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# Mecanismos Fsicos e

Equaes de Taxas de
Transmisso de Calor

## Transferncia de Calor e Energia Trmica

O que a transferncia/transmisso de calor?
A transferncia/transmisso de calor o trnsito de energia trmica
devido a uma diferena de temperaturas num meio ou entre meios.

## O que a energia trmica?

A energia trmica est associada translao, rotao, vibrao e aos
estados electrnicos dos tomos e molculas que constituem a matria.
A energia trmica representa o efeito cumulativo das actividades microscpicas
e est relacionada com a temperatura da matria.

## NO confundir ou trocar os significados fsicos de Energia Trmica,

Temperatura e Transferncia de Calor

Energia
Trmica+

microscpico da matria

Temperatura

Transferncia de
Calor

Smbolo

U ou u
T

J ou J/kg
C ou K

Calor

## Quantidade de energia trmica transferida

num intervalo de tempo  t > 0

Taxa de
transferncia de
calor

de tempo

Fluxo de calor

## Energia trmica transferida por unidade

de tempo e por unidade de rea

q' '

W / m2

+
U  Energia Trmica
u  Energia Trmica especfica

## Modos de Transferncia de Calor

Conduo: Transferncia de calor num slido ou fluido esttico (gs ou lquido) devida ao
movimento aleatrio dos seus tomos, molculas e/ou electres constituintes.
Conveco: Transferncia de calor devida ao efeito combinado do movimento
aleatrio (microscpico) e do movimento macroscpico (adveco)
do fluido sobre uma superfcie.
Radiao: Energia que emitida pela matria devido a mudanas das configuraes
electrnicas dos seus tomos ou molculas e que transportada por ondas
electromagnticas (ou por fotes).
A conduo e a conveco exigem a presena de matria e de variaes de temperatura nesse
meio material.
Embora a radiao tenha origem na matria, o seu transporte no exige a presena de um
meio material. Alis, o transporte radiativo mais eficiente no vcuo.

Aplicaes
Identifica
Identificao de mecanismos
Problema 1.73(a): Identificao de mecanismos de transferncia de calor para janelas de vidro simples e duplo

qs
Radiao solar incidente durante o dia: a fraco transmitida pelo vidro duplo menor que a transmitida pelo vidro simples.
q c o n v ,1 Conveco entre a superfcie interior da janela e o ar interior
q r a d ,1 Fluxo radiativo til trocado entre as paredes do quarto e a superfcie interior da janela
q c o n d ,1 Conduo atravs do vidro que tem superfcie interior em contacto com ar interior

q conv ,2
q

## Conveco entre a superfcie exterior da janela e o ar exterior

Fluxo radiativo til trocado entre a envolvente e a superfcie exterior da janela

c o n d , 2 Conduo atravs do vidro que tem superfcie interior em contacto com ar exterior na janela de vidro duplo

qconv ,s

## Conveco no espao entre vidros (janela de vidro duplo)

Fluxo radiativo til entre as superfcies dos vidros que limitam o espao entre vidros

## Taxas de Transferncia de Calor

Conduo
Forma geral (vectorial) da Lei de Fourier:

Fluxo de calor

W/m 2

C/m ou K/m

W/m K

## Aplicao ao caso de conduo unidimensional, estacionria atravs de uma

placa plana com condutibilidade trmica constante:
Fluxo de calor (W/m2):
qx = k

qx = k

T T
dT
= k 2 1
dx
L

T1 T2
L

## Taxas de Transferncia de Calor

Conveco
Relao entre conveco e o escoamento sobre uma superfcie e o desenvolvimento
das camadas limite hidrodinmica e trmica:

## Lei do arrefecimento de Newton :

q = h (Ts T )
h [W/m2.C] ou [W/m2.K]: Coeficiente de transferncia de calor por conveco

## Taxas de Transferncia de Calor

Calor sensvel e calor latente
Ebulio e condensao

## Gama de valores tpicos do coeficiente de

conveco [W m-2 K-1]
Conveco natural - gases

2 - 25

## Conveco natural - lquidos

50 - 1000

25 - 250

Ebulio ou condensao

50 - 20000
2500 - 100000

## Taxas de Transferncia de Calor

A transferncia de calor por radiao numa interface gs/slido envolve a emisso de
radiao a partir da superfcie e pode tambm envolver a absoro da radiao incidente
da envolvente (irradiao, G ), bem como da conveco (se Ts T)
Fluxo de energia que sai devido emisso:

E = Eb = Ts4
E [W/m2]: Poder emissivo da superfcie
Eb [W/m2]: Poder emissivo de um corpo negro (emissor perfeito)
= 5,67
10-8 [W m-2 K-4] (constante de Stefan-Boltzmann)

Gabs = G

## Taxas de Transferncia de Calor

Irradiao: Caso especial de uma superfcie exposta a uma
envolvente de grandes dimenses com temperatura uniforme, Tsur

4
G = Gsur = Tsur

## Se = , o fluxo radiativo til a partir da superfcie

devido s trocas de calor por radiao com a envolvente :

'
4
= E b (TS ) G = Ts4 Tsur

Em alternativa,
''
= hr (TS Tsur )

hr W / m 2 .K

## Coeficiente de transferncia de calor por radiao

2
hr = (TS + Tsur )(TS2 + Tsur
)

= h (Ts T ) + hr (Ts Tsur )
q = qconv

(1.10)

Aplicaes
Arrefecimento de componente electrnica
Problema 1.31: Dissipao de potncia em chips que operam com uma temperatura superficial de 85C
num quarto cujas paredes e ar esto a 25C para (a) conveco natural e (b) conveco forada.
Hipteses: (1) Estacionrio,
(2) Trocas de radiao entre superfcie pequena e grande
envolvente,
(3) Transferncia de calor desprezvel das faces laterais
e da superfcie de trs do chip

## Pelec = q co nv + q rad = hA (Ts T ) + A (Ts4 Tsur4 )

A = L2 = ( 0.015m ) =2.2510-4 m 2
2

## (a) Se for conveco natural,

qconv = CA (Ts T )

5/ 4

5/4

=0.158W

## qrad = 0.60 ( 2.2510-4 m 2 ) 5.6710-8 W/m 2 K 4 ( 3584 -2984 ) K 4 =0.065W

Pelec = 0.158W+0.065W=0.223W

## qconv = hA (Ts T ) =250W/m 2 K ( 2.2510-4 m 2 ) ( 60K ) =3.375W

Pelec = 3.375W+0.065W=3.44W

Conservao de Energia

CONSERVAO DE ENERGIA
(Primeira Lei da Termodinmica)
Uma ferramenta importante na anlise do fenmeno de transferncia
de calor, constituindo geralmente a base para determinar a temperatura
do sistema em estudo.
Formulaes Alternativas
Base temporal:
Num instante
ou
Num intervalo de tempo

Tipo de Sistema:
Volume de controlo
Superfcie de controlo

## Notar a representao do sistema atravs de uma

superfcie de controlo (linha a tracejado) nas
fronteiras.

Fenmenos superficiais
Taxa de transferncia de energia trmica e/ou mecnica atravs da superfcie de controlo,
devido transferncia de calor, escoamento de um fluido ou transferncia de trabalho

Fenmenos volumtricos

Taxa de gerao de energia trmica devido converso de outra forma de energia (e.g.
elctrica, nuclear, qumica); converso essa de energia que ocorre no interior do sistema
Taxa de variao de energia armazenada no sistema

## Notar a representao do sistema atravs de uma

superfcie de controlo (linha a tracejado line) nas
fronteiras.

Conservao de energia

(1.11b )

## O BALANO DE ENERGIA SUPERFICIAL

H um caso especial para o qual no existe massa ou volume contidos na superfcie de controlo
Conservao de Energia (num instante):

## Aplica-se em condies estacionrias e transientes

Sem massa nem volume, no faz sentido falar em energia armazenada ou em gerao no balano de
energia, mesmo que estes fenmenos ocorram no meio de que a superfcie faz parte.
Considere a superfcie de uma parede com transferncia de calor (conduo, conveco e radiao).

qconv
= 0
qcond

T1 T2
4
h (T2 T ) 2 T24 Tsur
=0
L

EXEMPLOS DE APLICAO
Exemplo 1.3: Aplicao resposta trmica de um fio condutor com aquecimento por efeito
de Joule (gerao de calor passagem da corrente elctrica).

## E& in E& out + E& g = E& st

E& in = 0

4
E& out = ( D L ) h (T T ) + T 4 Tsur

E& g = Relect I 2

d
( c V T )
E& st =
dt

)]

EXEMPLOS DE APLICAO
Exemplo 1.43: Processamento trmico de uma bolacha de slica num forno de 2 zonas.
Sabe-se que a bolacha de slica est posicionada no forno com as superfcies
inferior e superior expostas, respectivamente, zona quente e zona fria.

Determinar
(a) Taxa inicial de aquecimento da bolacha a partir de Twi = 300K,
(b) Temperatura em regime estacionrio.
A conveco relevante?

Hipteses:

ESQUEMA

a)

b)

c)

## Trocas radiativas entre corpo pequeno e

envolvente grande

d)

## Perdas da bolacha para o suporte desprezveis

EXEMPLOS DE APLICAO
Exemplo 1.43: Processamento trmico de uma bolacha de slica num forno de 2 zonas (cont)
ANLISE: No balano de energia bolacha de slica deve contabilizar-se a conveco com o gs ambiente pelas
superfcies inferior (l) e superior (u), as trocas de radiao com as zonas quente e fria e a acumulao de energia.

## E& in E& out = E& st

Em termos de fluxo (por unidade de rea)

, c qcv
, u qcv
, l = cd

d Tw
dt

dT

4
4
4
4
w
Tsur
, h Tw + Tsur , c Tw hu (Tw T ) hl (Tw T ) = cd dt
(a) Como condio inicial temos Tw =Twi = 300K

## 0.65 5.67 10 8 W / m 2 K 4 15004 3004 K 4 + 0.65 5.67 108 W / m 2 K 4 330 4 3004 K 4

3
8 W / m 2 K ( 300 700 ) K 4 W / m 2 K ( 300 700 ) K = 2700kg/m875J/kgK
0.00078 m ( d Tw / dt )i

( d Tw / dt )i

= 104 K / s

EXEMPLOS DE APLICAO
Exemplo 1.43: Processamento trmico de uma bolacha de slica num forno de 2 zonas (cont)
Em regime estacionrio o armazenamento de energia nulo. O balano de energia efectuado com a temperatura
da bolacha em regime estacionrio, Tw,ss

4
4
0.65 15004 Tw,ss
K 4 + 0.65 3304 Tw,ss
K 4 8 W / m 2 K Tw,ss 700 K 4 W / m 2 K Tw,ss 700 K = 0

Tw,ss = 1251 K

Para determinar a importncia relativa da conveco, resolver o balano de energia sem conveco. Obtm-se
(dTw/dt)i = 101 K/s e Tw,ss = 1262 K. Logo, a radiao controla a taxa de aquecimento inicial e o regime
estacionrio.

Fouriers Law
and the
Heat Equation

Fouriers Law
A rate equation that allows determination of the conduction heat flux
from knowledge of the temperature distribution in a medium.
Its most general (vector) form for multidimensional conduction is:

r
q = k T
Implications:
Heat transfer is in the direction of decreasing temperature
(basis for minus sign).
Fouriers Law serves to define the thermal conductivity of the
medium
q x
kx =

T x

## Direction of heat transfer is perpendicular to lines of constant

temperature (isotherms).
Heat flux vector may be resolved into orthogonal components.

Cartesian Coordinates:

T ( x, y , z )

T T T
q = k
i k
jk
k
x
y
z
qz
q y
qx
T ( r, , z )

T
T T
q = k
i k
jk
k
r
r
z
qr
qz
q

Cylindrical Coordinates:

T ( r , , )

T
T
T
q = k
i k
jk
k
r
r
r sin
q
q
qr

Spherical Coordinates:

## In angular coordinates( or , ), the temperature gradient is still

based on temperature change over a length scale and hence has
units of C/m and not C/deg.
Heat rate for one-dimensional, radial conduction in a cylinder or sphere:
Cylinder

qr = Ar qr = 2 rLqr
or,

qr = Ar qr = 2 rqr

Sphere

qr = Ar qr = 4 r 2 qr

## The Heat Equation

A differential equation whose solution provides the temperature distribution in a
stationary medium.
Based on applying conservation of energy to a differential control volume
through which energy transfer is exclusively by conduction.
Cartesian Coordinates:

T
k
x x

T
+ k
y y

T
T
+ q = cp
+ k
t
z z

## Net transfer of thermal energy into the

control volume (inflow-outflow)

Thermal energy
generation

Change in thermal
energy storage

Cylindrical Coordinates:

1 T
kr
r r r

1 T T
+ 2
k
+ k

z z

T

+
q
=

c
p

Spherical Coordinates:

1 2 T
kr
2 r
r
r

1
T

+
2 2
k
r sin

1

T
T
+
k

+
q
=

c
sin
p
2

t
r sin

## One-Dimensional Conduction in a Planar Medium with Constant Properties

and No Generation
2T
x 2

1 T
t

k
thermal diffusivity of the medium
c p

## Boundary and Initial Conditions

For transient conduction, heat equation is first order in time, requiring
specification of an initial temperature distribution: T ( x, t )t = 0 = T ( x, 0 )
Since heat equation is second order in space, two boundary conditions
must be specified. Some common cases:
Constant Surface Temperature:

T ( 0, t ) = Ts

## Constant Heat Flux:

Applied Flux

Insulated Surface

T
|x = 0 = qs
x

T
|x = 0 = h T T ( 0, t )
x

Convection

T
|x = 0 = 0
x

Thermophysical Properties
Thermal Conductivity: A measure of a materials ability to transfer thermal
energy by conduction.

## Thermal Diffusivity: A measure of a materials ability to respond to changes

in its thermal environment.
Property Tables:
Solids: Tables A.1 A.3
Gases: Table A.4
Liquids: Tables A.5 A.7

## Methodology of a Conduction Analysis

Solve appropriate form of heat equation to obtain the temperature
distribution.

## Knowing the temperature distribution, apply Fouriers Law to obtain the

heat flux at any time, location and direction of interest.

Applications:
Chapter 3:
Chapter 4:
Chapter 5:

Transient Conduction

## Problem 2.46 Thermal response of a plane wall to convection heat transfer.

KNOWN: Plane wall, initially at a uniform temperature, is suddenly exposed to convective heating.

FIND: (a) Differential equation and initial and boundary conditions which may be used to find the
temperature distribution, T(x,t); (b) Sketch T(x,t) for the following conditions: initial (t 0), steadystate (t ), and two intermediate times; (c) Sketch heat fluxes as a function of time at the two
surfaces; (d) Expression for total energy transferred to wall per unit volume (J/m3).
SCHEMATIC:

## ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction, (2) Constant properties, (3) No internal

heat generation.
ANALYSIS: (a) For one-dimensional conduction with constant properties, the heat equation has the
form,

2T 1 T
=
x2 t

and the
conditions are:

Initial, t 0 : T ( x,0 ) = Ti

## Boundaries: x=0 T/ x)0 = 0

x=L
k T/ x) L = h T ( L,t ) T

uniform temperature
surface convection

## (b) The temperature distributions are shown on the sketch.

Note that the gradient at x = 0 is always zero, since this boundary is adiabatic. Note also that the
gradient at x = L decreases with time.

c) The heat flux, q x ( x, t ) as a function of time, is shown on the sketch for the surfaces x = 0 and
x = L.

## d) The total energy transferred to the wall may be expressed as

Ein = qconv As dt
0

Ein = hAs

( T T ( L,t ) )dt

Dividing both sides by AsL, the energy transferred per unit volume is

Ein h
=
T T ( L,t ) dt
V L 0

J/m3

## Problem: NonNon-uniform Generation due

Problem 2.28 Surface heat fluxes, heat generation and total rate of radiation
absorption in an irradiated semi-transparent material with a
prescribed temperature distribution.

## KNOWN: Temperature distribution in a semi-transparent medium subjected to radiative flux

FIND: (a) Expressions for the heat flux at the front and rear surfaces, (b) The heat generation rate
q& ( x ) , and (c) Expression for absorbed radiation per unit surface area.
SCHEMATIC :

Problem : NonNon-uniform
Generation (Cont.)

## ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) One-dimensional conduction in medium, (3)

Constant properties, (4) All laser irradiation is absorbed and can be characterized by an internal
volumetric heat generation term q& ( x ) .
ANALYSIS: (a) Knowing the temperature distribution, the surface heat fluxes are found using
Fouriers law,

dT
q x = k = k - 2 ( a ) e-ax + B
dx
ka

## Front Surface, x=0:

q x ( 0 ) = k + 1 + B = + kB
ka

<

## Rear Surface, x=L:

q x ( L ) = k + e-aL + B = e-aL + kB .
ka

<

d dT q&

+ =0
dx dx k

q& ( x ) = k

or

&
q=-k

d dT

dx dx

d A -ax

-ax
+
e
+
B
=
Ae
.

dx ka

## E& in E& out + E& g = 0

Problem : NonNon-uniform
Generation (Cont.)

## On a unit area basis

A
+ E& out
= q x ( 0 ) + q x ( L ) = + 1 e-aL .
E& g = E& in
a
& by integration over the volume of the medium,
Alternatively, evaluate E
g

L
L
L
A
A
E& g = q& ( x )dx= Ae-ax dx=- e-ax =
1 e-aL .
0
0
0
a
a

<

Conduction without
Thermal Energy Generation

## Alternative conduction analysis

Common Geometries:
The Plane Wall: Described in rectangular (x) coordinate. Area
perpendicular to direction of heat transfer is constant (independent of x).
The Tube Wall: Radial conduction through tube wall.
The Spherical Shell: Radial conduction through shell wall.

## Consider a plane wall between two fluids of different temperature:

Heat Equation:
d dT
k
dx dx

Implications:
Heat flux ( qx ) is independent of x.
Heat rate ( q x ) is independent of x.

## Boundary Conditions: T ( 0 ) = Ts ,1, T ( L ) = Ts ,2

Temperature Distribution for Constant k :
x
T ( x ) = Ts ,1 + (Ts ,2 Ts ,1 )
L

=0

## Heat Flux and Heat Rate:

dT k
= (Ts ,1 Ts ,2 )
qx = k
dx L
dT kA
=
q x = kA
Ts ,1 Ts ,2 )
(
dx
L

T
R
=
Thermal Resistances t
and Thermal Circuits:
q

L
R
=
Conduction in a plane wall:
t , cond
kA

Convection:

Rt ,conv =

1
hA

Rtot =

1
L
1
+
+
h1 A kA h 2 A

qx =

T,1 T,2
Rtot

## Thermal Resistance for Unit Surface Area:

L
1
Rt,cond =
Rt,conv =
k
h
Units: Rt W/K
Rt m 2 K/W

1
hr A

1
hr

2
hr = (Ts + Tsur ) Ts2 + Tsur

Contact Resistance:

Rt,c =

TA TB
qx

Rt ,c

Rt,c
=
Ac

Values depend on: Materials A and B, surface finishes, interstitial conditions, and
contact pressure (Tables 3.1 and 3.2)

## Composite Wall with Negligible Contact Resistance:

qx =

Rtot =

T,1 T,4
Rtot

1 1 LA LB LC 1 Rtot
+
+
+
+
=

A h1 k A k B kC h4
A

## Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (U) :

A modified form of Newtons Law of Cooling to encompass multiple resistances
to heat transfer.
q x = UAToverall
Rtot =

1
UA

## Circuits based on assumption of isothermal surfaces normal to x direction or

adiabatic surfaces parallel to x direction provide approximations for q x .

## ALTERNATIVE CONDUCTION ANALYSIS:

NO HEAT GENERATION
NO HEAT LOSS FROM THE SIDES
A(x) and k(T)

## IS TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION ONE-DIMENSIONAL?

IS IT REASONABLE TO ASSUME ONE-DIMENSIONAL
TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION IN x?
FROM THE FOURIERS LAW:
x

qx
0

dx
= k (T )dT
A( x)
T0

q x = A( x ) k (T )

dT
dx

q x = q x + dx

Tube Wall

## The Tube Wall

Heat Equation:
1 d dT
kr
=0
r dr dr
What does the form of the heat equation tell us about the variation of qr with
r in the wall?
Is the foregoing conclusion consistent with the energy conservation requirement?
How does qr vary with r ?

