL
Armature,
face
Number
load
no
Conductors
1760
conductors...
slot
per
Number
500
voltage
circuits
...
Single
Style winding
Gramme
ring
of
construction
Type
Mean
length, one
Total
armature
Turns
winding
armature
107
turn
147
...
inch
20
at
deg.
Cent.
20
at
in armature
at
in brushes
and
60
.00000068
deg.
Cent.
.048
.
ohms
.055
,,
,,
,,
drop
deg.
,,
Cent.
"
volts
22
3
contacts
"
,,
Total
inches
square
...
uU
Volts
...
188.
brushes
between
...
...
...
cubic
Resistance
.0375
conductor
armature
Kg
per
Amperes
inch
square
per
525
load
voltage, full
internal
"
in armature
winding...
1780
connection
6670
commutator
,,
Commutation
,,
Average voltage
Armature
Amperes
Armature
Segments
turns
per
between
per
9800
pole
of brushes
lead
of
brushes
9.6
,,
demagnetising
,,
distortingampere
Demagnetising
6.8
147
66.7
turns
ampere
Distorting
segments
turn...
lead
Percentage
commutator
pole
per
ampere
ampere
in.
15,700
brushes
one
in.
880
brushes
between
between
Crosssection,
Ohms
Barrelwound
turns
in series
Length
Drum
drum
or
turns
ampere
turns
per
19.2
turns
80.8
turns
per
pole
pole
1880
...
7920
Kilowatt
TwoHundred
of coils
Number
Turns
of commutation
Frequency
Generator.
Railway
shortcircuited
simultaneously
197
275.
...
...
brush
per
3
...
coil
per
conductors
of
Number
per
simultaneously undergoing
group
12
commutation...
...
...
Flux
per
ampere
linked
inch
turn
per
12
turns
with
length
with
one
14.25
20
...
20
turns
3420
constituting
turns
coil
one
3420
.000068
shortcircuited
Reactance
coil
shortcircuited
voltage
,,
estimated
distribution
follows
as
Megalines entering
...
coil
7.85
...
and
amount
of
the
magnetomotive
force
in
Megalines
armature
load
polepiece,no
per
12.6
...
...
13.3
"
magnetic leakage
frame, per
magnet
1.15
...
...
...
...
...
load
polepiece,no
14.5
...
...
full load
,,
Armature
may
"
of
volts
...
...
full load
Coefficient
henrys
ohms
.118
...
...
...
roughly
lines
108
The
(assumed)
...
those
in
12
of two
...
lamination
armature
ampere
,,
Inductance
...
...
"
,,
15.3
...
...
Section
174
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Length, magnetic...
Density,
15
72
...
full
in.
...
load
no
inches
square
...
kilolines
...
load...
76
...
Ampere
turns
per
inch
length,
load
no
22
...
...
...
full load...
26
"
load
no
330
...
,,
...
...
...
...
full load
390
...
Teeth
Transmitting
Section
at
flux
from
one
pole piece
29
...
...
...
...
roots
110
Length
1.6 in.
...
Apparent
load
density, no
115
...
...
...
...
121
...
...
load
density, no
113
..
...
...
...
...
,,
full load
Ampere
turns
per
inch
kilolines
...
full load
Corrected
118
length, no
load
350
...
...
...
...
full load
"
500
"
no
,,
load
560
full load
800
,,
Gap
inches
square
...
Section
at
Length
pole
face
300
.33
gap
Density
at
pole face, no
load
42
...
...
...
turns,
kilolines
45
"
,,
no
load
4500
...
full load
...
...
...
...
...
4800
.
inches
in.
...
full load
,,
Ampere
square
...
be
Electric
198
Core
Magnet
Generators.
Section
159
...
...
...
Length (magnetic)
Density,
...
...
...
16.4
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
load
no
91
...
...
full load
in.
kilolines
96
"
"
Ampere
turns
inch
per
load...
length, no
80
...
...
...
full load...
100
,,
"
load
no
"
1320
full load
1640
..
Yoke
Magnet
inches
square
...
...
...
Section
220
...
...
Length
pole
per
Density,
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
"
load
no
66
...
70
...
turns
per
kilolines
...
full load
,,
Ampere
inches
square
...
27
...
inch
...
...
...
...
...
,,
load...
length, no
34
...
...
...
full load
40
"
load
no
920
,,
full load
1080
TURNS
AMPERE
SPOOL.
PER
No
No
Load
Volts.
500
and
Load
525
Internal
Volts, Corresponding
and
to
Full
Load
Terminal
Voltage of 500.
Armature
core
...
...
330
390
560
800
...
teeth
"
Magnet
core
yoke
"
...
Demagnetising
Total
turns
ampere
1640
920
1080
7630
8710
full load
pole, at
per
at
full load
CALCULATION
and
distortion
400
...
500
SPOOL
OF
1880
...
density through
in
turns
ampere
1320
...
for increase
Allowance
Shunt
4800
4500
Gap
terminal
volts
WINDINGS.
Mean
length
Ampere
turns
feet
.".
.35
Shunt
.35
x
per
watts
870
watts
per
turn
spool
7630
surface
Radiating
Permit
shunt
one
one
4.25
field
per
square
305
watts
spool
copper
per
spool
spool
inch
per
'"
\/j
t/
ft.
870
at
square
20
deg.
inches.
Cent.
spool.
305
212
watts.
t)\s
/ampere
pere
4.16
31,800.
"
in.
7630.
50
1000
feet\2
31
1010
ug
watts
212
10,990
TwoHundred
Of
of
90
the
cent.,
per
Cent.
volts
500
This
Kilowatt
available
volts
450
or
is
for
at
volts
=65
212
Railway
excitation, should
deg. Cent.,
60
spool
per
65
3.25
shunt
per
spool
at
make
to
volts
at
Cent.
deg.
20
use
de"\
20
Hence
C* Q ( \
(
plan
390
or
199
amperes
^*
Consequently turns
Generator.
2350
"
turns
o.Zo
of 2350
Length
Pounds
per
diameter
This
should
turns
Hence
No.
bare, and
in
14
Winding."
there
of
Mean
length
length
Series
C2
Hence
R.
of
series
70
in.
Ib. per
ft.,and
has
each.
Crosssection
No.
13
53
amperes
of which
turns
93
spool
per
per
530
spool
per
per
70
330
square
7630
"
3360
should
amperes
for
amperes
inch.
the
ampere
be
carried
series
coils.
in.
in.
watts
per
consist
five
.00085
ohms.
inch.
square
spool may
spool.
3302
937
.425
thick, wound
density in
turns
series
winding
of two
coils of flat
coil.
per
770
strip copper
Weight
series
copper
in.
one
wide
amperes
per
square
inch.
C2R
Core
loss
60
deg.
loss
deg.
per
Increased
37
square
temperature
inch
by
deg. Cent.,
as
per
increased
inch
of
resistance
6800
radiating
watt
determined
armature
temperature
armature
armature
temperature
Peripheral speed
Increased
watts.
armature
winding
Cent.
watts.
11,560 watts.
increased
63
8800
(observed value)2760
armature
Observed
Cent.
per
from
surface
resistance
by
radiating
armature
measurements.
2030.
thermometer
peripheral radiating
inches.
1.70.
inch
square
(feetper minute)
of armature
square
surface
30
17.7
deg.
Cent.
deg.
Cent.
and
spool
CALCULATIONS.
THERMAL
loss at
spool.
per
turn
800
Ib.
Current
covered.
cotton
turns
1000
"
ten
winding
.06
168
15.7
supply 10,990
must
turns
crosssection
Series
S. has
and
in. double
winding
amperes,
10
resistance
Copper
Total
.082
layers
in shunt
This
400
be
must
Total
Armature
B.
9800ft.
13
inch.
density
at full load
through
in.
wound
square
current
Series
4.16
15.2.
.072
be
2350
ft.
of
.00407
Hence
turns
1000
surface
Electric
200
Spool
Generators.
Total
C2R
loss at
Observed
60
increased
deg. Cent.,
Watts
per
inch
square
Commutator
per
the
per
from
observed
increase
winding
of all
Amperes
positive brushes
surface
spool radiating
of
temperature
spool was
per
resistance, positive
drop
Brush
brush
at
brush
Coefficient
(watts)
pounds
.03
.
...
...
...
...
1070
...
...
...
...
inch
1.25
...
...
...
22.5
pounds
pressure,
...
...
...
...
...
.3
...
power
Total
commutator
per
Increased
minute...
1330
...
...
...
...
...
200
watts
...
...
...
...
1540
...
...
...
...
...
800
temperature
watt
per
...
1.92
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
radiating surface
temperature
...
...
inches
square
inch
square
rise
...
270
...
loss, watts
Radiating surface,
Observed
feet per
...
...
...
lost in commutator,
Stray
inch
square
per
...
further
reference
increase
nine
of
described
those
construction
was
in
...
temperature
had
Cent.
19
deg.
Cent.
the
machine
radiating
...
...
observed, had
was
probably
about
that
substantially
been
reached
equivalent to,
were
specification.In
this
deg.
temperature measurements,
spool windings
The
temperature.
to the
and
hours,
...
...
...
36
...
surface
the
ohms
...
of friction
friction,watts
Watts
...
brushes
...
...
...
square
per
...
...
inch.
44.5
2.7
...
with,
deg.
deg. Cent.
square
...
contacts
contacts
pressure,
Total
for
16
.0067
negative
...
surface
...
brush
as
inch
square
...
...
inch, brushbearing
square
Brush
C2 R
load
111
only
9.0
per
which
Cent.
measurements.
in
...
Ohms
Volts
on
deg.
Area
With
45
inches.
.405.
inch
square
of
square
"
resistance
watts.
resistance
870
spool
one
watt
determined
thermometer
By
by
353
temperature
Cent., as
spool,
increased
temperature
per
all
its
but
other
at
run
maximum
identical
not
respects, the
described.
CALCULATIONS.
EFFICIENCY
Watts.
Output
Core
at
full load
...
...
Commutator
and
loss
brush
...
Armature
Shunt
C2
loss
spools
C2 R
rheostat
C2
at
60
loss at
R
...
deg.
60
loss at
"
Series
spools
rheostat
"
Total
200,000
2,760
loss
O2
loss at
C2
(diverter)
output
60
R
...
...
...
...
Cent.
...
deg.
60
...
...
...
deg.
Cent.
loss at
60
8,800
180
Cent
deg.
1,540
1,470
Cent
640
...
deg.
Cent
...
full
...
130
215,520
TwoHundred
Kilowatt
WEIGHTS
Armature
Generator.
Railway
201
(Pouxos).
Core
magnetic
...
...
...
...
...
...
3,GOO
...
Teeth...
400
1,000
Spider
Copper
...
Commutator
...
...
...
...
...
1,150
...
450
Segments
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
shaft
without
Complete
Frame
...
12,000
Six
750
polepieces
Six
magnet
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
cores
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
4,100
Yoke
Field
Windings
shunt
Six
coils
890
...
...
Six
series
184
base
of tests
...
to
plate
...
...
of this machine
300KlLOWATT
Union
of
and
193
tests
pounding,
and
carbon
...
...
...
...
given
are
33,000
in the
of
curves
LIGHTING
Figs.
loss,
core
GENERATOR,
Mr.
A.
Moore,
H.
at
covering
efficiency.The
brushes
is
output
speed
given
are
and
rated
of
of
curves
the
100
kilowatts
300
revolutions
machine
this
at
most
the
commutator
low
in
and
In
minute.
derived
interestingfeature
are
volts
125
per
subjects of saturation,
built
and
is illustrated
of Berlin,
ElektricitatsGesellschaft,
Its
206.
to
190
1,310
...
distribution.
gap
the
by
results
that
...
...
...
...
3,800
amperes,
Figs.
...
...
tenpolelightinggenerator, designed by
Figs. 189
2,400
...
...
with
10POLE
in 1897
...
...
188,
and
efficiency,
...
...
complete
results
to
..
parts
Machine
The
...
420
spool copper
Other
...
coils
...
Total
11,000
...
...
from
loss,
core
of
the
this
tension
com
design is
and
heavy
current.
In
be
this instance
seen
commutator
Mr.
Moore
commutator
in
the
was
has
is crowded
the
following specification,
largelyin
modified
segments
of that
excess
the
about
25
design
per
in
and,
considerably,
temperature
at other
this
parts
rise
as
will
at
the
machine.
of the
cent.
2
Electric
202
Generators.
Fy.184.
Curve.
Saturation
SIX
5SO
POLE,
ZOO
K.W.
FOR
GENERATOR
VOLT
SOO
R.PM.
135
500
4SO
400
350
300
160
100
Rg.1S5.
Compounding
n,ooo
Curve
For
SOO
VolU
SO
100
200
ISO
250
300
350
400
450
600
SJSQ
fcf
VOLTS
(HSC.M)
10.000
9000
e.000
fsooo
SIX
SOO
POLt,200K.W.
VOLT
FORI35RRM.
OENERATOR
and
Efficiency
at
500
Losses
Volts.
cluttmy?l"c".v
;*"*.;
Tl
Yoke
Hundred
tree
Kilowatt
Generator.
Lighting
205
Outside
diameter
Ill
in. and
105
in.
...
Inside
diameter
97
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Thickness...
7 in. and
...
...
Length along
Commutator
in.
...
...
4 in.
1 6 in.
armature
...
...
...
...
...
...
Diameter
52
...
Number
...
of
"
of
at
...
...
...
,,
...
...
...
...
slot
per
segment
...
360
...
,,
"Width
...
...
segments
2
face
commutator
.425
...
...
...
in.
...
.372
root
"
Thickness
of mica
insulation
.03
...
Total
depth
of
Maximum
Available
...
of
segment
surface
length
Crosssection
...
depth
of
length
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
of
...
segment
...
...
...
...
,,
...
...
...
12
,,
11
,,
.059
leads...
commutator
,,
...
1.5
segment
...
Brushes
,,
...
3.0
segment
useful
Approximate
...
...
...
inch
square
...
Number
of sets
Number
in
10
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
set
one
Width
1.25
Thickness
...
Area
of contact
...
...
of
one
...
...
...
...
...
,,
...
brush
1.25
...
...
...
of brush
Type
in.
Radial
...
...
...
...
...
...
inches
square
carbon
...
MATERIALS.
Armature
Sheet
core
...
...
...
...
...
spider...
,,
...
Cast
...
...
...
...
conductors
"
...
...
Commutator
segments
...
...
...
...
..
...
iron
Copper
,,
...
leads
Rheotan
,,
...
spider
,,
steel
...
Polepieces
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Cast
iron
Cast
steel
...
...
Yoke
Magnet
cores
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Brushes
...
TECHNICAL
Armature,
Number
load
no
of face
Conductors
Number
per
voltage
Mean
Total
...
...
DATA.
110
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
conductors
720
slot
4
...
10
...
Type
...
of circuits
Style of winding
Gramme
,,
Carbon
...
ring
or
construction
length
armature
one
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
drum
Drum
...
of
...
winding
armature
turns
Single
...
...
...
...
Barrelwound
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
88.5
turn...
...
360
in.
Electric
206
Fig.191.
Fig.184.
Generators.
ThreeHundred
Turns
Kilowatt
in series between
Lighting Generator.
brushes...
...
Length
between
...
36
...
...
brushes
...
Crosssection
207
...
...
.128
...
...
Ohms
per cubic
Resistance
inch
deg. Cent.
at 20 deg. Cent
20
at
brushes
Volts
drop
in armature
brushes
,,
60
at
and
Total
voltage,full
internal
Amperes
per
Commutation
"
series
...
...
winding
3.25
...
load
125
...
inch
...
...
...
...
133
...
in armature
...
...
winding...
...
1880
...
...
...
...
connections
commutator
,,
"
...
4.75
voltage,full load
square
.00171
.00198
...
and
contacts
ohms
...
...
deg. Cent.
,,
Terminal
...
deg. Cent.
60
inch
square
.00000068
...
between
in.
...
conductor
armature
one
3190
...
4000
,,
Average voltagebetween
Armature
Amperes
turns
per
commutator
polo...
per
36
...
ampere
Segments
lead
turns
per
...
...
...
...
...
...
240
8650
...
...
...
...
lead
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
8.3
...
distortingampere
Demagnetising
...
of brushes
demagnetising ampere
16.6
turns
...
...
...
84.4
turns
...
turns
ampere
pole
per
...
...
...
1450
...
...
...
...
7200
Distorting
"
"
of commutation
of coils
(cycles
per second)...
simultaneously shortcircuited
138
...
per
...
brush
3
...
coil
per
Number
...
...
of brushes
,,
Turns
...
polepiece
,,
Number
...
...
Frequency
...
turn
Armature
Percentage
3.5
segments
1
...
of
...
conductors
...
per
...
...
...
...
simultaneously undergoing
group
commutation
6
...
Flux
per
Flux
linked
ampere
17.6
with
20
Inductance
2110
...
turn
...
inch
per
six turns
one
108
...
with
240
20
...
in those
amperes
...
...
lamination
turns
in
...
length armature
2110
one
constituting
turn
coil,in
henrys
lines
henrys
.0000211
...
Reactance
shortcircuited
.0183
turn
...
voltage
.0183
4.4 volts
FORCE
per
CALCULATIONS.
at
polepiece,
at
"
...
240
MAGNETOMOTIVE
...
...
,,
ohms
no
load
9.17
full load
11.1
,,
1.15
Coefficient
of magnetic leakage
at
Megalines in magnet frame, per polepiece,
...
no
1.05
load
1.28
full load
Armature
143
Section
...
...
Length (magnetic)
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
square
inches
10 in.
"
,K
.A
4,rJ=d
ipd
n"?'7^~^i" n"3"n;sJ"
"
Three Hundred
Density
at
Kilowatt
Lighting
Generator.
209
load
110
63.5
...
kilols.
...
full load
77.5
...
Ampere
turns
inch
per
"
load
length, no
14
...
...
full load
Ampere
23
,,
"
turns,
load
no
140
...
...
...
...
...
full load
230
...
Teeth
Transmitting
Section
at
flux
from
polepiece
one
14
...
...
...
8.5
roots
...
...
Length
...
Apparent
density at
...
...
...
...
...
inches
square
1.75
...
...
no
...
...
...
...
108
...
...
...
in.
...
load
...
kilols.
...
full load
130
"
Corrected
density
"
at
no
load
106
...
...
...
...
...
,,
full load
125
...
...
Ampere
turns
inch
per
"
load
length, no
100
...
...
...
...
full load
750
...
Ampere
turns,
load
no
180
...
full
...
...
...
load
"
1310
...
Gap:
Section
poleface
at
Length
213
...
.3 in.
...
Density
at
...
...
poleface,no
...
...
...
...
...
load
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
42,800
full load
52,000
...
loud
Ampere
turns,
Ampere
Magnet
inches
square
Core
no
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
4,050
4,900
...
Section
132
...
...
...
Length (magnetic)
Density,
...
...
...
...
...
13.5
...
...
...
...
...
kilols.
79.0
...
...
...
...
...
...
in.
...
load
no
inches
square
...
'
full load...
96.5
"
"
Ampere
turns
inch
per
length, no
48
load
...
...
93
full load
no
"
650
load
...
...
...
...
...
...
1250
full load
...
Magnet
Yoke:
156
Section
...
Length
per
Density
no
pole
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
15
in.
kilols.
67.0
load
...
82.0
full load...
"
...
"
Ampere
turns
per
inch
length, no
load
...
58
full load
"
inches
square
no
480
load
870
full load
...
Electric
210
Generator*.
TURNS
AMPERE
SPOOL.
PER
5500
Demagnetising
Total
turns
at
terminal
125
circuit is
when
the
to
turns
volts
10,560
terminal
5,500
be
must
voltage
is
SPOOL
OF
turns.
6,250 ampere
suppliedby
CALCULATION
Shunt
ampere
the
125,
shunt
125
will amount
4,310 ampere
distortion
shunt
in the
volts, then,
and
full load
at
load
full
polepiece,at
per
density through
in
turns
ampere
rheostat
110
excitation
ampere
for increase
Allowance
If the
turns
series
the
10, 5GO
"
0,250
winding.
WINDINGS.
Mean
of
length
Ampere
turns
feet
surface
Radiating
..
.36
263
177
Shunt
51
in.
4.25
full load
spool at
field
one
watts
total
turn
shunt
ft.
6250.
26,600.
"
Permit
shunt
one
per
per
watts
spool
square
20
at
This
spool.
per
730
inch
inches.
square
deg.
Cent.
is divided
up
into
84
in series
watts
winding
and
iu shunt.
watts
spool
per
Q,
31
Pounds
60
at
deg.
204.
(" Tooo"
Cent.
feet\2
/Ampere
"
watts
..
Shunt
Plan
copper
have
to
of the
This
90
spools
volts
at
^^f
of the
cent,
per
field
is 98
spool
per
when
20
available
hot,
deg.
the
Cent,
125
"
125
9.8
volts
177
Hence
require
"
Turns
per
shunt
18.1
amperes
"
=
"
18.1
Length
Pounds
of 345
per
turns
1000
per
spool
ft.
1470
85.
ft.
volts,
remainder
or
345.
spool,
Ib.
or
being
per
113
volts,
consumed
spool.
at
the
in
field
terminals
rheostat.
Electric
212
diameter
Bare
82.4
has
8 B.W.G.
No.
.0214
Crosssection
1000
Ib. per
.177
inches.
square
"
ft.
D.C.C.D.
in.
.165
Generators.
in.
Current
density
845
amperes
per
square
inch.
of
Length
the
Winding
Series
G250
"
Winding.
With
4800
in
.079
Consequently, 250
and
The
197.
in.,making
Resistance
Ditto
At
of ten
C2R
per
60
spools at
of 3.8
give
2400
be diverted
series
through
winding, giving
per
as
edge spirally,
of
up
square
shown
strips 1.10
44
inches
in.
inch.
square
20
deg.
=
Cent.
840
.000183
ohms.
watts.
97
copper
watts.
1250
Ib.
CALCULATIONS.
loss at
loss
60
deg.
Cent.
...
(observed value)
increased
per
Increased
square
inch
...
4.150
...
...
increased
resistance
...
...
...
...
watt
per
per
...
...
...
...
deg. Cent.
inches
square
...
armature
29
...
...
...
minute
deg.
1720
...
by
peripheral
...
7,000
2.22
inch
square
...
feet per
of armature
inch
...
armature
...
temperature
of
armature
radiating
temperature
square
by
surface
radiating surface
Ditto, per
...
watts
15550
...
...
...
64
...
...
...
temperature
winding
armature
11,400
...
loss
armature
Observed
...
...
thermometer
29
...
radiatingsurface
...
Cent.
deg.
13
...
,,
...
C2R
Observed
loss at
increased
60
deg.
Cent,
per
temperature
spool
by
increased
301
resistance
64
per
square
inch
of
of
one
spool
spool radiating
surface
watts
of
winding
Peripheral radiating surface
Watts
by
watts.
...
Total
in.
.000183
84
Cent.
series
51
THERMAL
Spool
the
on
is made
amperes
2150
spool
deg.
Weight
630
of turn
length
Series
Total
in
stripswound
conductor
density
Mean
Core
in.
supply 10,560
to
will
must
amperes
total crosssection
up
Current
C2R
required
current
amperes
of flat
consist
turns
196
Armature
6f
turns.
two
Figs.
full load
4,300 ampere
The
is
winding
8 B.W.G.
full load.
spool,the
per
turns.
ampere
diverter
the
turns
two
shunt
each, of No.
turns
winding
at
turns
for
available
space
layers of 35
series
The
"
winding
of 10
4,310 ampere
of
portion
consists
730
deg. Cent.
square
.41
inches.
Tliree Hundred
Kilowatt
Lighting
Generator.
213
Electric
214
Increased
temperature
thermometer
Commutator
inch
square
per
of
spool
156
...
the
...
...
...
in
increase
spool
46
was
...
,,
112
...
,,
...
...
of all
Area
Amperes
Ohms
positivebrushes
per
per
Brush
inch
square
drop
C2B
at
bearing
surface
of carbon
48
.
negative
...
Ditto, total
...
...
...
"
.3
...
...
of commutator
in feet
...
...
per
...
1365
minute
...
...
1160
...
for
...
...
...
...
...
,,
...
1920
commutator
inch
square
rise in
in
,,
8560
...
...
...
per
500
...
loss
surface
of
radiating
temperature
...
...
4.45
...
...
...
...
...
watt
per
per
...
