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http://dx.doi.org/10.12988/ijma.2014.311267

Boundary Value Problems

Yong-ming Li

School of Science

Sichuan University of Science and Engineering

Zigong, Sichuan, 643000, China

c 2014 Yong-ming Li. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative

Copyright

Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in

any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In this paper, we study the existence of solution for the following singular

boundary value problem

(p(t)u ) = c(t)p(t)f (u), 0 t < ,

u(0) = 0, u(+) = L > 0.

where function f satisfies Lipschitz condition, namely, f Lip((, L]). We

prove that this singular boundary value problem has one strictly solution.

Keywords: Singular boundary value problem; increasing solution; Lipschitz

condition

Introduction

The following boundary value problem

u = (u) 0 , u (0) = 0, lim u(t) = ul > 0,

t

(1.1)

Yong-ming Li

18

has been used to describe the state of uid in RN when the motion of uid is

absent. Here u is the density of the medium, (u) is the chemical potential of a

nonhomogeneous uid, and 0 are suitable constants [1, 2]. Note that u(0) is the

density of the gas at the center of the bubble. We are interested in the strictly

increasing solution u to the boundary value problem (1.1) with 0 < u(0) < ul , since

in this case u determines an increasing mass density prole [3]. To nd this kind of

solution on the half-line [0, +), problem (1.1) has been transformed to

(tN 1 u (t)) = 4tN 1 2 (u + 1)u(u L), u (0) = 0, u(+) = L > 0,

(1.2)

alternative form of problem (1.2) arises in nonlinear eld theory [4].

In our study, we shall consider a more general situation of problem (1.2), that

is,

(p(t)u ) = c(t)p(t)f (u), 0 t < ,

(1.3)

(1.4)

The reason that we are interest in this problem is based on many appeared investigations; for example, for the simplest case c(t) 1, this problem has been investigated

in [5, 6, 7] by means of dierential and integral inequalities as well as upper and

lower function approach; this kind of solution has been discussed in [8, 9] for which

p(t) = tk , k (1, ) and the shooting argument combining with variational method

[10, 11] were successfully utilized. Here it is a pity that we dont solve the problem

(1.3) with the singular boundary value (1.4), but we nd one strictly solution of the

following equation with the singular boundary value (1.4)

0 t < ,

(p(t)u ) = c(t)p(t)f(u),

(1.5)

where

f (M), x (, M],

f(x) =

f (x), x [M, L],

0,

x [L, +),

(1.6)

M is some constant dened in later essays, and it must mentioned that function f

satises Lipschitz condition, namely, f Lip((, L]).

To obtain the main results, we rst introduce the following assumptions:

(H1 ) c(t) is a bounded and continuous function in [0, ) satisfying c1 c(t)

c2 , t [0, ) for real numbers c2 c1 > 0;

19

f (L) = 0, and xf (x) < 0 for x (, L)\{0}, moreover, there exists L0 < 0 such

that F (L0 ) > F (L), where F is given by

x

f (z)dz, x (, L];

(1.7)

F (x) =

0

(H4 ) there exists (0, 1) such that p (t)/p (t) is bounded as t 0;

(H5 ) p (t)/p(t) is bounded when t is suciently large, and there exists a constant

b > 0 such that

bL0 +L

b

p(t)dt > F0

p(t)dt,

b

where

F0 =

1 + 2c2 F (L)

,

2c1 (F (L0 ) F (L))

In addition, we need the following hypothesis

(H6 ) limx f (x)/|x| = 0.

(L0 , L) such that F (B)

=

Remark 1.1 (i) By (H2 ), there exists a constant B

F (L).

(ii) It has been shown in [12] that the assumption (H3 ) together with the simple

formula

lim p(t)/p (t) = +

(1.8)

is a sucient condition for (H5 ). There are lots of functions with (H3 ) (H5) found

in [12].

Remark 1.2 We can choose > 0 suciently small such that K1 = c2 (b L0 +

L)2 < 1. If (H6 ) holds, then according to the continuity of f , there exists a constant

M > 0 such that |f (x)| M + |x|, x (, L]. Set

+ K2

|B|

2

K2 = c2 M (b L0 + L) and M < min L0 ,

.

(1.9)

1 K1

Main results

u

F (u) =

f(x + L)dx.

0

(2.1)

Yong-ming Li

20

Remark 2.1 The function F is continuous in (, L], decreasing in (, 0),

and F (B) < F (L) for B

increasing in (0, L], F (B) > F (L) for B (, B)

L). Moreover, we have

(B,

> F (M),

x (, M),

x

(2.2)

f(z)dz

= F (x),

x [M, L],

= F (L),

x [L, ).