## Temperature Distribution for Constant k:

Ts ,1 Ts ,2 r
T (r ) =
ln + Ts ,2
ln ( r1 / r2 ) r2

## Heat Flux and Heat Rate:

dT
k
qr = k
=
(Ts,1 Ts,2 )
dr r ln ( r2 / r1 )
qr = 2 rqr =

2 k
Ts ,1 Ts ,2 )
(
ln ( r2 / r1 )

qr = 2 rLqr =

2 Lk
Ts ,1 Ts ,2 )
(
ln ( r2 / r1 )

Conduction Resistance:
ln ( r2 / r1 )
Rt ,cond =
2 Lk
ln ( r2 / r1 )
Rt,cond =
2 k

Units K/W
Units m K/W

area?

(3.27)

## Composite Wall with

Negligible Contact
Resistance

qr =

T,1 T,4
Rtot

= UA (T,1 T ,4 )

Note that
UA = Rtot 1
is a constant independent of radius.
But, U itself is tied to specification of an interface.

U i = ( Ai Rtot )

Spherical Shell

Heat Equation
1 d 2 dT
r
2 dr
r
dr

=0

What does the form of the heat equation tell us about the variation of
qr with r ? Is this result consistent with conservation of energy?
How does qr vary with r ?

## Temperature Distribution for Constant k :

T ( r ) = Ts ,1 (Ts ,1 Ts ,2 )

( )

1 r1/ r

1 r1 / r 2

## Heat flux, Heat Rate and Thermal Resistance:

dT
k
= 2
(Ts,1 Ts,2 )
dr r (1/ r1 ) (1/ r2 )
4 k
qr = 4 r 2 qr =
Ts ,1 Ts ,2 )
(
1/
r

1/
r
( 1) ( 2 )
qr = k

Rt ,cond =

(1/ r1 ) (1/ r2 )
4 k

Composite Shell:
T
qr = overall = UAToverall
Rtot
UA = Rtot 1 Constant

U i = ( Ai Rtot )

Depends on Ai

r1 r2

T,1 ,h1

T ,h

Isolamento

(a)

T,1

T
1
2p r1 L h1

q r ,sem revest . =

T,1 T
ln (r2 r1 )
1
1
+
+
2 r1 L h1 2 k1 L 2 r2 L h

q r ,com revest . =

ln (r2 /r1 )

ln (r / r2 )
2p k L

2p k1 L

1
2p r L h

(b)

T,1 T
ln(r2 r1 ) ln (r r2 )
1
1
+
+
+
2 r1 L h1 2 k1 L
2 k L 2 r L h

d Rtot
1 1
1
1
=

dr
2 k L r 2 L h r 2

d Rtot
=0
dr

rcrit

k
=
h

d 2 Rtot

d r2

r =k

1 1
1 2
=
2 +
3
2

k
L
2

L
h
r

r r =k

>0
h

## Problem 3.23: Assessment of thermal barrier coating (TBC) for protection

with and without TBC.

Schematic:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional, steady-state conduction in a composite plane wall, (2) Constant

ANALYSIS: For a unit area, the total thermal resistance with the TBC is
R tot, w = h o1 + ( L k ) Zr + R t,c + ( L k )In + h i1

q w =

T,o T,i
1300 K
=
= 3.52 105 W m 2
R tot, w
3.69 103 m 2 K W

## Without the TBC,

R tot, wo = h o + ( L k )In + h i

q wo = T ,o T ,i

= 3.20 10

m K W

## R tot, wo = 4.06105 W/m2

The inner and outer surface temperatures of the Inconel are then

## Ts,i(wo) = T,i + ( q wo h i ) = 1212 K

Ts, o(wo) = T ,i +

[ (1 h i ) + ( L

= 1293 K
k ) In q wo

Use of the TBC facilitates operation of the Inconel below Tmax = 1250 K.

## COMMENTS: Since the durability of the TBC decreases with increasing

temperature, which increases with increasing thickness, limits to its thickness are
associated with reliability considerations.

SCHEMATIC:

## ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction, (2) Steady-state conditions,

(3) Constant properties at 300K, (4) Negligible contact resistance.
PROPERTIES: Table A-1, Lead: k = 35.3 W/mK, MP = 601K; St.St.: 15.1
W/mK.

T T
4

q= 1
= q& r13
R tot
3

## The thermal resistances are:

1
1
R Pb = 1/ ( 4 35.3 W/m K )

= 0.00150 K/W
0.25m 0.30m
1
1
R St.St. = 1/ ( 4 15.1 W/m K )

= 0.000567 K/W
0.30m 0.31m

## The heat rate is then

q=5 105 W/m3 ( 4 / 3)( 0.25m ) = 32, 725 W
3

## and the inner surface temperature is

T1 = T + R tot q=283K+0.00372K/W ( 32,725 W ) = 405 K < MP = 601K.

## COMMENTS: In fabrication, attention should be given to maintaining a good

thermal contact. A protective outer coating should be applied to prevent long
term corrosion of the stainless steel.

Conduction with
Thermal Energy Generation

## Implications of Energy Generation

Involves a local (volumetric) source of thermal energy due to conversion
from another form of energy in a conducting medium.

## The source may be uniformly distributed, as in the conversion from

electrical to thermal energy (Ohmic heating):
E& g

I2 R
q& =
=
V
V

## or it may be non-uniformly distributed, as in the absorption of radiation

passing through a semi-transparent medium. For a plane wall,

q& exp( x )
Generation affects the temperature distribution in the medium and causes
the heat rate to vary with location, thereby precluding inclusion of
the medium in a thermal circuit.

## The Plane Wall

in a plane wall of constant k, uniform generation,
and asymmetric surface conditions:
Heat Equation:
d dT
k
dx dx

dT q

q
+
=
0

+ =0

dx 2 k

(3.39)

## Is the heat flux q independent of x?

General Solution:

T ( x ) = q/ 2k x 2 + C1 x + C2

q = 0?

q > 0?

q < 0?

## Symmetric Surface Conditions or One Surface Insulated:

at the centerline or the insulated
surface?
Why does the magnitude of the temperature
Temperature Distribution:

q L2 x 2
T ( x) =
1
+ Ts
2k L2

(3.42)

How do we determine Ts ?
Overall energy balance on the wall

E out + E g = 0

hAs (Ts T ) + q As L = 0

qL
Ts = T +
h

## How do we determine the heat rate at x = L?

(3.46)

Cylindrical (Tube) Wall

Heat Equations:
Cylindrical
1 d dT
kr
r dr dr

+q =0

Solid Sphere

Spherical
1 d 2 dT
kr
+q =0
r 2 dr
dr

## Solution for Uniform Generation in a Solid Sphere of Constant k

with Convection Cooling:
Temperature Distribution

Surface Temperature

## Overall energy balance:

dT
q r3
kr
=
+ C1
dr
3
2

T =

qr
E out + Eg = 0 Ts = T + o
3h

q r C1
+ C2
6k
r

dT
|r = 0 = 0 C1 = 0
dr

## Or from a surface energy balance:

T ( ro ) = Ts C2 = Ts +

T (r ) =

q ro
6k

q ro
6k

r
1 2 + Ts
ro
2

## A summary of temperature distributions is provided in Appendix C

for plane, cylindrical and spherical walls, as well as for solid
cylinders and spheres. Note how boundary conditions are specified
and how they are used to obtain surface temperatures.

q ro
3h

## Problem 3.91 Thermal conditions in a gas-cooled nuclear reactor

with a tubular thorium fuel rod and a concentric
graphite sheath: (a) Assessment of thermal integrity
for a generation rate of q = 108 W/m 3. (b) Evaluation of
temperature distributions in the thorium
and graphite

Schematic:

## Assumptions: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) One-dimensional conduction, (3) Constant

properties, (4) Negligible contact resistance, (5) Negligible radiation, (6) Adiabatic surface at r1.
Properties:

Table A.1, Thorium: Tmp 2000 K ; Table A.2, Graphite: Tmp 2300 K .

Analysis: (a) The outer surface temperature of the fuel, T2 , may be determined from the rate equation

q =
=
where Rtot

T2 T

Rtot
1n ( r3 / r2 )
2 k g

1
= 0.0185 m K/W
2 r3h

The heat rate may be determined by applying an energy balance to a control surface about the fuel

element,

E out = E g

## or, per unit length, E out = E g

Since the interior surface of the element is essentially adiabatic, it follows that

Hence,

## + T = 17,907 W/m ( 0.0185 m K/W ) + 600 K = 931K

T2 = qRtot

With zero heat flux at the inner surface of the fuel element, Eq. C.14 yields

2
q r r1 q r12 r2
T1 = T2 +
1

1n = 931K + 25 K 18 K = 938 K
4kt r22 2kt
r1

2
2

<

Since T1 and T2 are well below the melting points of thorium and graphite, the prescribed
operating condition is acceptable.
(b) The solution for the temperature distribution in a cylindrical wall with generation is

q r22 r 2
Tt ( r ) = T2 +
1 2
4kt r2
2

q
r
r
1n ( r2 / r )
2 1 12 + (T2 T1 )
4kt r
1n ( r2 / r1 )

(C.2)

## Boundary conditions at r1 and r2 are used to determine T1 and T 2 .

r = r1 :

r = r2 :

q r 2 r 2

2
1
k
1 2 + (T2 T1 )

4kt r2

qr1

q1 = 0 =

r11n ( r2 / r1 )
2

qr 2 r 2

2
1
k
1 2 + (T2 T1 )

4kt r2

q r2

U 2 (T2 T ) =
2
r21n ( r2 / r1 )

)
U 2 = ( A2 Rtot

)
= ( 2 r2 Rtot

(C.14)

(C.17)

(3.32)

The following results are obtained for temperature distributions in the graphite.

Temperature, T(K)

2500
2100
1700
1300
900
500
0.008

0.009

0.01

0.011

qdot = 5E8
qdot = 3E8
qdot = 1E8

## Operation at q = 5x108 W/m 3 is clearly unacceptable since the melting point of

thorium would be exceeded. To prevent softening of the material, which would occur

8
3
below the melting point, the reactor should not be operated much above q = 3x10 W/m.
The small radial temperature gradients are attributable to the large value of kt .

Using the value of T2 from the foregoing solution and computing T3 from the surface condition,

q =

2 k g (T2 T3 )

(3.27)

1n ( r3 / r2 )

## the temperature distribution in the graphite is

Tg ( r ) =

r
T2 T3
1n + T3
1n ( r2 / r3 ) r3

(3.26)

Temperature, T(K)

2500
2100
1700
1300
900
500
0.011

0.012

0.013

0.014

## Radial location in graphite, r(m)

qdot = 5E8
qdot = 3E8
qdot = 1E8

Operation at q = 5x108 W/m 3 is problematic for the graphite. Larger temperature gradients
are due to the small value of k g .

## Comments: (i) What effect would a contact resistance at the thorium/graphite

interface have on

temperatures in the fuel element and on the maximum allowable value of q ? (ii) Referring
to the schematic, where might radiation effects be significant? What would be the influence of such

effect on temperatures in the fuel element and the maximum allowable value of q ?

Extended Surfaces

## Nature and Rationale of Extended Surfaces

An extended surface (also know as a combined conduction-convection system
or a fin) is a solid within which heat transfer by conduction is assumed to be
one dimensional, while heat is also transferred by convection (and/or
radiation) from the surface in a direction transverse to that of conduction.

## Why is heat transfer by conduction in the x-direction not, in fact, onedimensional?

If heat is transferred from the surface to the fluid by convection, what
surface condition is dictated by the conservation of energy requirement?

## What is the actual functional dependence of the temperature distribution in

the solid?
If the temperature distribution is assumed to be one-dimensional, that is,
T=T(x) , how should the value of T be interpreted for any x location?
How does qcond , x vary with x ?
When may the assumption of one-dimensional conduction be viewed as an
excellent approximation?
The thin-fin approximation.
Extended surfaces may exist in many situations but are commonly used as
fins to enhance heat transfer by increasing the surface area available for
convection (and/or radiation). They are particularly beneficial when h is small,
as for a gas and natural convection.
Some typical fin configurations:

Straight fins of (a) uniform and (b) non-uniform cross sections; (c) annular
fin, and (d) pin fin of non-uniform cross section.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

## The Fin Equation

qx

dqconv

dAs

Ac (x)

q x = q x + dx + d qconv

qx+dx
dx
z

y
x

q x = k Ac

dT
dx

q x+ dx = q x +

d qx
dT
d dT
Ac
dx
k
dx = k Ac
dx
dx
d x d x

d qconv = h dAs (T T )
k

d As
d dT
Ac
+ h
(T T ) = 0
d x d x
dx

1 d Ac d T 1 h d As

+

2
dx
Ac d x d x Ac k d x

d2T

(T T ) = 0

## The Fin Equation

Assuming one-dimensional, steady-state conduction in an extended surface
surface of constant conductivity ( k ) and uniform cross-sectional area ( Ac,)
= 0 ) , the fin equation

is of the form:

d 2T hP

(T T ) = 0
2
kA
dx
c
or, with m2 ( hP / kAc ) and the reduced temperature T T ,

d 2
2
m

=0
2
dx

(3.62)

## Solutions (Table 3.4):

Base (x = 0) condition
( 0 ) = Tb T b

Tip ( x = L) conditions
A. Convection: kd / dx |x = L = h ( L )
B. Adiabatic: d / dx |x = L = 0

C. Fixed temperature: ( L ) = L
D. Infinite fin (mL >2.65): ( L ) = 0

## Fin Heat Rate:

q f = kAc

d
|x = 0 = Af h ( x ) dAs
dx

Caso

Condio de
fronteira em x = L

(i)

k
= h (L )
d
x

x=L

(ii)

=0
d
x

x =L

(iii)

(L ) = L

(iv)

(L ) = 0

m2 =

hP
k Ac

Distribuio de temperaturas
/b
cosh[m(L x )] +

h
sinh[m(L x )]
mk
h
cosh (m L ) +
sinh (m L )
mk

Taxa de transmisso de
calor
sinh (m L ) +

h
cosh (m L )
mk
M
h
cosh (m L ) +
sinh (m L )
mk

cosh [m(L x )]
cosh (m L )

( L

## b ) sinh (m x ) + sinh [m(L x )]

sinh (m L )
em x

M = h P k Ac b

M tanh (m L )

cosh (m L ) L / b
sinh (m L )
M

Fin Efficiency:
f

qf

q f ,max

qf
hA f b

## How is the efficiency affected by the thermal conductivity of the fin?

Expressions for f are provided in Table 3.5 for common geometries.
Consider a triangular fin:
1/ 2

2
A f = 2 w L2 + ( t / 2 )

Ap = ( t / 2 ) L
1 I1 ( 2mL )
f =
mL I 0 ( 2mL )

Fin Effectiveness:
f

qf
hAc , bb

f with h, k and Ac / P

Fin Resistance:
Rt , f

b
qf

1
hA f f

Correction of fin length to account for heat loss from the tip

Transmisso de calor

q f ,tip = h Ac (L ) h P (Lc L ) (L )
Lc = L +

Ac
P

Lc = L + t / 2

## Fin of circular cross section :

Lc = L + D / 4
Approximation error negligible if ht / k or
hD / 2k 0.0625

Fins efficiency

1.0

1.0
ri

y (x)

0.8

(b)

0.8

L
t

0.7

(c)

0.6

0.6

(d)

ro

hf

hf

ro
=1
ri

0.4

0.2

1.6

1.8

2.0

(e)

0.3
3

1.0

0.5
0.4

1.4

0.0
0.0

(a)

0.9

3.0

0.2
0.1

4.0

5.0

0.0
0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

Fin Arrays
Representative arrays of
(a) rectangular and
(b) annular fins.

At = NA f + Ab

Number of fins

## Total heat rate:

qt = N f hA f b + hAbb o hAtb =

b
Rt , o

o = 1
Rt , o =

NA f

b
qt

At
=

(1 f )

1
o hAt

## Effect of Surface Contact Resistance:

qt = o ( c ) hAtb =

b
Rt , o ( c )

NA f f
1

At C1
C1 = 1 + f hA f ( Rt, c / Ac , b )
1
Rt , o ( c ) =
o ( c ) hAt

o ( c ) = 1

## Problem 3.116: Assessment of cooling scheme for gas turbine blade.

Determination of whether blade temperatures are less
than the maximum allowable value (1050 C) for
prescribed operating conditions and evaluation of blade
cooling rate.
Schematic:

## Assumptions: (1) One-dimensional, steady-state conduction in blade, (2) Constant k, (3)

Analysis: Conditions in the blade are determined by Case B of Table 3.4.
(a) With the maximum temperature existing at x=L, Eq. 3.75 yields
T ( L ) T
Tb T

m = ( hP/kA c )

1/ 2

1
cosh mL

1/ 2

= 47.87 m-1

## T ( L ) = 1200o C + (300 1200)o C/5.51 = 1037 o C

and, subject to the assumption of an adiabatic tip, the operating conditions are acceptable.

## (b) With M = ( hPkA c )1 / 2 b = 250W/m 2 K 0.11m 20W/m K 6 10 4 m 2

) ( 900 C ) = 517W ,
1/ 2

## Eq. 3.76 and Table B.1 yield

q f = M tanh mL = 517W ( 0.983) = 508W

Hence,

q b = q f = 508W

temperatures, but what is the effect of assuming an adiabatic tip condition? Calculate
the tip temperature allowing for convection from the gas.

## Problem 3.132: Determination of maximum allowable power qc for a 20mm

x 20mm electronic chip whose temperature is not to exceed
Tc = 85o C, when the chip is attached to an air-cooled heat sink
with N=11 fins of prescribed dimensions.

Schematic:

Assumptions: (1) Steady-state, (2) One-dimensional heat transfer, (3) Isothermal chip, (4)
Negligible heat transfer from top surface of chip, (5) Negligible temperature rise for air flow,
(6) Uniform convection coefficient associated with air flow through channels and over outer
surface of heat sink, (7) Negligible radiation.

## Analysis: (a) From the thermal circuit,

T T
Tc T
=
qc = c
R tot
R t,c + R t,b + R t,o
2
6 2
2
R t,c = R t,c / W = 2 10 m K / W / ( 0.02m ) = 0.005 K / W

( ) = 0.003m / 180

R t, b = L b / k W

W/mK

R t,o =

( 0.02m )2

= 0.042 K / W

1
,
o h A t
-4

o = 1

N Af
(1 f ) ,
At

2

-3

-4

-3

At = 6.96 10 m

1/2

-3

1/2

## With mLf = (2h/kt)

Lf = (200 W/m K/180 W/mK 0.182 10 m)
1.17, tanh mLf = 0.824 and Eq. (3.87) yields

f =

(0.015m) =

=
= 0.704
mLf
1.17

o = 0.719,

qc =

(85 20 ) C

## ( 0.005 + 0.042 + 2.00 ) K / W

= 31.8 W

A t = N Af + A b

Comments: The heat sink significantly increases the allowable heat dissipation. If it
were not used and heat was simply transferred by convection from the surface of the chip with
h = 100 W/m 2 K , Rtot = 2.05 K/W from Part (a) would be replaced by
Rcnv = 1/ hW 2 = 25 K/W, yielding qc = 2.60 W.

Transient Conduction:
The Lumped Capacitance
Method

Transient Conduction
A heat transfer process for which the temperature varies with time, as well
as location within a solid.

## It is initiated whenever a system experiences a change in operating conditions

and proceeds until a new steady state (thermal equilibrium) is achieved.

