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## Analytic Geometry (Prelims)

Tuesday, July 15, 2014

6:02 PM

Analytic Geometry - the branch of Mathematics which deals with the properties, behaviors, and solutions of points, lines, curves, angles and surfaces and solids by means of algebraic methods in relation to a coordinate system.

• - Divided into two parts: Plane Analytic Geometry (deals with figures on a plane surface) and Solid Analytic Geometry.

• - Terms: Cartesian Coordinate system, Cartesian Coordinate Axes (x-axis and y-axis), Point 0 (origin), Quadrants, Abscissa or x-coordinate (distance from the y-axis), Ordinate or y-coordinate (distance from

the x-axis), rectangular coordinates or Cartesian coordinates or simply coordinates, plotting

Directed Line Segments *Left to right: positive *Right to left: negative

Distance Between Two Points:

* distance can never be negative * When proving that the points are within the same line, plot it first to know the positioning of the points. * Check units for area = square units * A point that is 3 units from the y - axis, (3, y). * A points that is 3 units from the x-axis (x, 3) * When asked to get the area of an irregular polygon, divide them into parts! * The radius of a circle is 5 and its center is at (-3, -4). Find the length of the card that is bisected at (-5.5,-6.5). Use radius as the hypotenuse and the distance from center to point as one of the legs. The answer is the other leg times 2.

Division of a Line Segment

*Internal: They are measured in the same way, hence, same signs. P 1 --> P --> P 2 *External: P 1 P and PP 2 are measured oppositely, hence, opposite signs. P 1 --> P 2 --> P *Trisection points: two points that trisect the line *On the line joining (4, -5) to (-4, -2), find the points which is three seventh the distance from the first to the second point. R 1 = 3/7 and R 2 = 4/7. *When ratio is given, it is the r 1 /r 2 itself.

Alternate Formula for Division of a Line Segment

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Midpoint of a Line Segment

(

)

Angle of Inclination:

*Smallest positive angle that the straight line makes with the positive axis (α)

*Measured from the positive axis in a counter-clockwise direction and is never greater than 180 degrees.

*Can never be equal to 90 degrees

Slope of the Line m = tan α *If between 0 and 90 degrees, m (slope) is positive *If between 90 and 180 degrees, m (slope) is negative

Slope in terms of Coordinates

Slope of Parallel Lines m 1 =m 2 if lines are parallel *Three vertices of a parallelogram are x, y, z. Find the fourth vertex. Get the slope of the other two pairs, get the equation of the third and fourth side and get the intersection. *Median (opposite side bisector) = line formed by connecting a vertex to another side bisecting it. *Altitudes (opposite side perpendicular) = line formed by connecting a vertex to another side making a right angle (perpendicular)

Slope of Perpendicular Lines

*if lines are perpendicular

Angle Formed by Two Lines

Area of Triangle by Coordinates

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1.

Plot the points first.

• 2. Arrange the points counter clockwise based on the graphs.

• 3. Do the matrix calculation.

Line Parallel to an Axis

*Straight line is simply called line *x = x 1 --> At a directed distance x 1, if the line is parallel to the y-axis or perpendicular to the x-axis *y = y 1 --> At a directed distance y 1 , if the line is parallel to the x-axis or perpendicular to the y-axis

General Equation of a Line Ax + By + C = 0 * C has to be on the left side. * X has to be positive

First Standard Equation of a Line = Point-Slope Form (PSF)

y-y 1 = m (x - x 1 )

*m = slope *P (x 1 , y 1 ) is any point in the line

Second Standard Equation of a Line = Slope- Intercept Form (SIF) y = mx + b *m = slope *b = y-intercept or (0, b)

Equations of Parallel Lines

*If two linear equations have identical x-coefficients and identical y-coefficient, the lines represented

are parallel.

Parallel lines:

Ax + By + C 1 = 0 Ax + By + C 2 = 0

Equations of Perpendicular Lines

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*If in two line equations, x-coefficient of the first is equal to the y-coefficient of the second and the y- coefficient of the first is numerically equal but of opposite sign to the x-coefficient of the second, or vice versa, the lines represented are perpendicular to each other. *Negative reciprocal.

Ax + By + C 1 = 0 Bx - Ay + C 2 = 0

Third Standard Equation of a Line = Intercept Form (IF)

*a = x-intercept or (x, 0) *b = y-intercept or (0,y)

Fourth Standard Equation of a Line = Normal Form (NF)

xcosΘ + ysinΘ

= P

*Θ = angle of inclination *P = distance from the origin (0,0)

Reduction of the General Form to the Normal Form

*where sign of radicand depends on the sign of B

Distance from a line to a Point

*where sign of radicand depends on the sign of B Notes:

*Bisector: use d 1 = d 2 and use P(x,y). *Ratio: d 1 = rd 2 *Product: d 1 d 2 =P

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## Chapter 6 - Conic Sections

Monday, August 25, 2014

12:19 PM

Conic Sections: The section obtained when a plane is made to cut a right circular cone. *Defined as the path of a point which moves so that its distance from a fixed point called the focus is in a constant ratio (eccentricity, e) to its distance from a fixed line called the directrix.