Remark 2.2 The function F is continuous in (, +) and F (x) = F (L)F (x+

L), x [L0 L, 0]. Moreover, F increases on [L0 L, L], decreases on [L, 0] and

F (L) = F (L), F (L0 L) = F (L) F (L0 ). Furthermore, we have

L),

x (, B

< 0,

L, 0),

F (x) > 0,

x (B

= 0,

x [0, +) {B

L}.

We rst consider the equation (1.5) with the following initial value

u(0) = B 0, u (0) = 0.

(2.3)

Lemma 2.1 If f Lip((, +)) and (H1 ) (H3 ), (H6 ) and (1.6) are satisfied,

then

(i) The problem (1.5) and (2.3) subject to the initial value B (, 0] possesses a

unique solution u C 1 ([0, )) C 2 ((0, )) and u 0 for B = 0.

(ii) Suppose that u is the solution of problem (1.5) and (2.3) with the initial value

B (B0 , B0 + ). For each b > 0, B0 (, 0) and small enough such that

=M

(b, B0 , ) > 0 such that

(B0 , B0 + ) (, 0), there exists a constant M

b

.

|u(t)| + |u (t)| M f or t [0, b], and

|u (s)|p (s)/p(s)ds M

(2.4)

0

(iii) Suppose that ui , i = 1, 2 are unique solutions of problem (1.5) and (2.3) with

the initial values B = Bi , i = 1, 2. For each b > 0, B0 < 0 and > 0, there exists

> 0 such that for any B1 , B2 [B0 , 0), if |B1 B2 | < , then we have

|u1(t) u2 (t)| + |u1 (t) u2 (t)| < , t [0, b].

(2.5)

implies the boundness of the function c(t). Then the proof of (i) is standard and

21

is similar to that of [6](Lemma 4) by contraction mapping theorem. From the arguments of step 2 and step 3 in [5](Lemma 3), the result (ii) follows immediately.

The proof of (iii) is similar to that of [5](Lemma 6) by taking advantage of Gronwall

inequality. The proof is complete.

Remark 2.3 For a given constant C (, +), consider the initial value condition

u(a) = C, u(a) = 0, a 0.

(2.6)

The proof of Lemma 2.1(i) shows that the initial value problem (1.5) and (2.6) has

a unique solution u in [a, +). Especially, for C = 0 or C L, we have u C.

Lemma 2.2 Assume that (H1 )(H3 ) and (H5 ) hold. Let u C 1 ([0, )) C 2 ((0, ))

be the solution of (1.5). If u increases in (0, +) with u(t) (, L] for t [0, ),

then limt u(t) equals to 0 or L. In addition, we have limt u(t) = L by further

assuming that (1.8) is satisfied, f (0) exists and is nonzero.

Proof. Firstly, we rewrite (1.5) in the equivalent form

u (t) +

p (t)

u (t) = c(t)f(u(t)),

p(t)

t (0, ).

(2.7)

Notice that the assumption (H2 ) and (1.6) enable us to nd t1 > 0 such that for

t t1 , f(u(t)) will not change its sign anymore. Then by taking integration on both

sides of (2.7) from t1 to t > t1 , we have

t

t

p (s)

u (s)ds, t t1 .

c(s)f(u(s))ds = u (t) u (t1 ) +

t1

t1 p(s)

t

Note that limt u (t) = 0, and assumptions (H3 ) and (H5 ) imply t1 p (s)u (s)/p(s)ds

+

is bounded for t t1 . We derive that t1 c(s)f(u(s))ds converges, which indicates

that c(t)f(u(t)) 0 as t +. By (H1 ), (H2 ) and the assumptions on u, we nd

that either limt u(t) = 0 or limt u(t) = L. The rest of the proof is similar to

that of [9](Proposition 11) and so we omit it. The proof is complete.

We consider in this section the case that the nonlinear term f satises Lipschitz

condition, namely, f Lip((, L]). Then according to (1.6), f also satises

Lipschitz condition in a larger region (, +). The following result yields three

types of the solution for the initial value problem (1.5) and (2.3).

Proposition 2.3 Assume that (H1 ) (H3 ), (H5 ) and (H6 ) hold and let initial value

B (M, 0). If u C 1 ([0, )) C 2 ((0, )) is the solution of problem (1.5) and

(2.3), then u takes one of the following three types

(1) At some T > 0, u(T ) = L and u strictly increases in (0, T ];

(2) At some point t > 0, u either attains a local maximum umax (0, L), and strictly

Yong-ming Li

22

(3) u strictly increases in (0, ) with limt u(t) = L.