## It can be induced by changes in:

surface convection conditions ( h, T ),
surface radiation conditions ( hr , Tsur ),
a surface temperature or heat flux, and/or
internal energy generation.
Solution Techniques
The Lumped Capacitance Method
Exact Solutions
The Finite-Difference Method (not to be studied)

## The Lumped Capacitance Method

Based on the assumption of a spatially uniform temperature distribution
throughout the transient process.

r
T ( r ,t ) T ( t )

## Why is the assumption never fully realized in practice?

General Lumped Capacitance
Analysis:
 Consider a general case,
which includes convection,
heat flux at specified
surfaces ( As , c , As , r , As , h ) ,
as well as internal energy
generation

 First Law:

d E st
dT
= V C
= E& in E& out + E& g
dt
dt
Assuming energy outflow due to convection and radiation and with
inflow due to an applied heat flux qs,

V C

dT
= q's',h As ,h hAs ,c ( T T ) hs ,r As ,r ( T Tsur ) + E& g
dt

## Is this expression applicable in situations for which convection and/or

May h and hr be assumed to be constant throughout the transient process?
How must such an equation be solved?

## Special Cases (Exact Solutions, T ( 0 ) Ti )

( T T , b / a ) :

a=

h As ,c

V C

b=

q '' As , h + E& g

V C

## The non-homogeneous differential equation is transformed into a

homogeneous equation of the form:
d
= a
dt
Integrating from t=0 to any t and rearranging,

T T
b/a
1 exp ( at )
= exp ( at ) +
Ti T
Ti T
To what does the foregoing equation reduce as steady state is approached?
How else may the steady-state solution be obtained?

dT
c
= hAs , c (T T )
dt
t
c d
= dt
o
hAs , c i

hAs , c
t
T T
=
= exp
t
=
exp

i Ti T

c

t

1
( c )
hAs , c

Thermal
Resistance, Rt

Lumped Thermal
Capacitance, Ct

## The change in thermal energy storage due to the transient process is

t
t

t
Est Q = Eout dt = hAs , c dt = ( c )i 1 exp
o
o
t

(5.8)

h >> h, E = 0, q = 0 :
g
r

## Assuming radiation exchange with large surroundings,

dT
4
= As , r (T 4 Tsur
)
dt

A s , r t
T
dT
dt
=
T i T 4 T
c o
sur
c
t=
3
4 As , r Tsur

Tsur + T
Tsur + Ti
1n

1n

Tsur Ti
Tsur T

T
+2 tan 1
T sur

Ti
1

tan

T sur

## The Biot Number and Validity of

The Lumped Capacitance Method
The Biot Number: The first of many dimensionless parameters to be
considered.
 Definition:
hL
Bi c
k
k thermal conductivity of the solid
Lc characteristic length of the solid ( / As or coordinate
associated with maximum spatial temperature difference)
 Physical Interpretation:
Bi =

Lc / kAs Rcond
Tsolid
=
=
1/ hAs
Rconv Tsolid / fluid

Bi << 1

## Problem 5.11: Charging a thermal energy storage system consisting

of a packed bed of aluminum spheres.

KNOWN: Diameter, density, specific heat and thermal conductivity of aluminum spheres used in
packed bed thermal energy storage system. Convection coefficient and inlet gas temperature.

FIND: Time required for sphere at inlet to acquire 90% of maximum possible thermal energy and the
corresponding center temperature.
Schematic:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Negligible heat transfer to or from a sphere by radiation or conduction due to
contact with other spheres, (2) Constant properties.

ANALYSIS: To determine whether a lumped capacitance analysis can be used, first compute Bi =
2
h(ro/3)/k = 75 W/m K (0.025m)/150 W/mK = 0.013 <<1.
Hence, the lumped capacitance approximation may be made, and a uniform temperature may be
assumed to exist in the sphere at any time.

From Eq. 5.8a, achievement of 90% of the maximum possible thermal energy storage corresponds to

Est
= 0.90 = 1 exp ( t / t )
cVi
3

t = Vc / hAs = Dc / 6h =

## t = t ln ( 0.1) = 427s 2.30 = 984s

6 75 W / m K

= 427s.

From Eq. (5.6), the corresponding temperature at any location in the sphere is
T ( 984s ) = Tg,i + Ti Tg,i exp ( 6ht / Dc )

## T ( 984s ) = 300C 275C exp 6 75 W / m K 984s / 2700 kg / m 0.075m 950 J / kg K

T ( 984s ) = 272.5C

If the product of the density and specific heat of copper is (c)Cu 8900 kg/m 400 J/kgK = 3.56
6

10 J/m K, is there any advantage to using copper spheres of equivalent diameter in lieu of aluminum
spheres?

Does the time required for a sphere to reach a prescribed state of thermal energy storage change with
increasing distance from the bed inlet? If so, how and why?

## Problem 5.15: Heating of coated furnace wall during start-up.

KNOWN: Thickness and properties of furnace wall. Thermal resistance of ceramic coating
on surface of wall exposed to furnace gases. Initial wall temperature.

FIND: (a) Time required for surface of wall to reach a prescribed temperature, (b)
Corresponding value of coating surface temperature.

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Constant properties, (2) Negligible coating thermal capacitance, (3)
3

## PROPERTIES: Carbon steel: = 7850 kg/m , c = 430 J/kgK, k = 60 W/mK.

ANALYSIS: Heat transfer to the wall is determined by the total resistance to heat transfer
from the gas to the surface of the steel, and not simply by the convection resistance.

U = ( R tot )

Hence, with

Bi =

= + R f
h

1
=
+ 102 m 2 K/W
25 W/m 2 K

= 20 W/m 2 K.

UL 20 W/m 2 K 0.01 m
=
= 0.0033 << 1
k
60 W/m K

## and the lumped capacitance method can be used.

(a) From Eqs. (5.6) and (5.7),
T T
= exp ( t/ t ) = exp ( t/R t C t ) = exp ( Ut/ Lc )
Ti T

## 7850 kg/m3 ( 0.01 m ) 430 J/kg K 1200 1300

T T
t=
ln
ln
=
2
U
Ti T
300 1300
20 W/m K

Lc

t = 3886s = 1.08h.

) (

Ts,o =

## hT + Ts,i / R f 25 W/m 2 K 1300 K + 1200 K/10-2 m 2 K/W

=
h + (1/ R f )
( 25 + 100 ) W/m2 K

Ts,o = 1220 K.
How does the coating affect the thermal time constant?

Transient Conduction:
Spatial Effects and the Role of
Analytical Solutions

## Solution to the Heat Equation for a Plane Wall with

Symmetrical Convection Conditions
If the lumped capacitance approximation can not be made, consideration must
be given to spatial, as well as temporal, variations in temperature during the
transient process.
For a plane wall with symmetrical convection
conditions and constant properties, the heat
equation and initial/boundary conditions are:
2T 1 T
=
2
x
t
T ( x,0 ) = T i

T
x
k

=0
x =0

T
x

x=L

= h T ( L, t ) T

## Existence of seven independent variables:

T = T ( x, t , T i , T , k , , h )
How may the functional dependence be simplified?

## Non-dimensionalization of Heat Equation and Initial/Boundary Conditions:

Dimensionless temperature difference:
Dimensionless coordinate: x *
Dimensionless time: t *

t
L

x
L

T T
=
i Ti T

Fo

## Fo the Fourier Number

The Biot Number: Bi

hL

k solid
* = f ( x * , Fo, Bi )

Exact Solution:

* = C n exp ( n2 Fo ) cos ( n x * )
n =1

Cn =

4sin n
2 n + sin ( 2

n tan n = Bi

See Appendix B.3 for first four roots (eigenvalues 1 ,..., 4 ) of Eq. (5.39c)

##  Variation of midplane temperature (x*= 0) with time ( Fo ) :

To T )
(
*
o
C 1 exp ( 12 Fo )
(T i T )

## Table 5.1 C 1 and 1 as a function of Bi

 Variation of temperature with location (x*) and time ( Fo ) :
* = o* cos ( 1 x * )
 Change in thermal energy storage with time:

E st = Q
sin 1 *
Q = Q o 1
o
1

Q o = c (T i T )

Can the foregoing results be used for a plane wall that is well insulated on one
side and convectively heated or cooled on the other?
Can the foregoing results be used if an isothermal condition (T s T i ) is
instantaneously imposed on both surfaces of a plane wall or on one surface of
a wall whose other surface is well insulated?

Placa plana

Cilindro longo

Esfera

Bi

c1

c1

c1

0.01

0.09983

1.00166

0.14124

1.00250

0.17303

1.00300

0.02

0.14095

1.00331

0.19950

1.00498

0.24446

1.00599

0.03

0.17234

1.00495

0.24403

1.00746

0.29910

1.00898

0.04

0.19868

1.00657

0.28143

1.00993

0.34503

1.01197

0.05

0.22176

1.00819

0.31426

1.01240

0.38537

1.01495

0.06

0.24253

1.00979

0.34383

1.01485

0.42173

1.01793

0.07

0.26153

1.01138

0.37092

1.01729

0.45506

1.02090

0.08

0.27913

1.01297

0.39603

1.01973

0.48600

1.02387

0.09

0.29557

1.01454

0.41954

1.02216

0.51497

1.02684

0.10

0.31105

1.01609

0.44168

1.02458

0.54228

1.02980

0.15

0.37788

1.02372

0.53761

1.03655

0.66086

1.04453

0.20

0.43284

1.03109

0.61697

1.04830

0.75931

1.05915

0.25

0.48009

1.03819

0.68559

1.05984

0.84473

1.07365

0.30

0.52179

1.04505

0.74646

1.07116

0.92079

1.08802

0.35

0.55922

1.05166

0.80140

1.08226

0.98966

1.10226

0.40

0.59324

1.05804

0.85158

1.09314

1.05279

1.11635

0.45

0.62444

1.06419

0.89783

1.10381

1.11118

1.13030

-------

-------

-------

-------

-------

-------

-------

## Graphical Representation of the One-Term Approximation

The Heisler Charts Plane wall
Midplane Temperature:

Temperature Distribution:

## Change in Thermal Energy Storage:

Long Rods Heated or Cooled by Convection.
Bi = hr o / k
Fo = t / r o2
(5.184a)

Long rod:

(r , t ) T (r , t ) T
=
=
= c n J o ( n r *) exp n2 Fo
i
Ti T
n =1

cn =

J 1 ( n )
2
n J o2 ( n ) + J 12 ( n )

n = n ro

r * = r ro

Long rod one term approximation (Fo > 0.2):
* =

T T
c1 J o ( 1 r *) exp 12 Fo = o* J o ( 1 r *)
Ti T

E st = Q
2 J 1 ( 1 ) *
Q
=1
o
Qo
1

Q o = c (T i T )

(5.184a)

o* =

To T
= c1 exp 12 Fo
Ti T

## Graphical Representation of the One-Term Approximation

The Heisler Charts Infinite cylinder
Centerline Temperature:

Temperature Distribution:

## Change in Thermal Energy Storage:

Spherical Systems
Spheres Heated or Cooled by Convection.
Bi = hr o / k
Fo = t / r o2

Sphere:

(5.184a)

1
(r , t ) T (r , t ) T
=
=
= c n exp n2 Fo
sin n r *
Ti T
i
n r*
n =1

cn =

4 (sin n n cos n )
2 n sin (2 n )

1 n cotan n = Bi

r * = r ro

Spherical Systems
Sphere one term approximation (Fo > 0.2):

* =

T T
sin ( 1 r *)
sin ( 1 r *)
c1
exp 12 Fo = o*
Ti T
1 r *
1 r *

o* =

To T
= c1 exp 12 Fo
Ti T

## Change in thermal energy storage with time:

E st = Q
(5.184a)

3 o*
Q
= 1 3 (sin 1 1 cos 1 )
Qo
1

Q o = c (T i T )

## Graphical Representation of the One-Term Approximation

The Heisler Charts Sphere
Center Temperature:

Temperature Distribution:

## The Semi-Infinite Solid

A solid that is initially of uniform temperature Ti and is assumed to extend
to infinity from a surface at which thermal conditions are altered.
Problem formulation
2 T
x2

1 dT
dt

T(x, 0) = Ti
T(, t) = Ti

Special Cases:
Case 1: Change in Surface Temperature (Ts)
T ( 0, t ) = T s T ( x,0 ) = T i

T ( x, t ) T s
Ti Ts
qs =

x
= erf

2 t

k (T s T i )

2qo ( t / )

x2
T ( x, t ) T i =
exp

k
4 t
q x
x
o erfc

k
2 t
(5.59)
2

T
x

x=0

= h T T ( 0, t )

T ( x, t ) T i
T Ti

x
= erfc

2 t

h t
hx h 2 t
exp +
+
erfc

k
k
k
2
t

(5.60)

## Contact between two semi-infinite bodies

Two bodies initially at uniform temperatures,
TA and TB, are placed in contact at their free
surfaces
If the contact resistance is neglibible, then the
temperature and the heat flux must be equal at
the contact point

k A (Ts T A,i )

Ts =

A t

k B (Ts TB,i )

B t

k A A c p, A T A,i + k B B c p, B T B,i
k A A c p, A + k B B c p,B

Multidimensional Effects
Solutions for multidimensional transient conduction can often be expressed
as a product of related one-dimensional solutions for a plane wall, P(x,t),
an infinite cylinder, C(r,t), and/or a semi-infinite solid, S(x,t). See Equations
(5.64) to (5.66) and Fig. 5.11.
Consider superposition of solutions for two-dimensional conduction in a
short cylinder:

T ( r , x, t ) T
Ti T

= P ( x, t ) x C ( r , t )
=

T ( x, t ) T
Ti T

x
Plane
Wall

T ( r,t ) T
Ti T

Infinite
Cylinder

T (x,y,t ) T

Ti T

T (x,t ) T

=
Ti T
barra de seco
rectangula

r (2 a2b )

T (x,t ) T
=
To (t ) T

To (t ) T

Ti T

T ( y,t ) T

placa infinita de Ti T
espessura
2a

T ( y,t ) T

placa infinita de To (t ) T
espessura 2 a

To (t ) T

Ti T

placa infinita de
espessura
2b

placa infinita de
espessura 2b

Qo

Q
Q

=
+
Q
Q
sec
barra
de
o
placa
plana
de
placa plana de
rectangular 2a2b o espessura 2 a
o espessura
2b
Q

Qo

T ( x, t ) T
S ( x, t ) =
Ti T

placa plana de Qo
espessura
2a

T ( x, t ) T
P ( x, t ) =
Ti T

placa plana de
espessura
2b

C (r , t ) =

T (r , t ) T
Ti T

## Problem 5.66: Charging a thermal energy storage system consisting of

a packed bed of Pyrex spheres.

## KNOWN: Diameter, density, specific heat and thermal conductivity of Pyrex

spheres in packed bed thermal energy storage system. Convection coefficient and
inlet gas temperature.
FIND: Time required for sphere to acquire 90% of maximum possible thermal
energy and the corresponding center and surface temperatures.

SCHEMATIC:

## ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional radial conduction in sphere, (2)

Negligible heat transfer to or from a sphere by radiation or conduction due to
contact with adjoining spheres, (3) Constant properties.
ANALYSIS: With Bi h(ro/3)/k = 75 W/m2K (0.0125m)/1.4 W/mK = 0.67,
the lumped capacitance method is inappropriate and the approximate (one-term)
solution for one-dimensional transient conduction in a sphere is used to obtain the
desired results.

## To obtain the required time, the specified charging requirement

( Q / Q o = 0.9 ) must first be used to obtain the dimensionless center temperature,

o* .

## From Eq. (5.52),

13
Q
=
1

3 sin ( 1 ) 1 cos ( 1 ) Qo

With Bi hro/k = 2.01, 1 2.03 and C1 1.48 from Table 5.1. Hence,

0.1( 2.03)

0.837
= 0.155
5.386

o
ro2
t = 2 ln
1 C1

## = k / c = 1.4 W / m K / 2225 kg / m 3 835 J / kg K = 7.54 10 7 m 2 / s,

2
0.0375m ) ln ( 0.155 /1.48 )
(
t=
= 1,020s
2
7 2
7.54 10 m / s ( 2.03)

## To = Tg,i + 0.155 Ti Tg,i = 300C 42.7C = 257.3C

The surface temperature at the time of interest may be obtained from Eq. (5.50b)
with r = 1,
Ts = Tg,i

o sin ( 1 )
0.155 0.896
+ ( Ti Tg,i )
= 300C 275C
= 280.9C
1
2.03

## Is use of the one-term approximation appropriate?

Problem: 5.82: Use of radiation heat transfer from high intensity lamps
( qs = 10 4 W/m 2 ) for a prescribed duration (t=30 min) to assess
ability of firewall to meet safety standards corresponding to
maximum allowable temperatures at the heated (front) and
unheated (back) surfaces.

## KNOWN: Thickness, initial temperature and thermophysical properties of

Maximum allowable surface temperatures at the end of heating.

## FIND: If maximum allowable temperatures are exceeded.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) One-dimensional conduction in wall, (2) Validity of semiinfinite medium approximation, (3) Negligible convection and radiative exchange
with the surroundings at the irradiated surface, (4) Negligible heat transfer from
the back surface, (5) Constant properties.
ANALYSIS: The thermal response of the wall is described by Eq. (5.59)

2 q o ( t / )
T ( x, t ) = Ti +
k

1/ 2

x 2 q o x
x

exp
erfc

4 t
k
2 t

2

## t = 30 min = 1800s, 2qo ( t / )

1/ 2

/ k = 284.5 K. Hence, at x = 0,

## T ( 0,30 min ) = 25C + 284.5C = 309.5C < 325C

1/ 2
2
At x = 0.25m, x / 4 t = 12.54, q o x / k = 1, 786K, and x / 2 ( t ) = 3.54.

Hence,

## Both requirements are met.

Is the assumption of a semi-infinite solid for a plane wall of finite thickness
appropriate under the foregoing conditions?
COMMENTS: The foregoing analysis may or may not be conservative, since
heat transfer at the irradiated surface due to convection and net radiation
exchange with the environment has been neglected. If the emissivity of the
surface and the temperature of the surroundings are assumed to be = 1 and Tsur
= 298K, radiation exchange at Ts = 309.5C would be

4
= 6, 080 W / m 2 K,

## which is significant (~ 60% of the prescribed radiation). However, under actual

conditions, the wall would likely be exposed to combustion gases and adjoining
walls at elevated temperatures.

5.89
Um cilindro de cobre, com 100 mm de comprimento e 50 mm de dimetro
encontra-se inicialmente temperatura uniforme de 20C.
As duas bases so aquecidas muito rapidamente, a partir de um determinado
instante, ficando temperatura de 500 C, enquanto a superfcie lateral do
cilindro aquecida por uma corrente de gs a 500 C e com um coeficiente de
conveco de 100 W/m2K.
a) Determinar a temperatura do centro do cilindro ao fim de 8 segundos.
b) Atendendo aos parmetros adimensionais que determinam a distribuio de
temperaturas nos problemas de difuso transiente do calor, possvel admitir
hipteses simplificativas na anlise deste problema?
Apresente uma explicao resumida.

CILINDRO CURTO: 2D
h CONSTANTE

Fourier e Biot.

## NO CASO DO CILINDRO Bi < 0,1 DESPREZAM-SE GRADIENTES

5.90
Considerando que a carne fica cozida quando atinge uma temperatura de 80C,
calcule o tempo necessrio para assar uma pea de carne com 2,25 kg.
Admitir que a pea de carne um cilindro com dimetro igual ao comprimento e
que as suas propriedades so equivalentes s de gua lquida.
Considere que a carne se encontra inicialmente temperatura de 6C e que a
temperatura do forno 175C e o coeficiente de conveco de 15 W/m2K.

## CLCULO DA TEMPERATURA NO CENTRO DO CILINDRO:

SOLUO TENTATIVA-ERRO:

Introduction to Convection:
Flow and Thermal Considerations

## Boundary Layers: Physical Features

Velocity Boundary Layer
A consequence of viscous effects
associated with relative motion
between a fluid and a surface.
A region of the flow characterized by
A region between the surface
and the free stream whose
thickness increases in
the flow direction.

u( y)
u

= 0.99

u
s =
y

## Manifested by a surface shear

stress s that provides a drag
force, FD .

FD = s dAs

direction? Why?

As

y =0

Cf =

s
1
u 2
2

## Thermal Boundary Layer

A consequence of heat transfer
between the surface and fluid.
A region of the flow characterized
fluxes.