Equation of the Conic: FP = e*SP

*Shape of the conic section depends on the position of the cutting plane

• 1. Circle - Parallel to the base. e --> 0

• 2. Parabola - parallel to a plan tangent to the cone. e = 1

• 3. Ellipse - not parallel to a place tangent to the cone e < 1

• 4. Hyperbola - intersecting both nappes (one of the two pieces of a double cone) e > 1

• 5. Degenerate conics (point-ellipse, two coincident lines and two intersection lines) - passes through the vertex V.

* Note that e = 0, the definition fails.

Latus Rectum: the line through the focus that is parallel to the directrix intersecting the curve at R 1 and R 2 . Axis of the Conic: the line through F perpendicular to the directrix Vertex: point where axis of the conic intersects the conic itself.

Parabola: conic section whose eccentricity is 1, locus of points which are equidistant from a fixed point and a fixed line.

Equations of the Parabola:

4p = length of latus rectum 2p = distance between focus and R 1 and focus and R 2 p = distance between vertex and focus, and vertex and directrix

 Center at (0,0) Center at (h,k) Rightwards y 2 =4px (y-k) 2 = 4p(x-h) 2 Leftwards y 2 =-4px (y-k) 2 = -4p(x-h) 2 Upwards x 2 =4py (x-h) 2 = 4p(y-k) 2 Downwards x 2 =-4py (x-h) 2 = 4p(y-k) 2

Notes:

• 1. To know that you're correct, try substituting the values of R

• 1 and R

• 2 on the equation since they are points in the conic.

• 2. If it says that the axis is parallel to the x-axis, that means the parabola is either going leftwards or rightwards.

• 3. If it says that the axis is parallel to the y-axis, that means the parabola is either going upwards or downwards.

• 4. Beware of getting the square roots. + or -.

• 5. Beware of the signs (especially if there are two answers).

• General Equation of the Parabola:

*Parallel to the X-Axis: y 2 +Dy+Ex+F=0 *Parallel to the Y-Axis: x 2 +Dx+Ey+F=0

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## Circle

Monday, August 04, 2014

8:35 PM

Circle - is the locus of a point which moves at a constant distance from a fixed point called its center. Radius - constant distance at any point along the circle from the center.

Standard Equation:

*If right hand side of the equation (r 2 ) is zero, locus is a point. If r 2 is negative, there is no locus.

General Equation:

Problems:

• 1. A circle has its center on the line 2y = 3x and tangent to the x-axis at (4,0). Find its equation.

a.

Answer: x 2 + y

• 2 - 8x - 12y +16 = 0

• b. If its tangent to x-axis at point (x,0), then the center is at (x, y). Same x-value.

• c. If its tangent to y-axis at point (0,y) then the center is at (x,y). Same y-value.

• 2. What is the equation of a circle passing through (12,1) and (2,-3) with center on the line 2x-5y+10=0.

 a. Answer: c(5,4) b. First equation: CP 1

= CP

• 2. Second equation: 2x-5y+10=0

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## The Ellipse

Thursday, August 21, 2014

12:44 PM

Ellipse - a conic whose eccentricity is less than 1, that is, if P is any point on the ellipse,

Major Axis (2a) = Line segment V 1 V 3, contains the two foci, always greater than the minor axis Minor Axis (2b) = Line segment V 2 V 4

Properties of the Ellipse

• 1. The ellipse is a closed curve and symmetrical with respect to both its axes.

• 2. The sum of the focal distances of any point on the ellipse is constant and equal to the length of the major axis: PF

• 1 + PF 2 = 2a.

• 3. As a corollary to the preceding property, we see that the distance from a focus to a vertex at one end of the minor axis is equal to half the length of the major axis: F 2 V 2 = a

• 5. center to a directrix = a/e.

• 6. Distance of the center from foci (c or ae):

• 7. The length of a latera recta = 2b

• 2 / a

• 8. e = c/a

Equations:

Properties of:

Problems:

• 1. Don't get confused with semi-major and major axes!

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### Hyperbola

Wednesday, September 24, 2014

8:11 PM

Hyperbola - conic whose eccentricity is greater than 1 (e > 1)

Properties:

• 1. The hyperbola consists of two open branches, and is symmetrical with respect to both its axes.

• 2. The difference between the focal distances of any point on the hyperbola is constant and is equal to the length of the transverse axis:

PF 1 - PF 2 = 2a

• 3. The distances from the center to a focus:

• 4. and center to a directrix:

5.
q
• 6. The length of a latus rectum is 2b

• 2 /a

• 7. The diagonals (prolonged) of the rectangle of sides 2a and 2b and parallel to the transverse and conjugate axes respectively are asymptotes of the hyperbola.

b 2 = a 2 (e 2 -1)

*Rectangular hyperbola if a = b. *Hyperbolas and ellipses are also called central conics because they possess centers while parabolas do not.

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