Proof. Integrating (1.5) from 0 to t, we have

t

1

s(s)p(s)f(u(s))ds, t > 0.

u (t) =

p(t) 0

(2.8)

According to this, (1.6) and (H1 ) (H3 ), it is clear that u is strictly increasing for

t > 0 when u(t) (M, 0). On the other hand, Remark 2.3 and (H2 ) indicate that u

is not a constant in any interval of (0, ). These facts combining with Lemma 2.2

immediately lead to the three types of the solution. The proof is complete.

Denote by sets Ii (i = 1, 2) the disjoint subsets of (M, 0) such that if B Ii (i =

1, 2), the solution of problem (1.5) and (2.3) is type (i)(i = 1, 2). The next result

shows that Ii (i = 1, 2) are open which is essential for us to determine some initial

values B, subject to which the solution of problem (1.5) and (2.3) is type (3).

Theorem 2.4 Assume f Lip((, +)). If (H1 ) (H3 ), (H5 ), (H6 ) hold and

c2 /c1 < 1 + F (L)/F (M), then Ii (i = 1, 2) are open.

Proof. We divide the proof into two steps in the spirit of [5].

Step 1 . Let B0 I1 and denote by u0 the solution of problem (1.5) and (2.3) subject

to the initial value B = B0 . Then u0 is type (1) given in Proposition 2.3 according

to the denition of I1 . Lemma 2.1(iii) indicates that the solution u of problem (1.5)

and (2.3) must be the type (1) if the initial value B (M, 0) is suciently close B0 .

Let B0 I2 and u0 be the corresponding solution of problem (1.5) and (2.3).

Then u0 is type (2) given in Proposition 2.3. In the rst case of type (2), Lemma

2.1(iii) and (2.8) indicate that for initial value B suciently close to B0 , the solution

u of problem (1.5) and (2.3) also attains its rst local maximum in (0, L) at some

point t1 > 0 and strictly increases in (0, t1 ).

Step 2 . To proceed, we consider the second case of type (2) given in Proposition

2.3, i.e., the solution strictly increases in (0, ) with its limitation equals to 0. Let

u0 and u are solutions of problem (1.5) and (2.3) with initial values B0 and B,

respectively. Suppose that u0 is the second case of type (2) while u is not when B

suciently close to B0 . Then there exists the rst zero > 0 (the only one zero) of

u. If u is type (1) in Proposition 2.3, then there exists b0 > 0 such that u(b0 ) = L

and u (b0 ) > 0 according to Remark 2.3. Since (p(t)u (t)) = 0 for u(t) > L, we have

u (t) > 0 and u(t) > L for t > b0 .

(2.9)

sup{u(t), t > max{b, b0 }} = L.

(2.10)

23

Our next task is to show that formulas (2.9) and (2.10) are impossible. Substituting u0 into (2.7), multiplying u0 , and then taking integration from 0 to t in turn

lead to

t

t

p (s) 2

u0 2 (t)

+

u0 (s)ds.

c(s)f (u0 (s))u0(s)ds =

2

0

0 p(s)

By the fact that f(u0 (s)) 0, u0 (s) 0, c1 c(s) c2 for s (0, t), and

F (B0 ) F (u0(t)) =

0 (s))u (s)ds,

f(u

0

we have

u 2 (t)

+

c1 (F (B0 ) F (u0 (t))) 0

2

t

0

p (s) 2

u (s)ds c2 (F (B0 ) F (u0 (t))),

p(s) 0

t > 0.

c1 F (B0 )

p (s) 2

u (s)ds c2 F (B0 ).

p(s) 0

(2.11)

3c0 + (c2 c1 )F (M)

< F (L).

c1

(2.12)

This is feasible duo to c2 /c1 < 1 + F (L)/F (M). Then according to (2.11), we can

further choose b > 0 such that

p (s) 2

u (s)ds < c0 .

(2.13)

p(s) 0

b

= M(b,

B0 , ) given in Lemma 2.1(ii). Let (0, c0 /2M)

and

Fixed > 0 and M

u be the solution of problem (1.5) and (2.3) subject to initial value B (M, 0).

According to continuous property of F and Lemma 2.1, there exists (0, ) such

that for |B B0 | < and t [0, b], we have

|F (B) F (B0 )| < c0 /c1 and |u0 (t) u(t)| .

(2.14)

The second formulas of both (2.14) and (2.4) enable us to make the following estimation with some precisions

b

0

p (s) 2

2

|u (s) u (s)|ds

p(s) 0

0

p (s)

.

(|u (s)| + |u(s)|)|u0(t) u (t)|ds 2M

p(s) 0

Yong-ming Li

24

we immediately derive

Since (0, c0 /2M),

b

p (s) 2

2

|u0 (s) u (s)|ds < c0 .