Ts T ( y )

## A region between the surface and

the free stream whose thickness t
increases in the flow direction.

flow direction?

qs = k f

## Manifested by a surface heat

flux qs and a convection heat
transfer coefficient h .
If (Ts T ) is constant, how do qs and
h vary in the flow direction?

Ts T
T
y

= 0.99

y =0

k f T / y
Ts T

y =0

## Distinction between Local and

Average Heat Transfer Coefficients
Local Heat Flux and Coefficient:
q = h (Ts T )

## Average Heat Flux and Coefficient for a Uniform Surface Temperature:

q = hAs (Ts T )
q = As qdAs = (Ts T ) A hdAs
s
h=

1
hdAs
As As

## For a flat plate in parallel flow:

1
h = oL hdx
L

Governing equations

( u ) ( v ) ( w)
+
+
+
=0
t
x
y
z

( ui ) u j ui
p ij
+
=
+
+ gi
t
xj
xi x j

## Equao de balano da quantidade de

movimento

ui u j
ij =
+
x j xi

2 uk

3 x k ij

Equao de conservao da
energia
Energia interna

Dissipao
viscosa de energia

( e ) + u j e =
t
xj
xj

2 u v w

+
+
3 x y z

u j
ui
p
+ ij
+ q&

xj
xj

ui 2 u k 2

=

x j 3 x k

2
u v 2 u w 2 v w 2
w
+
+
+

+
+
+
+
z x
z y
y x
z

u
u j
ui
= ij
= i +
x j xi
xj

u 2 v 2
+

= 2
x y

T
k
xj

Governing equations
h =e+

Entalpia especfica

( h ) + u j h =
t
xj
xj

dh = c p dT + (1 T )

p
p
+
+uj
+ + q&
t
xj

dp

## Coeficiente de expanso trmica:

T
k
xj

Gs perfeito: = 1/T

T p

Fluido incompressvel: = 0
Temperatura

cp

( T ) + c p u j T =
t
xj
xj

T
k
xj

+ T p + u j p + + q&

t
x j

## The Boundary Layer Equations

Consider concurrent velocity and thermal boundary layer development for steady,
two-dimensional, incompressible flow with constant fluid properties , c p , k and
negligible body forces.

Apply conservation of mass, Newtons 2nd Law of Motion and conservation of energy
to a differential control volume and invoke the boundary layer approximations.
Velocity Boundary Layer:

u
Thermal Boundary Layer:

T
y

>>

T
x

>>

u
u v v
>>
, ,
y
x y x

Conservation of Mass:
u v
+
=0
x y
In the context of flow through a differential control volume, what is the physical
significance of the foregoing terms, if each is multiplied by the mass density of
the fluid?
Newtons Second Law of Motion:

x-direction :
u
dp
2u
u
u + v = + 2
u
dx
y
x
What is the physical significance of each term in the foregoing equation?
Why can we express the pressure gradient as dp/dx instead of p / x ?
y-direction :
p
=0
y

Conservation of Energy:
T
u
T
2T
cp u
+v
=
k
+

y
y 2
x
y

## What is the physical significance of each term in the foregoing equation?

What is the second term on the right-hand side called and under what conditions
may it be neglected?

## Boundary Layer Similarity

As applied to the boundary layers, the principle of similitude is based on
determining similarity parameters that facilitate application of results obtained
for a surface experiencing one set of conditions to geometrically similar surfaces
experiencing different conditions. (Recall how introduction of the similarity
parameters Bi and Fo permitted generalization of results for transient, onedimensional condition).
Dependent boundary layer variables of interest are:

s and q or h
For a prescribed geometry, the corresponding independent variables are:
Geometrical: Size (L), Location (x,y)
Hydrodynamic: Velocity (V)
Fluid Properties:
Hydrodynamic: ,
Thermal : c p , k
Hence,
u = f ( x , y , L, V , , )

s = f ( x , L, V , , )

and
T = f ( x , y , L, V , , , c p , k )
h = f ( x , L, V , , , c p , k )

## Key similarity parameters may be inferred by non-dimensionalizing the momentum

and energy equations.
Recast the boundary layer equations by introducing dimensionless forms of the
independent and dependent variables.
x
y
x*
y*
L
L
u
v
u*
v*
V
V
T Ts
T*
T Ts
Neglecting viscous dissipation, the following normalized forms of the x-momentum
*
*
and energy equations are obtained:
dp*
1 2u *
* u
* u
u
+v
= * +
*
*
x
y
dx
Re L y*2
*
T *
1 2T *
* T
u
+v
=
*
*
x
y
Re L Pr y*2
*

VL VL
=
the Reynolds Number

v
cp v
Pr
= the Prandtl Number
k

Re L

## How may the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers be interpreted physically?

For a prescribed geometry,

u * = f x* , y* , Re L
u
s =
y

*
V u
=
*
L y

y =0

Pr n
t

y* = 0

## The dimensionless shear stress, or local friction coefficient, is then

2 u *
Cf
=
V 2 / 2 Re L y*
u *
y*

= f x* , Re L
y* = 0

y* = 0

2
f x* , Re L
Re L
What is the functional dependence of the average friction coefficient, Cf ?
Cf =

n>0

## For a prescribed geometry,

T * = f x* , y* , Re L , Pr
h=

k f T / y
Ts T

y =0

k f (T Ts ) T *
L (Ts T ) y*

y* = 0

k f T *
=+
L y*

y* = 0

## The dimensionless local convection coefficient is then

hL T *
Nu
= *
kf
y

= f x* , Re L , Pr
y* = 0

## Nu local Nusselt number

What is the functional dependence of the average Nusselt number?
How does the Nusselt number differ from the Biot number?

## Boundary Layer Transition

How would you characterize conditions in the laminar region of boundary layer
development? In the turbulent region?
What conditions are associated with transition from laminar to turbulent flow?
Why is the Reynolds number an appropriate parameter for quantifying transition
from laminar to turbulent flow?
Transition criterion for a flat plate in parallel flow:
u x
Re x , c c critical Reynolds number

## xc location at which transition to turbulence begins

105 < Re x , c < 3 x 106
~

What may be said about transition if ReL < Rex,c? If ReL > Rex,c?
Effect of transition on boundary layer thickness and local convection coefficient:

Why does transition provide a significant increase in the boundary layer thickness?
Why does the convection coefficient decay in the laminar region? Why does it increase
significantly with transition to turbulence, despite the increase in the boundary layer
thickness? Why does the convection coefficient decay in the turbulent region?

## The Reynolds Analogy

Equivalence of dimensionless momentum and energy equations for
negligible pressure gradient (dp*/dx*~0) and Pr~1:
*
u *
1 2u *
* u
u
+v
=
x*
y* Re y*2
*

Diffusion

*
T *
1 2T *
* T
u
+v
=
*
*
x
y
Re y*2
*

Hence, for equivalent boundary conditions, the solutions are of the same form:
u* = T *
u *
y*
Cf

y* = 0

T *
= *
y

Re
= Nu
2

y* = 0

## or, with the Stanton number defined as,

h
Nu
St
=
Vc p Re Pr
With Pr = 1, the Reynolds analogy, which relates important parameters of the velocity
and thermal boundary layers, is

Cf
2

= St

## Modified Reynolds (Chilton-Colburn) Analogy:

An empirical result that extends applicability of the Reynolds analogy:

Cf
2

= St Pr

jH

## Applicable to laminar flow if dp*/dx* ~ 0.

Generally applicable to turbulent flow without restriction on dp*/dx*.

## Problem 6.28: Determination of heat transfer rate for prescribed

turbine blade operating conditions from wind tunnel data
obtained for a geometrically similar but smaller
directly proportional to its characteristic length ( As L ) .
SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Constant properties, (3) Surface area A is
directly proportional to characteristic length L, (4) Negligible radiation, (5) Blade shapes are
geometrically similar.

## ANALYSIS: For a prescribed geometry,

Nu =

hL
= f ( Re L , Pr ) .
k

## The Reynolds numbers for the blades are

Re L,1 = ( V1L1 /1 ) = 15m 2 / s 1

## Hence, with constant properties

ReL,2 = ( V2 L2 / 2 ) = 15m 2 / s 2 .

( v1 = v2 ) , ReL,1 = ReL,2 .

## Also, Pr1 = Pr2

Therefore,

Nu 2 = Nu 1

( h 2 L2 / k 2 ) = ( h1L1 / k1 )

L
L
q1
h 2 = 1 h1 = 1
L2
L 2 A1 Ts,1 T

## The heat rate for the second blade is then

(
(

)
)

L A 2 Ts,2 T
q 2 = h 2 A 2 Ts,2 T = 1
q1
L 2 A1 Ts,1 T
Ts,2 T
( 400 35)
q2 =
q1 =
(1500 W )
Ts,1 T
( 300 35)

q 2 = 2066 W.

COMMENTS: (i) The variation in from Case 1 to Case 2 would cause ReL,2 to differ from
ReL,1. However, for air and the prescribed temperatures, this non-constant property effect is
small.
(ii) If the Reynolds numbers were not equal ( Re L,1 Re L 2 ) , knowledge of the specific form of

## Problem 6.35: Use of a local Nusselt number correlation to estimate the

surface temperature of a chip on a circuit board.

KNOWN: Expression for the local heat transfer coefficient of air at prescribed velocity and
temperature flowing over electronic elements on a circuit board and heat dissipation rate for a 4 4 mm
chip located 120mm from the leading edge.

## FIND: Surface temperature of the chip surface, Ts.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Power dissipated within chip is lost by convection
across the upper surface only, (3) Chip surface is isothermal, (4) The average heat transfer coefficient
for the chip surface is equivalent to the local value at x = L.

PROPERTIES: Table A-4, Air (Evaluate properties at the average temperature of air in the boundary
layer. Assuming Ts = 45C, Tave = (45 + 25)/2 = 35C = 308K. Also, p = 1atm): = 16.69
-6 2
-3
10 m /s, k = 26.9 10 W/mK, Pr = 0.703.

## q conv = E& g = 30mW.

Newtons law of cooling for the upper chip surface can be written as

Ts = T + q conv / h A chip

(2)

2
where A chip = l .

( )

Assuming that the average heat transfer coefficient h over the chip surface is equivalent to the local
coefficient evaluated at x = L, that is, h chip h x ( L ) , the local coefficient can be evaluated by
applying the prescribed correlation at x = L.
0.85
hx x
Vx
Nu x =
= 0.04
Pr1/ 3

k VL
h L = 0.04
L

0.85

Pr1/ 3

## 0.0269 W/m K 10 m/s 0.120 m

h L = 0.04

0.120 m

16.69 10-6 m 2 / s

0.85

## From Eq. (2), the surface temperature of the chip is

2
Ts = 25o C + 30 10-3 W/107 W/m 2 K ( 0.004m ) = 42.5o C.
COMMENTS: (1) The estimated value of Tave used to evaluate the air properties is reasonable.

(2) How else could h chip have been evaluated? Is the assumption of h = hL reasonable?

External Flow:
The Flat Plate in Parallel Flow

Physical Features

As with all external flows, the boundary layers develop freely without constraint.
Boundary layer conditions may be entirely laminar, laminar and turbulent,
or entirely turbulent.
To determine the conditions, compute
Re L =

u L u L
=

and compare with the critical Reynolds number for transition to turbulence, Re x , c .
Re L < Re x , c laminar flow throughout
Re L > Re x , c transition to turbulent flow at xc / L Re x , c / Re L

## Value of Re x , c depends on free stream turbulence and surface roughness.

Nominally,
Re x , c 5 105.
If boundary layer is tripped at the leading edge
Re x , c = 0

## and the flow is turbulent throughout.

Surface thermal conditions are commonly idealized as being of uniform
temperature Ts or uniform heat flux qs . Is it possible for a surface to be
concurrently characterized by uniform temperature and uniform heat flux?
Thermal boundary layer development may be delayed by an unheated
starting length.

Equivalent surface and free stream temperatures for x < and uniform Ts
(or qs ) for x > .

## Similarity Solution for Laminar,

Constant-Property Flow over an Isothermal Plate
Based on premise that the dimensionless x-velocity component, u / u ,
and temperature, T * (T Ts ) / (T Ts ) , can be represented exclusively in
terms of a dimensionless similarity parameter

y ( u / x )

1/ 2

## Similarity permits transformation of the partial differential equations associated

with the transfer of x-momentum and thermal energy to ordinary differential
equations of the form
d3 f
d2 f
2 3+ f
=0
d
d 2
where ( u / u ) df / d , and
d 2T * Pr dT *
f
+
=0
2
d
2 d

## Similarity Solution for Laminar,

Constant-Property Flow over an Isothermal Plate

## Subject to prescribed boundary conditions, numerical solutions to the momentum

and energy equations yield the following results for important local boundary layer
parameters:
- with u / u = 0.99 at = 5.0,

5.0

( u / vx )

1/ 2

u
- with s =
y

5x
Re x

= u
y =0

and d 2 f / d 2
C f ,x

=0

d2 f
u / vx
d 2

= 0.332,

s, x
u2 / 2

= 0.664Re x1/ 2

- with hx = qs / (Ts T ) = k T * / y

and dT * / d

=0

=0

= k ( u / vx )

1/ 2

y =0

## = 0.332 Pr1/ 3 for Pr > 0.6,

hx
Nu x = x = 0.332 Re1/x 2 Pr1/ 3
k
and

= Pr1/ 3
t

dT * / d

=0

How would you characterize relative laminar velocity and thermal boundary layer
growth for a gas? An oil? A liquid metal?
How do the local shear stress and convection coefficient vary with distance from
Average Boundary Layer Parameters:
1
x
= 1.328 Re x1/ 2

s , x 0x s dx
Cf , x

hx =

1 x
0 hx dx
x

## Nu x = 0.664 Re1/x 2 Pr1/ 3

The effect of variable properties may be considered by evaluating all properties
at the film temperature.
Tf =

Ts + T
2

Turbulent Flow
Local Parameters:
Empirical
Correlations

C f , x = 0.0592 Rex1/ 5
Nu x = 0.0296 Re 4x / 5 Pr1/ 3

How do variations of the local shear stress and convection coefficient with
distance from the leading edge for turbulent flow differ from those for laminar flow?
Average Parameters:
1 xc
L
hL =
0 h1am dx + xc hturb dx
L

0.074 1742
C f , L = 1/ 5
Re L
Re L

## Nu L = 0.037 Re4L / 5 871 Pr1/ 3

For Re x , c = 0 or L xc ( Re L Re x , c ) ,
C f , L = 0.074 Re L1/ 5
Nu L = 0.037 Re 4L / 5 Pr1/ 3

## Special Cases: Unheated Starting Length (USL)

and/or Uniform Heat Flux

For both uniform surface temperature (UST) and uniform surface heat flux (USF),
the effect of the USL on the local Nusselt number may be represented as follows:
Laminar

Nu x =

Nu x = 0
a b

1 ( / x )

Nu x = 0 = C Re mx Pr1/ 3

Turbulent

UST

USF

UST

USF

3/4

3/4

9/10

9/10

1/3

1/3

1/9

1/9

0.332

0.453

0.0296

0.0308

1/2

1/2

4/5

4/5

## Sketch the variation of hx versus ( x ) for two conditions: > 0 and = 0.

What effect does an USL have on the local convection coefficient?

UST:
qs = hx (Ts T ) q = hL As (Ts T )
L
( 2 p +1) / ( 2 p + 2 ) 2 p / ( 2 p +1)
Nu L = Nu L
1 ( / L )
=0 ( L )

## p = 1 for laminar flow throughout

p = 4 for turbulent flow throughout
hL numerical integration for laminar/turbulent flow
hL =
USF:

1 xc
h1am dx + xL hturb dx
c

qs
Ts = T +
q = qs As
hx

## Treatment of Non-Constant Property Effects:

Evaluate properties at the film temperature.
T + T
Tf = s
2

Problem 7.21: Preferred orientation (corresponding to lower heat loss) and the
corresponding heat rate for a surface with adjoining smooth and
roughened sections.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Surface B is sufficiently rough to trip the boundary layer when in the upstream position
(Configuration 2); (2) Re x, c 5 105 for flow over A in Configuration 1.

-6

-3

PROPERTIES: Table A-4, Air (Tf = 333K, 1 atm): = 19.2 10 m /s, k = 28.7 10
W/mK, Pr = 0.7.

ANALYSIS: Since Configuration (2) results in a turbulent boundary layer over the entire
surface, the lowest heat transfer is associated with Configuration (1).
Find

u L
Re L = =

20 m/s 1m
19.2 10-6 m 2 / s

= 1.04 106.

Hence in Configuration (1), transition will occur just before the rough surface (xc = 0.48m).

4/5

## Nu L,1 = 0.037 1.04 106

871 0.71/3 = 1366

h L,1L

Hence

= Nu L,1 = 1366.

## h L,1 = 1366 28.7 103 W/m K /1m = 39.2 W/m 2 K

q1 = h L,1A ( Ts T ) = 39.2 W/m 2 K ( 0.5m 1m )(100 20 ) K

4/5

= 1568 W

<

## ( 0.7 )1/ 3 = 2139 > Nu L,1 .

External Flow:
Flow over Bluff Objects
(Cylinders, Sphere)

## The Cylinder in Cross Flow

Conditions depend on special features of boundary layer development, including
onset at a stagnation point and separation, as well as transition to turbulence.

## Stagnation point: Location of zero velocity ( u = 0 ) and maximum pressure.

Followed by boundary layer development under a favorable pressure gradient
( dp / dx < 0 ) and hence acceleration of the free stream flow ( du / dx > 0 ) .
As the rear of the cylinder is approached, the pressure must begin to increase.
Hence, there is a minimum in the pressure distribution, p(x), after which boundary
( dp / dx > 0, du / dx < 0 ) .

y =0

reduces to zero.

## and is accompanied by flow reversal and a downstream wake.

Location of separation depends on boundary layer transition.

Re D

VD VD
=

## What features differentiate boundary development for the flat plate in

parallel flow from that for flow over a cylinder?
Force imposed by the flow is due to the combination of friction and form drag.
FD form of the drag force is
The dimensionless
CD =
Figure 7.8
2
Af V / 2

## Heat Transfer Considerations

The Local Nusselt Number:
How does the local Nusselt number vary with for Re D < 2 x 105 ?
What conditions are associated with maxima and minima in the variation?
How does the local Nusselt vary with for ReD > 2 x 105 ? What conditions
are associated with maxima and minima in the variation?

## The Average Nusselt Number Nu D hD / k :

Churchill and Bernstein Correlation:
Nu D = 0.3 +

1/ 2
D

0.62 Re

Pr

1/ 3
1/ 4

1 + ( 0.4 / Pr )2 / 3

5/8
Re

D
1 +

282,000

## Cylinders of Noncircular Cross Section:

Nu D = C Re mD Pr1/ 3
C , m Table 7.3

4/5

ReD

0.4 4

0.989

0.330

4 40

0.911

0.385

40 4103

0.683

0.466

4103 4104

0.193

0.618

4104 4105

0.027

0.805

## Flow Across Tube Banks

A common geometry for
two-fluid heat exchangers.

## Aligned and Staggered Arrays:

ST
Vmax =
V
ST D

Aligned:

or,

) (

ST
Vmax =
V if 2 S D D ST D
ST D
ST
Vmax =
V if 2 S D D ST D
2 SD D

Staggered:

) (

Flow Conditions:

## How do convection coefficients vary from row-to-row in an array?

How do flow conditions differ between the two configurations?
Why should an aligned array not be use for ST/SL < 0.7?
Average Nusselt Number for an Isothermal Array:
1/ 4
Nu D = C2 C Re mD ,max Pr 0.36 ( Pr/ Prs )

C , m Table 7.7

C2 Table 7.8
All properties are evaluated at (Ti + To ) / 2 except for Prs.