...
inch
square
of
radiating
18
been
the
end
..
run
of the
...
observations
full load
on
...
for
deg. Cent.
...
surface
...
...
be
made
were
As
eight hours.
test, it cannot
inches
square
...
surface
80.5
temperature
temperature
watts
...
...
...
...
Observed
...
...
lost in commutator
stray power
commutator
Radiating
Ib.
...
friction
Allowance
These
watts
1.25
...
...
Peripheral speed
Increase
6900
...
inch
125.
...
Watts
volts
of friction
Coefficient
Total
2.9
...
...
...
ohms
...
...
...
square
ohms
.00120
...
per
amperes
.03
brushes
contacts
pounds
inches
square
...
contacts
pressure,
Brush
...
...
...
surface
.
...
Brush
bearing
...
brush
at
brush
50
(bearing surface)
of brush
inch
square
resistance, positive +
Volts
had
deg. Cent.
...
...
of
temperature
radiating surface
inch
watt
per
radiating surface
By
Generators.
stated
that
on
the
readings
the
deg. Cent.
machine
were
machine
after
made
only at
not
was
increasingin temperature.
EFFICIENCY
CALCULATIONS.
Watts.
Output
Core
at
full load
300,000
loss
...
...
...
Commutator
and
brush
...
...
...
C2R
Armature
loss at
spoolsC2R
Shunt
...
...
4,150
...
loss
60
loss at
...
deg.
Cent.
60
deg.
...
...
8,560
...
...
11,400
...
Cent
2,040
rheostat
230
...
,,
Series
spools
rheostat
,,
Total
...
...
...
C2R
(diverter)
...
...
loss at
...
...
60
...
deg.
...
...
Cent.
100
...
...
327,450
...
at
efficiency
full load
WEIGHTS
A rmature
...
970
...
input
Commercial
...
and
60
deg.
Cent.
91.6
per
cent.
(POUNDS).
Ik
Magnetic
core
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Teeth
3,500
560
...
Spider
Copper
and
flanges
...
...
...
...
...
...
it
7,000
1,310
still
2,5QKilowatt
SixPole
Comimitator
Generator.
215
Segments
...
and
Spider
rings
press
Complete
Frame
Electric
and
armature
without
commutator
shaft
Ten
pole pieces
magnet
,,
...
...
cores
...
..
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
1,000
...
5,000
Yoke
8,500
Tenshunt
1,250
coils
...
...
1,250
Tenseries
"
Total
spool
Other
parts
Machine
In
and
Points
various
110
and
core
loss.
B
208,
of
Fig. 209
if the
in
of losses and
to
...
...
...
125
efficiencies
voltage
volts
of the
one
show
some
brush
in the
which
but
the
in
interestingdetails
mechanical
development
of
required for
would
was
not
the
Figs. 211
to
224
of
poles
other
...
...
...
250
Kilowatts
Revolutions
Frequency
Terminal
per
in
...
cycles per
Amperes
...
...
...
...
...
16
second
...
...
...
550
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
500
load
no
,,
320
minute
...
...
,,
...
...
...
455
...
...
...
...
...
233
schemes,
generator.
...
to
spider,commutator,
alternative
C
...
are
electromagnetic dimen
SPECIFICATION.
Number
auto
210.
of frame,
among
from
tested.
not
of construction
the
This
designs: In
latest
of
curves
straightline
of
tests
GENERATOR.
ELECTRIC
in
of
The
be
would
deviation
Fig.
designs should
ultimate
the
results
the
that
increased
34,500
...
full load.
at
given
are
given
turns
ampere
250KlLOWATT
following is
sions
...
...
are
straight line,
SlXPoLE
The
...
experimental values.
are
terminal
load, up
no
...
213,
page
approximately the
matically increase
Curves
...
...
207
outputs,
volts at
...
3,000
and
show
Fig. 209
...
complete
Figs.
saturation
copper
2,500
...
216
Electric
Generators.
SixPole
250
}
Kilowatt
Electric
Generator.
217
DIMENSIONS.
Armature
Diameter
all...
over
Length
46
conductors
over
in.
32.3
"
Diameter
at
bottom
of slots
43.4
"
Internal
diameter
of
30
core
"
Fig.2,14.
Kg.%18
Fig.ZK.
,
Length
of
Effective
Pitch
at
core
11 torn*
of
012
StexL
Wire
,14 turos
of 058
Phosphor Bronze
TPEne
all
over
12.3
length, magnetic
iron
9.9
surface
24
w*
...
Insulation
Thickness
in.
...
between
of sheets
sheets
10
"
per
cent.
.014
in.
Electric
218
Depth
Width
Generators.
of slot
1.28
of slot at
root
.582
surface
.582
in.
"
,,
,,
Number
"
of slots
150
..,
Minimum
width
of tooth
327
""**"
j)
ttg.%18
.379
Width
of tooth
Width
of conductor
.10
Depth
of conductor
.45
at
face
armature
in.
"
Number
Width
Efficient
"
of
ventilatingducts
of each
ventilatingduct
length of
core
=
total
.44
.
length
.80
.
in.
Electric
220
Generators.
DATA.
TECHNICAL
Armature
No
load
Number
Conductors
voltage
face
500
...
1200
conductors.
per
slot
_l_LL4J"
44 M
T4
Number
1_U_4_
L_iV
UUJHL
of circuits
Multiple
Style winding
Gramme
iU
ring, or
drum
Drum
SixPole
250fCilowatt
of construction
Type
Mean
length,
Total
armature
of
Barrelwound
84.5
turns
in series
between
between
brushes.
100
.
brushes
8450
...
Crosssection
...
...
.045
...
Ohms
inch
cubic
per
Resistances
between
brushes
.00000068
...
20
at
deg.
Cent.
.0213
...
ohms
...
60
.0245
"
Volts
drop
Total
internal
in armature
brushes
deg.
60
at
and
"
Cent.
11.3
contacts
2.1
,,
...
Amperes
voltage, full
per
inch
square
...
Commutation
...
load...
564
...
...
in armature
...
winding
1700
...
connections
commutator
,,
2500
...
,,
Average voltage
Armature
turns
Amperes
between
per
100
pole...
...
...
turns
per
pole
7600
...
...
...
8
...
...
,,
distorting
Demagnetising
Number
16
turn
ampere
cent.
...
"
84
,,
,,
turns
ampere
Distorting
8 per
...
...
,,
demagnetising
Frequency
...
of brushes
lead
,,
...
pole
per
...
"
1220
...
...
...
...
6380
"
of
.,
commutation,
of coils
second
cycles per
500
...
...
shortcircuited
simultaneously
per
...
brush
4
...
coil
per
Number
...
76
Percentage
Turns
5.5
segments
.........
ampere
Segments
commutator
turn
per
Armature
1
...
of
...
...
conductors
...
...
simultaneously undergoing
group
per
...
commutation...
8
...
...
Flux
per
Flux
linked
turn
ampere
with
Inductance
of
Reactance
per
inch
eight
turns
turn
in
one
shortcircuited
...
length
with
henrys
...
lamination
20
...
in these
ampere
1970
1970
turns
10"8
,.
...
.0000197
.062
ohms
4.7
volts
...
...
...
lines
...
...
coil
shortcircuited
voltage
...
...
armature
one
...
coil
..
MAGNETOMOTIVE
Megaliiiesentering armature,
FORCE
per
CALCULATIONS.
7.80
load
pole piece,no
...
8.80
full load
Coefficient
Megalines
of
in
magnetic leakage
magnet
1.15
...
...
...
no
...
8.97
load
10.1
full load
Armature
inch
square
...
Cent.
deg.
20
at
in.
...
conductor
armature
one
in.
GOO
.
Length
221
turn
Turns
Generator.
winding
armature
one
Electric
...132
Section
...
Length, magnetic
square
...
13.0
...
...
...
...
"
inch
Electric
222
Density,
Generators.
load
no
59
...
...
66
,,
...
Ampere
turns
kilolines.
...
...
full load
inch
per
...
...
...
...
,,
load
length, no
11
...
...
full load
,,
,,
13
...
,,
load
no
140
,,
...
full load
179
...
Teeth
Transmitting
Section
at
tiux
from
one
polepiece
20
...
...
65
roots
...
Length
...
...
...
...
...
1.28
...
Apparent
load
density, no
132
full load
Corrected
148
load
no
kilolines
124
,,
...
...
...
...
...
,,
full load
134
"
Ampere
turns
inch
per
load
length, no
700
.
full load
1250
load
no
890
full load
1600
...
Cap
Section
210
poleface
at
Length
gap
Density
at
...
in.
.31
...
...
poleface,no
...
inch
square
...
...
...
load
37.2
...
kilolines
...
full load
42
...
Ampere
turns,
load
no
3640
...
..
...
...
full load
4150
...
Magnet
Core
Section
119
...
Length
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
76
...
Ampere
inch
per
85
load...
length, no
35
full load
,,
,,
kilolines
...
...
full load...
turns
in.
...
load
no
inch.
square
...
12.75
(magnetic)
Density,
...
46
,,
load
no
,,
450
...
..
...
full load
590
.
Magnetic
Yoke
Section
140
...
Length
per
Density,
...
pole
no
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
load
64
...
...
...
...
per
inch
...
...
length, no
load...
25
...
...
...
full load
no
kilolines
...
72
...
turns
inches
1 8 in.
full load
Ampere
square
32
load
.,
450
...
full load
...
...
...
...
...
570
SixPole
Fi0.Z.
250KUowatt
Electric
Generator.
223
Electric
224
TURNS
AMPKRE
If the
turns
at
in
rheostat
volts,
500
the
SPOOL.
PER
circuit
shunt
then
Generator*.
when
is
adjusted
terminal
the
to
voltage
give
is
5570
550
ampere
the
shunt
the
series
550
excitation
will amount
to
5570
6130
turns.
ampere
500
8900
6130
"
2270
supplied by
be
must
turns,
ampere
winding.
CALCULATION
Shunt
WINDING.
SPOOL
OF
Mean
length
Ampere
turns
Ampere
feet
Total
of
shunt
one
turn
=
...
shunt
per
spool
...
...
48.5
4.05
"
ft
6,130
full load
at
in
...
...
...
...
24,800
.....................
radiating
Proportion
surface
available
of
field
one
for shunt
530
spool
inches
square
365
530
"
"
...
...
...
...
8900
Permit
.40
365
.'.
And
watts
.40
168
per
146
watts
watts
shunt
per
inch
square
20
at
...
shunt
per
...
...
spool
...
copper
per
spool
at
20
at
31
615
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
131
Ib.
fLb.
at
the
sumed
volts
to
have
terminals
in
per
the
80
of
per
the
field
field rheostat.
spool.
Hence
of
cent,
the
This
i)
available
hot,
the
is 382
volts
at
2.3
amperes
volts,
volts, i.e.,440
550
when
DO.
,,
watts
spools
require
,,
1 46
Plan
Cent.
60
spool
31
Shunt
deg.
remainder
20
per
being
deg. Cent.,
spool.
or
con
63.5
2,50Kilowatt
SixPole
/"
Turns
of 2660
Length
Pounds
No.
spool
shunt
per
per
Generator.
225
O/"\
2600
...
...
turns
10,800ft.
ft
1000
B. and
14
"
Electric
12.1
12.4
S. has
Ib. per
1000
ft.
diameter
Bare
.0641
...
...
D.C.C.
...
...
...
...
in.
...
diameter
.075
"
Crosssection
.00323
...
...
Amperes
of the
Length
of
of 33
winding
layers of
series
load
of
455
series
able
for
is
winding
inch
square
...
710
...
...
for shunt
each, of No.
turns
...
14
6.5 in.
winding,
B.
and
S.
WINDING.
required to supply
2770
turns
ampere
full
at
amperes.
Planning
the
...
available
space
81
SERIES
The
...
...
...
portion
consists
Winding
...
inch
square
per
...
divert
to
winding,
find
we
through
cent,
per
have
we
excitation
series
the
25
.75
455
each
hence
rheostat
342
series
in
coil
parallelwith
avail
amperes
should
consist
of
2770
=
8 turns.
342
Mean
length
Total
length
.40
48.5
...
watt
lost per
Watts
turn
eight
surface
Radiating
Permit
of series
of
per
...
...
for
series
inch
square
spool
in series
20
at
spool
...
winding
Cent.
deg.
165
...
resistance
spool at
per
20
deg.
Cent.
deg. Cent.
165
inches
square
...
20
at
.40
/"
Hence
in.
...
388,,
available
series
...
turns
66.
/"
.00057
=

ohms.
342
Copper
crosssection
winding
Series
per
2.3 in.
copper
Weight
of series
Current
.46 square
spool may
.050
density
series
spool
one
winding
THERMAL
Armature
of
eight turns
made
of
up
four
stripsof
58
Ib.
740.
CALCULATIONS.
C2R
loss at
Core
loss
60
deg.
Cent.
5050
watts
...
4000
...
Total
armature
per
square
Peripheral speed
Assumed
increase
inch
of
...
...
...
feet per
...
measured
increase
,,
4700
...
...
as
...
of armature
temperature
total
9050
...
radiating surface
armature
radiating surface
estimated
"
loss
...
Hence
sheet
in.
in
copper
inch.
consist
...
...
per
by
3850
per
increased
temperature
inches
...
minute
watt
square
1.93
...
of
...
square
...
inch
resistance
armature
in
25
"
deg. Cent.
48
,,
Electric
226
Commutator
of all
Area
Amperes
Ohms
13.1
positive brushes
inch
square
bearing
Brush
drop
brush
at
Brush
brush
at
"
950
Ib. per
1.25
square
feet
per
...
...
...
3130
minute
...
...
700
...
surface
per
square
of
150
lost in commutator
1800
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
radiating surface
temperature
per
watt
1.64
of commutator
...
per
inch
square
radiating
20
...
estimated
,,
1100
inches
surface
Total
,,
...
...
in square
inch
increase
watts
...
...
loss
...
Increase
...
...
...
stray power
commutator
Radiating
Ib.
.3
...
...
of commutator,
...
Watts
watts
32.8
inch
friction
for
volts
2.1
friction
Allowance
ohm.
.0046
negative
...
Total
amperes
.03
brushes
contacts
assumed
Peripheral speed
Brush
carbon
contacts
pressure,
Coefficient
surface
inch
square
35
surface
brushbearing
inch
square
per
per
Volts
C3R
Generators.
...
of
...
temperature
...
...
...
...
of commutator
deg. Cent.
33
...
,,
"
Electric
228
Commutator
Generators.
Segments
G80
...
Spider
530
Rings
260
Other
parts of
Armature
Field
and
armature
180
commutator
complete, including
and
commutator
shaft...
8,000
Six
polepiecesand
Magnet
magnet
2,400
core
...
5,000
yoke
Six
shunt
coils
790
Six
series
coils
350
Total
1,140
spool copper
Brush
300
gear
Bedplate
Machine
and
2,600
bearings
...
20,000
complete
Fig. 235.
In
in
efficiency curves
has
recently been
saturation
and
determined
excitation
loss
core
of
given in
the
as
LOSSES
determining
convenient
methods,
to
resort
owing
load
no
to
the
to
the
Figs.
on
page
IN
core
and
235
They
agree
and
500
volts
show
236
was,
value
the
well
very
machine
This
values.
specification.As
predetermined
against the
calculation
CORE
above
the
estimated
with
tests.
and
are
accordance
required at
turns,
234B
completed.
values
ampere
In
and
results
the
with
in
shown
of
5570
pre
Fig. 235,
by observation,
ampere
of
the
5400
turns
224.
MULTIPOLAR
losses of
COMMUTATING
electric
empiricaldevices, as
conditions
in
MACHINES.
generators,
check
upon
it is
more
practiceaffectingthe
frequently
theoretical
results.
As
Losses
Core
already explained
upon
the
armature,
resultingeddy
eddy
in
introduce
the
uncertain
Multipolar Commutating
earlier
an
section
of
periodicvariations
and
current
in the
currents
in
observed
Table
core
238.
on
losses
EXHIBITING
CYCLSS
of
in the
magnetic
densities.
high, the
in these
small
magnetic reluctance,with
in the
magnet
frame, and
the
tend
to
Pea
237.
RF.!. .'.TIC";
XILOLINCS
BETWEEN
SLOTS+IOOO
BELOW
DENSITY
POUKO
set
are
forth
dimensions
the
and
the
The
results
drawing practicalconclusions
Although
7K5
SECOVO/C
P"ft
230
page
design of
machines,
machinework
factors.
WATTS
the
229
armature
CURVE
In
series, the
in the
hysteric losses
FIG.
FIG.
this
Machines.
designs the
set
to the
as
rate
percentage which
of
the
forth
in
probable core
of
dissipation
mass
in the
Table
this
are
losses of
energy
teeth
new
in the
bears
to
useful
in
designs.
teeth
the
is
total
Electric
02
tf
o
H
O
O
w
H
O
02
"
CO
02
O
o
p
w
t"
P5
W
02
"
O
02
fc
o
i" i
02
s
Il
M
i" i
Generators.
Core
of
mass
results
the
per
in
the
pound
of
below
density
since
the
loss
due
sequence
value
of
eddy
of
the
the
be
loss
core
useful
in
minute.
of
total
core
Now,
body.
sixteen
cycles
of
eight
Cycles
calculations
For
the
to
Ib.,
is the
in
con
affecting
the
influence
of
which
the
frequency
the
teeth
and
per
square
poles
results,
and
running
find
it
body,
core
inch
at
requires
loss
core
240
allowing
Ib.
weight
full
load
of
area
minute
per
of
revolutions
7000
crosssection
revolutions
240
at
the
the
would
be
in
density
kilolines
16x76_,0;)
"~~
"1000~~
Fig.
curve,
total
the
range
tabulated
machines,
following
approximate
Watts
considerable
tabulated
the
and
we
1000
is 7,000
adopted,
the
predetermine
to
~~
there
generally
second.
per
According
the
machine.
eight poles
say,
kilolines
76
to
from
plotted
wish
including
of
is
we
previous
relation
in
to
bearing.
type
having,
From
density
this
is
the
except
case,
factor
dynamos,
coils,
238
example,
laminations,
working
Fig.
for
for
of
the
the
of
and
conductors,
Another
commutating
important
an
uiultipolar generator
per
in
more
copper
them.
crossing
commutation
given
curve
Suppose,
field
embedded
the
be
limits
the
by
comparison
to
the
shown
periodicity
found
within
231
as
the
to
projections,
the
in
from
be
not
lying
in
density
has
found
chosen,
practicable,
related
as
would
this
are
stray
commutation
will
But
it
conclusions
laminations
currents
during
The
total
draw
to
Machines.
Commutating
makes
armature,
Table,
the
to
conditions
of
the
slots.
higher
Multipolar
densities
tooth
when
of
core
given
watts
Tkmex
per
199,
of
periodicity
an
average
rule
Ib.
will
loss
core
and
value
is derived
1.7
obtain
we
cycles
be
flux
of
1.7
watts
2.1
2.1
7,000
density
is
obtained
pound,
per
14,700
covered
for
by
K.
:"
per
second
kilolines
density.
the
Hence
and
as
watts.
above
the
TRACTION
ELECTRIC
be reversible, and
designed to
circuited
coil
direction
of
to tend
as
assistingto
tation, and
For
fact,
the
it.
full
current
average
onefourth
of the
designed for
in the
in
and
constant
generated
that
load.
projectionsand
machines
square
of machines
Because
for
inch
of
of the
brush,
densities
of
coil,should
important
armature,
the
three
be
work
frequently
load, and
so
to
shorten
Material
motor.
or
as
even
one
condition
would
reasonable
and
the
the
the
50
per
the
in
reactance
rated
at
magnetic
brushes.
high
very
magnetisation
the
magnetisation
cent,
rated
in machines
higher than
load
the
than
generallymore
heat
double
conditions, the
one
made
slot, where
bar, was
adverse
to
armature
'
circuit
been
has
commutator
be
commu
loads, since
that
diameter
of lesseningthe
desirability
progress
four, coils
correspondingto
which
of
ordinarilyabove
from
at
commutating
comparatively small
account
on
such
load.
unfavourable
railway motors
passing
practicable,as
reaction
with
constant
at
different
is
short
is in
of the
is not
motor
radiatingsurface
is
brush
are
capacity,however,
constant
shifted,
the
flux
designed
running
very
is
core
for constant
in
resistance
in average
that
positionat
originaldirection,instead
are
traction
work, be
be
current
be termed
the
higher
rated
At
fixed
cannot
the
in its
motors
is not
armature
designed
per
by
core
the
may
in machines
capacity,so
armature
brushes
under
is in
Much
intake
in
set
reverse
current
traction
load.
of its rated
air gap
to
element
the
commutation
The
commutation,
satisfactory
at
Since
of their
nature
impressed magnetic
whatever
commutating
magnetisation
brushes
utilised
to maintain
reverse
the
the
it is shortcircuited
coil while
the
through
in
from
the
to have
be
field cannot
magnetic
MOTORS.
must,
pole ends.
between
point midway
the
traction
for electric
Motors
Generators.
Electric
232
and
diminish
in
placed
in
This
slot.
one
load
but
in
one,
is
with
satisfactorycommutation
for constant
of
by putting
practice but
former
the
weight
the
in this direction
of
the
case
HorsePower
24
of
railway motors,
consequent less
increased
under
permissible,
A
material
lesser
the
been
has
in
of the
crosssection
is diminished
sparking
made
projectionsand
magnetisationin
higher
condition
which
advance
that
so
233
of
number
room
been
jectionshas
of
account
on
Railway Motor.
Geared
at
efficiency
pro
is
gap
loads.
heavy
at
in
loads,and
average
the
the
armature
core
proper.
It
be
may
been, first,to
open
increase
wider
all efforts to
that
slots.
of
inductance
the
Machines
the
much
machines
where
of
case
in
will
be
been
has
that
apparent by
made
utilised,is
shown
by
attention
requiresmore
of
this
class
the
drawings
and
constants
of machines
those
of
case
the
gradual
than
in the
remarkable
The
machines.
400
without
in the
perfectas
design of
comparing
and
300
either direction
so
and
by employing
of
in the
known
be
can
never
nonreversible
other
or
is
which
commutator,
generators
progress
commutation
the
reversingfield
the
of the
roughening
machinery
well
of
but
constructed
few
ago.
years
DESCRIPTION
OF
This
represent
been
GEARED
800
OF
not
That
sparking.
coils
constructed
have
is diminished
armature
been
have
commutation
improve
distortion
that
magnetisation,so
diminish
secondly,to
and
fairlysaid
been
has
motor
latest
the
introduced
of its established
to time.
time
with
for
best
the
The
examples
in
years,
far
so
HOUR.
PER
some
of recent
Its constants
Figs.
to
254,
are
pages
236,
234,
not
have
and
240,
practice.
On
account
built in
given drawings
are
is
design,however,
large
below, in specification
form, and
forth
set
it does
hence
modifications
as
fundamental
PULL
DRAWBAR
it is still,
however,
reputationfor reliability,
numbers.
239
use
BATED
MILES
11.4
OF
in extensive
FOR
developments, except
from
in accordance
SPEED
AT
LB.
MOTOR
RAILWAY
of
in
the
motor.
SPECIFICATION.
Number
of
Rated
drawbar
Under
poles
standard
4
...
...
...
...
...
...
800
pull
conditions
at
this
rating, the
field
Ib.
windings
2
are
234
Electric
Generators.
Electric
236
Commutator
Generators.
8J
Diameter
...
of
Number
in.
105
segments
per
slot
JFuj246.
Fig 246
"
Kf
%.26o Jr/'
IT
yjZT
^"V
*
/5S',
I v\k.
I
I'rgN
Width
of
"
Thickness
segment
at
commutator
face
.214
"
of mica
in.
.128
root
"
insulation
.04
"
Available
length
of surface
of segment
HorsePower
24
Brushes
Geared
Railway
Motor.
237
of sets
Number
...
...
brushes
in
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
set
one
,,
radial
Length,
...
2f
Width
in.
24
...
"
Thickness
...
Area
...
of contact
of
.5
brush
one
of brush
Type
voltage
of face
Number
Conductors
...
...
carbon
DATA.
500
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
conductors
840
slot
per
...
coil
,,
Number
Style
of circuits
of
winding
Gramme
ring
...
Number
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Single
Drum
of
winding...
Formed
...
...
...
coil
Mean
105
of
length
...
...
armature
one
in series
Length
...
between
between
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
210
9000
...
...
...
