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# Solution to Question 1:

1) Natural period,
Structural stiffness
Mass of structure

TD Tn 1.6 s
P 17.5 103

## 1750000 N/m 1750 kN/m

1102
m
Tn 2
k
T
m n 2 k 113480 kg 113.5 tons
4
k

2) Natural frequency

3) Damping ratio

Damping coefficient

2
Tn

1
u
ln 0 0.0458 4.58%
2 u1
c 2mn 40807.6 Ns/m

## 4) Amplitude after ten cycles

1
u
ln 0
2 j u10
1
1
0.05
ln
2 10 u10
u10 0.0563 cm

Solution to Question 2:
1) Stead-state displacement is given as
u(t ) ust Rd sin( t )
where
p 30 1000
ust
0.0171 m ;
k 1750000
0.5 2 3.14

0.8 ;
3.93
3.93
1
Rd
2.72 ;
(1 2 ) 2 (2 ) 2

tan1
Thus,

2
2
1

Rd

1
(1 2 )2 (2 )2

where

## Following table summarised the value of Rd with different values of

0.1
0.63
0.2
1.26
0.4
2.51
0.5
3.14
0.625
3.93
0.7
4.40
0.8
5.03
1.0
6.28

beta
0.16
0.32
0.64
0.80
1.00
1.12
1.28
1.60

Rd
1.03
1.11
1.69
2.72
10.92
3.65
1.54
0.64

3) Frequency-response curve
12.00

## Dynamic Amplification Factor

10.00

8.00

6.00

4.00

2.00

0.00
0.00

0.20

0.40

0.60

0.80

1.00

1.20

1.40

1.60

1.80

Frequency Ratio

4) The total displacement of the building with zero initial conditions at resonant frequency can
be expressed as follows
() = ( )

(cos +
[
sin ) cos ]

2
1 2

The above function is plotted using Excel. The following figure shows the relationship
between total displacement and time. It can be seen that the total displacement increases
From the figure, the steady-state response vibration amplitude is approximately equal to
0.185 m. The result can be verified using the closed-form solution
= ( )

## which agrees with the graphical solution.

1
= 0.187 m
2

0.2500
0.2000

Displaement (m)

0.1500
0.1000
0.0500
0.0000

-0.0500
-0.1000
-0.1500
-0.2000
-0.2500
0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

25.0

30.0

Time (s)

5) About four cycles are required for the system to achieve 50% of the steady-state vibration
amplitude.
6) Total base shear

Vb f s
kuo
1750000 0.1872 103 327.6 kN
Over-turning moment
M b hVb

3 327.6
982.8 kNm
7) Transmissibility
1/ 2

1 (2 )2
TR
2 2
2
(1 ) (2 )
10.97
Total force

fT po TR
30 10.97
329 kN

8) When the system reaches it vibration amplitude (says, at time t = ) at steady-state, the
displacement and velocity are

u( ) 0.1872 m ; u ( ) 0 m/s
If the applied force is suddenly removed at time t = , the system will undergo free vibration.
The displacement at time t = will become the new initial conditions of the free vibration
The displacement history is then given as

## u(t ) e n (t ) [ A cos D (t ) B sin D (t )] for t

where

D n ;
A u( ) 0.1872 m ;

u ( ) nu ( )

0.00857 m

Solution to Question 3:
Since

t d 0.1

0.0625 0.25
Tn 1.6
The structural responses can be estimated using the approximation method.
Impulse magnitude
I 1000 103 0.1 100000 Ns

Maximum displacement

uo

I
100000

0.224 m
mn 113480 3.93

Vb

## kuo 1750 0.224

196.2 kN
2
2

Solution to Question 4:
The following two tables show some calculation steps for both Central Difference Method and
Newmarks Method (up to 2 sec only).
Central Difference Method
1. initial condition
p0
25 kN
u0
0m
v0
0 m/s
a0
5.00E-03 m/s2
u-1
2.50E-05 m
k^
5.04E+08 N/m
a
4.96E+08
b
-9.00E+08
2. Calculation
t
pi
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0

ui-1
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000

2.50E-05
0
0.000025
9.4158E-05
0.00019298
0.00030136
0.00039763
0.00046293
0.00048487
0.00045986
0.00039369
0.00030021
0.00019844
0.00010869
4.8548E-05
2.9402E-05
5.4324E-05
0.00011759
0.00020599
0.00030154
0.00038518

ui

pi^
0
2.50E-05
9.42E-05
1.93E-04
3.01E-04
3.98E-04
4.63E-04
4.85E-04
4.60E-04
3.94E-04
3.00E-04
1.98E-04
1.09E-04
4.85E-05
2.94E-05
5.43E-05
1.18E-04
2.06E-04
3.02E-04
3.85E-04
4.41E-04