0 p(s)

(2.15)

We are now in a position to derive the contradiction to the formulas (2.9) and

(2.10). Multiplying (2.7) by u , and then taking integration from 0 to t with t >

max{b0 , b} gives

0

u 2 (s)

c(s)f(u(s))u (s)ds =

+

2

0

p (s) 2

u (s)ds

p(s)

b

0

p (s) 2

u (s)ds.

p(s)

By substituting u 2 (s) = u 2 (s) u0 2 (s) + u0 2 (s) into the last integral and then

applying (2.15), we have

b

t

p (s) 2

u0 (s)ds.

c(s)f(u(s))u (s)ds > c0 +

0

0 p(s)

b

We move on to split the last interval 0 into 0 b and utilize the rst inequality

of (2.11) and the estimation (2.13). This gives

t

c(s)f(u(s))u(s)ds > 2c0 + c1 (F (B0 ) F (B)) + c1 F (B).

0

t

(s)ds > 3c0 + c1 F (B).

t

t

To proceed, by splitting 0 into 0 + and noting the fact that

c(s)f(u(s))u

(s)ds +

c(s)f(u(s))u

(s)ds c2 F (B) + c1

0

u(t)

f(u(s))ds,

we derive

u(t)

f(u(s))ds

<

c1

Since monotonicity of F implies F (B) < F (M), this together with (2.12) leads to

u(t)

f(u(s))ds

< F (L) for t > max{b0 , b}.

Therefore, by (2.2) in Remark 2.1, we derive sup{u(t), t > max{b, b0 }} < L which

contradicts to (2.9) and (2.10). The proof is complete.

By taking advantage of the fact that Ii (i = 1, 2) are open, we are able to give

two existence results referring to the strictly increasing solution of problem (1.5)

25

and (1.4) (i.e., Problem (1.3) and (1.4)) under Lipschitz condition.

Theorem 2.5. Assume that f Lip((, +)), (H1 ) (H4 ), (H6 ) and (1.8) are

satisfied. If f (0) < 0, then problem (1.5) and (1.4) possesses at least one strictly

increasing solution u with just one zero and u(0) (M, 0).

Proof. Firstly, Lemma 2.2 rules out the second case of type (2) given in Proposition

2.3. Secondly, It can be shown that Ii (i = 1, 2) are nonempty through the same

argument for step 1 in the proof of Theorem 2.4. The proof is complete.

Acknowledgments. This work is supported by the Science Foundation of the

Education Department of Sichuan Province (Grant No.12ZB288).

References

[1] F. DellIsola, H. Gouin, G. Rotoli, Nucleation of spherical shell-like interfaces

by second gradient theory: Numerical simulations, Eur. J. Mech. B Fluids, 15

(1996), 545-568.

[2] S. L. Gavrilyuk, S. M. Shugrin, Media with equations of state that depend on

derivatives, J. Appl. Mech. Tech. Phys., 37 (1996), 177-189.

[3] P. M. Lima, N. B. Konyukhova, A.I. Sukov, N.V. Chemetov,

Analyticalnumerical investigation of bubble-type solutions of nonlinear

singular problems, J. Comput. Appl. Math., 189 (2006), 260-273.

[4] G. H. Derrick, Comments on nonlinear wave equations as models for elementary

particles, J. Math. Phys., 5 (1965), 1252-1254.

[5] I. Rach

unkov

a, J. Tomecek, Bubble-type solutions of nonlinear singular problems, Math. Comput. Model., 51 (2010), 658-669.

[6] I. Rach

unkov

a, J. Tomecek, Strictly increasing solutions of a nonlinear singular

dierential equation arising in hydrodynamics, Nonlinear Anal., 72(2010), 21142118.

[7] I. Rach

unkov

a, J. Tomecek, Singular nonlinear problem for ordinary dierential

equation of the second-order on the half-line, Proc. of Intern. Conf., 2009, 294303.

[8] H. Berestycki, P. L. Lions, L. A. Peletier, An ODE approach to the existence

of positive solutions for semilinear problems in RN , Indiana Univ. Math. J., 30

(1) (1981), 141-157.

Yong-ming Li

26

singular ordinary dierential equation, Nonlinear Anal., 61 (2005), 1383-1399.

[10] J. Mawhin, M. Willem, Critical Point Theorey and Hamiltonian Systems,

Springer, New York, 1989.

[11] P. H. Rabinowitz, Minimax Methods in Critical Point Theory with Applications

to Dierential Equations, CBMS, American Mathematical Society, vol. 65, 1986.

[12] F. Jiao, J. S. Yu, On the existence of bubble-type solutions of nonlinear singular

problems, J. Appl. Anal. Comput. 1 (2011) 219-242.

Received: November 11, 2013

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