Geometria

ReD,max

10 - 102

0.80

0.40

102 103

0.7)*

0.27

0.63

2105 - 2106

0.021

0.84

10 - 102

0.90

0.40

102 103
Tubos

0.60

0.40

0.60

2105 - 2106

0.022

0.84

NL

10

13

16

0.70

0.80

0.86

0.90

0.92

0.95

0.97

0.98

0.99

0.64

0.76

0.84

0.89

0.92

0.95

0.97

0.98

0.99

## Fluid Outlet Temperature (To) :

Ts To
DNh
= exp
VNT ST c p
Ts Ti

N = NT x N L
What may be said about To as N ?
Total Heat Rate:

q = hAs Tlm
As = N ( DL )
(T T ) (Ts To )
Tlm = s i
Ts Ti
ln

Ts To
Pressure Drop:
2
Vmax

p = N L
f
2
, f Figures 7.13 and 7.14

The Sphere
Flow over a sphere
Boundary layer development is similar to that for flow over a cylinder,
involving transition and separation.

CD Figure 7.8

1/ 4

## Problem: 7.78 Measurement of combustion gas temperature with a spherical

thermocouple junction.

KNOWN: Velocity and temperature of combustion gases. Diameter and emissivity of thermocouple
junction. Combustor temperature.
FIND: (a) Time to achieve 98% of maximum thermocouple temperature rise for negligible radiation, (b)
Steady-state thermocouple temperature, (c) Effect of gas velocity and thermocouple emissivity on
measurement error.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Validity of lumped capacitance analysis, (2) Constant properties, (3) Negligible
conduction through lead wires, (4) Radiation exchange between small surface and a large enclosure (parts b
and c).

PROPERTIES: Thermocouple: 0.1 1.0, k = 100 W/mK, c = 385 J/kgK, = 8920 kg/m3; Gases:
k = 0.05 W/mK, = 50 10-6 m2/s, Pr = 0.69.

ANALYSIS: (a) If the lumped capacitance analysis may be used, it follows from Equation 5.5 that

t=

Vc

T T D c
ln i
=
ln ( 50 ) .
T T
hAs
6h

Neglecting the viscosity ratio correlation for variable property effects, use of V = 5 m/s with the Whitaker
correlation yields

2/3
Nu D = ( hD k ) = 2 + 0.4 Re1D/ 2 + 0.06 Re D
Pr 0.4

h=

0.05 W m K
1/ 2
2/3
0.4
2 + 0.4 (100 )
+ 0.06 (100 )
0.69 ) = 328 W m 2 K
(

0.001m

t=

## 0.001m 8920 kg m3 385 J kg K

6 328 W m 2 K

ln ( 50 ) = 6.83s

## (b) Performing an energy balance on the junction, qconv = qrad.

Hence, evaluating radiation exchange from Equation 1.7 and with = 0.5,

hAs ( T T ) = As T 4 Tc4

(1000 T ) K =

## 0.5 5.67 108 W m 2 K 4 4

4
T ( 400 ) K 4

328 W m 2 K

T = 936 K

Parametric calculations to determine the effects of V and yield the following results:

990
970
Temperature, T(K)

Temperature, T(K)

1000

950

950
930
910

900

890

10

15

Velocity, V(m/s)
Emissivity, epsilon = 0.5

20

25

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Emissivity
Velocity, V = 5 m/s

0.7

0.8

0.9

Since the temperature recorded by the thermocouple junction increases with increasing V and decreasing ,
the measurement error, T - T, decreases with increasing V and decreasing . The error is due to net

radiative transfer from the junction (which depresses T) and hence should decrease with decreasing .
For a prescribed heat loss, the temperature difference ( T - T) decreases with decreasing convection
resistance, and hence with increasing h(V).
COMMENTS: To infer the actual gas temperature (1000 K) from the measured result (936 K),
correction would have to be made for radiation exchange with the cold surroundings.

What measures may be taken to reduce the error associated with radiation effects?

Internal Flow:
General Considerations

Entrance Conditions
Must distinguish between entrance and fully developed regions.
Hydrodynamic Effects: Assume laminar flow with uniform velocity profile at
inlet of a circular tube.

Velocity boundary layer develops on surface of tube and thickens with increasing x.
Inviscid region of uniform velocity shrinks as boundary layer grows.
 Does the centerline velocity change with increasing x? If so, how does it change?
Subsequent to boundary layer merger at the centerline, the velocity profile
becomes parabolic and invariant with x. The flow is then said to be
hydrodynamically fully developed.
 How would the fully developed velocity profile differ for turbulent flow?

## Thermal Effects: Assume laminar flow with uniform temperature, T ( r ,0 ) = Ti , at

inlet of circular tube with uniform surface temperature, Ts Ti , or heat flux, qs .

Thermal boundary layer develops on surface of tube and thickens with increasing x.
Isothermal core shrinks as boundary layer grows.
Subsequent to boundary layer merger, dimensionless forms of the temperature
profile ( for Ts and qs ) become independent of x.
 Is the temperature profile invariant with x in the fully developed region?

 For uniform surface temperature, what may be said about the change
in the temperature profile with increasing x?
 For uniform surface heat flux, what may be said about the change in the
temperature profile with increasing x?
 How do temperature profiles differ for laminar and turbulent flow?

## The Mean Velocity and Temperature

Absence of well-defined free stream conditions, as in external flow, and hence a
reference velocity ( u ) or temperature (T ) , dictates the use of a crosssectional mean velocity ( um ) and temperature (Tm ) for internal flow.
Linkage of mean velocity to mass flow rate:
m = um Ac

or,
m = Ac u ( r , x ) d Ac
Hence,
um =

Ac u ( r , x ) d Ac

Ac

## For incompressible flow in a circular tube of radius ro ,

um =

2
2
o

ro

o u ( r , x ) r dr

## Linkage of mean temperature to thermal energy transport associated with flow

through a cross section:
E t = Ac ucT dAc mcTm
Hence,
Tm =

Ac ucT dAc
m c

## For incompressible, constant-property flow in a circular tube,

2
Tm =
um ro2

ro

u ( x, r )T ( x, r ) r dr
0

## Newtons Law of Cooling for the Local Heat Flux:

qs = h (Ts Tm )
What is the essential difference between use of Tm for internal flow and T
for external flow?

## Hydrodynamic and Thermal Entry Lengths

Entry lengths depend on whether the flow is laminar or turbulent, which, in turn,
depend on Reynolds number.
Re D

um Dh

Dh

4 Ac
P

in which case,
Re D

um Dh 4 m
=

Re D =

um D 4 m
=

Re D , c 2300

## Fully turbulent conditions exist for

Re D 10,000
Hydrodynamic Entry Length
Laminar Flow: ( x fd , h / D ) 0.05Re D
Turbulent Flow: 10 < ( x fd , h / D ) < 60

## Laminar Flow: ( x fd ,t / D ) 0.05 Re D Pr

Turbulent Flow: 10 < ( x fd ,t / D ) < 60

For laminar flow, how do hydrodynamic and thermal entry lengths compare for a gas?
An oil? A liquid metal?

## Fully Developed Conditions

Assuming steady flow and constant properties, hydrodynamic conditions, including
the velocity profile, are invariant in the fully developed region.
What may be said about the variation of the mean velocity with distance from the
tube entrance for steady, constant property flow?
The pressure drop may be determined from knowledge of the friction factor
f, where,

( dp / dx ) D
um2 / 2

f =

64
Re D

## Turbulent flow in a smooth circular tube:

f = ( 0.790 1n Re D 1.64 )

## Pressure drop for fully developed flow from x1 to x2:

um2
p = p1 p2 = f
( x2 x1 )
2D
and power requirement
P = p =

pm

## Requirement for fully developed thermal conditions:

Ts ( x ) T ( r , x )

=0
x Ts ( x ) Tm ( x ) fd ,t

## Effect on the local convection coefficient:

T / r r = r
Ts T
o
=
f ( x)

Ts Tm
r Ts Tm r = r
o
Hence, assuming constant properties,
qs / k
h
= f ( x)
Ts Tm k
h f ( x)
Variation of h in entrance and fully developed regions:

## Determination of the Mean Temperature

Determination of Tm ( x ) is an essential feature of an internal flow analysis.
Determination begins with an energy balance for a differential control volume.

## dqconv = m d ( cTm + p ) mc p dTm

Why is the second equality in the foregoing expression considered to be approximate?
Integrating from the tube inlet to outlet,
qconv = m c p (Tm , o Tm ,i )

(1)

## A differential equation from which Tm ( x ) may be determined is obtained by

substituting for dq conv = qs ( P dx ) = h (Ts Tm ) P dx.

dTm qs P
P
=
=
h (Ts Tm )
dx mc
mcp
p

( 2)

## Special Case: Uniform Surface Heat Flux

dTm qs P
=
f ( x)
dx m c
p
Tm ( x ) = Tm ,i +

qs P

m cp

Why does the surface temperature vary with x as shown in the figure?
In principle, what value does Ts assume at x=0?
Total heat rate:

qconv = qs PL

d ( T )
d Tm
P
=
=
h T
dx
dx
m cp

## Integrating from x=0 to any downstream location,

Ts Tm ( x )
Px
= exp
hx

Ts Tm ,i
mc
p

hx =

1 x
o hx dx
x

Overall Conditions:

To Ts Tm , o
PL
hA
=
= exp
h = exp s

Ti Ts Tm ,i
mc
p

mcp
qconv = h As Tlm

Tlm =

To Ti
1n ( To / Ti )

( 3)

To T Tm , o
U As
=
= exp

Ti T Tm ,i
m cp
T
q = UAs Tlm = lm
Rtot

= exp 1

m c p Rtot

## Tlm Eq. (3) with Ts replaced by T .

Note: Replacement of T by Ts,o if outer surface temperature is uniform.

## Problem 8.17: Estimate temperature of water emerging from a thin-walled

tube heated by walls and air of a furnace. Inner and outer
convection coefficients are known.

KNOWN: Water at prescribed temperature and flow rate enters a 0.25 m diameter, black thin-walled
tube of 8-m length, which passes through a large furnace whose walls and air are at a temperature of
Tfur = T = 700 K. The convection coefficients for the internal water flow and external furnace air are
300 W/m2K and 50 W/m2K, respectively.

## FIND: The outlet temperature of the water, Tm,o.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions; (2) Tube is small object with large, isothermal surroundings; (3)
Furnace air and walls are at the same temperature; and (3) Tube is thin-walled with black surface.

## PROPERTIES: Table A-6, Water: cp 4180 J/kgK.

ANALYSIS: The linearized radiation coefficient may be estimated from Eq. 1.9 with = 1,

2
h rad ( Tt + Tfur ) Tt2 + Tfur

where Tt represents the average tube wall surface temperature, which can be estimated from an energy balance
on the tube.
As represented by the thermal circuit, the energy balance may be expressed as

Tm Tt
Tt Tfur
=
R cv,i
1/ R cv,o + 1/ R rad
The thermal resistances, with As = PL = DL, are

R cv,i = 1/ h i As

R cv,o = 1/ h o As

## and the mean temperature of the water is approximated as

Tm = Tm,i + Tm,o / 2

The outlet temperature can be calculated from Eq. 8.46b, with Tfur = T,

T Tm,o
1
= exp
T Tm,i

m cp R tot

where
R tot = R cv,i +

1
1/ R cv,o + 1/ R rad

with
R cv,i = 6.631 105 K / W

## R rad = 4.724 104 K / W

it follows that

Tm = 331 K

Tt = 418 K

Tm,o = 362 K

Internal Flow:
Heat Transfer Correlations

## Fully Developed Flow

Laminar Flow in a Circular Tube:
The local Nusselt number is a constant throughout the fully developed
region, but its value depends on the surface thermal condition.
Uniform Surface Heat Flux (qs ) :
Nu D = hD = 4.36
k
Uniform Surface Temperature (Ts ) :
Nu D = hD = 3.66
k
Turbulent Flow in a Circular Tube:
For a smooth surface and fully turbulent conditions ( Re D > 10,000 ) , the
Dittus Boelter equation may be used as a first approximation:
n = 0.3 (Ts < Tm )
Nu D = 0.023Re 4D/ 5 Pr n
n = 0.4 (Ts > Tm )
The effects of wall roughness and transitional flow conditions ( Re D > 3000 )
may be considered by using the Gnielinski correlation:
f / 8 )( Re D 1000 ) Pr
(
Nu D =
1/ 2
1 + 12.7 ( f / 8 ) ( Pr 2 / 3 1)

Smooth surface:

f = ( 0.790 1n Re D 1.64 )

## Surface of roughness e > 0 :

f Figure 8.3
Noncircular Tubes:
Use of hydraulic diameter as characteristic length:
4A
Dh c
P
Since the local convection coefficient varies around the periphery of a tube,
approaching zero at its corners, correlations for the fully developed region
are associated with convection coefficients averaged over the periphery
of the tube.
Laminar Flow:
The local Nusselt number is a constant whose value (Table 8.1) depends on
the surface thermal condition (Ts or qs ) and the duct aspect ratio.
Turbulent Flow:
As a first approximation, the Dittus-Boelter or Gnielinski correlation may be used
with the hydraulic diameter, irrespective of the surface thermal condition.

## Effect of the Entry Region

The manner in which the Nusselt decays from inlet to fully developed conditions
for laminar flow depends on the nature of thermal and velocity boundary layer
development in the entry region, as well as the surface thermal condition.

Laminar flow in a
circular tube.

## Combined Entry Length:

Thermal and velocity boundary layers develop concurrently from uniform
profiles at the inlet.

## Thermal Entry Length:

Velocity profile is fully developed at the inlet, and boundary layer development
in the entry region is restricted to thermal effects. Such a condition may also
be assumed to be a good approximation for a uniform inlet velocity profile if
Pr >> 1. Why?
Average Nusselt Number for Laminar Flow in a Circular Tube with Uniform
Surface Temperature:
Combined Entry Length:
Re D Pr/ ( L / D )

1/ 3

( / s )

0.14

> 2:
1/ 3

Re Pr
Nu D = 1.86 D
L/ D
Re D Pr/ ( L / D )

1/ 3

( / s )

Nu D = 3.66
Thermal Entry Length:
Nu D = 3.66 +

0.14

0.14

< 2:

0.0668 ( D / L ) Re D Pr

1 + 0.04 ( D / L ) Re D Pr

2/3

## Average Nusselt Number for Turbulent Flow in a Circular Tube :

Effects of entry and surface thermal conditions are less pronounced for
turbulent flow and can be neglected.
For long tubes ( L / D > 60 ) :

Nu D Nu D , fd
For short tubes ( L / D < 60 ) :

Nu D 1 +
C
m
Nu D , fd
( L / D)

C 1
m 2/3
Noncircular Tubes:
Laminar Flow:
Nu Dh depends strongly on aspect ratio, as well as entry region and surface
thermal conditions.

Turbulent Flow:
As a first approximation, correlations for a circular tube may be used
with D replaced by Dh .
When determining Nu D for any tube geometry or flow condition, all
properties are to be evaluated at

T m (Tm ,i + Tm , o ) / 2
Why do solutions to internal flow problems often require iteration?

## The Concentric Tube Annulus

Fluid flow through
region formed by
concentric tubes.

## Convection heat transfer

may be from or to inner
surface of outer tube and
outer surface of inner tube.

## Surface thermal conditions may be characterized by

uniform temperature (Ts ,i , Ts , o ) or uniform heat flux ( qi, qo ) .
Convection coefficients are associated with each surface, where

qi = hi (Ts ,i Tm )
qo = ho (Ts , o Tm )

Nui

hi Dh
k

Nuo

ho Dh
k

Dh = Do Di

## Fully Developed Laminar Flow

Nusselt numbers depend on Di / Do and surface thermal conditions (Tables 8.2, 8.3)
Fully Developed Turbulent Flow
Correlations for a circular tube may be used with D replaced by Dh .

Conveco Natural

Consideraes Gerais
A conveco natural tem lugar quando h movimento de um fluido
resultante de foras de impulso.
A impulso tem lugar num fluido onde h gradientes de densidade e uma
fora mssica (por exemplo, fora gravtica) proporcional densidade.
gradientes de temperatura e a fora mssica a fora gravtica.
Gradientes de temperatura estveis e instveis

##  Ocorre num meio (em princpio, infinito), em repouso (velocidade

nula longe da origem do escoamento).
 Plumas e jactos com impulso:

##  Escoamento de camada limite numa superfcie quente ou fria (Ts T )

induzido por foras de impulso.

Placas verticais
Desenvolvimento da camada limite numa placa vertical aquecida

##  Quais as diferenas relativamente a conveco forada?

 Quais as diferenas relativamente a uma placa arrefecida (Ts < T) ?

## Equao de balano de quantidade de movimento na direco x

(escoamento laminar)
u
u
1 p
2 u
u
+v
=
g +
x
x
y
y2

p
p

=
p
= g
x

1
1

T p
T T

u
u g
2 u
u
+v
= ( ) +
x
y
y2
u
u
2 u
u
+v
= g (T T ) +
x
y
y2

## Equao de balano de quantidade de movimento na direco x

(escoamento laminar)
2

u +
= g (T T ) + u2
x
y
y

Foras de inrcia

## Fora de impulso Fora viscosa

 Dado que u (x,y) depende de T (x,y), a soluo desta equao tem de ser
obtida juntamente com a soluo para a equao de camada limite da
energia T (x,y).
2

u
+
= T2
x
y
y

x* =

x
L

y* =

y
L

u* =

u
uo

v* =

v
uo

T* =

T T
Ts T

u*
u * g (Ts T ) L
1 2 u *
u*
+ v*
=
T *+
x*
y*
uo2
Re L y *2
T *
T *
1
2 T *
u*
+ v*
=
x*
y * Re L Pr y *2
g (Ts T ) L uo L
g (Ts T ) L3
GrL =

=
2
uo2

424
3
2

Re 2

u*
u * GrL
1 2 u *
u*
+ v*
= 2 T *+
x*
y * Re
Re L y *2

 Nmero de Grashof:
GrL =

g (Ts T ) L3

Foras de impulso
Foras viscosas

= 1
T p

## Coeficiente de expanso trmica da superfcie (propriedade

termodinmica do fluido

## Lquidos:  Tabelas A.5, A.6 de Incropera e de Witt

Gs perfeito: = 1/T (K)
 Rayleigh Number
RaL = GrL Pr =

g (Ts T ) L3

Mtodo integral
Equao de balano integral de quantidade de movimento:

u
d
2

0 u dy = 0 g (T T ) dy

dx
y y =0

d
d x

(T T ) u dy = T

y y =0

## Exemplo de aplicao: placa vertical isotrmica

Vamos assumir um perfil de velocidades cbico
u ( x,0) = 0
u

= 0
y y =

u ( x, ) = 0
2 u
2 = g (Ts T )
y y =0

T

= 0
y y =

T(x,0)=Ts
T(x,)=T

g (Ts T ) 2 y y
y y
u=

1 = u o ( x ) 1

4
2

T T y
= 1
Ts T

u
1 d 2
1
uo = g (Ts T ) o
105 d x
3

1 d
2
uo =

30 d x

## Vamos assumir que uo e so funes do tipo

uo ( x ) = C1 x m

( x ) = C2 x n

daqui resulta
2m + n 2
C
C
C1 C2 x 2 m + n 1 = 2 g (Ts T ) x n 1 x m n
105
3
C2
2 n
m+n
C1 C2 x m + n 1 =
x
30
C2

## Para as equaes estarem dimensionalmente correctas, o expoente de x tem de

ser o mesmo em todos os termos de cada equao, de onde resulta

2m + n 1 = n = m n

m=1/2, n=1/4

m + n 1 = n
Logo

20

C1 = 5.17 + Pr
21

1 2

14

20

C2 = 3.93 + Pr
21

g (Ts T )

g (Ts T )

12

1 4

Pr 1 2

Obtm-se ento
uo
1 2
12
= 5.17 (0.952 + Pr ) Grx
x

## = 3.93 Pr 1 2 (0.952 + Pr ) Grx

14

1 4

pelo que

y
hx

y =0 x 2 x
1 4
14
Nu x =
=
=
= 0.508 Pr1 2 (0.952 + Pr ) Grx
k
Ts T
k

## ou, de modo equivalente,

14

Nu x = 0.508 Ra x

14

Pr

0.952 + Pr

## Por sua vez,

hL
14
Nu L =
= 0.68 Ra L
k

14

Pr

0
.
952
+
Pr

Esta soluo est em bom acordo com a soluo exacta e com dados
experimentais

Soluo de semelhana
 Usando a seguinte varivel de semelhana, a equao de balano

## de quantidade de movimento na direco x pode ser transformada de

uma equao com derivadas parciais (em x e y) numa equao
diferencial ordinria expressa exclusivamente em termos de .
1/ 4

y Gr
x
x 4

##  Equaes de balano de quantidade de movimento e energia

f + 3 ff 2 ( f ) + T = 0
2

T + 3Pr fT = 0

f ( )

df
= x ( Grx1/ 2 ) u
d 2

T T
Ts T

para f () e T*:

##  Espessura da camada limite hidrodinmica ( ) 5 for Pr > 0.6

Gr
 Pr > 0.6 : = 5 x x
4

1/ 4

= 7.07

x
x1/ 4
1/ 4
( Grx )

 Nmeros de Nusselt
1/ 4

Gr
Nu x = hx = x
k
4

g ( Pr ) =

( Nu

dT
d

and Nu L ) :
1/ 4

=0

Gr
= x
4

0.75 Pr1/ 2

( 0.609 + 1.221 Pr

1/ 2

+ 1.238 Pr )

1/ 4

h = 1 oL h dx Nu L = 4 Nu L
L
3
Transio para regime turbulento

 A ampliao de perturbaes
depende do valor relativo das foras
de impulso e das foras viscosas
 A transio ocorre para o seguinte
nmero de Rayleigh crtico:
Rax , c = Grx , c Pr =

g ( Pr )

g (Ts T ) x3

109

( 0 < Pr < )

## Correlaes empricas (Churchill e Chu)

 Escoamento laminar
Nu L = 0.68 +

( Ra

< 109 ) :

0.670 Ra1/L 4
1 + ( 0.492 / Pr )9 /16

4/9

 Todas as condies

1/ 6
0.387 RaL

Nu L = 0.825 +

9 /16 4 / 9
1 + ( 0.492 / Pr )

Componente da acelerao gravtica paralela placa: g cos

T s < T

T s > T

## Quando o fluido se mantm junto parede, as correlaes de Churchill e

Chu podem ser usadas, desde que 0 60 e substituindo g por g cos
Quando o fluido tem tendncia a afastar-se da parede, o coeficiente de
conveco aumenta e as correlaes apresentadas no so vlidas

Placas Horizontais
A fora de impulso normal s placas
O escoamento e a transmisso de calor dependem de a placa estar

## aquecida ou arrefecida e de a troca de calor se dar na face superior ou

inferior.
Face superior de placa aquecida ou Face inferior de placa arrefecida

Ts > T

Nu L = 0.54 Ra1/L 4
Nu L = 0.15 Ra1/L 3

(10
(10

Ts < T

## Face inferior aquecida ou face superior arrefecida

Ts > T
Nu L = 0.27 Ra1/L 4

Ts < T

(10

##  Por que razo estas condies conduzem a uma menor taxa de

transmisso de calor do que as do slide anterior?

