Termodinámica de sistemas no extensivos y posible conexión con la relación ente ensembles

© All Rights Reserved

8 visualizações

Termodinámica de sistemas no extensivos y posible conexión con la relación ente ensembles

© All Rights Reserved

- Relativistic Temperature
- The Friday Aggravate 17-06-2005
- Physics at a glance..
- CVRaman Life and Works
- ALLEN's Thermodynamic BOOK
- Cost Reduction and Engine Life Extension Through Engine.pdf
- UNIT - II Theory
- Everything About Temperature
- The Real World Mod Sci
- 1
- Heat
- 5G the Nano Core Hard Copy Notes
- Inverse Algorithm for Optical Processing of Composite Materials
- Untitled 1
- whip mix
- Heat & Temperature - Learning by Doing for Secondary School
- Physics
- Year 2 Semester 1 Week 1
- THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER.pptx
- MK5.pdf

Você está na página 1de 6

PHYSICS LETTERS A

ELSEVIER

statistical mechanics and quantum groups

Constantino Tsallis

Centro Brasileirode PesquisasFisicas, Rua Dr. XavierSigaud 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Received 2 June 1994;revised manuscript received 24 August 1994;accepted for publication 30 August 1994

Communicated by A.R. Bishop

Abstract

Two different formalisms have been recently developed for nonextensive physics, namely the generalized statistical mechanics

and thermodynamics (characterized by q # l ) and the quantum groups (characterized by qc # 1 ). Through the discussion of the

mean values of observables, we propose a (temperature dependent) connection between q and qG, and illustrate with bosonic

oscillators.

An extremely interesting tendency towards nonextensive physics keeps growing along recent years. This

fact appears in at least two different areas, namely in

statistical mechanics and quantum groups, through

apparently independent paths. We establish here that

these two nonextensivities can exactly compensate

each other in such a way as to yield extensive mean

values of the observables. Such a connection may play

a relevant role in many (maybe all) physical systems

where (spatial a n d / o r temporal) long-range interactions are present in such a relevant way as to lead to

nonextensive behavior. This circumstance might indeed occur in very large systems (galaxies, globular

clusters, Universe) where long-range interactions

(like the gravitational forces ) are present, or in small

"droplets" (in condensed matter, or nuclear, or elementary particle physics) whenever the range of the

interactions is comparable to or larger than the (linear) size o f the system, or in irreversible processes

related to microscopic long-memory functions

(power-like, instead o f the exponential-like typical of

short-memory), or in problems with (multi-) fractally structured space-time. Let us now briefly pres-

ent some crucial aspects o f the two nonextensive formalisms mentioned aboved.

In what generalized statistical mechanics is concerned, a generalized entropy has been proposed as

follows [ 1 ]

Sq=k 1-Z~p7

q-1

(qegq)

(1)

where p, is the probability associated with the ith microscopic state o f the system and k a conventional

positive constant. The q--, l limit of Sq yields the wellknown Shannon expression - kB57~Pi In Pi (where we

have used p7-~ ~ 1 + ( q - 1 ) In Pi), So satisfies, for all

q > 0, the standard properties o f non-negativity, equiprobability, expansibility, concavity (which guarantees thermodynamic stability for the system), Htheorem [ 2-4 ], among others. However, if we have

two independent systems r and Z" (i.e., ~6xw, =/~x

/~s,, where/~ denotes the density operator, whose eigenvalues are the {p~};Psvx, acts on the tensor product of the Hilbert spaces respectively associated with

_r and Z"), we immediately verify pseudo-additivity,

more precisely

SSD10375-9601 ( 94 )00721-7

330

S~qVr' - S--~zq+

k

k

+ ( 1 - q) S~ SZq '

k k "

(2)

if q= 1; otherwise, it is nonextensive (Sq should be

clearly distinguished from the well known-Renyi entropy ( 1 - q ) - ~ In ~ p q , which is extensive but not

necessarily concave; this lack of concavity makes the

use of the Renyi entropy uncertain in physics, since

the thermodynamic stability of the system would not

be guaranteed). The connection to a consistently

generalized equilibrium thermodynamics is established by extremizing Sq with the constraints Tr/~ = 1

and (for the canonical ensemble) [ 5 ]

( ~)q-=Tr~q ~ = Uo,

(3)

internal energy. This optimization yields the distribution [ 1,5 ]

/~=

[l--fl(1--q) ~ ] l/(l--q)