1.26E+04
4.75E+04
9.74E+04
1.52E+05
2.01E+05
2.34E+05
2.45E+05
2.32E+05
1.99E+05
1.51E+05
1.00E+05
5.48E+04
2.45E+04
1.48E+04
2.74E+04
5.93E+04
1.04E+05
1.52E+05
1.94E+05
2.22E+05
2.31E+05

ui+1
2.50E-05
9.42E-05
1.93E-04
3.01E-04
3.98E-04
4.63E-04
4.85E-04
4.60E-04
3.94E-04
3.00E-04
1.98E-04
1.09E-04
4.85E-05
2.94E-05
5.43E-05
1.18E-04
2.06E-04
3.02E-04
3.85E-04
4.41E-04
4.57E-04

Newmark's Method
1. Initial condition
gamma
0.5
beta
0.25
u0
0m
v0
0 m/s
a0
5.00E-03 m/s2
k^
2.12E+09
a
2.02E+08
b
1.00E+07
2. Calculation
t
pi
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0

ai
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000
25000

dpi
5.00E-03
4.44E-03
3.06E-03
1.12E-03
-1.00E-03
-2.90E-03
-4.21E-03
-4.71E-03
-4.31E-03
-3.10E-03
-1.33E-03
6.65E-04
2.50E-03
3.83E-03
4.41E-03
4.16E-03
3.12E-03
1.51E-03
-3.61E-04
-2.13E-03
-3.46E-03

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

dp^
dui
dvi
dai
vi
ui
5.00E+04
2.36E-05
4.72E-04
-5.57E-04
0
0
1.40E+05
6.60E-05
3.75E-04
-1.39E-03
4.72E-04
2.36E-05
2.02E+05
9.52E-05
2.09E-04
-1.94E-03
8.47E-04
8.96E-05
2.24E+05
1.06E-04
5.73E-06
-2.12E-03
1.06E-03
1.85E-04
2.04E+05
9.64E-05
-1.95E-04
-1.89E-03
1.06E-03
2.91E-04
1.46E+05
6.89E-05
-3.55E-04
-1.31E-03
8.67E-04
3.87E-04
6.11E+04
2.89E-05
-4.46E-04
-4.97E-04
5.11E-04
4.56E-04
-3.38E+04
-1.60E-05
-4.51E-04
4.00E-04
6.56E-05
4.85E-04
-1.21E+05
-5.70E-05
-3.70E-04
1.21E-03
-3.85E-04
4.69E-04
-1.83E+05
-8.66E-05
-2.21E-04
1.77E-03
-7.55E-04
4.12E-04
-2.10E+05
-9.94E-05
-3.32E-05
1.99E-03
-9.77E-04
3.25E-04
-1.97E+05
-9.31E-05
1.58E-04
1.83E-03
-1.01E-03
2.26E-04
-1.47E+05
-6.94E-05
3.16E-04
1.33E-03
-8.52E-04
1.33E-04
-6.98E+04
-3.29E-05
4.12E-04
5.85E-04
-5.36E-04
6.33E-05
1.93E+04
9.09E-06
4.29E-04
-2.58E-04
-1.23E-04
3.04E-05
1.03E+05
4.87E-05
3.64E-04
-1.04E-03
3.05E-04
3.95E-05
1.66E+05
7.84E-05
2.31E-04
-1.61E-03
6.69E-04
8.82E-05
1.97E+05
9.29E-05
5.73E-05
-1.87E-03
9.00E-04
1.67E-04
1.90E+05
8.95E-05
-1.24E-04
-1.77E-03
9.57E-04
2.59E-04
1.47E+05
6.93E-05
-2.80E-04
-1.34E-03
8.33E-04
3.49E-04
7.70E+04
3.63E-05
-3.79E-04
-6.59E-04
5.53E-04
4.18E-04

The displacement histories of the structure obtained using (1) Central difference method; and (2)
Newmarks method are shown as follows:
Forced vibration

Free vibration

0.0007

## Central Difference Method

0.0006

Newmark's Method

0.0005

Displacement (m)

0.0004

0.0003

0.0002

0.0001

0
0.0

2.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

10.0

12.0

14.0

16.0

18.0

20.0

-0.0001

-0.0002

Time (s)

As indicated above, the structure undergoes forced vibration up to 5 sec, followed by free
vibration until all energy has been dissipated due to damping.

Solution to Question 5:
1) Natural period of building, Tn = 1.6 sec
From the response spectra,
Maximum displacement
Pseudo velocity
Pseudo acceleration

D 0.2 m
V 0.8 m/s
A 0.3 g

## Vb mA 113480 0.3 9.81103 334.0 kN

Overturning moment