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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0

SCOPE

2.0

APPLICABLE CODES AND STANDARDS

3.0

DESIGN CRITERIA
2.1
2.2

4.0

SUBSURFACE SOIL INVESTIGATION


4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4

5.0

Latticed Towers
Single Shaft Structures
Framed Structures
Externally Guyed Structures

LOADING CRITERIA
6.1
6.2
6.3

7.0

Scope of Investigation
Soil Conditions in Saudi Arabia
Standard Soil Classification
Special Soil Type

PERFORMANCE CRITERIA
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

6.0

General Requirements
Foundation Requirements

Loads
Overload Capacity Factors
Seismic Load

CONCRETE FOUNDATION
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4

Materials
Details of Design
Details of Reinforcement
Types of Foundation

TESP12206R0/JQA

Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

8.0

FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS


8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7

9.0

Procedures for Drilled Pier Foundations


Procedures for Driven Pile Foundations
Procedures for Anchor Foundations

LOAD TESTS
10.1
10.2
10.3

11.0

Direct Embedment Foundations


Driven Pile Foundations (PI)
Drilled Pier Foundations
Anchor Foundations (AN)
Pad & Chimney Foundation (PA)
Auger Foundation (AU)
Grillage Foundation (GR)

DESIGN PROCEDURES
9.1
9.2
9.3

10.0

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

General
Instrumentation
Scope of Test Program

REFERENCES

TESP12206R0/JQA

Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

PAGE NO. 3 OF 59

TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

1.0

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

SCOPE
This section of the Standard establishes the specific parameters, guidelines and procedures for
the design of overhead line (OHL) transmission structure foundations, and covers the load
encountered as well as foundation performance criteria. Geotechnical considerations, load
testing and construction methods associated with each foundation design are discussed.

2.0

APPLICABLE CODES AND STANDARDS


Unless specified otherwise in this section, design, materials, manufacturer, workmanship and
testing of all foundation works shall comply with an approved standard. All overhead line
towers provided under this specification shall conform to the applicable codes and standards of:
The latest edition or revision of these approved standards shall apply.
2.1

SSA No. 2

Steel Bars for Reinforcement of Concrete

2.2

SSA No. 142

Cement Tests

2.3

SSA No. 143

Portland Cement -Ordinary & Rigid Hardening

2.4

SSA No. 378

Concrete Aggregate

2.5

SSA No. 690

Test Method of Steel Bar for Reinforcement of Concrete

2.6

ACI 318M

Building Code Requirement for Reinforced Concrete

2.7

ASTM A36

Specification for Structural Steel Standard

2.8

ASTM A121

Specification for Zinc-coated (galvanised) Steel Barbed Wire.

2.9

ASTM A123

Specification for Zinc (hot-galvanised) Coatings on products


fabricated from rolled, pressed and forged steel shapes, plates,
bars and strips.

2.10

ASTM A143

Safeguarding against embrittlement of hot-galvanised structural


steel products and procedure for detecting embrittlement.

2.11

ASTM A153

Specification for Zinc Coating (hot-dip) on Iron and Steel


Hardware.

2.12

ASTM A239

Test Method for Locating the Thinnest Spot in a Zinc


(Galvanised) coating on Iron or Steel Articles by the Preece Test
(Copper Sulphate Dip).

TESP12206R0/JQA

Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

2.13

ASTM A242

Specification For High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel.

2.14

ASTM A307

Specification For Carbon Steel Externally Threaded Standard


Fasteners

2.15

ASTM A325

Specification For High-Strength Bolts For Structural Steel Joints.

2.16

ASTM A370

Methods And Definitions For Mechanical Testing Of Steel


Products.

2.17

ASTM A384

Safeguarding Against Warpage And Distortion During Hot-Dip


Galvanising Of Steel Assemblies.

2.18

ASTM A385

Recommended Practice For Providing High Quality Zinc


Coatings (Hot-Dip).

2.19

ASTM A394

Specification For Galvanised Steel Transmission Tower Bolts.

2.20

ASTM A441

Specification for High-strength Low-alloy Structural ManganeseVanadium Steel.