,

z~

(4)

where

Z q - T r [ 1 - f l ( 1 - q ) ~ ] '/(~-q) ,

(5)

shown [ 5 ] that

1 OSq

T-OUq'

O

Fq=-Uv-TSa=-fl

1 Z~ - - 1

1-q '

Z~-~- 1

u~=- O p -1-- q

In the limit q--, l, Eq. (4) recovers the well-known

Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution/~ ocexp ( - fl ~:). Also,

if we introduce the entropy operator ~ q - k('~ - ~ 1-q) /

(l-q)

(so denominated because it satisfies

( $ q ) q - T r ~ q $ q =Sq for arbitrary/~), we straightforwardly establish that

~"~'

k

- - k~ +

+(q-l)

~'

--k--"

(6)

equality naturally recovers Eq. (2) (note that q - 1

in one equation becomes 1 - q in the other! ).

Furthermore, this generalized statistics has been

shown to satisfy appropriate forms of the Ehrenfest

theorem (form-invariant, Vq) [6], yon Neumann

equation (form-invariant, Vq) [ 7 ], Jaynes information theory duality relations [6], fluctuation-dissipation theorem [ 8,9 ], Bogolyubov inequality [ 10 ],

Langevin and Fokker-Planck equation [ 11 ], Callen's

identity [ 12 ], quantum statistics [ 13 ], Onsager reciprocity theorem (form-invariant, Vq) [ 14], zeroth

principle of thermodynamics (form-invariant, q)

[ 15 ], classical equipartition principle [ 16 ], among

others. All these remarkable mathematical properties

are verified under the simultaneous assumptions of

entropy being generalized as given by Eq. ( 1 ), and

the q-expectation values as given by Eq. (3).

As its first physical application, this generalized

scheme has enabled [17] to overcome the

Boltzmann-Gibbs inability to provide finite mass for

astrophysical systems within the polytropic model as

studied by Chandrasekhar et al. (Balian and many

others [ 18 ] have already pointed the possible need

for a nonextensive entropy in astropysics; this is a very

natural thing to happen whenever the long-range

gravitational forces are essentially involved in the

problem; indeed, in such a case, the range of the forces

is at least comparable to the linear size of the system

itself). Plastino and Plastino [ 17] have shown (by

establishing a relationship between q and the polytropic index n) that the mass becomes finite if q sufficiently differs from unity. The same result was recently found, under quite general conditions (much

larger than the polytropic model itself), by Aly [ 17 ].

As its second physical application, this generalization has recently enabled [ 19 ] to derive L6vy flights

(relevant for a great variety of physical systems [20];

among them we have CTAB micelles dissolved in

salted water [21 ] as well as heartbeat histograms

[22] ) from an entropic optimization using physically acceptable a priori constraints, q being directly

related to the fractal dimension y of the random motion (q= ( 3 + y ) / ( 1 +y)). Again, this overcomes a

well-known inability [20] of q= 1 statistics. This

particular example illustrates very transparently the

usefulness of the q-expectation value. Indeed, let us

for instance consider y= 1 (Cauchy-Lorentz distributions ) hence q = 2: ( x 2) l diverges, whereas ( x 2) 2

converges, thus being appropriate as an auxiliary condition. The same benefit is obtained for all long-tail

distributions.

After these first two, many other applications followed, such as a possible use for discussing self-orga-

nization in biological systems [23], a very performant simulated annealing optimization algorithm

[24], learning in simple perceptrons [25], calculation of the nonionized hydrogen atom specific heat

(not computable within Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics

since quantities such as the partition function diverge, essentially due to the long-range Coulombian

force) [26].

Let us now focus, on the other hand, on quantum

groups (qG-deformations, qG-oscillators, qQ-calculus,

where we use qG, instead of the traditional notation

q, in order to avoid confusion with the present entropy index q). These are generalizations of Lie

groups and algebras, which are recovered for qG--"1.

They have provided applications in as varied areas

as (see, e.g., Refs. [27-32] and references therein)

inverse scattering method, vertex models, anisotropic spin chains Hamiltonians, knot theory, conformal field theory, heuristic phenomenology of deformed molecules and nuclei, noncommutative

approach to quantum gravity and anyon physics.