...
between
20
at
deg.
.0102
brushes
.00000068
...
...
...
,,
of
.305
...
...
...
,,
of
armature
Mean
length
Field
conductor, B. and
Bare
.o94
,,
in
drop
,,
...
...
...
"
...
...
...
,,
95
at
18
field turn
one
4G.5
...
...
S. gauge
...
...
No.
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
of field conductor
.0205
...
field
per
...
square
...
...
...
...
...
...
..
...
...
...
...
spools
...
406
...
,,
...
in series
of
length
...
...
of
...
...
...
...
spool winding
"
...
...
18.800
spool copper
resistance
at
20
...
...
deg.
j)
.625
Cent.
...
Thirty
of
per
diverted
from
the
the
resistance, hence
Volts
drop
Resistance
Volts
in field
brush
drop
in
Counter
field
...
81
winding
winding
95
force
Amperes
per
square
...
...
field
amperes
...
26
...
...
...
volts
.055
ohm
2.5
volts
...
...
46.5
...
,,
...
453.5
of motor
in armature
32
is
brushes
...
inch
shunt
Cent
contacts
field,and
"
is
amperes
suitable
winding
deg.
...
electromotive
by
45.5
(positiveplus negative)
contacts
brush
at
of
current
in field
current
armature,
"
main
ohm.
"""
"
"
cent,
in.
...
Q"i
"j
in.
203
spool
of field
field turns
Total
.162
...
Crosssection
Number
in.
...
diameter
Turns
ohms.
...
Cent.
deg.
95
Volts
inch
square
...
cent.
20
at
...
in.
...
conductor
...
inch
in.
420
...
...
brushes
armature
one
cubic
per
...
43
...
brushes
of
Resistance
...
turn
...
Crosssection
Ohms
...
turns
...
Turns
...
...
armature
winding.
...
of coils
...
Total
...
...
of construction
Type
...
drum
or
inches
square
radial
TECHNICAL
Terminal
"
1.125
,,
...
winding...
1560
inch
238
Commutation
Electric
Generators.
commutator
segments
voltage between
Average
Armature
turns
Amperes
turns
ampere
Number
of coils
Turns
coil
per
...
...
...
...
shortcircuited
simultaneously
...
250
second)
(cyclesper
...
brush
per
3
...
4
...
...
conductors
of
Number
2400
pole
per
of commutation
Frequency
...
turn
per
Armature
...
105
pole...
per
18
...
...
...
...
...
simultaneously undergoing
group
per
...
24
commutation
...
Flux
per
Flux
linked
ampere
with
20
in
brushes,
under
24
there
...
with
000154
poles
coils in
is
shortcircuited
of
per
Armature
per
magnetic leakage
...
.000154
henrys.
.000308
...
...
...
volts
11
...
...
FORCE.
2.92
...
...
...
1.25
...
...
...
...
...
3.65
fieldpole
...
...
...
...
...
...
62.8
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
turns
inch
per
kilols.
4 in.
inches
square
46.5
Density
...
...
of
length
for armature
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
8
30
core
"
...
...
...
...
Transmitting
Section
at
flux
from
polepiece
one
19
...
...
...
...
22.5
roots
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
inches
square
1.4 in.
Length
...
...
density
Apparent
...
at
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
125
,,
Ampere
kilols.
130
tooth
root
Corrected
turns
"
per
inch
of
...
length
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
,,
700
980
for teeth
"
Gap
ohm
...
coils
polepiece
...
Section
at
pole
Length,
average
Density
at
Ampere
turns
face
pole
66
...
of
top
and
...
...
...
...
...
bottom
for gap
square
.14
...
...
...
...
...
44
...
...
...
...
kilols.
...
1920
...
...
...
inches
in.
...
face
...
of
Section
Teeth
sets
two
.484
...
henrys
22.8
MAGNETOMOTIVE
Megalines
only
coils
...
Coefficient
and
coils
of shortcircuited
voltage
20
turns
four
fourturn
such
two
10~8
...
Reactance
those
in
ampere
3480
winding
in shortcircuited
Amperes
...
lamination
3840
turns
of these
Reactance
one
their inductance
brush, and
one
...
of armature
two
are
...
length
with
turns
twocircuit
inch
per
24
of four
Inductance
But
turn
...
...
HorsePower
24
CastSteel Portion
of Circuit
turns
...
...
...
inch
per
of the
of
field
101.5
...
of the
...
for armature
320
...
...
excitingwindings ;
be
to
main
is 32
3250
kilols.
35
are
follows
as
turns
...
...
poles carry
101.5
somewhat
Ampere
taken
as
and
amperes,
turns.
ampere
of
hence
diverted
field ampere
These
the
turns
per
probably
30
...
...
...
980
"
1920
...
frame...
"
320
"
turns
ampere
...
...
...
...
Total
...
3250
polepiece
per
...
CONSTANTS.
THERMAL
:
Resistance
input
weight
loss at
deg.
95
.394
...
45.5
...
...
...
...
...
...
watts
314
Ib.
800
watts
...
...
...
2.55
laminations
...
,,
...
1615
losses
...
...
of armature
815
...
teeth
loss)
core
amperes
...
Cent.
laminations, including
ohm
...
...
...
of armature
Length
Cent.
deg.
(only apparently
in armature
pound
per
95
loss
core
,,
Total
at
capacity
of armature
observed
Watts
rated
at
C2R
Armature
Total
brushes
between
Amperes
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
"
12
(over conductors)
...
600
of armature
...
\Vattspersquareinchperipheralradiatingsurface
...
...
in.
inches
square
2.7
watts
.81
ohm
...
Spools :
Total
resistanceof
in
Amperes
Spool
C?R
Commutator
Area
Brush
Volts
R
Brush
Total
the
field
two
loss
95
at
95
spools at
deg. Cent.
...
32
spool winding
...
...
...
...
...
830
Cent.
deg.
amperes
watts
of
bearing
Amperes
Ohms
C2
one
teeth
Field
203
from
are
core
gap
Armature
the
corresponding to
being
current
...
"
inches
square
...
...
cent,
per
32
...
...
...
length
exciting current
polepieceare
distributed
four
spool,only
polepiece. Thirty
...
...
,,
one
...
70
...
...
for caststeel
two
...
9 in.
density
Ampere
fields,the
239
52
Length, magnetic
on
Motor.
...
Average
turns
Railway
crosssection
Average
Only
Geared
per
per
inch
square
square
of
surface
inch
of
at
at
surface
negative
...
...
...
of carbon
brushes
per
pressure
inches
amperes
.03
ohm
...
.053
...
...
...
,,
...
2.4 volts
...
1 1 0 watts
contacts
pressure
square
40
surface
contacts
...
brush
brush
brush
...
brushbearing
bearing
resistance, positive
drop
1.13
positive brush
of
2 Ib.
inch
square
...
...
...
...
...
4.5
...
...
...
...
...
...
,,
tt.40
"?
(we
0
SOO
tOO
SOO
600
(1SI6C)
1SOO
IOOO
BAR
DRAW
1600
1100
fi
20
16
12
o)
HORSE
32
29
29
36
OUTPUT
rones*
ISOO
PULL
GEARED
RAILWAY
MOTOR.
Fig.^S.
AT
CF
SPEED
Curve
Speed
Gearing
CF
PULL
SAB
DRAW
RATED
MOTOR.
RAILWAY
GEARED
Ftg.2fflFOR
PER
H4MILS.S
Kg trio of
Curve
SCO
of
Commercial
100
i"
HOUR.
30
"
476.
60
*""*
3
Q.
12
16
Miles
20
per
24
Hour.
28
32
36
40
10
"*"ef"
20
jo
Amperes
+0
Efficiency.
90
HorsePoiver
24
Geared
Motor.
241
of friction
Coefficient
...
Peripheral speed
Brush
Railway
.3
...
...
of commutator,
...
feet per
...
minute
1240ft.
...
...
friction
Stray power
Total
36
lost in commutator
(allowance)
...
...
...
loss
commutator
198
...
...
...
...
...
...
per
inch
square
watts
50
100
radiating surface
EFFICIENCY
of commutator
inches
square
2 watts
...
CALCULATIONS.
Watts.
Output
Core
at
rated
capacity
18,100
"...
...
...
...
...
loss
800
...
...
Commutator
and
...
brush
...
spool C2
Field
...
...
...
loss
198
...
C R
Armature
...
loss at
95
...
...
Cent
deg.
815
830
"
...
friction
Gearing
2 000
...
Total
Commercial
...
...
...
...
...
...
input
rated
efficiency
at
22,743
capacity
and
95
deg.
Cent.
79.5
per
cent.1
WEIGHTS.
b.
Armature
250
(magnetic)
core
...
...
...
...
...
teeth
67
"
60
copper...
"
Commutator
...
bars
45
...
Armature
Magnet
Spool
111
bar
...
...
described.
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
and
...
258
several
number
few
these
instead
polepiece,
diameter
running
not
only
allowed
Tri this
coils
armature
the
slots would
has
been
of
having
has
the
result, the
...
been
set
found
in
from
polefaces
too
up
and
the
to
diverting
the
shunt
in
the
design
the
motor
eddy
have
one
two
core,
up
to
field
the
field
other
spool
per
The
poles.
is minimised
by
extremely high
greatlyreduced
to
just
loss in
current
consequent
sparking
has
slot, largely
one
an
great
largelyreduced, and
the
of draw
laminated, since
are
preferableto
also
of
those
arranged
are
salient
two
teeth, but
loss
...
this motor.
respects
many
...
streetrailwaymotors,
of slots,and
wide
poleface. It
armature
curves
given respectively
are
modern
more
differingin
Thus
reducing the
wise
of the
lines
...
...
...
for
pull,output, speed,and efficiency
followed
...
...
1525
complete
many
...
...
129
...
In
the
...
...
...
520
pole
copper
Machine
...
635
complete
of
mass
spool winding
for.
is
the
not
~y
/r
ff*'
Electric
242
iron,the
armature
of not
loss is small.
core
different
very
Generators.
A
motor
the
capacityfrom
one
and
designedon these lines,
just described,will next be
described.
GEARED
RAILWAY
MOTOR
ARMATURE
AN
FOR
SPEED
OF
OUTPUT
RATED
640
REVOLUTIONS
27
OF
PER
HORSEPOWER
AT
MINUTE.
generally
The
of field and
g.ZGZ
Centre,Section, of
armature
run
of
to
one
75
Polepiece
deg.Cent., as
hour's duration.
measured
The
motor
by
thermometer
is illustrated in
after
Figs.259
fullload
to 277
inclusive.
Applying this
same
terminal
volts
standard
permissibletemperature rise
to
runs
of
Electric
244
Generators.
SPECIFICATION.
of
Number
Rated
poles
4
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
27
horsepower output
...
...
...
...
...
kilowatts
20.2
"
above
Efficiencyat
The
efficiencyis
maximum
out
rating
about
at
the
entire
overloads.
and
little
of
higher
Kilowatts
input
Corresponding
rated
at
in
input
per
,,
of teeth
axle
of gear
of
25.6
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
51
...
...
...
of armature
G40
...
...
14
...
...
...
....
67
4.78
per
...
...
33in.
on
in
Pounds
drawbar
footpounds
at
...
...
...
...
wheels
1160
...
...
...
...
13.1
"
per
minute,
normal
pull,at
rated
...
hour
"
Output
...
134
...
minute,
miles
"
...
conditions
at
normal
rating
in
cycles per
...
890,000
...
770
rating...
...
...
...
second
21.4
...
...
DIMENSIONS.
Armature
Diameter
all...
over
11
...
bottom
at
...
...
of
core
of
Effective
of
magnetic
...
"
6.17
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
,,
,,
in. wide
iron
7.42
...
in.
8.65
between
...
...
...
,,
...
laminations
10
...
...
...
...
of laminations...
cent.
per
.025
...
Depth
,,
...
...
surface
armature
...
Thickness
...
core
9
...
ventilatingducts, each
insulation
Japan
...
of
all
over
length
at
...
magnetic portion
...
Number
Pitch
of useful
in.
..
8.42
...
diameter
Length
...
of slots
,,
Internal
...
...
...
...
in.
...
of slot
1.29
"
Width
of slot at
at
root
surface
,,
Number
...
...
Minimum
Size
Bare
...
...
...
...
...
Jjj
,,
29
width
...
...
of tooth
of armature
diameter
...
...
...
...
...
...
of tooth...
.445
...
Width
...
i
of slots
...
at
conductor,
of armature
B.
and
S. gauge
...
,,
No.
...
...
...
...
...
.102
...
...
0081
"
in.
...
.724
...
conductors
Crosssection
"
...
face
armature
its
heavy
to
minute
in feet per
car
Frequency
load
500
minute
...
of axle
at
high through
reduction
Revolutions
Speed
quarter
is
gear
"
,,
Ratio
and
it is
that
so
is, from
...
pinion
armature
on
load,
...
...
...
revolutions
Number
lighter loads,
at
cent.
per
...
...
load
...
amperes
79
"
Fig. 282.)
...
voltage
Cent
that
working,
curve
(See efficiency
Terminal
deg
fullrated
twothirds
range
95
at
10
in.
square
inches
Electric
246
Core
Magnet
Generators.
of
Length
pole
face
in.
...
...
...
6.1
arc
"
"
Pole
arc
of
Length
.69
pitch...
7
magnet
...
...
...
core
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
8 in.
...
4"
Width
of field
of bore
Diameter
...
of gap
Length
above
clearance
...
...
,,
,,
,,
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
,,

,,
32
,,
Diameter
...
...
of
Number
...
of
"
Thickness
Available
...
...
segments
Width
...
...
...
3
...
at
commutator
segment
at
root
...
...
...
...
...
..
...
...
face
.243
in.
.108
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
,,
.050
insulation
of surface
length
in.
...
slot
per
segment
of mica
...
...
87
segments
"
Brushes
"
11392
armature
below
Commutator
...
...
of
segment
,,
2
"
of sets
Number
...
in
...
...
...
2
...
,,
Length,
...
set
one
...
...
...
...
...
radial
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
1"
Width
...
Thickness
...
...
of
...
one
...
625
brush
...
...
Radial
...
...
...
...
...
...
,,
inches
square
...
of brush
Type
"
.......
of contact
Area
in.
21
carbon
...
MATERIALS.
Armature
...
...
Magnet
Pole
...
...
...
...
...
Cast
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
,,
...
Sheet
faces...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
,,
Carbon
Brushes
...
...
...
...
...
TECHNICAL
Terminal
per
DATA.
...
...
...
...
....
conductors
696
...
Conductors
...
500
voltage
of face
Number
...
...
slot
24
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
coil
,,
Number
Style
...
of circuits
of
Gramme
Type
steel
Sheet
core
frame
winding
ring
or
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Single
...
drum
Drum
...
construction
Number
2
...
of
...
Formed
winding
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
coil
of coils
Mean
length
Total
armature
of
one
...
armature
...
...
38.5
turn
...
in series
between
...
...
Length
Crosssection
...
...
...
...
...
...
174
brushes
...
between
brushes...
6700
...
of
one
in.
348
turns
...
Turns
winding
87
...
armature
...
...
...
.0081
..
...
in.
...
conductor
...
square
inch
27
HorsePower
to
Geared
.dotted,line reproseTifa
Motor.
Railway
of
outline
2J2SecAJ).
IrundaAwrvJ'ig
Section,
r/
*x
ft
SSTT
Zi_
"f
"Shows
shape*
of"
pifce
before
being
247
248
Electric
Generators.
HorsePower
27
Ohms
cubic
per
Resistance
"
Volts
of field
of
20
at
Railway
249
.00000068
Cent.
deg.
.28 ohm
...
...
j)
95
at
Motor.
Cent
deg.
"
in armature
length
Size
20
at
brushes
"
drop
Mean
inch
between
Geared
...
.00
"""
Cent.
deg.
...
...
...
...
...
...
field turn
one
...
S. gauge
Turns
...
...
...
per
spool
of field
Number
Total
spools
field turns
length
"
...
...
of
resistance
...
...
...
brush
in brush
drop
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
20
at
...
deg. Cent.
)"
winding
...
...
22,000 in.
.59
"
deg. Cent.
"
"
"
"
"
...
"
"
volts
...
.048
ohm
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
59.3
...
,,
of motor
441
in armature
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
3130
winding
field
,,
,,
Commutation
,,
,,
10
90
i;7~v
turns
Amperes
Turns
...
...
...
...
...
25.5
of
turns
pole
per
commutation,
...
...
...
2200
...
...
...
...
second
cycles per
270
...
...
...
simultaneously shortcircuited,per
brush
2
...
coil
per
Number
21
segments
87
...
of coils
Number
pole
per
ampere
Frequency
commutator
turn
per
Armature
4
...
of
...
conductors
...
per
...
...
...
...
simultaneously undergoing
group,
16
commutation
...
Flux
per
turn
ampere
linked
with
16
...
inchlength of
per
with
turns
20
Inductance
a
armature
in
ampere
turns
are
two
2880
winding,
two
under
of these
such
the
and
brush, and
...
only
coils in
their
Estimations
Megalines
Armature
of
per
pole
series,being
.000230
is
henrys
...
.39
coils
...
...
...
ohm
...
amperes
...
9.9 volts
coils
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
per
magnetic leakage
field
of
25.5
voltage of shortcircuited
henrys
...
sets
two
inductance
...
Magnetomotive
lines
.000115
coils
...
Force
20
turns,
10~8...
with
fourturn
shortcircuited
in shortcircuited
Reactance
lamination
those
"
brushes, there
Amperes
...
2880
fourpole,twocircuit
Reactance
...
16
of four
commutated
...
...
,,
In
,,
38.6
...
brushes
...
inch
" o
2.4 volts
force
square
ohm
...
contacts
...
per
"
...
(positive+ negative)
contacts
electromotive
Amperes
...
...
...
"
95
at
armature, field,and
,,
inch
626
"t
Volts
in.
square
...
yo
Resistance
156.5
spool copper
in field
drop
Counter
...
...
in series
"
"
,,
...
...
.026
spool winding
,,
Volts
...
of field conductor
field
in.
No.
.182
...
Crosssection
volts
36
...
conductor, B. and
diameter
Bare
,,
18.3
pole piece
2.96
1.25
...
...
3.70
...
...
...
...
...
...
16.7
Section
...
Density
...
...
"""
"""
inches
square
kilols.
177
...
...
Electric
250
6CAACO
Fiq. 218
*s
AN
ARMATURE
RAILWAV
SPEED
MOTOR.
or
e^o'n.
Generators.
Electric
252
in root
density
Apparent
Generators.
tooth
148
...
...
...
...
...
Corrected
138
,,
,,
Ampere
turns
inch
per
of
...
...
length
...
...
...
1 300
...
...
...
...
for teeth
1680
"
Gap
Section
But
poleface
at
owing
the
to
(see Figs.
...
and
262
corrected
length
Poleface
Ampere
Cast
Steel
Portion
Average
Length
of air gap
shunt.
45
square
is not
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
66
...
kilols.
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
39
...
...
...
...
of
inch
...
...
...
length
...
...
frame
per
main
...
kilols.
...
90
...
in
current
...
670
pole piece
turns, and
156.6
in.
...
...
96
...
portion of the
...
this
...
full field is
motor
is diverted
through
load
to
always
auxiliary
an
Hence
Ampere
turns
field
per
spool
full rated
at
7950
This
in the
somewhat
are
equal
156.5
51
turns.
ampere
of 7,950
force
magnetomotive
be distributed
turns
ampere
followingmanner
considered
be
can
Turns.
2700
core
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Teeth
1680
2900
Gap
Steel
...
It is not
670
magnetomotive
intended
to
but
dimensions
employed,
is obtained.
of
some
working
the
from
idea
per
pole piece
the
of the
observed
the
7950
...
impression that
magnetomotive
apparatus, and
rough
force
the
convey
is obtainable, in these
;
...
Frame
Total
accuracy
to
Ampere
Armature
motors
inches
square
...
7.5
(magnetic)
spool carries
inches
in.
2900
Circuit
per
inches
poleface
surface
...
section)
...
turns
square
poleface should
at
...
...
"
used, i.e.,
no
entire
section
corrected
for caststeel
Each
the
55
...
crosssection
Average density
Ampere
...
the
.14
for gap
of
...
constructing
...
...
density (from
turns
...
of
263), whereby
equally effective, a
be
Mean
...
special method
force
...
any
distribution
from
propertiesof
of the
in
estimations
results, and
assumed
high degree
the
the
of
railway
known
material
magnetomotive
force
jo
Electric
254
Generators.
CONSTANTS.
THERMAL
Armature
Resistance
between
Amperes
input
Armature
Total
deg.
amperes
925
Cent.
including teeth
(only apparently
loss)
core
watts
120
Ib.
1120
watts
9.3
laminations
Ib. in armature
per
ohm
...
51
laminations
loss
core
"
.36
Cent.
deg.
capacity
of armature
weight
95
at
95
loss at
observed
Total
rated
at
C2 R
Watts
brushes
"
...
of armature
2045
losses
...
of armature,
Length
Field
of
465
armature
peripheral radiating
inch
square
per
in.
...
13.5
conductors
over
surface
inches
square
4.4
watts
Spools :
resistance, all field spools at 95 deg. Cent.
Total
Current
in
Commutator
Area
of
Ohms
95
per
square
of
of
inch
square
positivebrushes
of
inch
drop
brush
at
Brush
brush
at
Coefficient
watts
...
pounds
per
.03
.
.048
...
,,
..
...
...
...
...
2.4
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
square
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
,,
...
...
.3
of commutator
...
...
(feetper minute)
1850ft.
...
...
46
...
...
...
...
...
50
...
,,
...
loss
216
...
radiation
...
...
...
...
,,
...
surface
95
...
inch
square
watts
...
lost in commutator
stray power
commutator
per
watts
2 Ib.
5
...
Watts
volts
122
inch
of friction
for
Peripheral
ohm
friction
Allowance
amperes
...
brushes
of carbon
inches
square
40.5
.
negative
(watts)
pressure
Peripheral speed
Brush
surface
...
...
surface
contacts
contacts
pressure,
brush
1.25
...
brushbearing
bearing
resistance, positive +
Volts
Total
amperes
2000
Cent.
deg.
surface
bearing
per
Brush
Total
loss at
ohm
Amperes
C2R
spool winding
C2R
Spool
.76
51
...
...
...
peripheral radiating
surface
...
of
square
inches
com
2.3 watts
mutator
...
...
...
EFFICIENCY
...
...
...
...
ESTIMATIONS.
Watts.
Output
Core
at
rated
capacity
...
...
...
...
20,200
...
loss
1,120
Commutator
and
brush
loss
218
...
Armature
C2R
loss at
95
deg.
...
...
...
...
Cent.
925
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Field
"
Gearing
"
2,000
"
friction
...
...
...
Total
Commercial
efficiencyat
rated
...
1,200
25,663
input
capacity
and
95
deg.
Cent.
79
per
cent.
27
HorsePoiver
Geared
Railway
Motor.
255
"la
t
"
"
" IL.
"8?
1
Electric
256
Generators.
WEIGHTS.
Ib.
laminations
Armature
"
Motor
In
complete (without
Figs. 278
output,
to
283
axle
gear
thermal
miles
23.8
hour
per
pull of
drawbar
such
gives
motor
RAILWAY
motors
the
above
at
exerting a
torque far
tractive
takes
the
effort
its constants
of
Number
Drawbar
pull
7,350
of
this
...
...
...
miles
23.8
in feet per
Diameter
of
in
Output
the
figure;
in
of this
in
given
in
pull of
is
motor
fact, up
Figs. 284
per
...
...
...
1840
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
23.8
...
Ib.
miles
2100ft.
...
...
42
...
...
...
...
per
190
...
minute
per
in.
...
minute
for above
...
...
drawbar
...
pull and
3,800,000
117
horsepower
...
...
...
...
...
...
kilowatts
87.5
"
kilowatts
Corresponding
Terminal
Current
voltage
input
Frequency
in
input
95.8
...
...
...
...
...
500
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
cycles per
...
...
...
...
volts
...
192
amperes
...
second
G. 3 5
...
...
...
...
...
cycles
DIMENSIONS.
Armature
Diameter
all
over
...
Length
Length
Effective
Pitch
at
at
bottom
diameter
of
...
...
...
...
core
over
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
all
,,
,,
9
,,
28
length, magnetic
surface
in.
19.04
core
...
armature
...
...
of slots
of
22
45
...