## Problem 9.31: Convection and radiation losses from the surface of a

KNOWN: Dimensions and emissivity of cylindrical solar receiver. Incident solar flux.
Temperature of ambient air.
FIND: (a) Heat loss and collection efficiency for a prescribed receiver temperature, (b) Effect
of receiver temperature on heat losses and collector efficiency.

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state, (2) Ambient air is quiescent, (3) Incident solar flux is
uniformly distributed over receiver surface, (4) All of the incident solar flux is absorbed by the
temperature, (7) Curvature of cylinder has a negligible effect on boundary layer development,
(8) Constant properties

PROPERTIES: Table A-4, air (Tf = 550 K): k = 0.0439 W/mK, = 45.6 10-6 m2/s, =
66.7 10-6 m2/s, Pr = 0.683, = 1.82 10-3 K-1.
ANALYSIS: (a) The total heat loss is

## q = q rad + q conv = As Ts4 + hAs ( Ts T )

With RaL = g (Ts - T)L3/ = 9.8 m/s2 (1.82 10-3 K-1) 500K (12m)3/(45.6 66.7 10-12
m4/s2) = 5.07 1012, the Churchill and Chu correlation yields

h = 0.825 +
L

1/ 6

0.387 Ra L
0.0439 W / m K
2
=
0.825 + 42.4} = 6.83 W / m 2 K
{

8 / 27
12m

1 + ( 0.492 / Pr )9 / 16

## Hence, with As = DL = 264 m2

q = 264 m 2 0.2 5.67 108 W / m 2 K 4 ( 800 K ) + 264 m 2 6.83 W / m 2 K ( 500 K )
4

## 2.64 107 2.13 106 W

As qs q
=
(100 ) = 91.9%
100 =
7

A
q
s s
2.64 10 W

(b) As shown below, because of its dependence on temperature to the fourth power, qrad
increases more significantly with increasing Ts than does qconv, and the effect on the efficiency is
pronounced
100

5E6

Collector efficiency, %

Heat rate, W

4E6
3E6
2E6
1E6
0
600

700

800

900

Convection
Total

95

90

85

80

1000
75
600

700

800

900

1000

COMMENTS: The collector efficiency is also reduced by the inability to have a perfectly
absorbing receiver. Partial reflection of the incident solar flux will reduce the efficiency by at
least several percent.

Cilindro horizontal

## Desenvolvimento da camada limite e variao do nmero de Nusselt

local para um cilindro aquecido:

0.387 Ra1/D 6

Nu D = 0.60 +

9 /16 8 / 27

1 + 0.559 / Pr )
(

## Como variam as condies para um cilindro arrefecido?

Esferas
Nmero de Nusselt mdio:
Nu D = 2 +

0.589 Ra1/D 4
1 + ( 0.469 / Pr )9 /16

4/9

## Conveco entre placas paralelas

Correlaes de Elenbaas
a) Placas isotrmicas mesma temperatura, Ts

35
1
S

Nu s =
Ra s 1 exp
24
L
Ra
S
L
s

q A S
Nu s =
Ts T k

Ras =

34

g (Ts T ) S 3

Nu s , fd =

1
S
Ra s
24
L

isotrmica tem-se
Nu s , fd =

1
S
Ra s
12
L

## Conveco entre placas paralelas

c) Placas com fluxo constante e igual nas superfcies:
12

Nu s , L , fd
Nu s , L

= 0.144 Ra *s
L

qs
S
=
Ts , L T k

g qs S 4
Ra =
k
*
s

12

Nu s , L , fd

= 0.204 Ra *s
L

## (a) Condies isotrmicas

Casos (i) e (iii)

C1
C2
Nu s =
+
2
12
(Ra s S L ) (Ra s S L )

## (b) Condies isotrmicas

Casos (ii) e (iv)

C2
Nu s = * 1
+
25
Ra
S
L
(
)
Ra
S
L
s
s

Caso

Condies de fronteira

C1

1 2

T =

1 2

T =

C2

Ts + T
2
Ts , L + T
2

Sopt

Smax/Sopt

(i)

Ts,1=Ts,2

(ii)

qs,1 = qs, 2

48

(iii)

(iv)

1 4

4.77

1.71

## 2.51 2.51 (Ras S 4 L )

4.77

3
2
.
15
Ra
S
L
s
144 2.87

24

1.71

1 4

1 5

Placas isotrmicas
S diminui Nu s diminui, mas n placas pode aumentar
Logo, existe Sopt que maximiza a taxa de transmisso de calor
Smax a distncia entre placas que maximiza o calor trocado em
Placas com fluxo constante
S diminui diminui a taxa de t.c. por unidade de volume; Ts aumenta
Como Ts no pode aumentar indefinidamente, existe Sopt que maximiza
a taxa de t.c. por unidade de diferena de temperatura Ts(L) - T
Smax a distncia entre placas que, para um dado fluxo, minimiza a
temperatura da superfcie



RaL

g (T1 T2 ) L3

q = h (T1 T2 )

##  Cavidade horizontal = 0, 180deg

 Cavidade vertical = 90 deg

 Aquecimento na base ( = 0 )
RaL < RaL , c = 1708 :
Nu L = hL = 1
k

forma celular

## O escoamento passa a turbulento

Nu L = 0.069 Ra1/L 3 Pr 0.074

Nu L = 1
3
 RaL < 10 :

Nu L = 1
3
 RaL > 10 :

## Forma-se uma clula primria, com a

cada vez menor, e desenvolvem-se clulas
secundrias junto aos cantos medida que
RaL aumenta
 Correlations for Nu L Eqs. (9.50) - (9.53).

##  Correlaes para Nu L  ver Eqs. (9.50) (9.53) do livro de Incropera e

de Witt

 Relevante para colectores solares planos

##  A taxa de transmisso de calor depende do ngulo de inclinao

relativamente a um ngulo de inclinao crtico *, cujo valor
funo de H/L (Tabela 9.4).
 A taxa de transmisso de calor depende tambm de RaL relativo a um
valor crtico RaL,c =1708/cos .
 Correlaes: Eqs. (9.54) (9.57).

Cilindros concntricos

 q =

2 keff

1n ( Do Di )

(Ti To )

##  keff: condutibilidade trmica efectiva

 Numero de Rayleigh crtico:

Rac* =

1n ( Do / Di )

L (D
3

3 / 5
i

3 / 5 5
o

+D

L ( Do Di ) / 2

RaL

*
 Rac < 100 :

keff / k = 1
*
7
 100 < Rac < 10 :

keff

Pr
= 0.386
k
0.861 + Pr

1/ 4

( Rac* )

1/ 4

Esferas concntricas

DD
 q = keff i o (Ti To )
L
 Nmero de Rayleigh crtico:

Ra
L
L

Ras* =
4
5

7
/
5

7
/
5
( Do / Di ) ( D
+ Do )
i

*
 Ras < 100 : keff / k = 1
*
4
 100 < Ras < 10 :

keff

Pr
= 0.74
k
0.861 + Pr

1/ 4

( Ras* )

1/ 4

(Gr

Re 2L ~ O(1)

(Gr

(Gr

Re 2L >> O(1)

Re 2L << O(1)

##  Correlaes para transmisso de calor por conveco em regime misto

n
n
Nu n Nu FC
Nu NC
+ : Fora de impulso actua no mesmo sentido ou
perpendicularmente ao escoamento
- : Fora de impulso actua no sentido oposto ao do escoamento

n3

## KNOWN: Volume, thermophysical properties, and initial and final temperatures of a

pharmaceutical. Diameter and length of submerged tubing. Pressure of saturated steam
flowing through the tubing.

FIND: (a) Initial rate of heat transfer to the pharmaceutical, (b) Time required to heat the
pharmaceutical to 70C and the amount of steam condensed during the process.

SCHEMATIC:

## ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Pharmaceutical may be approximated as an infinite, quiescent fluid of

uniform, but time-varying temperature, (2) Free convection heat transfer from the coil may be
approximated as that from a heated, horizontal cylinder, (3) Negligible thermal resistance of
condensing steam and tube wall, (4) Negligible heat transfer from tank to surroundings, (5)
Constant properties.

PROPERTIES: Table A-4, Saturated water (2.455 bars): Tsat = 400K = 127C, hfg = 2.183
106 J/kg. Pharmaceutical: See schematic.

ANALYSIS: (a) The initial rate of heat transfer is q = hAs ( Ts Ti ) , where As = DL = 0.707
m2 and h is obtained from Eq. 9.34.

With = /Pr = 4.0 10-7 m2/s and RaD = g (Ts Ti) D3/ = 9.8 m/s2 (0.002 K-1) (102K)
(0.015m)3/16 10-13 m4/s2 = 4.22 106,
2

1/ 6
6
1/
6
0.387 4.22 10

0.387 Ra D

Nu D = 0.60 +
= 0.60 +

= 27.7
8
/
27
8
/
27

1 + ( 0.559 / Pr )9 /16
1 + ( 0.559 /10 )9 /16

Hence,

and

## q = hAs ( Ts Ti ) = 462 W / m 2 K 0.707 m 2 (102C ) = 33,300 W

(b) Performing an energy balance at an instant of time for a control surface about the liquid,

d ( c T )
dt

= q ( t ) = h ( t ) As ( Ts T ( t ) )

where the Rayleigh number, and hence h , changes with time due to the change in the
temperature of the liquid.

Integrating the foregoing equation numerically, the following results are obtained for the
variation of T and h with t.
Convection coefficient, hbar (W/m ^2.K)

75

Temperature, (C)

65

55

45

35

25
0

Time, t(s)

470

450

430

410

390

370
0

Time, t(s)

## The time at which the liquid reaches 70C is

t f 855s

<

The rate at which T increases decreases with increasing time due to the corresponding
reduction in (Ts T), and hence reductions in Ra D , h and q.
The Rayleigh number decreases from 4.22 106 to 2.16 106, while the heat rate decreases
from 33,300 to 14,000 W.
The convection coefficient decreases approximately as (Ts T)1/3, while q ~ (Ts T)4/3.

The latent energy released by the condensed steam corresponds to the increase in thermal
energy of the pharmaceutical. Hence, m c h fg = c ( Tf Ti ) ,
and

## c ( Tf Ti ) 1100 kg / m3 0.2 m3 2000 J / kg K 45C

mc =
=
= 9.07 kg
6
h
fg

2.183 10 J / kg

<

COMMENTS: (1) Over such a large temperature range, the fluid properties are likely to vary
significantly, particularly and Pr. A more accurate solution could therefore be performed if
the temperature dependence of the properties were known. (2) Condensation of the steam is a
significant process expense, which is linked to the equipment (capital) and energy (operating)
costs associated with steam production.

Heat Exchangers:
Design Considerations

## Heat Exchanger Types

Heat exchangers are ubiquitous to energy conversion and utilization. They involve
heat exchange between two fluids separated by a solid and encompass a wide
range of flow configurations.

## Concentric-Tube Heat Exchangers

Parallel Flow

Counterflow

 Simplest configuration.

## Cross-flow Heat Exchangers

Finned-Both Fluids
Unmixed

## Unfinned-One Fluid Mixed

the Other Unmixed

 For cross-flow over the tubes, fluid motion, and hence mixing, in the transverse
direction (y) is prevented for the finned tubes, but occurs for the unfinned condition.
 Heat exchanger performance is influenced by mixing.

## One Shell Pass and One Tube Pass

 Baffles are used to establish a cross-flow and to induce turbulent mixing of the
shell-side fluid, both of which enhance convection.
 The number of tube and shell passes may be varied, e.g.:

Two Tube Passes

Four Tube Passes

## Compact Heat Exchangers

 Widely used to achieve large heat rates per unit volume, particularly when
one or both fluids is a gas.
 Characterized by large heat transfer surface areas per unit volume, small
flow passages, and laminar flow.

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

## Fin-tube (flat tubes, continuous plate fins)

Fin-tube (circular tubes, continuous plate fins)
Fin-tube (circular tubes, circular fins)
Plate-fin (single pass)
Plate-fin (multipass)

## Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

An essential requirement for heat exchanger design or performance calculations.

## Contributing factors include convection and conduction associated with the

two fluids and the intermediate solid, as well as the potential use of fins on both
sides and the effects of time-dependent surface fouling.

With subscripts c and h used to designate the hot and cold fluids, respectively,
the most general expression for the overall coefficient is:

1 = 1 = 1
UA (UA )c (UA )h
Rf , c
Rf , h
1
1
=
+
+ Rw +
+
(o hA)c (o A)c
(o A)h (o hA)h

2
 Rf Fouling factor for a unit surface area (m K/W)
Table 11.1

##  Rw Wall conduction resistance (K/W)

 o Overall surface efficiency of fin array (Section 3.6.5)
Af

o,c or h = 1 (1 f )
A

c or h
A = At total surface area (fins and exposed base)
A f surface area of fins only
Assuming an adiabatic tip, the fin efficiency is

tanh ( mL )
mL c or h

f , c or h =

mc or h = ( 2U p / k wt )c or h

U p , c or h = h
partial overall coefficient
1 + hR
f c or h

## A Methodology for Heat Exchanger

Design Calculations
- The Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) Method A form of Newtons Law of Cooling may be applied to heat exchangers by
using a log-mean value of the temperature difference between the two fluids:

q = U A T1m

T1m =

T1 T2
1n ( T1 / T2 )

## Evaluation of T1 and T2 depends on the heat exchanger type.

Counter-Flow Heat Exchanger:

T1 Th,1 Tc ,1
= Th,i Tc , o

T2 Th ,2 Tc ,2
= Th , o Tc ,i

## Parallel-Flow Heat Exchanger:

T1 Th,1 Tc ,1
= Th ,i Tc ,i

T2 Th ,2 Tc ,2
= Th, o Tc , o

 Note that Tc,o can not exceed Th,o for a PF HX, but can do so for a CF HX.
 For equivalent values of UA and inlet temperatures,

## T1m ,CF > T1m, PF

Shell-and-Tube and Cross-Flow Heat Exchangers:

## T1m = F T1m ,CF

F Figures 11.10 - 11.13

## Overall Energy Balance

Application to the hot (h) and cold (c) fluids:

Assume negligible heat transfer between the exchanger and its surroundings
and negligible potential and kinetic energy changes for each fluid.

q = m h ( ih ,i ih , o )

q = m c ( ic , o ic ,i )

i fluid enthalpy
Assuming no l/v phase change and constant specific heats,

## q = m h c p , h (Th ,i Th , o ) = Ch (Th ,i Th, o )

q = m c c p , c (Tc , o Tc ,i ) = Cc (Tc , o Tc ,i )

##  Case (a): Ch>>Cc or h is a condensing vapor ( Ch ) .

Negligible or no change in Th (Th , o = Th ,i ) .

##  Case (b): Cc>>Ch or c is an evaporating liquid ( Cc ) .

Negligible or no change in Tc (Tc , o = Tc ,i ) .
 Case (c): Ch=Cc.
T1 = T2 = T1m

Heat Exchangers:
The Effectiveness NTU Method

General Considerations
Computational Features/Limitations of the LMTD Method:
 The LMTD method may be applied to design problems for
which the fluid flow rates and inlet temperatures, as well as
a desired outlet temperature, are prescribed. For a specified
HX type, the required size (surface area), as well as the other
 If the LMTD method is used in performance calculations for which
both outlet temperatures must be determined from knowledge of the
inlet temperatures, the solution procedure is iterative.
 For both design and performance calculations, the effectiveness-NTU
method may be used without iteration.

Definitions

Definitions

## Heat exchanger effectiveness, :

q
qmax

0 1
Maximum possible heat rate:
qmax = Cmin (Th,i Tc ,i )

Cmin

Ch if Ch < Cc
= or
Cc if Cc < Ch

 Will the fluid characterized by Cmin or Cmax experience the largest possible
temperature change in transit through the HX?
 Why is Cmin and not Cmax used in the definition of qmax?

## Number of Transfer Units, NTU

NTU UA
Cmin
 A dimensionless parameter whose magnitude influences HX performance:
q with NTU

## Heat Exchanger Relations

q
m
=
h ih , i ih , o

or

q = Ch (Th,i Th , o )

or

q = mc ( ic , o ic ,i )

q = Cc (Tc , o Tc ,i )

q = Cmin (Th ,i Tc ,i )

Performance Calculations:
= f ( NTU , Cmin / Cmax )

Cr
 Relations Table 11.3 or Figs. 11.14 - 11.19

(NTU,C*)

Type of HEX

[( ) ]
[( ) ]

1 exp 1 C NTU
=

1 C exp 1 C NTU

Counterflow

Parallel Flow

## Cross flow, Cmin

mixed and Cmax
unmixed

1+ C

NTU =

[
1 exp[ (1 + C )NTU ]]

NTU =

1 exp( C NTU )
= 1 exp

mixed and Cmin
unmixed

{ [

## = 1 exp C 1 exp NTU

C

1
1C

1+C

NTU =

1+C

+ 1+ C

1 / 2
1 + exp NTU 1 + C 2

2 1 / 2

1 / 2
1 exp NTU 1 + C 2

[ (

ln 1 + C ln 1

NTU = -ln 1 +

NTU =

1 C
ln
1

ln 1 + 1 + C

)]}]

(1 + C 2 )1/ 2

ln 1 C

)]

)]

1 / 2
2 1 + C 1 + C 2

1 to 2 shell-andtube HEX

NTU(,C*)

ln

1 / 2
2 1 + C + 1 + C 2

Design Calculations:
NTU = f ( , Cmin / Cmax )
 Relations Table 11.4 or Figs. 11.14 - 11.19
For all heat exchangers,

with Cr
For Cr = 0, a single NTU relation applies to all HX types.