They have enabled, in particular, a formulation of

quantum mechanics [ 28 ] in a discontinuous spacetime (where qG-- 1 plays the role of minimal lattice

step, and (qG-1 )2 that of minimal time step). To

illustrate the nonextensivity associated with quantum

groups let us consider a bosonic q6-oscillator. Its

Hamiltonian is given (see, e.g., Ref. [32] and references therein ) by

Ae = ~oJA +A = ~co [~ b ,

(7)

(8)

a characteristic frequency, and A + and A are, respectively, the creation and annihilation operators

satisfying

AA+-qgA+A='I,

(9)

(lO)

extensive expression [ n ]A = n.

If we have two independent systems 27 and 27', we

have ~ z u r , = ~ z + ~ z , , hence Eq. (8) implies a very

suggestive relationship, namely

(1 3)

Let us now address the main aim of the present paper, namely the basic question of a possible connection between q and qc. We shall use as a guideline the

following trivial observation: within the generalized

statistical mechanics, the q-expectation value of any

observable 0 is given by [ 5-9,12 ]

(())q-~TrfiqO=TrtO(tOq-lO)=-(~q-lO)

(14)

on an extensive operator ( 0 ) , or as extensive statistics

(~) on a nonextensive operator (:q-10).

We consider now a q~-deformed arbitrary extensive observable 0 (e.g., number of particles, energy,

or any other observable which, were it not for the qodeformation, would be extensive) associated with two

independent systems 27 and Z ' (/~vr, =/~r/~r, with

Trfizvz, =Tr/~z=Tr/~z, = 1 ). We have

(15)

where 0 ~ ' is, by definition, the nonextensive correction associated with qG (although qG might be a complex number, we restrict our discussion to q G ~ , as

in Ref. [28] ). Eq. (15) implies

+(q2_l

-zz' ]

)qqo

(16)

(0(27u27'))~= ( O ( s ) )q + ( 0 ( 2 7 ' ) ) q

and

[&g]=-g.

(12)

+ ( q ~ - 1 ) ( q~z~,

q~)q,

as well as

[&A+]=2 +

( n = 0 , 1 , 2,...)

-zz, ,

where

q~--I

[N]A= q ~ - - I '

[n]A -- q~n-1

q~ _ 1

331

(11)

+ ( q 2 - I) (0q~or').

(17)

332

If we impose now that the mean values of the observable must be extensive whenever these are measurable

quantities (i.e., that the q ~ 1 effect is exactly compensated by the qG ~: 1 e f f e c t ) we obtain

and

q- l =k(q~- l )

q~nX,__ 1

[nz,].4 = q ~ _ 1

( Off~'>q

<O(S) >qS~q'-~ <0 ( ~ ' ) >qa~q '

(18)

which yields the connection we were looking for. Genetically, q= 1 if and only ifq~ = 1. In the qG--' 1 limit,

Eq. (18) becomes

1) < O ( Z ) > S { ' + < 0 ( Z ' ) > S f '

(20)

(21)

hence

[nzvr,]~ -

q--~'~-f

nqo _ [ R ~ I A [ ~ ' h

(19)

i.e.

q-locga-1

( n z = 0 , 1,2 .... )

(22)

2<OU'>

q- 1~kn(qo-

q~"~- 1

[nz]a-- q ~ _ l

(19')

Before going on let us remark that the entropy operator ~q is not included among the operators 0 to

which Eq. (18) refers. Indeed, it satisfies Eq. (16),

consequently it is not extensive (unless q= 1 ).

Let us now illustrate the present calculation with

two bosonic oscillators of the type described by

Hamiltonian (7). Let the observable 0 be [N]A. According to Eq. ( 12 ) we have

(23)

we expect for OqZoS'.As illustrated in Eq. (23) (and in

what follows from it), we expect to be t/qG

.zr,

f ( O ( Z ) ; q G ) f ( O ( Z ' ) ; q~), where f ( x ; q~) is analytic in qo at qG = 1, being genericallyf(x; 1 ) # 0.

By denoting now t/q~' the eigenvalues of r~rq~

r ' we

have that, in the qG--*1 limit,

tlZlz'~nzns,

(24)

q - 1 ~ ( q~ - 1 )<~>kr~/S~,

(25)

By using the well-known quantum harmonic oscillator results ( ~ r ) = ( e ~ ' - l ) - ~

and S~/kB=

flhmet~'/(e ~ ' - 1 ) - l n ( e ~ ' - 1 ), we finally obtain

qc-1

q - 1 ~ flhme~O~_ (e~,O_ 1 ) ln(e t~~- 1 ) '

oo

..............