Diameter
Internal
...
conductors
over
iron
of
of
319, and
...
wheels
footpounds
this
slipping
to
hour
...
driving
four
limit
the
to
the
capable
weight, before
speed
Ditto
Ib. to
of which,
drawbar
minute...
revolutions
Armature
total
of
speed
1,840
equipment
Ib.,but
are
at
followingtabularlyarrangedcalculation
in the
contributes
the
locomotive
speed,
poles
at
is
forth
set
are
excess
possiblefor
place. Drawings
It
wheels.
speed
in
horsepower
117
Consequently
employed.
are
of D.P.B.,
MOTOR.
3 5 ton
locomotive
the
42in.
on
of
output
an
1460
characteristics.
DIRECTCONNECTED
This
case)
curves
given,respectively,
are
357
and
gear
and
loss, efficiency,
core
120
"
25.2
"
17.7
,
117
HorsePower
Railway
Motor,
'257
Electric
258
insulation
Japan
between
Generators.
10
laminations
...
Thickness
.025
...
Depth
cent.
per
...
...
...
of laminations
...
...
...
in.
...
of slot
1.73
Width
at
"
...
...
.52
root
"
,,
.52
surface
,,
,,
Number
...
...
...
...
...
,,
...
61
of slots
...
...
Minimum
width
Width
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
.463
of tooth
of tooth
face
armature
at
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
,,
.10
conductor
...
,,
...
,,
.60
Depth
"
"
is
stranded
pressed
No.
19
.060
...
of
conductor...
of armature
crosssection
Apparent
This
in.
.635
19
and
B.
wire
gauge
of the
section
conductor,
S. gauge.
is
.0101
strands
49
made
up
inch,
square
49
hence
the
No.
cross
.0495
.0101
...
inches
strands
of
crosssection
The
is 49
of
square
...
inch
square
...
...
Fig.285
^O.SZT
:a
\j
(Ti
But
allowance
due
when
twisted
in
...
of
increased
resistance
strands
individual
forming.
Hence
should
copper
...
...
...
stranded
conductors
of
be
the
esti
...
of about
in
these
...
...
...
...
...
...
of
Diameter
this
case,
and
dimensions.
magnet
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
of gap
9
clearance
above
...
...
...
...
armature
...
...
...
below
"
"
"
...
...
in.
...
of field
...
cent.
per
28
core
...
of bore
in.
"
...
73
...
23T^
yV
"
"
"
""
"
Diameter
19
...
...
,,
inches
13.2
arc
pitch...
4
"
Number
square
...
Width
Commutator
.046
...
28
poleface
"
arc
Length
lit
Length
Length
solid
of
the
experimentallydeterminedvalue
fairlyrepresentative of
Pole
process
crosssection
the
Core
of
at
was
Magnet
for the
length
the
...
This
made
be
increased
equivalent
mated
also
must
the
to
MA*
O^lff
"
\
of
...
,,
...
...
...
...
"
...
183
segments
...
per
slot
...
...
...
...
...
is
260
Electric
Generators.
Railway
Motor.
261
Or"
"',
Ht
"
"S
'.*
.
"
fioi
'
HorsePower
117
two
of
in.
.060
by
of .010
thickness
section
of field conductor
.060
winding
is made
in.
by 2"
the
on
of
up
all four
on
of two
Resistance
"
of
of
on
large spools
are
70
spools at
deg.
of
i,
70
per
.234
...
182
...
...
...
"
.059
...
,,
...
...
...
11
volts
.012
ohm
...
...
(positive+ negative)
..
...
2 volts
field,and
force
inch
...
...
brushes
29
...
...
...
of motor
...
...
winding
of small
winding
"
"
,,
471
in armature
"
"
ohm
.012
contacts...
,,
inch
square
...
...
Cent
...
armature,
square
"
2100
...
...
...
...
1000
spools
820
large
,,
,,
...
"
...
between
Average voltage
Armature
turns
Amperes
per
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
4200
pole
per
...
cycles per
...
...
...
...
...
...
second
138
shortcircuited
simultaneously
...
per
brush
3
...
coil
per
1
...
of
Number
...
91
commutation,
of
of coils
Number
10.7
segments
46
...
turns
ampere
Frequency
commutator
pole...
turn
per
Armature
...
conductors
...
per
...
...
...
...
simultaneously undergoing
group
commutation...
6
...
turn
ampere
per
...
inch
per
...
of
length
...
...
...
of
lamina
armature
20
tions
linked
of
one
only
two
series, being
inductance
with
turns
ampere
Reactance
sets
commutated
are
the
two
such
brush,
henrys
...
four
poles
turns
and
in
their
.OOOOG7
is
...
of shortcircuited
...
...
...
henrys
...
.058
turns
...
...
ohm
...
91
in
,,
voltage
.........
,,
of shortcircuited
of
in
5.3
turns
...
with
winding
under
...
...
brushes, there
of
FORCE
MAGNETOMOTIVE
Megalines
3360
turns
...
...
...
twocircuit
...
Amperes
in those
.0000336
...
...
Reactance
one
turn
having
armature
and
six
with
Inductance
The
one
"
deg.
contacts
electromotive
,,
Flux
whose
seventysixturns,
Cent.
...
,,
Commutation
inch
.047
at
in brush
drop
Amperes
Flux
of
square
in series
...
Turns
.193
all
...
of brush
,,
Counter
consists
...
in field
drop
Resistance
"
large
"
Volts
turns
...
consists
in.
.050
spools
small
resistance
spool
Volts
spools
large spools
stripof
small
on
of field conductor
turns
Total
between
263
in.
Crosssection
Total
Insulation
Motor.
in. of asbestos.
Crosssection
The
in.
.875
Railway
per
magnetic leakage
magnet
pole piece
taken
...
ESTIMATIONS.
20.6
...
...
...
1.15
at
volts
...
...
...
...
of
264
Electric
Generators.
HorsePower
117
Armature
Railway
Motor
265
Section
240
Density
kilolines
Length, magnetic
Ampere
turns
6 in.
inch
per
of
length
for armature
DIRECT
When
CONNECTED
RAILWAY
SATURATION
CURVE
dnven
on
circuit
open
40
240
core
"
Ticy.320^
MOTOR.
DIRECT
CONNECTED
Fl"J322_COK"
190 r p.m, field
at
inch
square
86
RAILWAY
MOTOR.
CURVES.
LOSs
dfd
30OO{"
with
brushes
raised
2800
2600
2400
2200
2000
JSOO
1600
1WO
noo
looo
60
SO
ISO
VO
MO
ICO
180
20O
ZX
200
260
28O
SOO
SOO
row
600
ooo
200
'Pig.32,1.
120
DIRECT
CURVE
"
"x
Jeeth
oo
no
GO
igo
100
CONNECTED
OF
iso
iea
RAILWAY
COMMERCIAL
zta
zoo
"o
za"
zao
MOTOR.
EFFICIENCY.
an
Transmitting
Section
at
flux from
one
Apparent
13
...
...
...
...
152
...
Length
polepiece
roots
...
...
...
...
...
...
1.73
...
...
...
density at
...
...
...
...
13"
...
kilolines
...
127
Corrected
"
"
Ampere
in.
...
tooth
root
inches
square
turns
per
inch
of
...
length
...
...
...
"
...
1000
...
...
...
...
1730
for teeth
...
300
Electric
26 G
Gap
Section
...
of
average
gap,
...
top
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
for gap
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
turns
Portion
5000
...
240
...
Length, magnetic...
Average density
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
inch
of
length
turns
per
turns
for caststeel
is
observed
in.
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
kilolines
105
frame
following Table
inches
square
...
102
...
Ampere
force
...
17
Ampere
magnetomotive
kilolines
...
crosssection
Average
in.
...
56
Circuit
of
inches
square
...
.28
...
Ampere
the
...
bottom
...
at
In
and
poleface
Density
CastSteel
370
poleface
at
Length
circuit
Generators.
1780
(per polepiece)
given
...
subdivision
estimated
the
the
among
...
different
portionsof
of
the
the
magnetic
:"
Turns.
Ampere
Armature
240
core
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
teeth
1730
"
5000
Gap
Caststeel
1780
frame
...
Total
turns
ampere
poles,and
fifteen turns
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
8750
spool
is furnished
by
spool,and
small
two
the
large spools on
two
small
per
...
field
per
field excitation
The
bottom
...
other
per
full rated
spool at
two
the
top and
There
poles.
seventysixper largespool,the
1 ^
excitation
spools on
load
_L
being
average
*7 (\
is
192
8,750
ampere
_j
turns.
THERMAL
Armature
Resistance
Amperes
Total
Watts
Total
input
weight
per
core
brushes
between
at
C2R
Armature
rated
loss at
deg.
of armature
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
teeth
watts
1900
Ib.
1.15
watts
...
laminations
...
...
2200
...
...
...
...
...
...
,,
5300
...
3100
...
losses
inch
amperes
...
Cent.
...
ohm
...
192
...
...
per
.084
Cent.
deg.
(apparently coreloss)
of armature
Watts
70
laminations, including
in arniature
pound
loss
at
capacity
70
,,
Field
CONSTANTS.
...
...
of armature
,,
3250
...
peripheral radiating
...
...
surface
...
square
1.63
watts
.059
ohms
inches
...
Spools :
Total
resistance
Spool
C2R
of four
loss at
70
field
deg.
spools at
Ctnt....
70
deg.
Cent.
...
...
2200
watts
268
Electric
Generators.
Commutators
and
Brush
Gear.
269
270
"
Electric
Generators,
FCg.337.
Fig.33
Fig
340.
number
in
Figs. 324
in
traction
power
Commutators
and
COMMUTATORS
AND
of illustrations
to
Figs. 324
340.
motors,
of
that
directconnected
of
Moore*
to
of
BRUSH
GEAR.
the
and
three
ifie Relation*
01
from,
MOORE'S
RELATION
BRUSH
AMPERES
PER
100
geared
horse
motors.
dtrrent
CantauA
Surface,
AtoB.
RESULTS
BETWEEN
CONTACTS
on
between*
and,
Contorts
mea"uredj
used
in smaller,
irv
Amperes per effuare, Inch, of
Derufity
Arrangement of Apparatus
Jieeietance.
given
are
being
331
former
Ccuboh, brush
271
of commutators
types
illustrate
331
of
Im/e"iigajiuonj
Rfeiftartcf.
Gear.
various
Figs. 330
motor,
Brush
FOR
RESISTANCE
AN
SO.IN.
D
OF
CURRENT
CONTACT
:B
OF
CARBON
DENSITY
IN
SURFACE.
"06
"Of,
04
OS
02
O1
SO
ZO
AMPERES
Figs.
have
been
332
much
to
334
give
used
with
IN.
early designs
some
traction generators.
especially
in Figs. 335
designs are shown
1,600kilowatt generator.
40
SO
PER
general
Other
to
in
success
useful
340, the
of
Mr.
many
modifications
last
one
Parshall's,
later
and
which
machines,
alternative
being employed
in
Electric
272
Commutator
results
conductivity
that
to
that
the
and
freedom
material
from
unequal
otherwise
of
the
just
no
will
For
mica
soft
the
enough
event
not
similar
for
wear
The
mutator
to
to
writers
losses
and
it is of
found
heating, set
intelligenthandling
amply
of
the
speeds, brush
rate
same
the
under
its
superior
since
loss
the
exercised
but
the
to the
page
selection
and
the
relations
contact
in
should
brush.
112,
to
the
give
practical determinations.
of
cumu
commutator
predetermining
of
or
preferablybe
it should
surface
down
in the
copper,
may
commutator
started, is
once
that
turned
conditions
brieflyon
subject
pressure,
such
the
until
the
as
such
method
forth
cover
be
segments
suitablysmooth
segments
primary importance
render
wear,
must
care
slowly,as
present
cast
of
score
necessary,
will
uneven
between
the
at
wear
to
of
great
insulation
inequality. Any
or
segments
effect
reasons
have
the
the
as
more
away
continue
are
thoroughly satisfactoryservice
remedied,
lative.
of
life
the
although good
of
sort
any
further
to
the
the
on
but
negligible,
itself is
shall possess
develop during
is not
wroughtcopper segments
resistance
the
due
drawn,
dropforged segments
generallyunsatisfactory. It
been
have
with
attained
been
preferably be
should
segments
also
have
Generators.
existing
But
com
very
an
between
resistance, is facilitated
Contact
by
of
study
dependence
The
of
the
these
results
of
values
upon
complete
most
Resistance
and
that
tests
various
careful
MOO
RES
.RELATION
273
been
have
made,
showing
the
conditions.
tests
RESULTS
Brushes.
of
carbon
on
brushes
at
present
FOR
RESISTANCE
BETWEEN
___
OF
4OO
CARBON
BRUSH
1GOO
120O
SOO
SPEED
"28Pi
CONTACTANO
IN
FEET
PER
2000
Z400
"OO
2800
MINUTE.
"u
iu
03
i
02
2O
f*SM"i
available,
and
Fig.
appear
results
the
is
341
parts.
CURRCHT
DENSITY
be
to
50
HO
IH
PEP
AMPERES
conducted
those
60
SQ.Ifl
by
graphicallyrepresented
are
given
3O
ATCONTACT
sketch
showing
rotatingcylinder,A,
of 6.8
the
in.
Mr.
in
A.
H.
Figs.
Moore,
341
dispositionand
diameter,
of cast
to
in
1898,
344.
In
of
the
took
the
nature
copper,
2
Electric
of
place
whether
from
derived
to
be
the
given
have
would
these
tests
predictionsof
correct
set
of
but
with
all other
In
consequence.
respects
for
30
("so*.)
hence
important
results
less useful
observed
Mr.
Some
subject.
of
Fig. 345,
results,like
page
B.
E.
and
Mr.
tests
contact
fir
eg
SO
not
it may
special
no
The
especiallygood.
seem
brush
the
of
resistance
w
PER
of
lead
to
commutators,
new
resistances
the
advisable
relatingto
of
mica
constants
found
been
have
be
should
to
as
and
the
as
dissimilaritywas
the
AMPERES
deemed
been
it has
the
holders
brush
good designs of
of
point
values
includes
also
tests
this
inasmuch
which
those
performance
the
that
safely concluded
with
agree
doubt
segments
copper
But
results.
same
of
element
an
harddrawn
of
structure
segmental
introduced
this
and
commutator,
Generators.
holders,
negligible
;
ffo
IN.
divert
to
resistance, by
attention
the
from
addition
the
of
these
values.
Raymond
of
the
has,
results
it will
be
Moore's,
in
America,
for carbon
observed
lead
to
the
conducted
brushes
are
tests
shown
on
in
this
the
same
curves
his
general working
constants
given
on
112.
Dr.
E.
1899, page
Arnold,
in
5, described
the
Elektrotechnische
on
investigations
both
of January
Zeitschrift,
copper
and
carbon
5th,
brushes,
276
Electric
Generators.
Brush
which
from
also
on
copper
to
be
suitable
more
absence
of
inclined
to
thorough
continue
the
in
using
of
of
for
for
brushes
has
brushes.
found
carbon
both
.2
in
the
would
be
But
writers
the
Arnold
carbon
of .3, he
this,
.3
Dr.
cases.
friction
of
support
two
coppergauze
coefficient
in the
neighbourhood
for
in
forth
set
curves
coefficient
value
tests
277
resistances
the
is in
commutators
the
contact
while
that
points out
derived
for the
values
relative
the
been
have
Gear.
and
copper
brushes.
Of
losses
all values
course,
are
dependent
so
brushes, and
the
propertiesof
of
a
motor,
for
is shown
reversible
latest
and
is
365
to
holders
carbon
and
Figs.
is
354
to
355
in
brushes, and
in
of
the
and
Figs. 360
in
358
Fig. 359
361,
in
shown
is
one
design.
brushholder
stamped
largely,of
holder
The
modification
essentiallya
and
353
horsepower launch
constructed
363.
the
brush.
shown
is
352)
to
where
motors,
Figs.
developments
holder
the
on
railway
(Figs. 347
brushes.
coppergauze
holder,
six
In
used
carbon
successful
362
electromagnetic
the
traction
reversed.
been
with
brush
Figs.
brush
and
generators and
first
on
generators with
where
also upon
surfaces, as
upon
"
roughly
very
commutator
for
the
365,
brushes
has
running,
most
in
parts, is given
347
designed for
design,
Another
brush
which
Bayliss reaction
The
of
frequently
for
the
else
than
dynamo.
carbon
is
types
holder
the
radial
holder
useful
illustrate
Figs.
running
brush
shown
the
designs
in
with
use
direction
of
given
are
for
being
and
design of
the
collection
motors,
of their
of
material
commutator
material, quality,and
the
upon
"
of
matter
little better
condition
the
holders, and
of
they
as
of
adjustment
whole
necessarilybe, in practice,but
must
approximate,
the
this
relatingto
Figs.
364
design represented
in
Fig. 357.
Of
from
carbon
the
carbon
carbon
Some
and
types of
brushes.
manufacture.
for carbon
are
for
great
most
brushes
deal
for
graphite
coefficient
much
cases
have
depends
By varying these,
and
grades
brushes.
wide
upon
range
to
lower
the
of
to
up
been
have
hard,
used, ranging
crystalline,
rather
specificresistance,1 a
lower
the
have
lower
graphite
of
range
graphite brushes,
latter
The
resistance, and
mutators,
wide
soft, amorphous,
brushes.
contact
brushes,
of
be
friction
composition
and
specificresistances
Tests
than
specificresistance
some
the
upon
may
com
copper
on
preferred.
lower
be
made
by
types of
methods
of
obtained, both
278
Electric
Generators.
Brush
Gear
279
Electric
280
Mr.
show
Raymond,
carbon
the
of two
brushes
L.
TABLE
between
differences
of these
extent
Amperes
per Square Inch
Brushbearing Surface.
TESTS
GRAPHITE
ox
CARBON
AND
BRUSHES.
Inch
Square
per
Brushbearing Surface.
of
Ohms
of
Carbon.
Graphite.
10
L'O
The
of
hood
.033
.026
.027
.022
50
.022
.019
60
.019
.017
70
.017
80
.015
results
ft. per
at
with
and
minute,
obtained
Raymond
cubic
per
Another
peripheralspeeds
brush
in the
neighbour
about
of
pressures
obtaining the
carbon
for these
Ib. per
1.3
good grade
4,000
times
to
carbon
coarser
best
out
that
they
at
brushes.
the
resistance
helpful,although
attention
brushes
be
to
it is almost
surface,
with
as
There
are
and
materials,
between
the
for
classifyand
methods
type
of
impossible to
very
harder
describe
upon
the
constructing the
of
brush
and
such
and
of
varieties
grade
brush
of
contact
with
occurs
the
the
of
matter
in certain
still
instances,
requires more
with
soft
hard, glazed
brushes, made
grades
It is not
copper.
choice
their
particular case,
have,
copper.
con
graphite
commutator
brushes.
intermediate
these
of
obtain
varieties
many
of carbon
than
each
is 2,500
of
have
to
bright ; indeed,
carbon
more
many
giving
dependent partly
and
.3,
higher potential
on
surface
commutator
clean
kept
coarser,
limits
the
rate
any
brush
Nevertheless,
conditions
commutating
carbon
extent
greater
about
graphite brushes.
liable
are
is
brushes
of
found
stant
of
volts, is
500
gradually pitted
remains
of .47
inch, i.e.,about
say
hardgrained,
been
value
the
for
friction
commutators,
surface
of
specificresistance
microhms
range
obtained
were
coefficient
the
The
one
.045
40
2,000
While
to
.048
.035
inch.
square
Mr.
.075
30
above
and
graphite
representativegrades.
RAYMOND'S
"
Generators.
of brushes
of
their
these
resistance,
variety of dynamoelectricmachine.
while
to
relative
still
more
materials.
is suitable
of
resistances, lying
worth
materials, but
from
of
of all sorts
for
attempt
merits
upon
Scarcely
any
are
the
any
considerable
PART
ROTARY
II.
CONVERTERS.
Converters.
Rotary
284
speeds
able
force, becomes
centrifugal
and
of
commutator
in the
important factor
an
rotary converter,
mechanical
periodicities.The
economical
at
compared
as
limit
design of
with
imposed by
the
armature
continuouscurrent
generators.
In
in
some
operating rotary
rators, whose
This
lack
of
uniformityin
in
synchronism
This
caused
these
angular
difficulties
different
is to
angular velocity.
In
been
devices
to
TABLE
LI.
C2R
OUTPUT
"
Loss
OF
extent
TERMS
rotary
100
and
give
to
for
uniform
design rotary
to
as
employ auxiliary
to
results
serious
GENERATOR
loss
in
EQUAL
FOR
FACTOR
POWER
UNITY
OF
solution
steadying devices.
in
FOR
revolution.
true
as
CONTINUOUSCURRENT
OF
motor
keep perfectly
operate several
to
which
on
there
energy
EFFICIENCY
the
lines
it is necessary
and
CONDUCTORS
which
design
such
gene
converters.
causing cumu
to
parallel. The
of
otherwise
OUTPUT
OF
Station
effect of
the
this condition,
causes,
CONVERSION
to
the
attempted
proper
of
dissipation
ARMATURE
A
operate
was
in
points
that
such
the
IN
IN
ASSUMPTION
The
with
counteract
through
economy,
it
describingthe
complied
Central
troubles
insufficiently
to
generators throughout
engines
have
to
had
velocity,
directdriven
the
at
"surging"
largelydue
the
when
especialdifficulty
converters
rotary
of
in the
with
heard
were
ultimatelyused
was
power
lative oscillations
These
converters.
angular velocityof
uniform
been
has
AND
ON
THE
neutralise
one
CENT.
PER
generator
currents
another,
and
current, varies
of
rotary
permit
of
with
the
converter
small
for
armature
number
a
of
given
conductors
phases.
C2 li loss
Table
in
the
to
LI.
carry
the
gives
armature
the
residual
output
conductors,
in terms
of
current
modified
TABLE
C2R
67
PER
The
comparison
driven
cally
considerable
As
MAGNETIC
loss
FLUX
of
for
GENERATOR
PER
CENT.
OVER
POLEFACE
FOR
EFFICIENCY,
AND
SPANNING
the
of
other
load
same
in the
delivered
ordinary way
Not
only
of
the
from
as
of
results
of
investigation
interestingfeatures
many
the
mechani
the
are
graphical method
the
methods
dynamo.
understanding
an
100
FOR
armature
study
to be
have
preceding values
CONTINUOUSCURRENT
OF
is used
machine
sections
are
given
of the
armature
three
lettered
indicated
analysis,
Figs. 366, 367, 368,
sine
a,
as
lines
b, and
positive. These
ca.
also the
curves
the
zero.
of
the
line currents
the
are
Outwardly
directed
about
directed
line current
ordinates, lettered
resultant
of
by
are
from
three
several
currents
current
curves
the
are
delta
law
Kirchhoff's
junction of
common
in the
alternatingcurrents
first three
derived
prepared.
were
values
The
rings.
clockwise
369
current
be if the
would
collector
of resultant
Thirteen
and
corresponding curves
current
from
currents
always equal
ab, bc,and
and
positive.The
of the
curves
leading to
c,
of instantaneous
winding (as it
present),and
were
in the
must
C3 R
the
the
to
the
PITCH.
loss in the
with
continuous
1.00.
value, but
Fig. 366
sum
OUTPUT
OF
as
unity.
CONDUCTORS
POLAR
THE
used
285
converter.
rotary
the
than
OF
when
at
which
to
continuouscurrent
leads
pursued
TERMS
ARMATURE
have
when
commutator
extent
other
IN
C~ H
the
being taken
Converters.
of Rotary
armature
same
DISTRIBUTION
OF
writers
subjectof
the
IN
GAP
CENT.
the
factors
Loss
UNIFORM
FOR
alone
shows
OUTPUT
"
of
Conductors
this latter
for power
LII.
Armature
output
LII.
EQUAL
In
the
generator,
Table
in
in
Loss
C'R
that
conductors
are
considered
to
M,
is
divide
one
com
as
Converters.
Rotary
286
winding
i.e.,from
that
shows
would
M,
to
six
these
of two
kinds, of
values
in
become
in
the
merely
and
to
study the
to
positionsA
and
positions.
out
in
Figs. 368
this
and
to
100
winding
volts
negative),of brushes.
