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POLAR COVALENT BONDS

Electrons are not always shared equally between two bonding atoms: one atom might exert more of a force on the electron cloud than the other. This "pull" is termed electronegativity and measures the attraction for electrons a particular atom has. The unequal sharing of electrons within a bond leads to the formation of an electric dipole: a separation of positive and negative electric charge. Fractional charges are denoted as δ + (delta plus) and δ− (delta minus).

When two atoms of different EN form a covalent bond, the electrons are not shared equally between them.

The chlorine atom pulls the bonding electrons closer to it and becomes

somewhat electron rich bears a partial negative charge ( δ –).

The hydrogen atom becomes somewhat electron deficient bears a partial

positive charge ( δ +).




The direction of polarity of a polar bond is symbolized by a vector quantity






POLAR
AND
 N ONPOLAR
 M OLECULES 


A molecule is composed of one or more chemical bonds (covalent bonds) between molecular orbitals of different atoms. A molecule may be polar either as a result of polar bonds due to differences in electronegativity as described above, or as a result of an asymmetric arrangement of non-polar covalent bonds and non-bonding pairs of electrons known as a full molecular orbital. While the molecules can be described as "polar covalent", "non-polar covalent", or "ionic", it must be noted that this is often a relative term, with one molecule simply being more polar or more non-polar than another.

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The polarity (dipole moment) of a molecule is the vector sum of the dipole moment of

each individual polar bond.




Fig.
1.1
 





Fig.
1.2
 


Fig 1.1 is showing the charge distribution in carbon tetrachloride and the Fig 1.2

is showing that 4 equal bond moments in tetrahedral orientation are producing

zero net moment by cancelling each other.

Table 1.1 Dipole moments of some molecules

each other. Table 1.1 Dipole moments of some molecules Unshared pairs ( lone pairs ) of

Unshared pairs (lone pairs) of electrons make large contributions to the dipole

moment. (The O–H and N–H moments are also appreciable.)

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Fig. 1.3 Bond moments and resulting dipole moments of water and ammonia


 
 I NTERMOLECULAR
BONDING
 

I
NTERMOLECULAR
BONDING


Intermolecular bonding is the bonding interaction which takes place between

different molecules. This can take the form of ionic bonding, hydrogen bonding,

dipole–dipole interactions or van der Waals interactions. These bonding forces

are weaker than the covalent bonds, but they have an important influence on the

physical and biological properties of a compound.

Ionic bonding

Ionic bonding takes place between molecules having opposite

charges and involves an electrostatic interaction between the two

opposite charges. The functional groups, which most easily ionize,

are amines and carboxylic acids.

which most easily ionize, are amines and carboxylic acids. Fig. 1.4 Ionization of an amine (left)
which most easily ionize, are amines and carboxylic acids. Fig. 1.4 Ionization of an amine (left)

Fig. 1.4

Ionization of an amine (left) and ionization of a carboxylic acid (right)

Ionic bonding is possible between a molecule containing an

ammonium ion and a molecule containing a carboxylate ion. Some

important naturally occurring molecules contain both groups – the

amino acids. Both these functional groups are ionized to form a

structure known as a zwitterion (a neutral molecule bearing both a

positive and a negative charge) and intermolecular ionic bonding

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Fig. 1.5

can take place.

www.canvas4u.org Fig. 1.5 can take place. Fig. 1.6 Intermolecular ionic bonding of amino acids. Hydrogen bonding
www.canvas4u.org Fig. 1.5 can take place. Fig. 1.6 Intermolecular ionic bonding of amino acids. Hydrogen bonding

Fig. 1.6

Intermolecular ionic bonding of amino acids.

Hydrogen bonding

The strong dipole-dipole attractions between hydrogen atoms

bonded to small, strongly electronegative atoms (O, N, or F) and

nonbonding electron pairs on other electronegative atoms.

Hydrogen bonding can take place when molecules have a hydrogen

atom attached to a heteroatom such as nitrogen or oxygen. The

common functional groups, which can participate in hydrogen

bonding, are alcohols, phenols, carboxylic acids, amides, and amines. Hydrogen bonding is possible due to the polar nature of the N–H or O–H bond. Nitrogen and oxygen are more electronegative than hydrogen. As a result, the heteroatom gains a slightly negative charge and the hydrogen gains a slightly positive charge. Hydrogen bonding involves the partially charged hydrogen of one molecule (the H bond donor) interacting with the partially charged heteroatom of another molecule (the H bond acceptor).

1)

Bond dissociation energy of about 4-38 KJ mol–1 (0.96-9.08 Kcal mol 1 ).