/

~Extensivephysics

00

qG

(Ouo~um Groups)

Fig. 1. Typical (finite temperature) relation between q and qoBy "extensive physics" we mean Shannon entropy, BoltzmannGibbs statistics, continuous space-time, differential-equations

physics, etc.

(26)

and k B T / h w - - , ~ asymptotic behaviors are indicated). We remark: (i) a temperature exists (kBT*/

ho9 ~- 2.31 ) for which (Oq/Oqo)r= 1; this, together

with the fact that q= 1 for qo= 1, implies q - 1 ~

q c - 1, i.e., q can (asymptotically) equal q~ and they

could be merged into a single parameter; (ii) at very

low temperatures, i.e., T<< T* (where the system is

practically not excited) q~ can vary a lot without

making the thermodynamics appreciably nonextensive; (iii) at very high temperatures, i.e., T>> T*

(where the system is highly excited), the slightest departure of qc from unity yields a highly nonextensive

nonextensive mechanics in such a way as to provide

extensive mean values of the observables. This fact

might (together, for instance, with the re-analysis of

the available data on the universe background radiation and/or other astrophysical black-bodies, as well

as the re-analysis of the data relative to the existence

of dark matter) help the understanding of one among

the most puzzling problems of contemporary science,

namely the deep nature of space-time.

20

IE~

15

I0

05

I10.00

k.T

"it'/"

",,i"'"

2

333

keT/h~

Fig. 2. Temperature dependent relation between q and qo in the

region q~-qa~- 1 for bosonic oscillators (kBT*/h~o~-2.31). The

asymptotic behaviors for T<< T* and T>> T* are, respectively,

given by kBT/hto and ( kBT/hog ) /In ( kBT/hto ).

(13) both q and qG act in a monotonic way; furthermore, both can vary between zero and infinity; these

facts make plausible that, for any finite temperature,

q monotonically increases from zero to infinity when

qo increases from zero to infinity.

The Plastino and Plastino discussion [ 17 ] of the

q= 1 paradox of the polytropic model for stellar systems was done in the classical limit ( h ~ 0 ) , where it

seems now reasonable to expect that a value of qG

slightly different from unity would imply a value of q

quite different from unity, as they indeed found. Since

it seems possible to interpret q > Fas a discontinuous (or, perhaps, continuous but not differentiable) space-time [28] (see also Ref. [33] ), we should

certainly not exclude the possibility for astrophysical

systems being privileged candidates for exploring the

deepest effects of gravitation in nature, including nonextensivity of the entropy. Also, along similar lines,

Bacry has recently argued [ 34 ] that q6 slightly different from one could be enough for explaining the frequently discussed "discrepancy" at the origin of the

so-called dark matter.

Let us now synthesize the present work. Although

the connection between generalized statistical mechanics and quantum groups was done on effective

or phenomenological grounds (i.e., the relation between q and qG depends on temperature for a system

in thermal equilibrium), it was established through a

remarkably simple and generic assumption, namely

M.R-Monteiro and I. Roditi for stressing his attention onto quantum groups as well as for very valuable

discussions. He also acknowledges useful remarks

from A.C.N. Magalh~es.

References

[ 1 ] C. Tsallis, J. Stat. Phys. A 52 (1988) 479.

[2] A.M. Mariz, Phys. Len. A 165 (1992) 409.

[3] J.D. Ramshaw, Phys. Lett. A 175 (1993) 169.

[4] J.D. Ramshaw, Phys. Lett. A 175 (1993) 171.

[5] E.M.F. Curado and C. Tsallis, J. Phys. A 24 (1991) L69

E3187; and 25 (1992) El019.

[6l A.R. Plastino and A. Plastino, Phys. Len. A 177 (1993)

177.

[7] A.R. Plastino and A. Plastino, Physica A 202 (1994) 438.

[8] E.P. da Silva, C. Tsallis and E.M.F. Curado, Physica A 199

(1993) 137; 203 (1994) El60.

[9] A. Chame and E.V.L. de Mello, J. Phys. A 27 (1994) 3663.

[ 10 ] A. Plastino and C. Tsallis, J. Phys. A 26 ( 1993 ) L893.

[ 11 ] D.A. Stariolo, Phys. Lett. A 185 (1994) 262.

[ 12 ] E.F. Sarmento, Generalization of single-site Callen's identity

within TsaUis statistics, preprint (1994).