The
has
that
armature
there
two
are
conductors
necessary.
and
into account,
to
take
brushes, which
are
The
to
thought
somewhat
per
best
just
to
as
it comes,
modifies
the
three
current
these
practicalpurposes
rotary
be
been
have
of
from
poles
this
it may
final
pair
is immaterial.
be
assumed
is
not
of conductors,
disturbing influence
result.
whose
each
assumption
fairlylarge number
the
mapped
converter, from
delivered
number
C2R
average
slot, though
take
examination
.867, whilst
"
multiplecircuit
singlewinding, and
It
was
the
remainder,
conductors, corresponding
armature
of
line and
magnitudes, are
A, the
developed diagrams
(positiveand
An
current
and
.867
The
these.
In
types.
calculate
purpose,
at
to
F.
to
it is sufficient for
in the
then
amperes
relates
as
the
are
repetitionof
Hence
1.00.
B, and
For
100
"
far
distribution
current
two
be
given diagrams of
are
from
respectively0,
windings, are
and
Fig. 367
ordinates
diagrams, so
which
B, .5, .5
commutator
of the
each
from
currents
In
deg.sections.
into 30
pletecycleup
Of
course,
of
the
this
C*R
.in Armature
Loss
disturbing influence
paratively narrow
number
of
The
would
this
amperes
far
so
the
as
the
width
of
this
brushes.
the
will
tend
Com
offset
to
would
than
287
be
the
taken
in
voltage.
is made
assumption
to
Converters.
of Rotary
shown, and
are
that
efficiency,
only calling for
100
with
vary
brushes
conductors'
practicefor
Conductors
the
the
rotary
input equal
an
brushes
commutator
continuouscurrent
the
to
calls for 50
end
is of
converter
amperes
per
This
cent,
per
To
output.
is concerned.
Orb'
supply
conductor,
in
shown
is
16OO
bco
bC't7SZ
bC=
100
1600
C0="S67
CUb1
600
OtbOO
(5031 B)
direction
and
vertical
the
lines
volts
100
representingface
and
Therefore, input
volts
per
100
winding
3330
100
of
ends
conductors.
61.5
watts
Volts
watts.
.615
lower
the
figuresat
give 10,000
amperes
phase
per
and
arrowheads
magnitude by
poles.
collector
between
volts.1
of
pair
per
Amperes
per
rings
winding
3330
TTTZ
O 1
of
the
The
Ratio
Voltage
these
for
54
(effective). In
amperes
analysis,
this
which
considers
at
Values
Estimation
of
the
the
the
ElectroMotive
Alternating Voltage
Commutator,
; have
ElectroMotive
of
already
Force.
and
been
the
Force
between
Estimation
given
on
pages
in
Rocary Converters,
Collector
of
the
84, 85,
Rings
Effect
and
of
86,
the
in
Pole
the
Tables
of
Values
ContinuousCurrent
the
to
Face
section
Spread
on
upon
Formulae
Rotary
9
99
591
Converters.
OS
CO
II
C'R
Loss
in Armature
Conductors
of Rotary Converters.
"
9w^""
.w
^/v/v/'v/'x
"
r^^i'3X
"*
X)
"'
"
'o
"0
289
Rotary
:Z
Converters.
292
H!
s
Rotary
Converters.
values,
instantaneous
the
maximum
When
the
from
distribution
in the
ing
current
things
of
diagrams
to
will
instantaneous
these
lines
as
from
which
These
the
TABLE
LV.
There
show
also
LIU.
and
from
pole
is low.
does
not
of
LV.,
the
so
bottom,
the
results
"
C2R
FOR
Loss
THE
is
OP
THAT
OF
OUTPUT,
SAME
ARMATURE
SAME
100
ASSUMING
Per
IN
PER
CENT.
85
But
375
...
oo
is introduced
the
for
condition
the
It
appear.
only
Cent.
.87
by
of
will
under
for
greatly
be
the
continuous
the
values
other
results
noted
brush,
the
as
of the
the
of
unity, the
number
of
results
for
of
conductors
per
power
current
width
position and
exact
reaching
often
the
the
sum
position
of
the
currents.
into
the
above
form, brings
comparatively highpower
decreased.
the
factor
power
Throwing
it is
where
to
top
58
shortcircuit
loss is
resultant
the
Factor.
under
alternating and
that
to
middle
LIV.,
1.00
indefiniteness
value
of
lagging currents,
...
this
the
the
at
brushes
give
corresponding
.50
the
the
EFFICIENCY.
Power
Some
at
ARMATURE
GENERATOR
for
arrowheads
conductors,
positive,and
as
in Table
up
and
and
successive
48
loss.
rise in C2R
summed
Any
directions
Tables
in
values
given
48.
arrowheads
and
values
given
to
currents
figures and
The
also
the
shown
as
conductors, correspond
face
the
of
directions
the
48
values
The
working
force,
respectively, is
are
from
result.
electromotive
There
top is regarded
THAT
and
assumed,
amperes.
the
representing
positionsA
CENT.
PER
numbered
are
are
are
76.5
with
369.
instantaneous
rapid
CONTINUOUSCURRENT
CONVERSION
and
are
for
"
368
same
to
results
average
positions
results
bottom
negative.
phase
and
the
give
from
current
in
conditions.
These
currents.
is
lines
values
instantaneous
the
been
has
curve
^2
54
for
the
the
current
wave
of
these
give
of
part
upper
Figs.
poles,and
two
sine
value
of
conductors
of
Converters.
Rotary
294
factors
out
that
forciblythe
the
residual
fact
C2R
SINGLEPHASE
The
for
is connected
winding
the
point, to
collector
one
Fig
FOR
to
SINGLEPHASE
is illustrated
Fig.
converter,
winding
ROTARY
alternatingcurrent
winding, at
to the
collector
other
one
some
onehalf
tracing through
72
CONVERTER.
CONDUCTORS,
in the
with
is
371
writh
has
the
twocircuit
after
is carried
single winding,
sixpolearmature
In
For
of the
This
ring.
case
370
twocircuit
converter,
Then
segments, exactlyas
commutator
dynamo.
tapped, for
ring.
64
is
conductors, a tap
armature
WINDING
winding
CONVERTERS.
the
to
up
ordinary continuouscurrent
an
connections
of
ROTARY
295
given
connected
PITCH
up
SINGLE
WINDING
WITH
11.
as
of
singlephaserotary
Fig. 370,
which
relates
conductors.
diagram
t\vocircuit
conductors.
TwoCiucuiT
POLES,
winding diagram
64
a
Six
singly
for
sixpole singlephaserotary
reentrant
triple winding.
This
with
two
WINDING
FOR
SINGLEPHASE
TRIPLE
WINDING
FOR
72
WINDING
SINGLEPHASE
CONDUCTORS,
ROTARY
72
WITH
ROTARY
Six
CONVERTER.
TWOCIRCUIT
CONDUCTORS,
Six
CONVERTER.
TWOCIRCUIT
POLES,
FRONT
PITCH
POLES,
13, BACK
SINGLY
PITCH
SINGLE
PITCH
REENTRANT
11.
WINDING
11.
WITH
Advantages of Polyphase
circuit
multiplewindings,have
triplewinding
In
of
Fig. 371
Fig. 372
connected
sixcircuit
as
up
has
SinglePhase Rotaries.
over
two
the
297
twocircuit
equidistant
taps.
singlewinding, also with 72 conductors,
2x36
singlephaserotary
For
converter.
such
is
winding
'
'""\
Fig.31 3.
WINDING
FOR
108
there
are
two
being divided
In
and
as
/y^X
r^t"L
/
f
CONDUCTORS,
up
into
per
six
alreadyon
'*^ N,'"*' \
ROTARY
Six
pair
I I 1
pages
so
/ "
of
the
less
X"
"
V
19, BACK
six
12
taps
all, the
in
LI.
winding
each.
overlappingof
complete
WITH
17.
PITCH
conductors
and
WINDING
SINGLE
SixCmcuiT
poles,hence
much
's!0\\
PITCH
FRONT
equal sections
is
'*\ \
CONVERTER.
POLES,
of
singlephaserotary converters,
currents
collectorring
shown
""N^
sTs^'r^
THREEPHASE
taps
''
x*v ^_^
/"/y^../^^'^^ ^'\,^'
"X
S
for
than
LIL,
the
as
commutator
multiphase,
to render
2
their
use
uneconomical,
very
is the
There
run
further
of the
because
disadvantage
synchronism
to
up
from
FOR
THREEPHASE
90
they
rarelyused
are
windings
entire
shows
as
pure
the
turns
with
be
cannot
general, the
\
.*
TWOCIRCUIT
POLES,
distribution
the
In
machine.
and
distinctly
unsatisfactory,
PITCH
SINGLE
series
entire
alternatingcurrent
WINDING
WITH
11.
capacities. An
in
given
is
"v/\
../
EIGHT
simultaneously linked
used
CONVERTER.
to
in
singlephase rotary
ROTARY
that, due
converters
CONDUCTORS,
peripheralsurface, the
winding
that
output
^^^
WINDING
reduced
side.
alternatingcurrent
the
operationof singlephaserotary
never
Converters.
Rotary
298
of the
of
examination
conductors
between
magnetic
collector
over
rings
the
the
are
singlephasegenerator, gives
for
output
rotaries
earlier
The
greater
the
for
than
Fig.31
WINDING
SIXPHASE
FOR
operated
67
per
heating
Table
LI.
cent,
the
as
and
in
used
as
phasers,the
winding being
armature
CONVERTER.
SixCmcuiT
POLES,
FRONT
ROTARY
four
98
the
three
as
38
per
cent,
continuouscurrent
Six
Today, however,
either
in
in
armature
same
CONDUCTORS,
generator.
generally operated
were
loss
C2R
given
CONVERTERS.
ROTARY
THREEPHASE
of
Converters.
Rotary
300
or
per
armature
PITCH,
most
rotaries
with
sixphasers,
cent,
increased
conductors.
SINGLE
19,
BACK
WINDING
being arranged
are
still further
the
are
the
values
to
be
advantages
for
output respectively,
These
108
WITH
17.
given
given
in
Three Phase
For
Rotaries.
there
301
are
of
poles in multiplecircuit
single windings, and
of
poles
sections
three
in
winding
per
sections
per
pair
three
sections
per
pair
multiplecircuit
multiple windings.
winding, regardless of
per
three
number
the
of
There
pairs
of
are
poles
/\/\/\
'
x"
5034
WINDING
FOR
Six
twocircuit
windings.
triple\vinding,wouldhave
the
winding
rings,
the
three
armature
from
leads
had
Thus,
!j x
beginning
to
had
each
a
TWOCIRCUIT
EIGHT
CONDUCTORS,
in
CONVERTER.
ROTARY
PHASE
y"
\/
POLES,
of
twocircuit
the
At
sections.
would
three
double
WITH
90
11.
with
sixpole machine,
end, leads
to
PITCH
WINDING
SINGLE
equal
be
ninths
carried
collector
winding,
sixcircuit
to
through
collector
rings.
there
would
But
if
have
Rotary
302
but
been
hence,
for
six
leads
WINDING
FOR
SIXPHASE
may
be
which
which
of
The
any
belonging
of
one
to
two
the
phases.
alternatelyto phases
and
inherent
of
the
one
2, then
In
be
POLES,
the
SINGLY
to 2 and
of such
and
374
TRIPLE
in
windings
overlapping
is the
of
consequence
conductors
then
17.
carries
armature
3, and
REENTRANT
PITCH
phases,
portion, the
poles;
windings,from
characteristics
three
of
Figs. 373,
characteristic
periphery of
At
would
converter
CIRCUIT
Six
number
the
rings.
Two
distinctive
most
portion of
collector
CONDUCTORS,
the
conductors
the
winding
CONVERTER.
108
WITH
there
threephase rotary
with
familiarity
obtained.
distribution
three
ROTARY
WINDING
study of
double
the
to
given diagrams
are
winding, regardless of
per
twocircuit
this
sections, and
375
sections
three
Converters.
to
conductors
will
belong
and
1, then
Rotaries.
SixPhase
again
to
and
of
consequence
distributed
of
2, the
the
voltage
phase
with
and
the
flux, 56
is
onethird
of
considered,
at
phase will
one
the
higher than
cent,
for
SIXPHASE
which
in
converter,
will
as
"
THREE
phase
are
result
of
distributed
which
phase, with
of
such
the
machine,
increases, as
i.e.,by
a
44
stated
cent,
per
of
matter
Figs.376, 377,
375
socalled
"
case
of
later
appear
socalled
LI.
of
onethird
on
an
entire
the
linkage
of
of
any
378
winding
one
of
the
periphery, as
of
turns
resultant
ratio
of
are
the
and
299), but
six collector
up
threephasewindings.
into
A
winding diagrams as
just
with
rings.
twice
study
the
This
as
of these
many
to
1.38
for
requires in
sections
will
1.98,
As
of threeclear.
Figs.373,
made
connections
windings
one
output
same
conductors,
armature
turns
sixphaserotary
all the
The
obtained.
284, in the
page
of
that
beyond
and
one
output
of
linkage
conductors
the
"
given heating
in Table
sixphase,"with
subdividing
heating,the
effective
in the
magnetic flux, is
This
is
the
of
turns
fact,this socalled
phase arrangement.
374, and
it
CONVERTER.
simultaneous
for
and
singlephaserotaries.
overcome
only
over
entire
width
PHASE
almost
an
the
alternatingcurrent
all the
of
given
more
ROTARY
disadvantage is mainly
This
of
are
simultaneouslylinked
lower
threequartersof
be
not
for
when
"
least
As
phase
one
any
polar pitch
linkage
Hence,
already,because
the
is
consequence
flux occurred.
pair of poles.
periphery,and
if simultaneous
than
entire
per
of
conductors
entire
the
exceeds
turns
limited, although
is
of
flux, and
phase
per
of
spreading
entire
the
the
property,
all the
"
per
flux
magnetic
polar pitch
repetitionoccurring once
twothirds
over
generally,when
with
this
303
each
as
for
show
for
case
the
that
with
the
periphery
is
one
third
third
and
conductors, suitable
for
in Fie.
there
conductors
first
and
second
in
fourth
this
be
in which
the
each
portion
and
fifth,or
the
to
the
previously
phases overlapped.
clear
more
pairs,
belonging
distinguished from
is
way
made
the
groups,
in
threephase winding,
Furthermore,
phase.
three),
were
sixth, taken
occupied exclusivelyby
will
distinction
This
oiven
fifth,and
threephase windings
described
before
(where
now
sixth, and
and
the
sections
pairs constitutinga
above
of the
each
of
distribution
and
fourth, second
first and
give
six
with
connections
these
the
of
Converters.
Rotary
304
by
study
of
the
diagrams
371).
HIGH
TENSION
HIGH
BUSBARS
TENSION
SWITCHES
fig.380.
LOW
TENSION
SWITCHES
\TO THE
COLLECTOR
RINGS
INTERCONNECTION
For
be
in
"
transformers
for
this
delta,"as
in
permits
third
the
case
has
the
be
to
satisfactory.One
the
other
a
of connection
method
satisfactory
For
the
as
circle
"
be denoted
may
diametrical
(Fig.381),and
"
should
system
be
to
preferably
operated with
of circuit
out
cut
connected
diagram,
the
to
up
or
first
across
case
the
collector
diametrical
it is necessary
as
six
the
given
is
either
the
"
in
Fig.
of two
temporarily
delta
the
rings
in
"
that
each
connection, and
be
represented
circumference
the
delta/'
double
of the
will be
transformers
of the
pairs of points as
"
winding
equidistantpoints on
secondaries
380.
arrangements
double
Let
connection.
let the
In
CONVERTERS.
ROTARY
AND
repairs.
A
by
TRANSFORMERS
connected
two
STATIC
OF
in
three
the
as
second
may
in
the
be
first
diagram.
transformers
have
two
in the
The
second
two
In
the
same
first case,
for
as
"delta"
is need
there
case
the
and
for but
A1,
305
secondary
one
collector
of
ring
threephaserotary converter,
In
systems.
second
the
singlephaserotary converter,
it
coil per
is the
same
such
three
TO
mtw
RINGS.
COLLECTOR
LVI.
Ratio
of Collector
Ring
Voltage to
Commutator
Voltage.
connection
.612
.707
lightercables
to
the
rotary
brought out
"
The
preferred.
"
systems.
Diametrical
latter
for
CONNECTION
for .SixPhase
Style of Connection
Rotary Converter.
The
as
two
'
TABLE
Doubledelta
voltage is
CONNECTION.
DIAMETRICAL
RINGS.
COLLECTOR
transformer.
simply consistingof
mm
C1, whereas
commutator
"DIAMETRICAL
TO
and
381
CONNECTION
DOUBLEDELTA
it
being analogous to
CONNECTION.
BELT*.
to
ratio
the
case,
Fig
"DOUBLE
Bl, C
and
this clear.
make
ratio
Rotaries.
higher voltage at
about
the
converter.
per
"
"diametrical
the
station
It
transformer
in
also
"
and
"connection,
the
collector
wiring
up
is, on
whole,
to
be
rings,permits of carrying
from
the
the
static
secondary
transformers
leads
to
be
the switchingarrangements.
simplifies
2
is
converters
rotary
of
broken
the
connectors
system
to
of
right
the
to the
flashing. The
serious
has
two
be
which
kept
be
must
can
and
feature
Another
system
The
entirelyseparate.
hightensionfeeders
of
sets
of
alternatingcurrent
continuouscurrent
have
been
hardly
be
is, of
of
gain
given output
apply
not
just
"
constitute
of
of
the
for
large
as
the
to
any
44
per
armature
important advantage
does
and
surging
to
heating
the
an
course,
this
said
have,
converters
free from
is the
standpoint
the
that
for
"
rings
there
latter
in mind
the
made
be
to
sixphase rotary
that
stably,and
run
collector
This
said
be
to
from
output
independent
for
more
are
entire
them
keeping
C.
the
entire
the
transformer.
the
panels shown.
may
found
six
conductors.
as
L,
thus
disadvantage,and
in
for
feeder
two
been
practice,
must
shown,
conclusion, it
In
cent,
line
the
particularscheme
coming
line L, and
left of the
the
of
the
that
arranged
intended
are
brings
it
is that
shown,
arrangement
to
circuits
and
hightension,quickbreak switches
the
by
line
it
four, sixphase
necessityof sixbladed,heavy
the
switches
The
the
is
hightensionside
the
on
with
plant
where
Fig. 383,
switches.
current, lowtension
purpose
done
for
synchronising avoids
of
method
in
given
be
synchronising shall
This
suitable
connection
switchboard
in
Converters.
Rotary
306
but
it
commutator,
sixphase rotary
threephaser.
FOUR
In
Fig. 384
is
fourphase rotary
sections
per
and
collector
four
ROTARY
PHASE
given
sixcircuit
Here
converter.
pair of poles
"
single winding
subdivide
we
in
hence
CONVERTERS.
this
case
up
"
total
12
as
into
winding
the
x
connected
four
sections,
ring's.
o
twocircuit
converter,
rule
that
of
in
for twocircuit
they
windings
per
cent,
reallyin
four
in the
is subdivided
are
the
Fig. 385.
windings
have
poles. Hence,
winding
50
is shown
shall
same
the
used
as
into
by
the
polar pitch.
phase, in
this
into
12
winding
Sections
sense
fourphase rotary
four
sections;
triplewinding
winding, independent
per
twocircuit
for
up
is subdivided
It
sections
characterised
of
connected
singlewinding
such
per
1
in
shown
All
sections.
of
Fig. 386,
rotary
3,
as
also
converters
the
fourphase
phase having
and
being
number
the
these
the
2
are
spread
and
4,
of
are
sometimes
Rotary
308
called
well
twophase,
shown
in
There
are
occasionallyquarterphase.
also
Fig.
Converters.
The
distribution
is also
387.
also
fourphase,
in
as
in
sixphase, alternative
methods
of
Fig.384
WINDING
FOR
FOURPHASE
96
connecting
from
diametrical
connection
the
case
of
ROTARY
CONDUCTORS,
secondary
sixphase.
is to
CONVERTER.
Six
POLES,
transformer
be
SIXCIRCUIT
PITCH
17
terminals
preferred, and
for
SINGLE
AND
to
the
WINDING,
WITH
15.
collector
same
The
rings.
reasons
as
in
TwelvePhase
Rotary
ROTARY
TWELVEPHASE
the
advantages
Each
transformers.
WINDING
of
FOR
12phase
transformer
80
coils.
other,
a
of
The
and
CONDUCTORS,
primariesare
there
are
excited
twelve
number
of
poles in
Six
from
twelve
twocircuit
with
and
two
PITCH
SINGLE
obtaining
two
static
equal secondary
WINDING,
AVITII
13.
circuits in
the
of
only
four
T\VOCIRCUIT
POLES,
tappings into
winding, and
multiplecircuit
the
primary
one
CONVERTER.
ROTARY
FOURPHASE
apparatus permits
converter
rotary
has
309
CONVERTERS.
of
interestingcombination
Another
Converter.
quadrature with
armature
per
each
pair of poles in
The
sets
forth
underlying idea
the
representing the
WINDING
FOR
II.
FOURPHASE
their
have
as
applied to
winding, tapped
ROTARY
96
and
Converters.
Rotary
310
points
the
at
CONVERTER.
Six
CONDUCTORS,
primaries connected
bipolararmature,
Two
POLES,
to
1 to
12.
CIRCUIT
PITCH
circuits
the
circle
Transformers
TRIPLEWINDING,
I.
WITH
17.
quadrature with
in
each
other.
The
60
deg. chords
fig
represent
the
transformer
secondaries
119,
35,
387
FOUR
PHASE.
n
a
122, and
pairs
86, while
of secondaries
BJ
0
the
17
two
and
diameters
104.
represent
Obviously
the
the
whole
seriesconnected
idea
is based
on
TwelvePhase
inscribed
two
hexagons, the
The
other.
four
letting the
wellknown
method
retaining
the
Converter.
standing at
one
sides and
coils
primaries
changing
greater
of
deg. from
90
conform
the
to
the
equality
radii.
transformer
of
;;i I
angle
an
equallywound secondary
requirement between
By
Rotary
from
three
and
economy
have
windings, the
quarterphase permits
to
other
different
advantages
of
of
threephase
JFig.388
pain
TO
A av
COLLECTOR
KINGS
LEADS
transmission, and
rotary, and
indicated
DESIGN
further
these
greatly increased
in
advantages
output
per
of
TO
only
two
transformers
This
system
25CvcLE,
600VoLT
rotary.
ff/NGS
COLLECTOR
is
per
sufficiently
OF
400KiLOWATT,
SIXPHASE
ROTARY
CONVERTER.
The
first
question to
speed
speed,and
as
hence
generallylead
to
the
decide
will
few
best
be
is the
inverselyas
poles as
results
the
consistent
are
for
of
number
given
amount
poles.
number
The
of
periodicity
poles. High
good constants,
with
of
material.
will
Rotary
312
In
considering the
that
shown
the
limitingarmature
polepiece,and
in
which,
by
the
commutator
the
current
in
this
so
is
the
consideration
armature
that
other
as
each
be
to
of
current
other
and
the
the
the
caused
the
pulsationsof
by
the
generating
is not
low
as
the
reverse
neutral
from
the
the
ring
in
result.
could
safelybe
converter
given periphery,
of the
rotary
the
in
the
current,
superposed
upon
which
to
hence
where
in
interference
with
extent
But
interference.
such
perfectstep
another, and
one
In
made.
keep
decrease
neutralise
insuffi
generator supplying
motion
consequent oscillatory
revolution,greatly
With
rotary converter
to
only
resultant
separatelyinsulated,
on
can
have
the
carry
revolution
provided,armature
voltage of
reactance
possible,as
commutation,"
the
is
to
arranged
currents
generator
is
of the
permissible
conductors
order
not
of
the
on
the
results
satisfactory
rotary
converter
limitingconsideration.