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2)

Fig. 1.7

Fig. 1.8

H-bond is weaker than an ordinary covalent bond; much stronger than the

dipole-dipole interactions.

bond; much stronger than the dipole-dipole interactions. Hydrogen bonding accounts for the much higher boiling point
bond; much stronger than the dipole-dipole interactions. Hydrogen bonding accounts for the much higher boiling point

Hydrogen bonding accounts for the much higher boiling point

(78.5 °C) of ethanol than that of dimethyl ether (–24.9 °C)

Dipole–dipole

Interactions

Dipole–dipole interactions are possible between polarized bonds

other than N–H or O–H bonds. The most likely functional groups

that can interact in this way are those containing a carbonyl group

(C=O). The electrons in the carbonyl bond are polarized towards the

more electronegative oxygen such that the oxygen gains a slight

negative charge and the carbon gains a slight positive charge. This

results in a dipole moment, which can be represented by the arrow

shown in Fig. 1.9. Molecules containing dipole moments can align

themselves with each other such that the dipole moments are

pointing in opposite directions.

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Fig. 1.9

www.canvas4u.org Fig. 1.9 Hydrogen bonding is a special case of dipole-dipole interaction. Van der Waals Interactions
www.canvas4u.org Fig. 1.9 Hydrogen bonding is a special case of dipole-dipole interaction. Van der Waals Interactions

Hydrogen bonding is a special case of dipole-dipole interaction.

Van der Waals Interactions

(also called London forces or dispersion forces)

Van der Waals interactions are the weakest of the

intermolecular bonding forces and involve the transient

existence of partial charges in a molecule. Electrons are

continually moving in an unpredictable fashion around any

molecule. At any moment of time, there is a slight excess of electrons in one part of the molecule and a slight deficit in another part. Although the charges are very weak and fluctuate around the molecule, they are sufficiently strong to allow a weak interaction between molecules, where regions of opposite charge in different molecules attract each other. Alkane molecules can interact in this way and the strength of the interaction increases with the size of the alkane molecule. Van der Waals interactions are also important for alkenes, alkynes and aromatic rings. The types of molecules involved in this form of intermolecular bonding are ‘fatty’ molecules, which do not dissolve

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easily in water, and such molecules are termed hydrophobic

(water hating). Hydrophobic molecules can dissolve in nonpolar,

hydrophobic solvents due to van der Waals interactions and so this

form of intermolecular bonding is sometimes referred to as a

hydrophobic interaction.

Fig. 1.10

referred to as a hydrophobic interaction. Fig. 1.10 Fig. 1.11 Temporary dipoles and induced dipoles in
referred to as a hydrophobic interaction. Fig. 1.10 Fig. 1.11 Temporary dipoles and induced dipoles in
referred to as a hydrophobic interaction. Fig. 1.10 Fig. 1.11 Temporary dipoles and induced dipoles in

Fig. 1.11

Temporary dipoles and induced dipoles in nonpolar molecules

resulting from a non-uniform distribution of electrons at a given

instant.

This temporary dipole in one molecule can induce opposite (attractive)

dipoles in surrounding molecules. These temporary dipoles change

constantly, but the net result of their existence is to produce attractive

forces between nonpolar molecules.

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SOLUBILITIES

1. Solubility

1) The energy required overcoming lattice energies and an intermolecular or inter ionic attraction for the dissolution of a solid in a liquid comes from the formation of new attractions between solute and solvent. 2) The dissolution of an ionic substance: hydrating or solvating the ions. 3) Water molecules, by virtue of their great polarity and their very small, compact shape, can very effectively surround the individual ions as they freed from the crystal surface. 4) Because water is highly polar and is capable of forming strong H-bonds, the dipole-

ion attractive forces are also large.

, the dipole- ion attractive forces are also large. 2. “ Like dissolves like ” 1)

2. “Like dissolves like

forces are also large. 2. “ Like dissolves like ” 1) Polar and ionic compounds tend

1) Polar and ionic compounds tend to dissolve in polar solvents. 2) Polar liquids are generally miscible with each other. 3) Nonpolar solids are usually soluble in nonpolar solvents. 4) Nonpolar solids are insoluble in polar solvents. 5) Nonpolar liquids are usually mutually miscible. 6) Nonpolar liquids and polar liquids do not mix.

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3. Methanol (ethanol, and propanol) and water are miscible in all proportions.

and propanol) and water are miscible in all proportions. 1) Alcohol with long carbon chain is

1) Alcohol with long carbon chain is much less soluble in water. 2) The long carbon chain of decyl alcohol is hydrophobic (hydro, water; phobic, fearing or avoiding –– “water avoiding”. 3) The OH group is hydrophilic (philic, loving or seeking –– “water seeking”.

–– “water avoiding”. 3) The OH group is hydrophilic ( philic , loving or seeking ––