[ 13] F. Buyukkili9 and D. Demirhan, Phys. Lett. A 181 (1993)

24.

[14] A. Chame and E.V.L. de Mello, The Onsager reciprocity

relations within Tsallis statistics, preprint (1994); M.O.

Caceres, Irreversible thermodynamics in the framework of

Tsallis entropy, preprint (1994).

[ 15 ] A. Chame, The zeroth law of thermodynamics within Tsallis

statistics, preprint (1994).

[16]A.R. Plastino, A. Plastino and C. Tsallis, J. Phys. A 27

(1994) 5707.

[ 17 ] A.R. Plastino and A. Plastino, Phys. Lett. A 174 (1993)

384;

see also J.J. Aly, in: N-body problems and gravitational

dynamics, Proc. Meeting held at Aussois, France, 21-25

March 1993, eds. F. Combes and E. Athanassoula

(Publications de rObservatoire de Paris, Paris, 1993) p. 19.

334

(Springer, Berlin, 1991 ), p. 134;

A.M. Salzberg, J. Math. Phys. 6 (1965) 158;

H.E. Kandrup, Phys. Rev. A 40 (1989) 7265;

L.G. Taft, Celestial mechanics (Wiley, New York, 1985) p.

437;

W.C. Saslaw, Gravitational physics of stellar and galactic

systems (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1985 ) p. 217;

J. Binney and S. Tremaine, Galactic dynamics (Princeton

Univ. Press, Princeton, 1987) p. 268;

P.T. Landsberg, J. Star. Phys. 35 (1984) 159.

[19] P. A. Alemany and D.H. Zanette, Phys. Rev. E 49 (1994)

956.

[20 ] E.W. Montroll and M.F. Shlesinger, J. Stat. Phys. 32 ( 1983 )

209;

E.W. Montroll and B.J. West, Fluctuation phenomena

(Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1987)p. 186.

[21 ] J.P. Bouchaud and A. Georges, Phys. Rep. 195 (1990) 127;

A. Ott, J.P. Bouchaud, D. Langevin and W. Urbach, Phys.

Rev. Lett. 65 (1990) 2201;

J.P. Bouchaud, A. Ott, D. Langevin and W. Urbach, J. Phys.

II (Paris) 1 (1991) 1465.

[22] C.-K. Peng, J. Mietus, J.M. Hausdorff, S. Havlin, H.E.

Stanley and A.L. Goldberger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70 (1993)

1343.

[23 ] P.T, Landsberg, in: Synergetics, Vol. 61. On self-organization

(Springer, Berlin, 1994)p. 157.

[24]C. Tsallis and D.A. Stariolo, Generalized simulated

annealing, preprint ( 1994);

K.C. Mundim and C. Tsallis, Geometry optimization and

annealin& preprint ( 1994);

C. Miron, Optimisation par recuit simul~ g~n~ralis~, Report,

Ecole Normale Sul~rieure de Lyon-France ( 1994);

T.J.P. Penna, The traveling salesman problem and Tsallis

statistics, Phys. Rev. E (1994), in press; Fitting curves by

simulated annealing, preprint (1994).

[25] S.A. Cannas, D.A. Stariolo and F.A. Tamarit, Learning

dynamics of simple perceptrons with non-extensive cost

functions, preprint (1994).

[26] L.S. Lucena, L.R. da Silva and C. Tsallis, Departure from

Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics makes the hydrogen atom

specific heat a computable quantity, preprint (1994).

[27 ] E. Witten, Nucl. Phys. B 330 (1990) 285.

[281A. Dimakis and F. Miiller-Hoissen, Phys. Lett. B 295 (1992)

242.

[29] P. Aschieri and L. Castellani, Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 8 (1993)

1667.

[30] R. Caracciolo and M.R-Monteiro, Phys. Lett. B 308 (1993)

58.

[ 31 ] A. I.erda and S. Sciuto, Nucl. Phys. B 401 (1993) 613.

[32] M.R-Monteiro and I. Roditi, Mod. Phys. Lett. B 7 (1993)

1843;

M. Chaichian, D. Ellinas and P. Kulish, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65

(1990) 980;

M. Chaichian and P. Kulish, Phys. Lett. B 234 (1990) 72.

[33] L. Nottale, Fractal space-time and microphysics (World

Scientific, Singapore, 1993 ).

[34] H. Bacry, Phys. Lett. B 317 (1993) 523.