The
as
the
and
limiting
used
is that
motor
component
armature
oscillatory
set
which
interference
generator components
and
large
motor
the
by
of
rate
and
motor
the
inabilityof
generator, and
its uniform
is
be
angular velocityper
be
the
converters
be
not
conductor
each
armature
per
resultant
sixphase rotary
would
in
crosssection
can
for
voltage
small
very
extent, the
considerable
very
case,
on
excessive
no
cientlyuniform
of
to
hence
per
As
determine.
polepiecewill
among
extraordinarilylarge number
no
many
relativelysmall
in
considerations, first
peripheralspeed, shall
cancel
turns
per
segment,
average
leave
interference
armature
turns
ampere
commutator
by
conductors, and
in fact, as
in
currents
generator
armature
per
was
is determined
poles
design, the
the
But
is taken.
armature
small
voltage
reactance
and
motor
of
expressed in
first steps of
very
segment
superposed
permissiblenumber
interference
generators, it
continuouscurrent
of
design
minimum
the
Converters.
point
neutral
collector
current
the
loads,
generator
since
coil.
the
practicalpurposes
voltage
any
based
upon
the
kind
of
in
it appears
which
desirable
would
"
forced
field to
at
position
superposition
the
collector
commutation
current.
made
remain
their
proper
the
"
magnetic
Moreover,
of
be
must
brushes
The
resultant
that
alteration
with
independently
of
of
use
currents.
commutator
component
for
make
not
interfere
would
continue
must
reactance
all
and
commutation,
shortcircuited
the
point
ring
complicated,and
nominal
for
does
one
in
current
coil under
one
is,
that
the
going
The
process
to
estimate
be
set
up
in
SixPhase, FourHundred
the
shortcircuited
by
turns
Kilowatt
the
Rotary
reversal
of
Converter.
the
313
continuouscurrent
component.
The
diameter
retainingthe
of
the
conductors
armature
armature
and
flux
low
sufficiently
limitation
often
on
of
machines
segments
and
segment
commutator
number
of
several
be much
should
of
segments, and,
the
permit.
For
the
basis
of
one
turn
this
face.
the
current
as
For
number
commutator
conductors.
design,is
It is not
the
that
a
approaching
without
of armature
output,
per
safety. Upon
converter
in. in width.
restricts
once
of
ratings,however,
obtained
rotary
with
amount
conductors
some
commutator
of
of
of number
kilowatts
less than
at
or
in
with
at
be
may
is consistent
reasonable
factor
number
hundred
poles,this
on
place,using
diameter
met
large as
as
large a
voltage
reactance
armature
width
as
densities
extremes, either of
Another
in
conservative
generallyplaced
magnetic
is chosen
armature
of
desirable,
commutator
given
of
that
diameter
commutator
segment,
2
also
restricts
two
the
turns
per
converters,
poles.
to
600
of
segment
would
generators of
Hence
1000
the
gain
to
an
undesirablyhigh
as
high
for
as
with
an
is also very
commutation
second.
minute,
per
output, and
be
lead
Consequently
correspondinglylow,
in
is,
rotary
good
continuous
equal
number
of
from
high, often
the
in order
inductance
not
to
of
lead to
voltage.
have
referred
segments.
would
coil must
commutated.
times
same
frequency of
converters
limitations
mutator
the
always
revolutions
in
complete cyclesper
reactance
Rotary
the
being
three
or
For
turns.
almost
coil
the
generallytwo
shortcircuited
high
armature
speed, expressed
The
current
number
voltageof
reactance
the
Converters.
Rotary
314
be
in
This
to,
been
of
two
the
is rather
two
and
narrow
since
unsatisfactory,
commutators
to
commutators,
method
connecting
built with
in
series
escape
com
the
but
chief
by
so
Converters.
Rotary
316
In
similar
and
the
final effect
the
inverse
the
upon
current
in
than
six
be
armature),
reversed, is, in
machine
the
reversal
with
the
few
poles.
SATURATION
400K.W.
25
It
is much
safer
ol
poles,less
rather
make
to
the
probabilityof overlooking
the
as
larger number
the
CURVE
CYCLES.
Rotary
JKg."394
of
case
the
that
quite different,and
be
may
(largelydependent
turn
per
while
that
great (because of
be
not
may
inductance
speed),the
the
mind
in
keep distinctly
should
advantages
relative
the
comparing
were
frequency of
in
of
length
one
poles,one
the
on
change
to
if
manner,
600
VOLTS.
Converter.
4OOK.W.
LOSSES.
AND
EFFICIENCY
25
600VOLTS.
CYCLES.
Rotary Converter.
!" 30
E"
i
O
50""
700"
600"
"?"V
effect
TURNS.
of
(it7f""
certain
Windage
9000
100
AMPERE
BrusfiTnccion
change,
all
on
2OO
300
AMPERES
600
TOO
8OO
involved, is
constants
the
500
WO
OUTPUT
very
considerable.
As
slots,thus
as
than
surging,"
generating
present
solid
the
few
of
width
radial
is
to
set.
any
due
to
preferableto
slot
not
the
with
where
it should
This
there
extent, it will be
is
as
keep
much,
as
small
if any,
important, because
is the
least
possibility
revolution
polepieces this
diminished, and
conductivity,such
be
not
angular velocityper
laminated
to
necessary
air gap.
be used
inconstant
polefacesof good
is also
in many
conductors
the
arrange
opening, and
depth of
Where,
It
slot.
per
polefacesshould
laminated
"
but
having
the
possible,
greater
of
general rule, it
sometimes
"
of
surging
the
"
is
prevented, if
wroughtiron forgings
of
SixPJiase, FourHundred
good quality,are
the
and
armature,
induced
used.
the
surging will
be of
dissipationof
may
best
air
but
gap,
small
in
which
and
600
volts
in
Figs.
394
conditions,
negligiblewith
but
the
cores
shorter
generally render
converters
the
polefaces.
complete, the
more
the
little
magnet
for
employed
and
mind, lead
in
the
very
successive
numbers
should
be
thoroughly
made
calculations
one
definitely
very
corresponding speed,
the
economy
in material.
of
At
pairsof poles,
out, and
worked
output
the
following design
is worked
the
speed
working
making
out
the
the
given
revolutions
per
cycles,
out.
The
minute.
per
could
minute
applicationof
the
of the
in
is illustrated
are
375
25
at
these
costs
Figs. 390
estimated
have
principles
for
corresponding specification
comparison
is
revolutions
500
practicein
excellent
395
kilowatts
for 400
converter
poles and
six
in
then
voltage,trial
the
operationwith
two
eight, and
is
eightpoledesign
The
favourable
poles and
of
in
commutator,
poles
and
machine,
loss of energy,
compared.
at
found
be
be
also be
number
designs
obtained, and
would
should
up
check
to
high specificconductivityas
so
of
set
to
tend
turn
minimum
be made
considerations
constants
been
latter
sixphaserotary
of
number
not
cost
For
in
this has
certain
both
and
under
of
case
constants
but
and
output, periodicity,
choice
the
most,
317
superposed oscillations
react, and
may
surging will
combining good
best
the
Converter.
undesirable.
the
choice
the
the
foregoing various
the
with
circuits
which
the
the
clearances
Given
of
accomplished with
extent, and
in
iron,
prevention of
The
to
small
steel, but
wrought
be
may
copper
energy
be of cast
poleface,which
This
by suitablyarranged
tendency
Rotary
in this
currents
oscillations.
these
The
Kilowatt
such
of material.
to
saturation
and
efficiency
curves.
TABULATED
CALCULATION
AND
PHASE
SPECIFICATION
ROTARY
FOR
SIX
400KiLOWATT
CONVERTER.
DESCRIPTION.
Q
Number
of
poles
Kilowatt
output
Speed,
revolutions
Terminal
Amperes
...
per
minute
...
...
...
...
318
Rotary
Converters.
DIMENSIONS.
Armature
Diameter
all
over
58
...
Length
...
...
over
of
...
periphery
at
core
bottom
...
...
...
,,
...
58
...
...
...
...
,,
...
of slots
...
...
...
...
laminations
,,
"
of
Length
...
of
Width
ventilating ducts
of each
Effective
length, magnetic
of
core
,,
Length
,,
...
r
periphery
9^
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
iron
total
length...
...
...
...
...
...
...
7.2,,
...
76,,
...
...
...
in.
...
183,,
...
surface
at
,,
...
4
...
ventilating duct
round
...
laminations
over
...
Number
Pitch
40
,,
core
!"
55
,,
,,
in
...
...
29
...
Diameter
...
...
conductors
22.8
"
Insulation
between
10
sheets
...
Thickness
...
...
cent.
per
...
...
in.
.014
of sheets
...
...
...
...
...
...
1.25
Depth
of slot
Width
of slot at
"
.28
root
"
.28
surface...
at
...
,,
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
300
of slots
Number
depth
of teeth
9 in.
...
...
...
7.75
...
...
...
...
.303,,
...
...
...
...
05
of conductor
core,
Length
of
length
of
polepiece
of
Polepiece
...
...
edge
polepieceat
consist
to
9.5
...
...
...
...
...
in.
in.
...
of
...
soft
...
...
...
in.
shaft.
in.
...
If
...
wroughtiron forging,so
"
to
as
have
conductivity.
specific
maximum
Polearc
61
pitch
r
Length
of core,
Diameter
of
Bore
...
14
radial
...
magnet
...
...
...
in.
...
...
12
core
...
...
...
...
,,
...
58J
of field
...
Spool
cent.
per
Clearance
...
...
...
...
...
...
"
,,
1 4 in.
Length
...
of shunt
,,
winding
space
...
...
!!"""
...
...
...
2f
of series
,,
"
Depth
...
,,
...
...
,,
...
of series
...
,,
of
,,
,,
of shunt
,,
Yoke
.45
along
14
polearc
Thickness
.330,,
face
armature
Magnet
,,
...
root
at
,,
"
...
teeth
below
Width
...
of lamination
depth
Radial
...
...
...
radial
Gross
Size
"
winding
space
...
...
...
,,
...
2
...
...
...
...
...
"
...
Outside
104
diameter
in. and
88
Inside
"
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
3
Thickness
Length along
95
in.
"
20
armature
...
...
...
,,
in.
SixPhase, FourHundred
Commutator
Kilowatt
Rotary
Converts.
Diameter
52
...
Number
of segments
"
slot
per
of segments
...
at
surface
at
root
...
...
.23
...
"
"
Total
depth
Width
...
of segments
length
,,
Available
of
...
\\
...
of segment
of insulation
...
in.
21
...
segment
length
5 in
QQQ
...
"
Width
Collector
31"J
...
between
segments
...
.045
...
Diameter
...
Number
of
Width
of
...
rings
...
rings
...
...
1
.........
...
JJrushes
6
2 in.
all
over
..
...
22
...
...
Continuous
Alternating
Current.
Number
of sets
...
in
"
...
...
...
Radial
length
Width
...
...
...
...
..
2J in.
...
of brush
Thickness
...
of brush
...
Current.
8
...
set
one
in.
...
...
between
15
...
...
ring
,,
Length
...
11,,
of brush
in.
.63
"
Dimensions
of
bearing surface,
one
brush
1.5 in.
"
.75 in.
1 in.
1 in.
1 square
inch.
...
Area
of contact,
Type
of brush
one
brush
1.13
...
...
Insulation
square
...
Radial
...
inches
carbon
Copper.
...
On
in slots
core
Oiltreated
.012
Of
conductor
Varnished
...
...
...
...
cardboard
about
in thick.
linen
...
tape.
ELECTRICAL.
Armature
Terminal
full load
volts
600
...
Total
internal
...
Style
Times
...
...
...
614
...
...
Number
...
volts
...
of circuits
of
winding
...
...
...
...
...
...
Multiple
circuit
1
reentrant
...
Total
...
parallelpaths through
Conductors
in series
construction
Number
of face
of
...
...
...
...
150
winding
Bar
...
...
...
...
1200
conductors
...
...
...
...
...
conductors
Arrangement
Number
in
"""
300
slots
"
...
brushes
between
...
Type
...
armature
per
of conductors
parallelmaking
slot
...
in slot
up
one
conductor
...
drum.
Converters.
Rotary
320
Mean
length of
Total
number
armature
one
...
in series
of
conductor
...
...
Per
It
output
...
conductors
cube
20
at
...
in
..
for
is
conductors
little
conductors
armature
C
full load
drop
667
at
in armature
60
at
...
...
...
for
deg.
Cent.
coils
brush
contact
from
is
667
370
in
current
the
the
same
armature
In
commutator.
Allowing
take
may
the
loss in the
the
amperes.
the
for
in
current
amperes.
9.5 volts
...
...
...
...
,,
...
...
...
,,
...
...
2.2
surface
...
...
,,
allowed
C2R
same
generator with
resultant
times
1.96
series
not
...
the
factor, we
.55
ohm.
...
.0256
output
16
.022
...
delivered
that
Cent.
sixphase rotaries
the
not
deg.
continuouscurrent
half
over
in
60
to
commutator
given load,
the
present machine,
and
efficiency,
the
in
as
deg.
that
seen
from
conductors,
20
Cent,
taken
,,
...
...
.00000068
between
be
...
...
in resistance
been
...
inch
square
...
.18
parallel
between
already
in.
...
Cent.
deg.
Resistance
may
...
.0225
Resistance
winding. Hence,
the
...
increase
armature
the
5850
brushes
cent,
has
...
...
conductor
one
inch
per
...
75
between
eight
,,
...
...
...
...
Crosssection,
Ohms
...
brushes
between
...
Length
...
...
600
...
Turns
in.
78
turn
of turns
,,
...
...
1.3 in cables
for in above
...
...
,,
and
...
...
connections
Amperes
per
2050
inch, conductor
square
...
...
figured on
...
...
resultant
,,
brushbearing
,,
surface
37
...
...
current
figured on
current
from
output
commutator
"
,,
All
but
in the
the
,,
current
armature
but
specification,
density and
the
transformers, it is
total
section
of service
in
the
of copper
specifiedinsulation
...
...
...
drop
are
to
aim
to
the
space
in which
ratio
Sectional
"Space
area
of slot
area
of copper
factor"'
.09
1.25
4
.35
.28
in slot
=
later
insulation
and
4
.26
.35
square
.0225
for
"
space
to
inches.
.09
square
possibleof
as
it is wound,
slots.
Sectional
derived
are
for reference.
ratio, termed
same
conductors
proportioning the
results
high
as
secure
The
resistance.
...
FACTOR.
SPACE
In
...
1000
windings
series
,,
980
windings
shunt
inches.
the
given
factor," is
armature
SixPhase, FourHundred
i.e.,26
of the space
cent,
per
is
Kilowatt
occupied by
Rotary
Commutation
volts
Armature
between
turns
Resultant
per
current
commutator
segments
pole
Resultant
As
as
It
is
strength
armature
brushes
the
the
remain
per
pole
distortingtendency, and
do
the
factor
power
also
be
to
the
46
and
Figs. 368
75
and
288
the
VOLTAGE
demagnetising
any
armature
COIL
OF
...
across
surface,
of
shortcircuited
...
...
...
...
...
,,
...
...
...
...
...
...
.00073
...
cycles per
together per
...
...
...
...
second
shortcircuited
685
brush
...
...
per
brush
commutated
together
group
turn
ampere
...
...
together per
inch
per
gross
...
...
...
...
...
length
armature
20
lamination
...
through
Inductance
of
in
Reactance
one
coil of
earring one
one
coil of
one
coil
...
...
six turns
one
Reactance
Current
.0000114
...
turn
one
...
...
good
83.5
amperes
...
4.1
...
...
THE
rotary
machine
ohm
...
coil
with
henrys
...
.049
important consideration
otherwise
...
...
ampere
(continuouscurrentcomponent)
voltage,one
...
...
turn
PROPORTIONING
an
sees.
per
per
in.
.75
segments
coil
Conductors
in.
...
1030
...
commutation,
Turns
an
COMMUTATION.
UNDEK
reversal
complete
one
Turns
is
polepiece.(See
second
per
Frequency
fully
means
negative in successive
...
...
...
Width
of
is
6.25
...
unity.
165
...
This
no
second
per
so
current
of commutator
Revolutions
Flux
by
are
oppositeone
"
is
component
turns
exert
effect
52.5
...
Flux
point,these
of commutator
Circumference
Coils
neutral
resultant
turns
turns.
ampere
289.)
REACTANCE
OF
3450
current
alternating
in successive
even
DETERMINATION
Time
have
not
amperes.
369, pages
Diameter
mechanical
that, while
magnetomotive
as
the
46
corresponding ampere
3450
sometimes
"
of
noted
...
the
effective
where
by
cent,
75
at
46, amperes,
groups
per
...
conductor
per
...
long
74
Average
and
copper,
321
insulation.
necessary
only
Converter.
volts
...
BINDING
in machines
converters.
WIRE.
which
Cases
must
at
run
the
on
calculating
2
Converters.
Rotary
322
the
it would
binding wire,
total
peripheralsurface
could
of
Every pound
of .0000142
copper
need
be
only
devoted
to
it.
...
...
...
...
...
.18
.18
.32
340
in.
inch
square
Ib.
periphery is subject
the
at
5850
=
...
the
to
centrifugal
pounds, where
N2
D
diameter
revolutions
to
in inches.
minute.
per
of
force
laminations
iron
larger portion of
brushes
5850
.0000142
wire
properly be
between
material
in this case,
The
require
to
brushes
between
of conductor
of armature
Weight
Hence,
found
...
Crosssection
force
than
of conductor
Length
be
58
3752
dovetailed
are
into
retain
proportioned to
115
Ib.
the
weight
the
of the
binding
the
spider,so
in
wire
copper
place.
Total
centrifugal force
Force
per
inch
square
340
115
of armature
Ib.
39,000
surface
=7.4
Total
projected
Total
stress
area
29
wire
binding
on
58
1680
1680
7.4
of
tensile
10,
of
strength
Ib. per
100,000
58
TT
inches.
square
12,500 Ib., or
and
Ib.
29
Ib. per
with
side.
factor
basis
the
estimating on
inch,
square
6250
of
of
safety
require
we
6250
10
.63
inch.
square
100,000
No.
Taking
of
crosssection
should
bands
each
be
of
be
end
Stubbs
.00933
arranged
should
set
12
over
wire
inch,
square
in
bands
nine
laminated
the
(614
Coefficient
of
Megalines
in
one
pole
at
full
body
of
would
392
on
pole
at
required.
These
of
these
Three
armature,
and
page
in., and
.109
each.
turns
the
be
three
315.)
CALCULATIONS.
load
and
600
terminal
volts
volts)
magnetic leakage
one
eight
CIRCUIT
MAGNETIC
internal
of
of
diameter
of these
72
(See Fig.
connections.
Megalines from
with
gauge
8.20
1.15
...
...
...
...
...
full load
9.5
...
...
...
...
over
Rotary
324
Converters.
SPOOL
Shunt
WINDINGS.
Mean
length, one
3.66
turn
...
Ampere
turns
Ampere
feet
shunt
per
...
...
...
...
ft.
...
7,650
...
28,000
per
square
Watts
per
spool at
field
inch
20
,,
,,
"
"
,,
,,
...
allowed
...
20
at
deg.
...
.40
...
280
winding
20
at
Cent.
deg.
220
...
...
series
60
"
shunt
Shunt
copper
Volts
terminals
at
Amperes
of
shunt
per
"
winding
spool
per
,,
60
at
255
,,
...
...
...
...
...
...
110
...
...
...
spool
20
at
spool
deg.
...
Cent.
56
...
3.92
...
...
...
...
...
Turns
1950
"
Total
length
Resistance
Pounds
Size
"
of shunt
per
conductor
spool
1000
per
20
at
7150ft.
...
...
...
...
...
..
Cent.
deg.
14.4
...
15.4
No.
...
...
...
...
...
.072
...
...
double
...
...
...
...
...
,,
...
...
Crosssection
00407
density, amperes
Available
winding
Number
of
Turns
strength
found
of
very
small
do
weaker,
in
and
circuited, all
winding
relation
to
the
continuouscurrent
the
terminal
no
load, and
increases
as
to
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
use
series
the
the
In
diverted
the
extent
system,
shunt
by having
which
on
with
from
found
comes
on,
line, as
except
small
the
series
coil
it.
current,
is
coil
balance
half
being
completely
enables
This
the
desirable, considered
well
system, it
the
to
as
of
much
short
series
with
lowtension
is desirable
to
have
load.
the
so
series
and
the
machine,
about
position,
next
series
latter
excitation
sufficient
the
the
but
of the
cent,
of
main
the
perfect;
per
winding,
rheostat,
position,the
to
all the
sends
open,
hightensiontransmission
load
in.
lead, and
or
25
some
side
the
on
lag
is far less
currents
have,
to
being
employed
much
series coil of
rheostat.
final
with
generator
through
current
well
so
coil,and
voltage increase
the
...
...
run
and
diverter
By adjustingthe
...
...
...
completely
the
the
be
to
not
motor
is diverted
current
...
...
...
percentage, through
a
...
...
115
...
shunt
passing through
the
...
...
inches
980
10
...
convenient
the
inch
square
"
square
17
converters
superpositionof the
it is often
per
space
layers
layer
per
Rotary
in. in diam.
.082
...
Current
S.W.G.
...
covered
cotton
Ib.
15
...
bare
Dimensions
ohms
...
ft
of conductor
Dimensions
inches
square
...
Cent....
Cent.
deg.
shunt
700
spool
be
to
thus
that
the
current
excitation, the
controls
the
lags slightlyat
total
phase
field
strength
of the
motor
current.
in
lead, thus
Series
load
intermediate
some
phase with
Kilowatt
electromotive
the
at
higher commutator
be
exactly
will
loads
higher
325
will
current
motor
force, and
maintaining rather
also
the
Converter.
Rotary
slightly
voltage.
Ampere
full load
turns,
load
Full
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
6G7
amperes
167
in series
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
2 in.
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
.5 sq. in.
crosssection
Total
...
...
density, amperes
Current
of
Mean
length
Total
Resistance
C2R
Series
...
...
3.66ft.
spools at
20
at
20
deg.
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Cent.
20
deg.
475
...
60
Cent.
...
...
JO
...
"
Weight
Ib.
225
copper
...
...
...
CALCULATIONS
Armature
ohm
.0019
Cent.
CO
of series
in.
1400
deg.
spool at
per
...
1000
...
eight spools
on
total
"
,,
...
inch
square
per
...
eight
watts,
...
turn
one
LOSSES
OF
HEATING.
AND
ohm
.0256
brushes
between
Resistance
CR
60
loss at
3500
Cent.
deg.
deg. C.
figuredfrom
watts
resultant
second
=
...
2310
weight
density
Flux
C.D.
j
density
flux
Apparent
in
"
laminations
armature
in teeth
2555
"
(kilolines)
D
(kilolines)
=
core
Ib.
245
...
...
core
Total
current
25
teeth
of armature
Weight
at
...
...
...
...
...
60
in.
.05
by
parallel
in
...
used
of conductor
Number
...
...
spool
per
...
500
spool
,,
Size
...
diverted
Amperes
Turns
2000
...
73
=
183
1000
...
165
=
...
5^5l
watts
loss per
core
3.02
Ib.
...
...
1000
Total
loss
core
3.02
loss
armature
2555
7,700
watts
11,20(
,,
,,
58
diameter
Armature
...
34
length
"
Peripheral
per
Assumed
5300
radiating surface
speed, feet
per
inch
in
square
rise
of
thermometer,
square
inches
5700
minute
...
...
radiating surface
temperature
after
"
"""
...
...
,,
Watts
in.
10
watt
per
hours'
run
per
square
inch
by
20
deg. Cent.
rise estimated
Total
Assumed
core
from
which
and
tooth
the
constant
...
...
...
total
teeth,
...
...
...
loss per
the
,,
as
iron
in
and
as
i.e.,
armature,
for
of
range
229)
page
allow
to
total
obtain
to
(seeFig. 238,
curve
proportioned
so
,,
pound"
construction
type of
this
...
of
weight
core
taken, is
was
for
losses
...
63
"watts
loss in
includes
This
loss.
by
30
run
the
that
observed
will be
inch
square
per
basis
above
on
...
...
...
watt
per
hours'
10
rise estimated
42
...
temperature
resistance, after
It
basis
above
011
of
rise
Total
2555
Converters.
Rotary
326
core
magnetic
densities.
LOSSES
COMMUTATOR
Amperes
Ohms
drop
brush
at
...
...
37
...
...
.03
surface, assumed
contact
...
...
.0033
negative
...
...
...
...
...
...
2.2
contacts
...
...
1500
loss
Ib. per
1.25
pressure
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
"
.3
of friction
Coefficient
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
ft. per
5150
Peripheral speed
...
...
...
...
...
70,000
friction
Brush
..
"
,,
Total
...
lost in
watts
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
in.
...
9
...
inch
square
of
rise
hours'
10
1500
surface
per
Assumed
"
...
"
"
Watts
...
watt
per
per
...
...
per
Total
resistance
square
drop
inch
square
per
LOSSES
...
AND
(assumed)
per
HEATING.
..
...
...
pounds
total
,,
of friction
inches
square
110
...