= 1 exp ( NTU )
or
NTU = 1n (1 )

uma temperatura absoluta T>0
A emisso devida oscilaes e transies electrnicas dos muitos electres que
constituem a matria que, por sua vez, so mantidos pela energia trmica da matria
A emisso corresponde energia transferida da matria (calor) e, portanto, corresponde
reduo de energia trmica armazenada na matria.
A absoro resulta em transferncia de calor para a matria e, portanto, corresponde
a um amento de energia trmica armazenada na matria.
Considere um slido temperatura Ts num recinto
fechado com vcuo, cujas paredes esto temperatura Tsur
 Que fenmeno ocorre se Ts > Tsur? Porqu
 Que fenmeno ocorre se Ts < Tsur? Porqu

A emisso de gases ou slidos semi-transparentes ou lquidos um
fenmeno volumtrico.
A emisso de slidos ou lquidos opacos um fenmeno superficial (com a
emisso originria em tomos ou molculas a 1 m da superfcie).

## A natureza dual da radiao:

olhando-as como partculas (aka fotes ou quanta).
Noutros casos, a radiao comporta-se como uma onda electromagntica.

Em qualquer dos casos, a radiao caracterizada por um comprimento de onda
no meio em causa, c: = c

No vcuo:

## c = co = 2.998 x 108 m/s

O espectro electromagntico

A quantidade de radiao emitida por uma superfcie opaca varia com o
comprimento de onda, podendo falar-se em distribuio espectral em todos os
comprimentos de onda ou de componentes monocromticas/espectrais associadas a
comprimentos de onda especficos.

Efeitos direccionais
A radiao emitida por uma superfcie s-lo- em todas as
direces do hemisfrio e segundo uma distribuio direccional

ngulo polar ou zenital e pelo ngulo azimutal .

## A quantidade de radiao emitida por uma superfcie, dA1, e que se

propaga numa direco particular, (,), quantificada em termos
de um ngulo slido diferencial associado direco em causa.

dAn
r2

## dAn elemento unitrio de superfcie de uma esfera hipottica na direco (,),

dAn = r 2 sin d d

d =

dAn
= sin d d
2
r

2

hemi = 0

/2

sin d d = 2 sr

(W/m2) num ngulo slido unitrio numa direco prescrita (W/m2.sr) e num intervalo
unitrio de comprimentos de onda (W/m2.sr.m).

A intensidade espectral, I ,e , associada emisso de um elemento de rea unitrio, dA1,
num ngulo slido, d (em torno de e ),e num intervalo de comprimento de onda, d ,
(em torno de ), :
dq
I ,e ( , , )
( dA1 cos ) d d
O argumento para definir o fluxo radiativo em termos da rea projectada da superfcie
( dA1 cos ) emerge do facto de haver superfcies para as quais, com boa aproximao,
I ,e independente da direco: superfcies difusas, e a radiao isotrpica.
A rea projectada como dA1 apareceria
Se observada segundo os ngulos ,
Quanto vale a rea projectada para = 0 ?
Quanto vale a rea projectada para = / 2 ?

A taxa de calor espectral e o fluxo de calor espectral associados emisso a partir de
dA1 so, respectivamente,

dq

dq
= I ,e ( , , ) dA1 cos d
d

## Relao da intensidade com poder

O poder emissivo espectral (W/m2.m) corresponde emisso espectral em todas as
2 / 2
direces possveis:

E ( ) =

0 0

I ,e ( , , ) cos sin d d

## O poder emissivo total (W/m2) corresponde emisso espectral em todas as

direces e comprimentos de onda possveis:

E=

## Para superfcies difusas, a emisso isotrpica e:

E ( ) d

E ( ) = I ,e ( ) E = I e

definida em termos do ngulo slido unitrio em torno da
direco de incidncia, do intervalo de comprimento de onda, d
em torno de, , e da rea projectada do receptor, dA1 cos .

## Relao da intensidade com poder

G ( ) =

/2

0 0

( W/m

m ) vale:

I ,i ( , , ) cos sin d d

G=

0 G ( ) d

##  Quantos G e G so expressos se a radiao for difusa?

toda a radiao que abandona a superfcie em todas
as direces e pode incluir as contribuies da
reflexo e emisso.

## Relao da intensidade com poder

J ( ) =

/2

0 0

I ,e + r ( , , ) cos sin d d

J =

J ( ) d

##  Quantos J e J podem ser expressos se a superfcie emitir e reflectir de forma difusa?

O Corpo Negro
 Uma idealizao que fornece os limites da radiao emitida e absorvida
pela matria.
nenhuma superfcie capaz de emitir mais que um corpo negro: emissor
ideal.
Um corpo negro um emissor difuso.
Um corpo negro absorve toda a radiao incidente: absorvedor ideal.

parede interior a temperatura uniforme.
(a) Depois de mltiplas reflexes, toda a
virtualmente absorvida corpo negro.

## (b) A emisso a partir da abertura a mxima que se pode atingir, para a

corpo negro.
e da reflectida pela parede da cavidade) tem por efeito assegurar uma irradiao
difusa (correspondente emisso de um corpo negro numa forma igual radiao emergente
pela abertura). O campo radiativo no interior da cavidade de corpo negro.
reflectora ou absorvedora?

## Lei da distribuio de Plank

A distribuio espectral do poder emissivo de um corpo negro (determinado teoricamente
E ,b ( ,T ) = I ,b ( ,T ) =

C1
5 exp ( C2 / T ) 1

Primeira constante:

C1 = 3.742 x 108 W m 4 / m 2
Segunda constante:

C2 = 1.439 x 104 m K

##  E ,b varia continuamente com e aumenta com T.

 A distribuio caracterizada por um mximo para o qual max dado
pela lei deslocamento de Wien :

maxT = C3 = 2898 m K
 A quantidade fraccional da emisso total de corpo negro que aparece a baixos
comprimentos de onda aumenta com o aumento de T.

Lei de Stefan-Boltzmann
O poder emissivo total de um corpo negro obtido integrando a distribuio de Planck
em todos os comprimentos de onda possveis.

Eb = I b = 0 E ,b d = T 4

## a lei de Stefan-Boltzmann, em que:

a constante se Stefan-Boltzmann,

## A fraco total da emisso de

um corpo negro que est contida num intervalo de comprimento

## de onda prescrito ou banda ( 1 < < 2 )K :

F( 1 2 ) = F( 0 2 ) F( 0 1 )

F( 0 )

02 E ,b d o1 E ,b d
=
T 4

E d
= 0 ,b
= f ( T )
T

## Lei de Stefan-Boltzmann fraco de

energia
E ,b ( , T ) = I ,b ( ,T ) =

C1
exp ( C2 / T ) 1
5

## Band Emission (cont)

Note ability to readily determine I ,b and its relation to the maximum intensity from
the 3rd and 4th columns, respectively.
 If emission from the sun may be approximated as that from a blackbody at
5800K, at what wavelength does peak emission occur?
 Would you expect radiation emitted by a blackbody at 800K to be discernible
by the naked eye?
 As the temperature of a blackbody is increased, what color would be
the first to be discerned by the naked eye?

## Problem 12.6: Evaluation of total solar irradiation at the earths surface

from knowledge of the direct and diffuse components of

KNOWN: Flux and intensity of direct and diffuse components, respectively, of solar

SCHEMATIC:

ANALYSIS: Since the irradiation is based on the actual surface area, the contribution due to

cos .
G dir = q dir

## For the contribution due to the diffuse radiation

G dif = Idif .

Hence
cos + Idif
G = G dir + G dif = q dir

or

G = 1000 W / m 2 0.866 + sr 70 W / m 2 sr
G = ( 866 + 220 ) W / m 2

G = 1086 W / m 2 .

COMMENTS: Although a diffuse approximation is often made for the non-direct component
of solar radiation, the actual directional distribution deviates from this condition, providing
larger intensities at angles close to the direct beam.

## Problem 12.18: Determination of the suns emissive power, temperature

and wavelength of maximum emission, as well as the
earths temperature, from knowledge of the sun/earth
geometry and the solar flux at the outer edge of the earths
atmosphere.

## KNOWN: Solar flux at outer edge of earths atmosphere, 1353 W/m2.

FIND: (a) Emissive power of sun, (b) Surface temperature of sun, (c) Wavelength of
maximum solar emission, (d) Earth equilibrium temperature.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Sun and earth emit as blackbodies, (2) No attenuation of solar
radiation enroute to earth, (3) Earth atmosphere has no effect on earth energy balance.

ANALYSIS: (a) Applying conservation of energy to the solar energy crossing two concentric
spheres, one having the radius of the sun and the other having the radial distance from the edge
of the earths atmosphere to the center of the sun, it follows that

( )

2
De

2
Es Ds = 4 R s e
q s .
2

Hence
Es =

)
2
9
(1.39 10 m )

2
11
7
4 1.5 10 m 0.65 10 m 1353 W / m 2

= 6.302 107 W / m 2 .

## (b) From the Stefan-Boltzmann law, the temperature of the sun is

1/ 4

E
Ts = s

6.302 107 W / m 2
=
8
2
4

5.67 10 W / m K

1/ 4

= 5774 K.

C
2897.6 m K
max = 3 =
= 0.50 m.
T
5774 K

## (d) From an energy balance on the earths surface

E e De2 = qS De2 / 4 .

## Hence, from the Stefan-Boltzmann law,

q
Te = S

1/ 4

1353 W / m 2
=
4 5.67 108 W / m 2 K 4

1/ 4

= 278 K.

COMMENTS: The average earth temperature is higher than 278 K due to the shielding effect
of the earths atmosphere (transparent to solar radiation but not to longer wavelength earth
emission).

superfcie pode ser determinada, o que contrasta com o seu comportamento ideal como corpo
negro mesma temperatura.
A definio de emissividade depende de estarmos interessados em calcular o carcter
direccional e/ou espectral da radiao emitida, em contraste com mdias em todas as direces
(radiao hemisfrica) e/ou em todos os comprimentos de onda (total).

, ( , , ,T )

I ,e ( , , ,T )
I ,b ( ,T )

## A emissividade espectral hemisfrica (uma mdia direccional):

E ( , T ) 02 0 / 2 I ,e ( , , ,T ) cos sin d d
( ,T )
=
E ,b ( , T )
02 0 / 2 I ,b ( ,T ) cos sin d d

A emissividade total hemisfrica (uma mdia direccional e espectral):

E (T ) 0 ( ,T ) E ,b ( ,T ) d ,
=
(T )
Eb (T )
Eb (T )

## Com um boa de aproximao, a emissividade hemisfrica igual emissividade normal: = n

Valores tpicos da emissividade total normal :

Notas:
 Baixas emissividades dos metais polidos e
crescente emissividade de metais no polidos
dos no condutores.

Variaes espectrais tpicas

## Notar decrscimo de ,n com o

aumento de para metais
e comportamento diferente dos no metais

## Porque que n aumenta com o aumento de

para o tungstnio e no aumenta para o xido de alumnio?

## Absoro, reflexo e transmisso:

Pode haver 3 respostas de um meio semi transparente irradiao:
 Reflexo pelo meio ( G ,ref ) .

( G ,abs ) .
Transmisso atravs do meio ( G ,tr ) .

##  Absoro pelo meio



G = G ,ref + G ,abs + G ,tr

## Contrastando com o que se disse para meios semitransparentes, efeitos volumtricos,

e G ,tr = 0.
G = G ,ref + G ,abs + G ,tr
O comprimento de onda da radiao incidente e a natureza do material determinam se o
material semitransparente ou opaco.
 O vidro e a gua so semitransparentes ou opacos?

## Absoro, reflexo e transmisso:

A menos que um material opaco esteja a uma temperatura suficientemente alta para emitir
radiao visvel, a sua cor determinada pela dependncia espectral da reflexo em resposta

##  O que se pode dizer sobre a reflexo de uma superfcie branca?

 E sobre uma negra?

## Absorsividade de uma superfcie opaca

desprezando dependncia de T:

I ,i ,abs ( , , )
, ( , , )
I ,i ( , , )

## G ,abs ( ) 02 0 / 2 , ( , , ) I ,i ( , , ) cos sin d d

( )
=
G ( )
02 0 / 2 I ,i ( , , ) cos sin d d
 Se a radiao for difusa, em que que se simplifica o resultado anterior?
E se a superfcie for difusa?

Gabs o ( ) G ( ) d
=

G
0 G ( ) d

##  Se a irradiao for de corpo negro, como se escrevem as equaes anteriores?

mas se a irradiao for de corpo negro, porque que depende da temperatura
do corpo negro?

## Reflectividade de uma superfcie opaca

, ( , , )

I ,i ,ref ( , , )

desprezando dependncia de T:

I ,i ( , , )

## A absorsividade espectral hemisfrica :

G ,ref ( )
G ( )

/2

02 0

, ( , , ) I ,i ( , , ) cos sin d d
I ,i ( , , )

##  Se a radiao for difusa, em que que se simplifica o resultado anterior?

E se a superfcie for difusa?

( ) G ( ) d
G
abs = 0
G
0 G ( ) d
Condies limitativas de reflexo difusa e
espectral. Superfcies polidas e rugosas.

##  Notar forte dependncia de (e = 1- ) em

 A neve uma substncia muito reflectora? E a tinta branca?

A transmissividade espectral hemisfrica ,desprezando dependncia de T:

G ,tr
G ( )

## Notar que a pequenos e elevados comprimentos de onda h mudana de

condies de semitransparente para opaco

## A reflectividade total hemisfrica :

Para um meio semitransparente,

+ + = 1
+ + = 1

Gtr 0 G ,tr ( ) d

=
G
0 G ( ) d

## Para um meio opaco,

+ = 1
+ =1

Lei de Kirchhoff
A Lei de Kirchhoff estabelece que a emissividade total hemisfrica de uma
superfcie igual sua absorsividade total hemisfrica :

## Contudo, as condies associadas sua derivao so muito restritivas:

A irradiao da superfcie corresponde emisso de um corpo negro mesma
temperatura do corpo.
Ainda assim, a lei de Kirchhoff pode aplicar-se s propriedades espectrais direccionais
sem restries:

, = ,

## Porque que no h restries ao uso da equao anterior?

Supefcies difusas/cinzentas
Com

02 0 / 2 , cos sin d d
= 2 / 2
0 0 cos sin d d
02 0 / 2 , I ,i cos sin d d
= 2 / 2
0 0 I ,i cos sin d d

## Em que condies se pode igualar a ?

Com

0 E ,b ( ) d
=
Eb (T )

G ( ) d
= 0
G
Em que condies se pode igualar a ?

hiptese de superfcie cinzenta

## Problem 12.49: Determination of the solar absorptivity and total emissivity

of a diffuse surface from knowledge of the spectral
distribution of ( ) and the surface temperature.

## KNOWN: Spectral, hemispherical absorptivity of an opaque surface.

FIND: (a) Solar absorptivity, (b) Total, hemispherical emissivity for Ts = 340K.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Surface is opaque, (2) = , (3) Solar spectrum has G = G,S
proportional to E,b (, 5800K).

## ANALYSIS: (a) The solar absorptivity may be expressed as

S = ( ) E ,b ( , 5800K ) d / E ,b ( , 5800K ) d.
0
0
The integral can be written in three parts using F(0 ) terms.
S = 1 F( 0 0.3) + 2 F( 0 1.5) F( 0 0.3) + 3 1 F( 0 1.5) .

## From Table 12.1,

T = 0.3 5800 = 1740 mK
T = 1.5 5800 = 8700 mK

## F(0 0.3 m) = 0.0335

F(0 1.5 m) = 0.8805.

Hence,

## S = 0 0.0355 + 0.9 [ 0.8805 0.0335] + 0.1[1 0.8805] = 0.774.

(b) The total, hemispherical emissivity for the surface at 340K may be expressed as

= ( ) E ,b ( ,340K ) d / E b ( 340K ) .
0
With = , the integral can be written in terms of the F(0 ) function. However, it is readily
recognized that since

at

## there is negligible emission below 1.5 m.

It follows that

= = = 0.1
COMMENTS: The assumption = is satisfied if the surface is irradiated diffusely or if
the surface itself is diffuse. Note that for this surface under the specified conditions of solar
irradiation and surface temperature, S . Such a surface is spectrally selective.

## Problem 12.90: Determination of the emissivity and absorptivity of a coated

vertical plate exposed to solar-simulation lamps and the magnitude
of the irradiation required to maintain a prescribed plate
temperature.

KNOWN: Vertical plate of height L = 2 m suspended in quiescent air. Exposed surface with
diffuse coating of prescribed spectral absorptivity distribution subjected to simulated solar

## FIND: Plate emissivity, , plate absorptivity, , and plate irradiation, G.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Steady-state conditions, (2) Ambient air is extensive, quiescent, (3)
Spectral distribution of the simulated solar irradiation, GS, , proportional to that of a blackbody at
5800 K, (4) Coating is opaque, diffuse, and (5) Plate is perfectly insulated on the edges and the
back side, and (6) Plate is isothermal.
PROPERTIES: Table A.4, Air (Tf = 350 K, 1 atm): = 20.92 10-6 m2/s, k = 0.030 W/mK,
= 29.90 10-6 m2/s, Pr = 0.700.

ANALYSIS: (a) Perform an energy balance on the plate as shown in the schematic on a per unit
plate width basis,

E& in E out = 0
G T 4 h ( T T ) L = 0
s
s

where and are determined from knowledge of and h is estimated from an appropriate
correlation.

Plate total emissivity: Expressing the emissivity in terms of the band emission factor, F(0 - T),
= 1F( 0 T ) + 2 1 F( 0 T )
1 s
1 s

## = 0.9 0 + 0.1[1 0 ] = 0.1

where, from Table 12.1, with ,Ts = 1m 400 K = 400 mK, F(0-T) = 0.000.

<

Plate absorptivity: With the spectral distribution of simulated solar irradiation proportional to
emission from a blackbody at 5800 K,
= 1F( 0 T ) + 2 1 F( 0 T )
1 s

1 s

## = 0.9 0.7202 + 0.1[1 0.7202] = 0.676

<

where, from Table 12.1, with 1Ts = 5800 mK, F(0 -T) = 0.7202.
Estimating the free convection coefficient, h : Using the Churchill-Chu correlation with
properties evaluated at Tf = (Ts + T )/2 = 350 K,
g ( Ts T ) L3
Ra L =

Ra L =

3
9.8 m s 2 (1 350 K ) 100 K ( 2 m )

20.92 10

Nu L = 0.825 +

s 29.90 10

= 3.581 1010
s
2

6
0.387Ra1/
L

1 + ( 0.492 Pr )9 16

=377.6
27

<

## Irradiation on the Plate: Substituting numerical values into Eq. (1),

0.676G 0.1 5.67 108 W m 2 K

G = 1052 W m 2

( 400 K )4

## 5.66 W m 2 K ( 400 300 ) K = 0

The sun is a nearly spherical source of radiation whose outer diameter is
1.39 x 109 m and whose emissive power approximates that of a blackbody at 5800K.
The distance from the center of the sun to the center of the earth varies with time
of year from a minimum of 1.471 x 1011 m to a maximum of 1.521 x 1011 m, with
an annual average of 1.496 x 1011 m.
Due to the large sun-to-earth distance, the suns rays
are nearly parallel at the outer edge of the earths
atmosphere, and the corresponding radiation flux is

qS = f x Sc
Sc the solar constant or heat flux (1353 W/m 2 )
when the earth is at its mean distance from the sun.
f correction factor accounting for eccentricity
of the earth's orbit ( 0.97 < f <1.03)

## Extraterrestrial irradiation of a surface whose normal is at a zenith angle

relative to the suns rays is
GS ,o = f x Sc x cos

## Interaction of solar radiation with earths atmosphere:

 Absorption by aerosols over the entire spectrum.
 Absorption by gases (CO2, H2O ( v ), O3) in discrete wavelength bands.
 Scattering by gas molecules and aerosols.