- Relativistic TemperatureEnviado porSahil Chadha
- The Friday Aggravate 17-06-2005Enviado porapi-3744461
- Physics at a glance..Enviado porSyed Asad
- CVRaman Life and WorksEnviado porjuvenilecorrections
- ALLEN's Thermodynamic BOOKEnviado porkhalidkay
- Cost Reduction and Engine Life Extension Through Engine.pdfEnviado porVenu Madhav
- UNIT - II TheoryEnviado pormohanvel
- Everything About TemperatureEnviado porNargiza Jumalieva
- The Real World Mod SciEnviado porTimoteo Pereira Tfmp
- 1Enviado porGauravPatel
- HeatEnviado porasaasssdf
- 5G the Nano Core Hard Copy NotesEnviado porDevudu Chesina Manishi
- Inverse Algorithm for Optical Processing of Composite MaterialsEnviado porJinsoo Kim
- Untitled 1Enviado porSiddharth Pillai
- whip mixEnviado porYeffrey Pérez M
- Heat & Temperature - Learning by Doing for Secondary SchoolEnviado porkhush1802
- PhysicsEnviado porRyan Matuto
- Year 2 Semester 1 Week 1Enviado portini1801
- THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER.pptxEnviado porHimanshu Tripathi
- MK5.pdfEnviado porlimuvi
- Bill Williams - New Trading DimensionsEnviado porsuperandroid21
- Amorphous MaterialEnviado porEdmil Pabellano
- CML100_AR5A_Problems.pdfEnviado porDivyansh Gupta
- R460HEnviado porwodr
- A study on the thermal behavior of traditional residential buildings_ Rasoulian house case study - ScienceDirect.pdfEnviado pormayacinco
- 0804.3726Enviado porEnric Toledo
- Lab Report 3Enviado porMatt
- PhysRevB.14.1165Enviado porDavid Diaz
- High Heating Rate Devolatilization Kinetics of Pulverized Biomass Fuels Johansen 2018Enviado porB DAS
- Physics HeatEnviado porAlyssa Mauricio

- Question & AnswerEnviado porPravin Puri
- Motorcycle Accident Cause Factors and Identification of Countermeasures Volume I- Technical ReportEnviado porxuanv
- Psychology and the Financial Crisis of 2007-2008Enviado porhab204
- Cardelli-Modula3Enviado porPutu Rana Janendra
- Final ReportEnviado porSurendra Sharma
- Network Firewall Ranking 2016Enviado porRishi Jose
- analysis of katherine mansfieldEnviado porapi-254742161
- 3rd Gender 1Enviado porAsfund Yar
- Uv Method Plus Program PostersEnviado porsacrificiu
- The Islamic Understanding of Death and Resurrection-Jane-Idleman-SmithEnviado pormadalinenciu
- TheFriedmannEquations.pdfEnviado porAndromeda
- FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture Labeo rohitaEnviado porAyathulla Rabbani Syed
- e in hrmEnviado porwanikogi
- Human Genome ProjectEnviado porEnea Alexandru
- Takaful Dana Ekuiti 2015Enviado porFarul Akmal
- Hare Columbia 0 054D 10017.PDFEnviado porthecatalan
- 155-4809 4421-UpEnviado porAlejandroZappa
- SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS 2019.docxEnviado porAldrin Paguirigan
- Oxy PlotEnviado porTanzeelur Rehman
- Parenting Plan ExamplesEnviado pormelissamari1
- HARVEY v. CITY OF PHILADELPHIA - Document No. 2Enviado porJustia.com
- Base Transceiver StationEnviado porBiswajit Mohanty
- 2-A-1-4 - [2015] 1 SLR 26 - Lim Meng Suang v AG CopyEnviado porGiam Zhen Kai
- Study guide for ENG1501Enviado porCharmaine Verrall
- Reversion After PromotionEnviado porhimadri_bhattacharje
- PUMA at a GlanceEnviado porsurbhimo
- Footbridges Construction- Design- HistoryEnviado porAriffin Ngah
- Teachings From the Long Rules on Food and Gluttony (St. Basil the Great)Enviado porcandirue
- Line Extension MaggieEnviado porUmang Agrawal
- American Jesus - OutlineEnviado porEric W. Rodgers

## Muito mais do que documentos

Descubra tudo o que o Scribd tem a oferecer, incluindo livros e audiolivros de grandes editoras.

Cancele quando quiser.