.003
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
.34
per
...
per
pounds
square
...
...
...
110
ring
"
"
Coefficient
"
...
contacts
contacts
Cent.
.001
ring
...
pressure,
deg.
surface
in six
"
...
18
contact
contact
of brushes
brush
...
35
...
inch
brush
at
loss at
...
after
of all brushes
area
Ohms
...
...
...
...
Amperes
inch
basis
above
on
COLLECTOR
contact
...
square
15
run
rise estimated
inches
square
...
2.3
radiating surface
temperature
...
...
...
...
...
Brush
...
52.5
...
Radiating
C2R
...
3500
of commutator
Length
Volts
min.
watts
400
...
...
...
Total
...
assumed
lost in commutator
watts
Diameter
Total
...
...
...
commutator,
min.
ft.lb. per
1600
Stray
sq. in.
Ib.
45
total
"
watts
"
"
Brush
inches
square
...
surface
...
inch
square
...
...
contact
Brush
Volts
C2R
inch
square
per
per
18
positive brushes
of all
Area
HEATING.
AND
...
...
...
watts
...
660
rings
"
1.0
inch
...
...
...
18
...
...
...
...
...
.3
SixPhase,
FourHundred
Peripheral speed,
Brush
feet
1470
8000
minute...
per
180
,,
...
...
...
840
lost in collector
watts
...
Diameter
...
...
...
collector
Effective
rise
10
12
surface
inch
of
hours'
"
...
...
570
square
per
Assumed
radiating
...
...
...
surface
Radiating
Watts
of
length
in.
15
...
...
watt
per
per
...
...
square
inch
after
20
run
...
rise estimated
30
LOSSES
SPOOL
Cent.
dog.
...
...
...
basis
above
on
inches
square
1.5
radiating surface
temperature
...
Total
...
...
lost
watts
Total
327
Converter.
Rotary
minute
per
friction, footpounds
,,
Kilowatt
AND
HEATING.
Spool :
loss at
C2R
deg.
60
,,
,,
Total
Cent,
lost per
watts
of
Length
of
per
rise
Assumed
of
rise
Assumed
rise estimated
Total
in.
14
...
...
...
spool
per
10
per
hours'
above
run
700
.465
hours'
above
run
inch
square
per
...
...
...
watt
by
80
...
...
...
Cent.
deg.
37
watt
inch
square
per
,,
...
...
...
...
10
inches
square
...
...
...
...
basis
per
,,
...
...
...
...
...
...
radiating surface
on
,,
..
...
...
temperature
resistance, after
,,
...
...
...
325
surface
on
of
watts
70
...
..
after
rise estimated
255
...
...
temperature
thermometer,
Total
per
coil
50
spool
inch
square
coil
series
total
space,
Peripheral radiating
Watts
shunt
spool
winding
Circumference
per
by
120
...
...
...
,,
...
56
basis
,,
EFFICIENCY.
fullload
Output,
Core
400,000
watts
...
7,700
loss
...
loss at
C2R
Armature
60
deg.
3,500
Cent.
...
3,500
losses
Commutator
losses
Collector
...
2,040
spools losses
Shunt
rheostat
losses
"
spools losses
Series
diverter
losses
,,
Input,
windage
...
total
Commercial
full
efficiency,
95
load
per
cent.
...
MATERIALS.
Sheet
Armature
"
core
spider
steel
...
...
conductors
Copper
Rotary
328
Commutator
segments
...
Converter*.
...
...
...
...
Copper
...
Rheotan
leads
,,
Polepiece
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Cast
spider
,,
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
iron
Oast
Yoke
...
Magnet
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
,,
...
and
Carbon
Brushes
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Gunmetal
yoke
,,
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
wire
...
Insulation,
...
...
bronze
Phosphor
Mica
commutator
...
...
...
...
...
...
Varnished
armature
"
...
...
...
...
...
linen
...
WEIGHTS.
Armature
Lh.
2,550
Laminations
..
...
...
...
...
...
...
340
Copper
...
...
1,550
Spider
...
Shaft
1,230
.
700
Flanges
Commutator
1,000
Segments
Mica
80
Spider
Press
Other
...
1,000
...
200
rings
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
300
parts
Collector, complete
Armature,
700
...
...
collector,
commutator,
...
and
shaft
...
...
...
complete...
9,650
...
Magnet
Cores
3,550
Polepieces
400
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Yoke
Field
5,000
Shunt
coils
880
...
Series
,,
Total
copper
Brass
Brushholder
Binding
steel
...
core
...
forging
Wroughtiron
225
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
copper
Spools complete
...
Bedplate, bearings,
Brush
rigging
Other
parts
...
...
1,105
1.800
...
"c.
6,300
...
450
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
converter
...
1,000
30,360
tape
ThreePhase, NineHundred
TABULATED
CALCULATIONS
SPECIFICATIONS
AND
PHASE
The
its
machine
performance
ROTARY
is illustrated
given
are
in
Kilowatt, Rotary
in
Figs.
FOR
329
900KiLowATT
THREE
CONVERTER.
Figs. 39G,
399
Converter.
to
and
397
398
and
of
curves
402.
DESCRIPTION.
Number
of
poles
Kilowatt
output
Speed,
revolutions
Terminal
...
...
...
...
...
...
12
...
900
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
minute
per
250
,,
load
no
"
500
...
Amperes, output
...
...
...
...
1800
...
500
...
...
...
...
...
...
second
25
...
...
DIMENSIONS.
Armature
Diameter
all
over
84
...
Length
...
...
...
of
of
bottom
,,
...
...
,,
...
...
84
periphery
at
core
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
,,
81 i
slots
,,
,,
62
laminations
,,
,,
of
Length
core
of
Number
Width,
...
,,
,,
...
12.5,,
...
...
ventilating ducts
each
...
Effective
length,magnetic
of
"
core
surface
at
of
...
...
,,
...
...
in.
...
...
...
",
......
10
sheets
between
Thickness
...
...
.79
length
".'.'.
....
Insulation
...
...
total
2G4
periphery
round
Length
in.
9.9
iron
r
,,
Pitch
...
laminations
over
in.
...
...
27
...
...
Diameter
...
conductors
over
sheets
per
cent.
.016
in.
125
Depth
of
slot
Width
of
slot at
"
...
root
44
surface
44
"
of
...
...
,,
,,
Number
,,
slots
...
radial
Gross
Radial
AVidth
depth
depth
of
below
tooth
at
"'"
975
teeth
in.
'
root...
"
*'0
face
armature
,,
,,
Size
laminations
of
of
15
conductor
in
400
bJ
...
Core
Magnet
Length
of
polepiecealong
shaft
polearc,average
"
Polepiece
and
core
consists
thick, japanned on
one
of
sheetiron
side, and
built
punchings
up
to
.04
depth
in.
of
in
330
Rotary
12
in.
The
edges
by '^in., and
1 in. under
"
prevent
Pole
of
Size
magnet
Bore
copper
bridge
inserted
between
poles
to
surging."
.722
...
...
core
...
of
3 in.
by ^ in., extending
in.
14
back
...
...
...
...
radial
Length
of
chamfered
poleface are
pole tips, is
pitch...
f
arc
of
Converters.
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
in.
...
Spool
...
...
TIT
...
...
""
Length
...
of
,,
,,
,,
of
Depth
Yoke
...
in.
in.
84
(magnetic gap)
12
by
...
field
Clearance
in.
9}
...
12
(laminations)
core
...
...
...
...
8T7^in.
...
4.9
shuntwinding
space
serieswinding
space...
winding
...
...
space
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
,,
3.5
...
...
...
...
,,
2
...
,,
Outside
123
diameter
...
...
...
...
...
...
Length along
the
Commutator
in.
...
4
...
wide, which
is
...
...
...
in.
,,
22
...
22in.
rocking
...
...
armature
ring 1
...
...
in.
...
...
Thickness
Beyond
114
1 05
diameter
Inside
in. "
grooved
...
projects ori
to
side
one
the
receive
,,
...
brush
gear.
Diameter...
of
...
...
...
in.
...
576
segments
,,
...
of
...
...
...
...
...
slot
per
,.
Width
54
"...
...
...
Number
at
surface
.24
at
root
.215
"
,,
length
,,
Available
Width
Collector
of
depth
segment
of
...
of
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
between
...
...
...
...
in.
2"
...
,,
14
..."
segment
insulation
...
17
segment
length
of
...
...
,,
Total
...
...
,,
...
.05
segments
...
...
"
...
24
Diameter
...
Number
...
of
Width
of
...
...
rings
,,
Length
...
ring
between
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
....
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
3
...
18"
1
all
over
...
...
Number
in
12
sets
...
...
...
...
...
Radial
length
Width
of
of
...
...
brush
...
...
of
of
Area
of contact
Type
of brush
bearing
surface
...
...
(one brush)
1.25
1.08
(one brush)
...
...
in.
...
...
...
in.
G
,,
"
by
square
Radial
...
1J
I],,
brush
...
Dimensions
in.
...
brush
...
Thickness
set
one
,,
in.
Current.
Current.
of
in.
Alternating
Continuous
Number
in.
...
rings...
each
...
...
.87 in.
inch
carbon
1.25
1.35
n.
by
1.1
square
Copper
in.
inch
Rotary
332
TECHNICAL
Armature
Converters.
DATA.
ELECTRICAL.
"
Terminal
Total
internal
Number
500
...
...
...
513
volts
12
of circuits
of
Style
Times
winding
Multiplecircuitdrum
...
reentrant
...
Total
parallelpaths through
Conductors
in series
12
armature
...
96
brushes
between
...
construction
Type
of
winding
...
1152
conductors
of face
Number
Bar
288
slots
...
,,
conductors
per
,,
Number
in
parallelmaking
Mean
length
Total
number
of
...
by
1
conductor
one
up
armature
one
in slot
of conductors
Arrangement
slot
in.
78
turn
576
of turns
...
in series
Turns
between
of conductor
Length
48
brushes
brushes
between
.05
one
conductor
12
conductors
in
20
deg.
,,
Per
in.
...
Crosssection,
Ohms
3744
per
cent,
Resistance
inch
cube
increase
between
at
in resistance
brushes
20
60
inch
square
60
parallel
.00000068
Cent.
...
20
deg.
deg.
Cent,
Cent.
to
60
deg.
Cent.
16
per
cent.
.00425
.00493
ThreePhase, NineHundred
Assuming
be
about
the
in
current
threefourths
of
that
threephase rotary
converter
for continuouscurrent
armature
generator
Observed/ Curves
333
to
of
same
Observed;
of
CORE
SATURATION
000
ow
Three,
Kw.
25
Phase
Cycles500
Rotary
900
on,
Volts
Three.
Converter.
Kw.
LOSS.
25
fycles500 Volt*
Rotary Converter.
Phase
Rg390
*.""=
'""
(5l42Sc0f
x!
""
i*00 f50
*$",""
Voits
Armature.
"""
"*"
iOO
7v///
.
1000
30004000
ZOOO
FueloL
5000
6000
Ampere
7000
8000
turns
per
3000
10000
IWn
Spool.
MO
fOO
Art7,
fitr
^"fad^
EFFICIENCY
900
aw
Three,
Kw.
Phase
"
LOSSES.
Cycles500 Volt*
Rotary CoMerter
25
Observed'
PHASE
CHARACTERISTIC
900
on,
Three,
Kw.
Phase
Amperes
output, and
armature
Cycles600 Volts
Ratary Converter.
25
ui
factor
power
conductor
as
1,800
200
W"
600
(tutij
Field
of
x
not
.8
quite unity,
1,440 amperes.
800
1000
Ampere
we
may
IWI
MOO
I60H
1800
ZOtl
2200
TMO
Output,.
take
current
in
Converters.
Rotary
334
CR
in armature
drop
1.6
...
...
brush
...
...
,,
...
...
2.1
surfaces
contact
...
"
...
...
...
..
...
"
for cables
1 '5 volts
for in above
allowed
not
...
...
...
coils
series
,,
at
7.1 volts
cleg.Cent.
60
at
,,
...
...
connections
component
on
and
figured
cur
rents
Amperes
conductor
inch
square
per
,,
,,
,,
,,
"
"
brushbearing
shunt
,,
Factor
Space
34.5
...
...
970
...
...
...
970
windings
,,
...
...
surface
windings
series
,,
2400
(armature)
...
...
...
Sectional
of slot
area
factor"
"Space
leaving
copper,
Commutation
.2
.44
in slot
copper
,,
,,
1.25
.55
f
63.6
.364,
.4
36.4
or
inch.
square
.125
for the
cent,
per
.55
per
of
cent,
necessary
inch.
.2 square
total
is
space
occupied by
insulation.
Volts
between
Armature
segments,
turns
Resultant
per
current
Resultant
Diameter
...
...
=120
120
VOLTAGE
REACTANCE
per
Width
of brush
of
of
Frequency
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
,,
4.2
...
per
surface
commutation,
708
second
..
.00123
seconds
...
...
...
...
...
407
second
cycles per
together
,..
brush
per
...
...
...
per
ampere
group
...
...
...
shortcircuited
together
per
commutated
turn
per
...
...
brush
...
together
inch
...
gross
length
..
....
6
...
...
...
lamina
armature
20
tion
through
Inductance
six turns
coil of
one
Reactance
Current
in.
.87
segments
across
...
Conductors
Flux
in.
...
coil
per
per
...
second
Coils,shortcircuited
Flux
COMMUTATION.
UNDER
170
complete reversal,
one
armature
54
Turns
COIL
OP
of commutator
Revolutions
amperes.
5800
of commutator
...
Turns
48
...
...
pole.
per
OP
Circumference
Time
...
strength
turns
DETERMINATION
48
conductor
per
...
...
...
...
pole
armature
ampere
10.4
average
of
in
one
one
carrying
coil of
one
ampere
1500
...
...
...
...
...
one
coil,amperes
...
.000015
turn...
one
.039
turn
...
...
...
henrys
...
ohms
...
150
...
...
...
...
...
(continuouscurrent
component)
Reactance
voltage, one
5.8
coil
...
...
...
...
...
volts
ThreePhase,
Nine Hundred
Kilowatt, Rotary
BINDING
of conductor
Length
between
section
of conductor
between
3774
of armature
.0 square
...
3744
copper
...
in.
...
brushes
...
Weight
335
WIRE.
brushes
...
Cross
Converter.
...
...
...
inch
.0
.32
...
721
Centrifugal force...
II..
.0000142
N
Ib.
...
Therefore,
force
Ib.
721
=
by
of the
into
dovetail
tops
of
copper
conductors,
strands
No.
of
force
centrifugal
721
are
74.7
Megalines from
in
per
follows
pole
of
pole
one
S.
wood
driven
of
the
shaft
at
are
held
the
length
connections
phosphorbronze wire
each,
of
seven
in
arranged
bands
these
the
being
at
CALCULATIONS.
CIRCUIT
full
load
and
500
terminal
volts
10.4
...
1.20
magnetic leakage
...
12.5
full load
at
...
...
and
reluctance
magnetic
spool required,were
field
hard
volts)
coefficient
Megalines
and
of six strands
one
internal
(512.5
Assumed
by stripsof
projectionsand
B.
11
MAGNETIC
as
there
as
end.
for each
employed
end
the
bands
in
ends,
is resisted
running parallelto
slots, while
84
both
turns
total
centrifugal
as
and
armature,
on
the
Ib. exerted
74.7
==
conductor
centrifugalforce
grooves
the
The
250'
Ib.
Part
place by
of
of copper
weight
84
pound
every
54,000
over
.0000142
observed
the
probably
total
of
number
distributed
ampere
approximately
:"
Armature
Core
9.9
section
magnetic
of
Length
9.75
x
.
...
...
...
194
inches
square
1 in
circuit
Density (kilolines)
Teeth
Ampere
turns
Ampere
turns
inch
per
transmitting
Number
Section
flux
per
polepiece
76
face
at
inches
square
...
roots
...
Mean
'"
section
"
.........
in.
125
Length
...
i "}J.
Apparent
Width
density (kilolines)
(mean)
of tooth
slot
"
Ratioofa^6
"a"
"
...
Corrected
OQ
density (kilolines)
1 1 fiO
Ampere
turns
Ampere
turns
per
inch
.
1460
Converters.
Rotary
336
Gap
Section
poleface
at
190
...
...
...
...
...
...
Length
.1875
Density
at
Ampere
turns
Magnet
Core
poleface(kilolines)
54.5
...
.313
54,200
...
...
...
...
...
...
.1875
3200.
Section
(effective)
135
...
...
...
...
Length
in.
9j
95
Density (kilolines)
Ampere
turns
Ampere
Yoke
inches
square
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
inch
per
53
...
...
530
turns
...
...
...
...
...
...
Section
magnetic
Length
per
136
turns
Ampere
turns
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
inch
per
in.
...
48
29
430
...
SUMMARY
Armature
inches.
square
...
...
Density (kilolines)
Ampere
272
14.5
pole
AMPERE
OP
...
TURNS.
180
core
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
1460
teeth
...
...
3200
Gap
...
Magnet
530
core
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
430
Yoke
...
...
...
.
5800
WINDINGS.
SPOOL
Ampere
turns
Watts
spool
per
winding
,,
load
5800
...
at
20
at
60
405
143
at
at
20
shunt
per
per
of
shunt
length
Pounds
Size
per
per
Resistance
Total
spool
terminals
Amperes
Turns
deg.
"
"
Volts
...
of shunt
...
...
spool
at
20
deg.
...
...
36
...
...
spool, ohms
per
...
...
...
5.7
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
4400ft.
...
...
...
24.9
ft
...No.
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
covered
cotton
density, amperes
winding
of
per
...
...
...
per
square
...
...
...
...
inch
,,
,,
square
970
...
...
...
4 in.
space
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
layers
layer
...
...
S. gauge.
in. in diameter
.101
.00647
Crosssection
Available
11 B. and
.0907
bare
double
Number
...
conductor
"
Current
...
...
912
...
1000
Ib.
...
Cent.
6.3
...
Cent,
spool
240
110
spool
deg.
Cent
of conductor
Dimensions
Turns
200
,,
"
"
shunt
copper
...
deg. Cent
series
"
Shunt
...
cleg.Cent.
60
at
shunt
spool, full
shunt
per
40
inch
ThreePhase, NineHundred
Series
Kilowatt, Rotary
Converter.
.337
Ampere
3030
...
Fullload
amperes
Amperes
diverted
...
1800
...
...
...
350
...
in series
spools
,,
Turns
spool
Size
per
...
of conductor
1450
...
in
Total
...
...
2.5 in.
...
...
...
...
density, amperes
length
of
...
...
Total
length, all
C2R
per
...
...
,,
"
"
12
on
total
inch
970
...
...
...
at
150
20
cleg.Cent.
Cent.
ft.
1800
in.
...
...
20
deg.
...
...
...
spools
.000816
...
ohm
...
1718
143
spool
per
...
pound
copper,
CALCULATION
165
deg. Cent.
60
at
...
864
...
...
...
LOSSES
OF
...
...
...
"
of series
weight
in.
4.83ft.
spools at
watts,
,,
1.5 square
inch
square
...
turns
of 12
Resistance
Armature
...
...
turn
one
.075
by
...
section
Mean
Total
...
8
...
Series
...
used
parallel
cross
Current
...
...
...
Number
...
2.',
...
AND
HEATING.
Resistance
60
loss at
CR
9700
C
sec.
"
500
teeth
of armature
deg. Cent.
60
at
Cent,
deg.
...00493
brushes, ohms
between
lb.
...
6500
core
Total
weight
Flux
density
"
70(
of laminations
...
teeth, kilolines
in
core
"
C.D.
1000
Observed
watts
^
loss per
core
core
loss per
pound,
watts
pound
2.05
_
~7o7D7
Total
ioooy~
r
loss
core
...
on
FJ..A
losses
armature
,,
diameter
Armature
length
,,
Peripheral radiating
"
Watts
per
surface
speed,
feet
square
inch
minute
per
radiating surface
LOKSKS
COMMUTATOR
Commutator
Area
AND
HEATING.
of all
Amperes
51
positivebrushes
contact
inch
square
per
35
surface
.03
"
,,
resistance, positiveand
negative
Drop
at
brush
contacts
brush
volts
...
3700
loss at
ohm
.00116
2.1
CR
inches
square
assumed
nu~
Ulims
Brush
"
watts
contacts
Rotary
338
Brush
pounds
pressure,
per
Converters.
inch
square
1.15
...
...
...
total
117
of friction
Coefficient
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
minute
per
3550
...
minute
124,000
2800
watts
"
"
Stray
lost in commutator,
watts
assumed
600
...
...
...
...
...
...
Total
7100
"
"
"
of commutator
Diameter
Available
Watts
...
inch
square
rise of
hours'
of
...
...
radiating
temperature
per
square
contact
on
...
...
per
inch
square
inch
square
Total
resistance
Volts
drop
...
LOSSES
of contact
per
square
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
1700
rings
inch
1.6
...
...
...
1,580
...
...
...
...
...
...
25,500
...
600
...
2,300
collector
24
inch
square
per
...
rise of
hours'
Losses
loss at
...
11
;..
...
...
...
...
radiating surface
per
...
...
,,
...
2.8
...
watt
per
square
...
...
inch, after
on
...
...
...
...
basis
above
inches
square
...
15
...
in.
...
run
deg.
42
...
...
...
,,
...
loss at
60
60
deg.
loss per
in
...
820
...
temperature
rise estimated
CR
...
surface
...
Total
...
minute
length radiating
Assumed
C2R
...
lost
radiating surface
Spool
...
54
...
Spool
...
lost in collector
Diameter
Effective
Field
...
850
...
watts
Total
...
minute
per
watts
10
...
...
...
...
...
,,
Watts
...
...
.003
...
...
Total
...
.3
,,
inches
square
of friction
...
Total
...
150
...
ring
per
pounds
,,
Brush
...
.48
,,
pounds
total
,,
...
,,
.00027
ring
per
deg.
Cent,
Cent,
per
spool, watts
12
,,
spools, watts
per
series
shunt
coil
240
...
...
coil
165
...
...
...
405
...
...
...
...
...
4850
...
...
...
...
...
EFFICIENCY.
Full
load,
Core
loss
watts
Cent.
deg.
HEATING.
AND
(assumed)
in three
,,
Coefficient
...
contacts
contacts
pressure,
...
surface
...
brush
,,
Brush
...
33.5
of contact
of brushes
brush
at
...
of all brushes
area
loss at
...
43
...
per
...
inches
inch, after
basis
COLLECTOR
Ohms
,,
square
15
above
...
Amperes
...
...
2.9
...
...
...
Total
...
...
surface
watt
per
...
run
rise estimated
Total
...
2400
...
per
10
14
surface
Radiating
Assumed
...
of commutator
length
in.
54
...
C~R
Ib
.3
output
900,000
19,850
Cent.
Converters.
Rotary
340
Field
Shunt
coils,copper
...
.........
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
1,320
860
Series
,,
Total
,,
copper
...
...
gear
several
of
of
startingis generallyin
drop
line
decreases
other
the
as
The
lags
induces
faces, and
the
rotating
field
this
in
in
into
action
are
in
field
But
phase.
interlinked
the
several
between
or
secondary voltage
but
better
between
should
be
the
is
than
to
this cause,
be
used
between
these
an
the
gradually
Then
in
in
generated
in
and
the
winding
parts.
to
the
pole
and
revolves
the
with
circuit of the
the
starting,the
turns
per
these
spool, a
wire
most
with
Hence
spools.
spools ordinarilyare,
;
armature
the
current
field
the
spools
current
normallyproportionedfield spools,with
of
field
the
motor.
currents
adjusted to bring
is first
of
induction
which
armature,
serious
action
currents
secondary
rotary
serious
entering the
currents
and
causes
The
of
moment
the
large current
that
to
synchronism.
to
thousands
However,
is from
the
to
the
at
input to
increases.
to
directlyon
adjacent turns
used.
This
these
armature
windings, and,
hundreds
insulated
an
the
by
spools is closed,
when
with
armature
speed
sight, is
line conditions, to
line.
the
accom
practicable,has
angle, it
large
be
converter
rush
current
"
imparts torque
converter
rotary
ineffectivelysecondary
constantlyacceleratingspeed, up
rotary
the
normal
the
converter's
very
mutual
simplest,at
first
fullload current
phase by
field set up
may
the
starting,is analogous
but
"
method,
on
converters
of the
apparatus
rotating magnetic
windings
of
affects
rotary
rotary converter,
terminals
excess
voltage,and
of
detriment
it
as
The
but
...