## Effect of Atmosphere on Spectral Distribution of Solar Radiation:

 Attenuation over the entire spectrum but more pronounced in spectral bands
associated with polar molecules.
 Note concentration of all radiation in the spectral region 0.3 < < 3 m and
peak at 0.5 m.
 Why is the assumption of graybody behavior often inappropriate for

## Effect of Atmosphere on Directional Distribution of Solar Radiation:

 Rayleigh scattering is approximately uniform in all directions (isotropic
scattering), while Mie scattering is primarily in the direction of the suns
rays (forward peaked).
at the earths surface has two components.
the direction of the suns rays.
strongly peaked in the forward direction.
 Calculation of solar irradiation for a
horizontal surface often presumes the
scattered component to be isotropic.

cos + I dir
GS = GS ,dir + GS ,dif = qdir
0.1 < ( GS ,dir / GS ) < 1.0
Clear skies

Completely overcast

Emission by Earths Surface:
E = T 4

##  Emissivities are typically large. For example, from Table A.11:

Sand/Soil:
Water/Ice:
Vegetation:
Snow:
Concrete/Asphalt:

> 0.90
> 0.95
> 0.92
> 0.82
> 0.85

##  Emission is typically from surfaces with temperatures in the range of

250 < T < 320K and hence concentrated in the spectral region
4 < < 40 m, with peak emission at 10 m.
Atmospheric Emission:
 Largely due to emission from CO2 and H2O (v) and concentrated in the
spectral regions 5 < < 8 m and > 13 m.

##  Although far from exhibiting the spectral characteristics of blackbody emission,

earth irradiation due to atmospheric emission is often approximated by a
blackbody emissive power of the form
4
Gatm = Tsky

## Tsky the effective sky temperature

230K< Tsky < 285K
Cold, clear sky

## Warm, overcast sky

Can water in the natural environment freeze if the ambient air temperature
exceeds 273K? If so, what environmental conditions (wind and sky)
favor ice formation?

Concentration of solar ( 0.3 < < 3 m ) and terrestrial ( 4 < < 40 m ) in
different spectral regions often precludes use of the gray surface approximation
( S ) .

 Note significant differences in and for the two spectral regions: snow,
human skin, white paint.
 In terms of net radiation transfer to a surface with solar irradiation, the parameter
S / has special significance. Why?

Surface

S /

Snow

0.29

Human skin

0.64

White paint

0.22

Black paint

1.0

Rejection

Collection
Evaporated Al film

3.0

## Problem 12.119: Determination of preferred roof coating (Parsons Black,

Acrylic White, or Zinc Oxide White) and corresponding
heat load for prescribed operating conditions.

KNOWN: Dimensions and construction of truck roof. Roof interior surface temperature. Truck
speed, ambient air temperature, and solar irradiation.

FIND: (a) Preferred roof coating, (b) Roof surface temperature, (c) Heat load through roof,
(d) Effect of velocity on surface temperature and heat load.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Turbulent boundary layer development over entire roof, (2) Constant
properties, (3) Negligible atmospheric (sky) irradiation, (4) Negligible contact resistance.

## PROPERTIES: Table A.4, Air (Ts,o 300 K, 1 atm): = 15 106 m 2 s , k = 0.026 W m K ,

Pr = 0.71.
ANALYSIS: (a) To minimize heat transfer through the roof, minimize solar absorption relative
to surface emission. Hence, from Table A.12, use zinc oxide white for which S = 0.16
and = 0.93.

E q cond
= 0,
(b) Performing an energy balance on the outer surface of the roof, S GS + q conv
it follows that
4
S GS + h(T Ts,o ) = Ts,o
+ (k t)(Ts,o Ts,i )

where it is assumed that convection is from the air to the roof. With
Re L =

VL

30 m s(5 m)
15 10

= 107
s

## h = Nu L (k L) = 13,141(0.026 W m K/5 m = 68.3 W m 2 K .

Substituting numerical values in the energy balance and solving by trial-and-error, we obtain
Ts,o = 295.2 K.
(c) The heat load through the roof is
q = (kAs t)(Ts,o Ts,i ) = (0.05 W m K 10 m 2 0.025 m)35.2 K = 704 W .

(d) From parametric calculations based on the foregoing model, the following results are
obtained.

700

295

650

Temperature, Tso(K)

300

290

600

550

285

500

280
5

10

15

20

25

30

10

Velocity, V(m/s)

15

20

25

30

Velocity, V(m/s)

The surface temperature and heat load decrease with decreasing V due to a reduction in the
convection heat transfer coefficient and hence convection heat transfer from the air.

## Trocas radiativas entre superfcies: recintos

Conceitos bsicos
Recinto fechado consiste de 2 ou mais superfcies que englobam uma regio do espao
(tipicamente preenchida com gs) e que trocam energia radiativa entre si.

## Um meio no participativo, num recinto fechado, no emite, no absorve,

nem sofre scattering de energia radiativa. Portanto, no produz qualquer efeito nas
trocas de radiao entre as superfcies.

Cada superfcie que limita o recinto fechado suposta ser isotrmica, opaca, difusa

## Trocas radiativas entre superfcies: recintos

O Factor de Forma
O factor de forma, Fij , , uma quantidade geomtrica correspondente fraco da
radiao que abandona a superfcie i e que intersectada pela superfcie j.

Fij =

qi j
Ai J i

Fij = 1 A
Ai i

Aj

cosi cos j

cosi cos j

R2
dAi dAj

dAi dAj

## Trocas radiativas entre superfcies: recintos

Relaes para o Factor de Forma

F ji = 1
Aj

Ai A j

Ai Fij = A j F ji

Fij = 1

j =1

cosi cos j

dAi dA j

## Trocas radiativas entre superfcies: recintos

Relaes para o Factor de Forma
Geometrias Bi-Dimensionais (Tabela 13.1).

Por exemplo,

## Um Plano Infinito e uma

Fileira de Cilindros

( )

2 1/ 2

Fij = 1 1 D
s

( )

2 1/ 2

+ D tan1 s 2D
s
D
2

## Trocas radiativas entre superfcies: recintos

Relaes para o Factor de Forma
Geometrias Tri-Dimensionais (Tabela 13.2).

Por exemplo,

## Discos Coaxiais Paralelos

Fij = 1 S S 2 4 ( rj / ri )

1/ 2

S = 1+

1 + R 2j

Ri = ri / L

Ri2
R j = rj / L

## Trocas radiativas entre superfcies: recintos

FACTORES DE FORMA MTODO DAS CORDAS
PERMITE CALCULAR REAS DE PERMUTA, AiFij, ENTRE 2 SUPERFCIES i E j QUE
OBEDECEM S SEGUINTES CONDIES:

A1
A2

## COMPRIMENTO MUITO MAIOR QUE A DISTNCIA QUE AS SEPARA

SECES RECTAS CONSTANTES E PERPENDICULARES AO COMPRIMENTO
DISTNCIA QUE AS SEPARA SER CONSTANTE

## Trocas radiativas entre superfcies: recintos

FACTORES DE FORMA MTODO DAS CORDAS
L3
L1
L2
L4

A1F12 =

A1F12 =

2

(L1 + L2 ) (L1 + L2 )
2

## Trocas radiativas entre superfcies: recintos

FACTORES DE FORMA ENTRE RECTNGULOS DIAMETRALMENTE OPOSTOS
cosi cos j
cos
dq
=
I

=
J
i j
i
i
i GEOMETRIA
j i
i
i
j
APLICA-SE QUANDO H SIMETRIA OU SEMELHANA
NA
2
R
A1

Fij = 1 A
Ai i

Aj

cosi cos j

A3
R

A1F12 = A3 F34

A4
A2

i
j

## Trocas radiativas entre superfcies: recintos

FACTORES DE FORMA OUTRAS RELAES
n

Fi ( j ) = Fik
k =1

A( j )F( j )i = Ak Fki
k =1

F( j )i =

A F
k =1

A( j )

ki

## Trocas radiativas entre superfcies negras

Para um corpo negro, J i = Ebi .

## Troca de calor til entre duas superfcies

que podem ser aproximadas como corpos
negros
abandona a superfcie i devido
sua interaco com j
ou taxa til qual a superfcie j
sua interaco com i

qij = qi j q j i
qij = Ai Fij Ebi A j F ji Ebj
qij = Ai Fij (Ti 4 T j4 )

## Transferncia de radiao til da superfcie i devido a trocas com todas as (N)

qi = Ai Fij (Ti 4 T j4 )
N

j =1

## Troca radiativa entre as N superfcies opacas,

difusas e cinzentas de um recinto fechado
til a partir da superfcie i:
qi = Ai ( J i Gi ) Fig. (b)

(1)

(2)

qi =

Ebi J i
Fig. (d)
1

A
( i) i i

(3)

## Sugere uma resistencia da superfcie

radiativa da forma: (1 i ) / i Ai

## Troca radiativa entre as N superfcies opacas,

difusas e cinzentas de um recinto fechado
qi = Ai Fij ( J i J j ) =
N

j =1

j =1

Ji J j

(AF )

(4)

i ij

## Sugere uma resistncia espacial

ou geomtrica da forma: A F 1

## Igualando as Eqs. (3) e (4) corresponde a um balano de energia radiativa

superfcie i:
N J J
Ebi J i
j
= i
1
(1 i ) / i Ai j =1 ( Ai Fij )

por um anlogo elctrico do tipo:

(5)

i ij

## Metodologia de anlise para recintos fechados

 Aplicar Eq. (4) a cada superfcie para a qual o fluxo til de radiao qi
connecido.
 Aplicar Eq. (5) a cada uma das restantes superfcies para a qual a temperatura Ti ,
e, portanto, Ebi ,, conhecida.
 Calcular todos os factores de forma que aparecem nas equaes
 Resolver o sistema de N equaes para as radiosidades (incgnitas) J1 , J 2 ,...., J N .
 Usar Eq. (3) para determinar qi para cada superfcie onde se conhece
Ti e para determinar Ti para cada superfcie onde se conhece qi.

## Tratamento de superfcie virtual correspondente a abertura de rea Ai , atravs da

as superfcies interiores de um recinto fechado trocam radiao com a envolvente
(de grandes dimenses) temperatura Tsur :
 Aproximar a abertura a um corpo negro de rea, Ai , temperatura, Ti = Tsur ,
e propriedades, i = i = 1 .

## Recintos fechados com duas superfcies

Recinto mais simples para o qual a troca de calor por radiao se d
exclusivamente entre duas superfcies e em que uma expresso para a
anlogo elctrico.

q1 = q2 = q12 =

(T14 T24 )

1 1
1 2
+ 1 +
1 A1 A1F12 2 A2

A tabela 13.3 apresenta resultados para alguns casos especiais. Por exemplo:
 Placas paralelas e infinitas
A1 = A2 A
F12 = 1

A1 (T14 T24 )
q12 =
1 + 1 1

1 2

##  Pequena superfcie plana/convexa rodeada por uma superfcie muito maior

As
=0
Asur
Fs , sur = 1

4
q = As s Ts4 Tsur

=
superfcies cuja troca de calor por radiao se pretende reduzir

Considere um nico escudo de radiao num reconto fechado, tal como o caso de
duas placas planas paralelas e infinitas.

Note que, embora raramente, a emisso pode ser diferente para as duas superfcies do

Anlogo elctrico

(T14 T24 )
q12 = q1 = q2 =
1 3,1 1 3,2
1 1
1 2
+ 1 +
+
+ 1 +
1 A1 A1F13 3,1 A3 3,2 A3 A3 F32 2 A2

O resultado anterior pode ser facimente estendido para ter em conta mlitplos
concntricas e placas longas e paralelas.

Uma idealizao para a qual: GR = J R .

## Corresponde a superfcies que so bem isoladas de um lado e para as quais

q1 = q2 =

(T14 T24 )

1 1
1 2
1
+
+
1 A1 A1F12 + (1 / A1F1R ) + (1 / A2 F2 R ) 1 2 A2

Temperatura da superfcre re-radiante TR pode ser determinada a partir do conhecimento

J1 J R
JR J2
=
(1 / A1F1R ) (1 / A2 F2 R )
1/ 4

JR
TR =

## Problem 13.88: Power requirement for a cylindrical furnace with two

reradiating surfaces and an opening to large surroundings.

## KNOWN: Cylindrical furnace of diameter D = 90 mm and overall length L = 180 mm.

Heating elements maintain the refractory lining ( = 0.8) of section (1), L1 = 135 mm, at T1 =
800C. The bottom (2) and upper (3) sections are refractory lined, but are insulated. Furnace
operates in a spacecraft vacuum environment.
FIND: Power required to maintain the furnace operating conditions with the surroundings at
23C.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) All surfaces are diffuse gray, and (2) Uniform radiosity over the
sections 1, 2, and 3.
ANALYSIS: By defining the furnace opening as the hypothetical area A4, the furnace can be
represented as a four-surface enclosure.
The power required to maintain A1 at T1 is q1, the net radiation leaving A1.

To obtain q1, we must determine the radiosity at each surface by simultaneously solving
radiation energy balance equations of the form
N J J
E bi Ji
j
j
q =
=
i
(1 i ) / i Ai j =1 1/ Ai Fij

(1,2)

However, since 4 = 1, J4 = Eb4, and only three energy balances are needed for A1, A2, and A3.
A1:
A2:
A3:

E b1 J1

J J
J J4
+ 1 3 + 1
(1 1 ) / 1A1 1/ A1F12 1/ A1F13 1/ A1F14
J J3
J J
J J4
+ 2
0= 2 1 + 2
1/ A 2 F21 1/ A 2 F23 1/ A 2 F24
0=

J1 J 2

J3 J1
J J2
J J4
+ 3
+ 3
1/ A3 F31 1/ A3 F32 1/ A3 F34

(3)
(4)
(5)

where q2 = q3 = 0 since the surfaces are insulated (adiabatic) and hence reradiating.

## From knowledge of J1, q1 can be determined using Eq. (1).

Of the N2 = 42 = 16 view factors, N(N 1)/2 = 6 must be independently evaluated, while the
remaining can be determined by the summation rule and appropriate reciprocity relations. The
six independently determined Fij are:

(2) F44 = 0

## Coaxial parallel disks: From Table 13.2,

(3)

2
F24 = 0.5 S S2 4 ( r4 / r2 )

1/ 2

= 0.05573

where
2

S = 1+

1 + R4
2
R2

=1+

1 + 0.250
0.250

= 18.00

R 2 = r2 / L = 45 / 180 = 0.250

R 4 = r4 / L = 0.250

## Enclosure 1-2-2: From the summation rule for A2,

(4)
F21 = 1 F22 = 1 0.09167 = 0.9083
where F22 can be evaluated from the coaxial parallel disk relation, Table 13.2, with R2 = r2/L1 =
45/135 = 0.333, R2 = r2/L1 = 0.333, and S = 11.00.
From the summation rule for A1,
(5)

## From symmetry F12 = F12 and using reciprocity

F12 = A 2 F21 / A1 = [ ( 0.090m )( 2 / 4 )] 0.9083 / 0.090m 0.135m = 0.1514

(6)

## F43 = 1 F42 F44 = 1 0.3820 0 = 0.6180

where F44 = 0 and using the coaxial parallel disk relation from Table 13.2, F42 =0.3820 with R4 =
r4/L2 = 45/45 = 1, R2 = r2/L2 = 1, and S = 3.

The View Factors: Using summation rules and appropriate reciprocity relations, the remaining 10 view
factors can be evaluated. Written in matrix form, the Fij are
0.6972*
0.1514
0.09704
0.05438
0.9083*
0*
0.03597
0.05573*
0.2911
0.01798
0.3819
0.3090
0.3262
0.05573
0.6180*
0*
The Fij shown with an asterisk were independently determined.

From knowledge of the relevant view factors, the energy balances, Eqs. (3, 4, 5), can be solved
J1 = 73, 084 W / m 2

J 2 = 67, 723 W / m 2

J 3 = 36, 609 W / m 2

The net heat rate leaving A1 can be evaluated using Eq. (1) written as
q1 =

E b1 J1

(1 1 ) / 1A1

## ( 75,159 73, 084 ) W / m 2

=
(1 0.8 ) / 0.8 0.03817 m 2

= 317 W

<

where Eb1 = T14 = (800 + 273K)4 = 75,159 W/m2 and A1 = DL1 = 0.090m 0.135m =
0.03817 m2.
COMMENTS: Recognize the importance of defining the furnace opening as the hypothetical
area A4 which completes the four-surface enclosure representing the furnace. The temperature
of A4 is that of the surroundings and its emissivity is unity since it absorbs all radiation incident
on it.

Problem 13.93:

## Assessment of ceiling radiative properties for an ice rink

in terms of ability to maintain surface temperature above
the dewpoint.

KNOWN: Ice rink with prescribed ice, rink air, wall, ceiling and outdoor air conditions.

FIND: (a) Temperature of the ceiling, Tc, for an emissivity of 0.05 (highly reflective panels) or
0.94 (painted panels); determine whether condensation will occur for either or both ceiling
panel types if the relative humidity of the rink air is 70%, and (b) Calculate and plot the ceiling
temperature as a function of ceiling insulation thickness for 0.1 t 1 m; identify conditions
for which condensation will occur on the ceiling.

SCHEMATIC:

ASSUMPTIONS: (1) Rink comprised of the ice, walls and ceiling approximates a threesurface, diffuse-gray enclosure, (2) Surfaces have uniform radiosities, (3) Ice surface and walls
are black, (4) Panels are diffuse-gray, and (5) Thermal resistance for convection on the outdoor
side of the ceiling is negligible compared to the conduction resistance of the ceiling insulation.

PROPERTIES: Psychometric chart (Atmospheric pressure; dry bulb temperature, Tdb = T,i
= 15C; relative humidity, RH = 70%): Dew point temperature, Tdp = 9.4C.
ANALYSIS: Applying an energy balance to the inner surface of the ceiling and treating all
heat rates as energy outflows,
E& in E& out = 0
q o q conv,c q rad,c = 0
(1)

## where the rate equations for each process are

q o = Tc T,o / R cond
R cond = t / kA c

q conv,c = h i A c Tc T,i

## q rad,c = E b ( Tc ) Ac A w Fwc E b ( Tw ) Ai Fic E b ( Ti )

Since the ceiling panels are diffuse-gray, = .

## From Table 13.2 for parallel, coaxial disks

Fic = 0.672

From the summation rule applied to the ice (i) and the reciprocity rule,
Fic + Fiw = 1
Fiw = Fcw (symmetry)
Fcw = 1 Fic
Fwc = ( A c / A w ) Fcw = ( A c / A w ) (1 Fic ) = 0.410

## where Ac = D2/4 and Aw = DL.

(2,3)
(4)
(5)

Using the foregoing energy balance, Eq. (1), and the rate equations, Eqs. (2-5), the ceiling
temperature is calculated using radiative properties for the two panel types,
Ceiling panel
Reflective
Paint

Tc (C)

0.05
0.94

14.0
8.6

Tc < Tdp

b) Applying
Applyingthe
theforegoing
foregoingmodel
model
m the
following
result
is obtained
(b)
forfor
0.10.1
tt1.01.0
m, the
following
result
is obtained

15

10

5
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

## Ceiling insulation thickness, t (m)

Painted ceiling, epsc = 0.94
Reflective panel, epsc = 0.05

<

For the reflective panel ( = 0.05), the ceiling surface temperature is considerably above the
dew point. Therefore, condensation will not occur for the range of insulation thicknesses. For
the painted panel ( = 0.94), the ceiling surface temperature is always below the dew point, and
condensation occurs for the range of insulation thicknesses.
COMMENTS: From the analysis, recognize that radiative exchange between the ice and the
ceiling has the dominant effect on the ceiling temperature. With the reflective panel, the rate is
reduced nearly 20-fold relative to that for the painted panel. With the painted panel ceiling,
condensation will occur for most of the conditions likely to exist in the rink.

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