CONVERTERS.
ways.
66,000
...
ROTARY
OF
several
disadvantages. By
of
18,000
...
converter
rotary
synchronising of rotary
current
alternating
and
of
weight
STARTING
one
any
converter,
...
1,200
mains
alternatingcurrent
the
...
...
startingand
the
throw
...
...
...
...
THE
plished in
...
2,200
parts
Total
The
.5,600
all insulation
...
other
Sundry
2,180
double
not
or
dangerously high
they
must
only between
triplecotton
layers,
covering
frequentlyoccurringbreakdown
frame,
and
hence
extra
insulation
be
due
should
Methods
The
suitable
broken
different
the
switch, arranged
into
up
in
induced
several
spool,the
each
starting,this
At
the
until
line
the
then
frame
to
closed, and
afterwards
in
line current
decrease
the
By
to
conveniently
volts
thousand
up
between
or
are
so
ends
the
of
and
open,
value.
field
due
occurs,
This
be closed
not
must
is observed
by
special switch
switch, whereupon
is
still further
to
synchronisingis completed.
of
process
be
smaller
main
the
if
be
may
much
winding
connected
severe.
always
to
up
falling
current
is
be
insulation
the
on
must
run
field
the
Converters.
spools should
otherwise,
strain
switch
has
armature
field
that
so
sections
spoolsin series,and
these
the
of
terminals
of Starting Rotary
of
means
compensator,
this
heavy
current
the
on
line at
starting
I
403
Fig
COMPENSATORS
THREE
'OR
compensator,
At
the
compensator
connection
to
times
the
are
moved
terminals
on
the
rotary
rotary
the
i.e.,if the
of
the
onefifth the
converter
up
runs
common
line
in
collector
voltage,
taps into
from
way
the
to
line
of the
fraction
has
converter
As
current.
difficultyencountered
the
end,
alternatingcurrent
commutator,
Unless
line
the
connected
are
current;
onefifth
say,
403.
voltage
speed, the
is
directly
line.
Another
from
line, then
small
line
the
times
are,
with
threephase rotary
rings
collector
but
receive
winding
diagram of Fig.
starting,the
several
receive
would
five
in the
contacts, hence
and
and
of
instant
for
connections
The
shown
as
are
the
lowest
three
ATOR"
PENS
dispensed with.
be
may
PHASE
THREE
ONE
COM
some
converter
when
the
rotary
independent
source
sabstation, the
is
of
when
is
the
made
the
to
is
converter
its
furnish
current
dependent
is started
the
polarityat
indeterminate
continuous
rotary
rotary
own
excitation.
is available
at
the
upon
the
polarity that
its
substation, and
the
be allowed
may
The
second
as
to
one
run
the
polarity of
and
the
second
and
of
converter
of
objectionto startingrotary
been
found
it is started
by
of
the
rapidly about
followed
by
these
is in
happen
mark.
on
of
machines
Near
inconvenience
them
directlyon
first machine
One
will
will
machine
the
when
will
excite
the
"
point
finallybe
of
opposite
whichever
field switch
itself,provided
Otherwise
the
vibrate
in
polarity,the
negative.
after alterations
or
desired
ready
to
These
maximum
when
stand
must
commence
swings.
of the
it
heavy armatures,
the
side.
the
this
with
polarityof
short
direction
the
first run,
the
further
case
voltmeter
with
second
direction,
correct
approaches synchronism,
correctlypositiveand
are
the
first
the
the
zero
closed, and
be
terminals
to
the
swings
should
of
couple
from
directions
mark
zero
from
by throwing
the
machine
the
as
synchronised.
Obviously, however,
in the
But
continuouscurrent
the
into
alternatingcurrent
the
field switch
the
pointer
of
from
down.
control
practicableto
up
shut
consequently
reversed
converters
alternatingcurrentline.
the
be
polarityconstitutes
initial
the
is
one
Then
current.
it
polarity,then
wrong
polaritydesired, by using
continuous
the
at
converters
second
the
of
instant
the
at
rotary
the
with
up
first may
the
rotary
indeterminafceness
comes
have
to
two
are
given either
source
one,
there
temporarily,till
so,
be
independent
an
If
first
can
happens
commutator
attaining synchronism.
to
Converters.
Rotary
342
field
the
which
"
field terminals
might
will
require
be reversed.
required line
The
and
converter
rotary
instant
of
running
coupled
the
latter
and
results
in
Where
better
way
which
the
induction
small
with
an
station
of
line
have
is
sufficient
its
minimum
in
coupled
with
capacity to
converters
recent
to
this
the
to
system.
an
direct
motor
of
purpose
is
the
plan practicable.
induction
for the
the
generator, and
strain
small
from
is then,
extra
starting
expense,
set.
rotary
provided
direct
with
This, however,
currents.
described
latter
The
converter
rotary
several
are
is that
being only
is to
unsightly combination
there
motor
the
at with
by starting generator
operationrarelyrender
used,
of
shaft
the
to
reduced
synchronism
arrived
are
sometimes
method
in
of routine
conditions
the
But
of
greatly
simultaneously.
up
starting,always
conditions
is
current
small
in
British
the
substation,
much
in
patent specification,
auxiliaryset consistingof
continuouscurrent
run
rotary
dynamo,
converters
one
at
an
latter
the
a
time
Metlnxk
of
Rota
) "//
Converter*.
343
up
Converters.
Rotary
344
speed
synchronous
to
is arrived
speed
at, and
collector
current
closed, and
the
continuouscurrent
as
synchronism attained,
and
rings
the
line,
converter
rotary
runs
the
between
the
switch
from
on
When
motors.
alternating
between
the
this
them
is
alternatingcurrent
supply.
In
from
continuouscurrent
such
cases,
the
in
line,and
Continent
the
being charged by
the
and
more
rotaries
are
with
uniform
converters.
rotaries
load
customary
on
independent
assistance
the
the
during
loads.
heavy
started
simply
parallelwith
considerable
of
substation
the
partly from
its
rotary
as
up
In
from
motor
They
in
operate
the
rest
of
batteries
the
batteries
light load,
known
as
maintaining
of the
storage
rotary converters,
times
are
to
'"
system
for
helping out
and
batteries,"
buffer
uniform
of the
supply partly
converters.
synchronised.
then
it is very
in
substations,
the
is
converter
derives
system
and
generators
rotary
continuouscurrent
On
continuouscurrent
cases,
many
voltage
and
render
the
they
starting up
the
rotary
Methods
of Synchronising
Rotary Converters.
SYNCHRONISING
One
a
has
the
choice
between
switch
the
of
rotary
voltage
transformers
either by
synchronisingthe rotary converter
rings and the low potential side of the
of
switch
and
the
constitute
to
current
synchronisingby
the
to
converter
continuous
CONVERTERS.
collector
stepdown transformers,or
the
ROTARY
345
transforming from
system,
one
and
low
highvoltagealternatingcurrent,
placed between
the
and
hightensionterminals
hightensiontransmission
line.
latter
plan
408.
Pig
fig 40
This
of
best
switch
400
volts
heavy
rather
;
and
such
expensive
construction
Moreover,
for
have
six
at
currents
switch,
than
for
as
to
simpler
in
obviates
opening
against three
sixphase rotary
and
the
the
be
potentialof
for the
between
one
often
safelyopened,
lowtension
converters
connections
collector
plan,
former
the
hightensionswitch
sixphaserotaries,the
blades,as
transformers
from
is of
for the
hightensionswitch.
to
have
the
an
much
in
more
preferably
It is much
which
of the
terminals
such
to
current.
arrangement
lowtension
300
smaller
should
switch
requires a
cases
some
type
the
of
circuits
of
not
are
provided which
be
should
connectors
The
and
Converters.
Rotary
346
when
testing.
represents a plan for synchronising
Fig. 404
and
hightension circuits,
the
switching, on
in
shown
arrangement
readilyremoved
be
may
adapted
sixphase
to
rotaries.
the
shows
Fig. 405
switching is
and
The
switch
designed for
thus
protectingthe operator.
VOLTAGE
alternatingcurrentvoltage
degree,
If the
verters
sufficient
voltage
at
both.
or
the
distant
excitation,the
of the
voltage
sequently also
its commutator
the
field
generator
current
to
effects
may
lag, and
be
the
at
the
the
By weakening
the
results
intensified
an
the
in
by
rings
be
decreased
by placing
be
of
suitable
of the
field,
made
of
adjustment
rotary, and
con
Strengthening
both,
the
causes
voltage.
commutator
coils
to
increased
an
causes
or
inductance
be
may
excitation
may
increased.
converter
con
generator excitation
circuit
Hence,
collector
field
current
inductive
line.
the
line
rotary
voltage
of
voltage,may
weakening
or
overcompounded
an
commutator
variations
through
end
as
batteries.
rotary excitation,
leading current
be
adjustablecommutator
by
certain
it may
whereby
with
the
continuous
the
is,to
flexibility
purposes
inductance,
limits
certain
strengthening the
a
same
between
ratio
and
methods
converter
charging storage
generator,
or
lead, and
hence,
rotary
the
of
lack
board,
of the
SYSTEMS.
This
generators, transmission
within
converter
for
also for
possess
varied
CONVERTER
rings
in
Samuelson.
Mr.
back
the
on
collector
the
at
occur
tolerably definite
inconvenience
desirable
generator, and
to
commutator.
interest.
possess
voltage, is
the
of
source
avoided
or
the
voltage at
current
is
designed by
was
ROTARY
IN
there
already shown,
As
breaks
the
RATIO
switch
quickbreak switch
The
construction, is illustrated
elaborate
rather
This
408.
circuits.
lowtension
the
on
necessarilyof
is
used, which
done
where
threephasesystem
in
These
in
series
the
circuits.
equipping
of
may
turns
be
of
method
Another
the
in
stepdown
primary
adjusted.
or
controlling the
transformers
secondary, and
much
better
with
hence
method
voltage
commutator
switches
the
whereby
ratio of
consists
in
the
is
by
number
transformation,
employing
an
Converters.
Rotary
348
small
voltage of
main
the
it
which
by
amount
the
is desired
be
rotary, may
main
of
the
of
exerting a great
specialtransformer
considerablyseparated, so
CONTINUOUS
should
collector
Its
or
inductance
gives large
the
of
permit
to
as
to
MAIN
very
the
wide
of
of
range
since
case,
factor
of
variation
low
by
power
caused
by
small
the
supplied
secondary
branch
circuit
small
the
factor.
the
power
The
ROTARY
for
rotary
it is
only
at
is secured.
circuit
main
combined
the
by regulation of
in the
working
main
the
unity, while
consumed
capable
magnetic leakage
much
its commutator
at
inductance
over
voltage
voltage
auxiliaryrotary, without
the
and
primary
that
BOOSTER
auxiliaryrotary, and
great advantage
range
be
should
of
that
to
CURBfNT
AUXILIARY
leading to
commutator
field coils
have
the
to
in series with
its commutator
transformers, with
coils
This
with
the
capacity equal
current
of excitation.
range
them.
voltage equal
decrease
or
auxiliaryrotary
from
between
with
employed
The
rotary.
increase
to
rotary, and
having
set,
lowpower
may
the
be
factor
on
of
the
the
it
that
factors.
adjusted
This
relativelysmall
power
factor
small
rotary,
at
of
may
the
the
wide
and
obviously
a
of
amount
is
main
is
work
to
has
gives
consistingof
It
power
energy
supplied at
main
be
system,
completely
Methods
in
Rotary
Converter
Systems.
34'J
neutralised, and
method
of
for
with
the
lagging
similar
of
of
piece
winding,
it had
the
about
fell off to
that, while
This
winding.
rotary
from
the
as
The
used
case
simple
under
or
than
unity, to
be, con
may
is illustrated
scheme
for the
500volt
700
This
charge.
of
express
line.
giving the
With
volts
rotary
of
the
requiredby
when
had
finally
adjusted
battery from
the
volts at the
530
purpose
maximum
converter
automaticallycharging
neighbourhood
to
commence
is
30
low, and
spite of
fullycharged.
battery was
this
and
volts
Its
amperes.
40
coils
shunt
graduallyincreasingvoltage.
in
act
to
opposition to
winding is connected
own
at
negative
effect
if the
with
up
its
from
excited
are
in
on
excitation
own
first,it finished
at
amperes
is,
That
is thrown
converter
rotary
30
gradually
commencement,
at the
amperes
the
when
amperes
fullycharged. Moreover,
volts when
700
40
some
of
line
series
winding
sudden
at first
was
variations
voltage suddenly
battery ;
in
the
Thus,
circuit.
30
; hence
series
Its
the
been
a
the
to about
up
giving
and
volts
commutator
of
of
the
500volt
the
series with
200
slight over
battery charge
the
when
so
charge,
current, amounting
the
slightlylower
the
BOOSTER
of the
ment
factor
has
volts more,
also
potentialin
rotary
converter.
from
interestingproperty
minimum
seaies
and
unity by
to
with
leading current,
or
apparatus
completion
shunt
power
restored
410.
batteries
charging storage
battery
main
auxiliaryrotary
diagrammaticallyin Fig.
A
factor
power
large
hence
small
the
by
the
running
compensate
sumed
resultant
the
excitation,and
Converters.
Rotary
350
have
sent
tended
proved
to
of
rose
much
to
put
520
the
500volt
volts, the
addition
heavier
equalisethe
contribute
protect
this
voltage
to
to
on
shunt
the
very
on
current
resultant
into
the
voltage
markedly
to the
MefJwds
of Adjusting VoltageRatio
automatic
regulationof
the
during
In
process
addition
of
of the
shaft
the
main
desired
A
is
of
another
conversion
of
The
the
set.
the
excitation
is
be
is
rings;
synchronous
which, the
of
avoids
main
to
main
com
have
and
commutator,
doubled.
for
giving
in
the
adjustableratio
an
wherein
Fig. 413,
shaft
small
rotary,which
of the
serving for
motor
synchronous
the
voltage
consequently also
in
losses
the
the
must
current
also
percentage of
is varied, and
scheme
This
has
motor
series with
of
is that
main
the
on
the
in
that
schemes
are
illustrated
of
the
excited
the
as
losses
those
of
of this scheme.
last
radiating surface
directlyconnected
the
extension
an
are
carrying the
that
in
adjusted to overcompound
these
commutator
all, consists
series with
diagram
both
of
of
total
the
the
ratio
of
and
commutator,
extra
an
in
consumed
flexible method.
very
CONDITIONS
RUNNING
conditions
The
sidered
speed,
in
may
gives
voltage,is
synchronous motor,
conversion.
The
collector
requires no
varying requirements
on
its fields
interesting arrangement
motor
synchronous
351
auxiliaryrotary converter,
machine
If
set
Fig. 412
great
small
connected
combined
expensive.
Still
the
arrangement
converter.
auxiliarymachine
the
substantiallyas
hence
best
the
commutator
the
extent.
of
of
continuouscurrent
great disadvantage
mutator
that
to
whole,
rotary
its
rotary converter,
any
scheme
small
load, and
the
is
on
voltage to
Systems.
alternative
and, perhaps,
Rotary Converter
of
Fig. 411
An
and
current
in
on
pages
have
been con
relatingto startingrotary converters
After
to 344.
340
brought to synchronous
being finally
performance,
efficient
adjustments requisiteto
various
remain
there
CONVERTERS.
ROTARY
FOR
and
to
them
adapt
fulfil the
best
to
the
secure
most
special
requirements.
Characteristic.
Phase
applied
to
ampereturns
collector
Fig. 400,
per
ring, as
on
field
normal
in
question),and
333,
and
between
voltage
a
"
term
phase
field
Such
from
characteristic"
has
curve
an
collector
excitation
and
with
been
of
examination
rings (310
of
0.4
is
generally
(preferablyexpressed in
field excitation
spool),for abscissae,
ordinates.
page
at
The
plotted with
curve
"
input
amperes
given
it, one
volts
amperes
in
for
no
learns
the
(5800
per
load
in
that,
machine
ampere
Converters.
Rotary
352
turns
to
pole), there
per
the
run
current
lags, and
with
with
amount
the
and
it also
field
varying
reaches
current
80
This
weaker
stronger it leads, in
no
with
input ;
about
unloaded.
converter
rotary
minimum
required only
was
this
The
approximately
shows
curve
about
to
value
same
the
of
current
increasing rapidly
phase increases
per
condition
excitation
cases
excitation.
phase
per
the
is
field
both
amperes
that
2100
with
amperes,
twice
with
in
normal
the
field excitation.
If the
is in
current
voltampereswill
the
phase
be
at the
the
equal to
minimum
point of
of the
sum
NOLOAD
input,then
current
losses.
noload
LOSSES.
Watts.
Core
and
stray losses
Friction
and
at
normal
C2R
collector
voltage
...
...
G.4
...
...
...
500
Total
phase
per
noload
3,200
=
...
...
Watts
8,000
=
...
Shunt
20,000
=
...
...
losses...
losses
=31,200
10,400
=
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
310
"Y"
voltage
Current
=",
(i.e.,entering
phase
per
each
collector
10,400
ring)
58
amperes.
22
amperes.
"
...
...
volts.
180
...
...
...
180
Hence
This
and
have
we
is due
partly to
value, depending
in
upon
a
the
upon
methods
the
difference
of
80
in the
58
"
forms
wave
of the
motive
employed
varying
power
to
generator
limit
the
effect.
It will
be considered
subsequent paragraph.
Neglecting
factor
400
balance
the
and
unaccountedfor
an
of
the
shows
tion)
thousand
amperes
"surging" effect,for
incoming
that
there
the
is
with
an
amperes
in the
current
the
may
excitation
incoming
current
be
of
given
estimated.
3.2
amperes
of
1000
the
(halfthe
amperes
conductor.
normal
power
of
=
"
j=
Fig.
excita
phase.
per
armature
curve
One
580
/ 'redetermination
Resistance
given
R
ohm
.005
as
of
Then
the
.0067
ohm.1
In each
and
excitation
branch
but
R.
one
will be
C2R
3 x
2250
the
.0007
G750
friction remain
loss is increased
by
500
will
A)
been
be
2250
1 33
watts,
The
watts.
loss and
core
collector C2R
side of
loss of 5802
of
has
332.)
page
(i.e.,
one
C2R
armature
The
(See
353
brushes
commutator
branch
regulatingrheostat
watts.
the
cleg.Cent.
there
total
with
i.e., 1650
at 60
Characteristic Curve*.
between
armature
resistance of
therefore
of Phase
field
its former
value,
as
substantially
before,
watts.
SUMMARY.
Watts.
Armature
C2R
...
Field
...
6750
...
selfexcitation
1 (550
.........
Core
and
stray losses
Friction
and
20 000
.........
collector
CZR
losses
8,500
...
Total
Total
of losses
36,900
phase
per
12,300
...
580
310
180,000.
\f) 3
Hence
factor
power
.068.
=

180
Proof
Take
48
brushes.
48
of
groups
the
But
brushes, then
commutator
total
of
resistance
One
turns
the
12
paths
collector
side
of
the
the
on
two
between
12
poles, and
the
paths through
576
are
has
It
rotary.
12
are
each.
turns
between
1.33
A.
present
there
the
turns.
192
of the
There
turns.
of
of
case
resistance
armature
side
one
Therefore,
negative
path
of
the
winding.
has
that, if R
resistance
in
parallel.
is made
Hence,
armature.
rings,the
576
up
multiplecircuitsingle
from
armature
'.
12
positive
each
of
the
to
12
resistance
are
such
one
divided
of
into
arranged
group
the
paths
total turns
of
the
one
three
in six
192
parallelpaths
of
32
each
turns
; 32
"
in series
turns
12
will have
resistance
of
R,
48
8 R
and
six
paths
resistance
of
be
may
winding
shown
windings,
yield
for
the
the
side
one
and
same
threephase
of
in
in
the
by
Fig. 373,
study
on
winding diagrams
of
For
the
an
Figs. 374
the
of
page
result, i.e.,that
of the
this subdivision
multiple windings
rotaries.
R, and
1.33
this
equals
the
Q.E.D.
A.
of
resistance
understanding
removed
of
have
parallel will
difficulties
Any
paths
in
Analogous
both
the
resistance
375,
of
on
pages
side
one
these
298
into
the
and
of
latter
and
and
groups
parallel
multiplecircuitsingle
investigations of
twocircuit
of
examination
and
for
winding diagram
297.
of
winding
twocircuit
single
multiplecircuittype,
the
cases,
is
one
equal
may
to
make
299.
will
1.33
R,
use
of
Converters.
Rotary
Similar
for
Ccalculations for
plotting other
phase
/VO
"UJ.414.
values
other
characteristic
LOAD
Of
Three
Power factor
25
Phcuse
in the
terms
input
per
commutator.
collector
ring.
These
load,
that
data
is,for
no
Converter.
ExcitaJtL0n".
ofFLelci
?
Field
Excitation.
Factor
in
Thus
the
no
give
Cycle*dOOVoUs
Power
output from
for
curves
RotMjy
terms
Amperes
field excitation,
CHARACTERISTICS.
PHASE
dOOEw.
uv
of the
and
curves
Fig. 414
in
the
Fig. 415
have
all
power
in terms
factor
is
plotted
of the amperes
corresponded
to
no
load,
control
and
considerable
converter,
or
working
lead
with
of
range
line and
employed
voltage,at
the
inductances,
armature
for the
express
purpose,
of
commutator
the
rotary
obtained.
be
may
descriptionof
explaining,in
now
of
by auxiliaryinductances
brief
This
intermediation
the
through
aided
sometimes
a
Converters.
Rotary
356
what
rough, practicalway,
varying
phase characteristic
the
PHASE
the
causes
also what
permits
curves
current
controls
and
to
of
lag
determines
CHARACTERISTICS.
of
Fig417
Power
Three
FcLCCorin*
Ctnscant
Phaseof
terms
1000
16OO
Ampere
hand
extent
by
which
regulationof
all conditions
(Assuming
the
of the
rator
voltage,which
commutator
has
when
lag
phase, to
converter
generator, these
been
ZOOO
turns
per
per KeW/
ZSOO
Field
3000
to
there
that
are
3500
Suppose
collector
be of
variations
will remain
shown
the
rings
4OOO
Spool.
lead.
or
Spool/.
of 15~Vdlts between/
and
rotary
that
It
it shall
the
of load
Tarns
Ampere
AlternatingCujrenjbPoteiWuaJU
K"0
the
Converter
Rotary
very
will not
generator, say
to furnish
rings of
small
310
by
volts, under
rotary
converter.
capacityrelativelyto
materiallyaffect
the gene
approximately constant.)
there
310
will
volts
be
substantially500
between
But
collector
volts
rings.
figuringfrom
the
the
at
This
310
is
volts
Predetermination
at
collector
the
arrived
the
rings, or
is that
at
there
winding
armature
the
is
of the
reluctance
or,
rather, only
ed
by
the
When
turns.
there
small
the
amount
losses.
since
the
flux
same
armature
current
current
and
is
composed
amperes,
per

ring.
802, and
voltage,it
the
in
Thus
deg.
Fig. 400,
the
the
it
collector
the
of
out
component
energy
to
say,
follows
that
magnetic
same
which
analysison
found
was
input
The
hence
from
80
352
that
unity power
magnetising component
for
the
phase
the
reducing
per
losses,
the
of
com
resultant
The
overcomes
page
amperes
scarcelydiffered
This
rings.
phase.
(corresponding to
amperes,
increased
1,000 amperes
was
6.4
into
it is 90
hence
the
weakened,
of the
flows
then
of
curve
from
of
represent
power
is
impelled through
elsewhere.
current.
this wattless
excitation
for
which
work,
no
characteristic
3.2
sought
supply the
armature,
Factor
remaining part
to be
in the
current
terminal
same
against the
Rotary Converter.
Power
therefore,
to
35 Cycle 115Volt,.
Three Phase
The
flux
afford
to
as
with
CHARACTERISTICS.
of125R*.
circuit.
is such
impelling this
no
result
the
linked
polepiece,
per
will be
357
commutator,
field excitation
is still the
PHASE
ponent does
for
if the
Curves.
field excitation
necessary
But
there
also be
must
the
force
the
at
flux
magnetic circuit,there
noload
onehalf, then,
volts
500
magnetic
requisitemagnetomotive
the
Characteristic
Phase
of
field
factor),to
collector
ring
to
1,000 amperes.
There
Converters.
Rotary