2.21

ASTM A572

Specification for High-strength Low-allby Columbium-Vanadium


Steel of Structural Quality.

2.22

ASTM A588

Specification for High-strength Low-alloy Structural Steel with


50 ksi (345 MPa) Minimum Yield Point. To a 4-inch (100mm)
thickness.

2.23

ASTM A615

Specification for Deformed Plain Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete


Reinforcement

2.24

ASTM D698

Moisture-Density Relation of Soil

2.25

ASTM A751

Methods, Practice and Definitions for Chemical Analysis of Steel


Products.

2.26

ASTM D1143

Testing Piles under Axial Compressive Load

2.27

ASTM D1586

Standard Penetration Test

2.28

ASTM D1194

Test for Bearing Capacity of Soil for Static Load on Spread


Fottings

TESP12206R0/JQA

Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

2.29

ASTM D2049

Test for Relative Density of Conhesionless Soils

2.30

ASTM D3689

Rock Pullout Test

2.31

ASTM D4253

Test Method for Maximum Index Density and Unit Weight of


Soil using a Vibratory Table

2.32

ASTM D4254

Test Method for Minimum Index Density and Unit Weight of


Soils and Calculation of Relative Density

2.33

IEC 826

Loading Strength of Overhead Transmission Lines

2.34

IEC 652

Loading Tests of Overhead Line Towers

2.35

Uniform Building Code (UBC)

2.36

American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)

2.37

Manuals and Reports on Engineering Practice -Number 52, "Guide for Design of Steel
Transmission Towers".

2.38

Column Research Council (CRC)

2.39

Guide to Design Criteria for Metal Compression Members, Column Research Council.

2.40

American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC)

2.41

Specification for the Design, Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings
(AISC Steel Specification).

2.42

Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges (AISC Standard Practice).

2.43

Specification for Structural Joints using ASTM A 325 & A 490 Bolts Structural Steel
Detailing.

2.44

Manual of Steel Construction.

2.45

American Welding Society (AWS)

2.46

D1.1 -Structural Welding Code. International Standards Organization

2.47

ISO Standard ISO 630 Structural Steels

2.48

ISO Recommendation ISO/R657 Hot-rolled Steel Sections.

TESP12206R0/JQA

Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

2.49

American National Standards Institute "Safety Rules for the Installation and
Maintenance of Electric Supply and Communication Lines" (National Electrical Safety
Code).

2.50

ICAO

International Civil Aviation Organisation

2.51

FAA

Federal Aviation Authority

2.52

CAA

Civil Aviation Authority

TESP12206R0/JQA

Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

PAGE NO. 7 OF 59

TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

3.0

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

DESIGN CRITERIA
3.1

General Requirements
A transmission line is comprised of a system of interconnected elements, each
individually designed. Every decision made for the system shall consider total installed
cost, of which foundations are a major consideration. For example, wire tensions are
sometimes increased to minimize the number and height, or both, of the structure.
Similarly, when developing structure configurations, a wider base may be considered in
order to reduce foundation loads, thereby the foundation cost. This must be evaluated
against the added cost of widening of the structure. When designing a transmission line,
the engineer has to develop a minimum number of standard foundation designs usable at
a majority of the sites.
Foundations may be standardized by limiting the number to one or two designs for each
standard structure type, covering a selected range of subsurface conditions. Verifications
of subsurface conditions at each structure site can be made during the construction
excavation. In addition, construction excavation may reveal locations that require
special foundations due to actual subsurface conditions outside the limits of the preselected range. The benefits of standardization shall be weighed against the additional
cost of redesigning the foundation when unusual subsurface conditions are encountered
during construction.
The amount of standardization will vary with the drilled shaft foundations. A drilled
shaft foundation can be varied to suit the actual soil conditions by providing different
depths and diameters, or both. Usually, the only change to fabricated material for drilled
shaft foundations is the length of rebar which can be readily accomplished with small
additional costs.
Foundation design shall correspond to the most modern methods and techniques of
design and construction. The design of reinforced concrete member shall be in
accordance with ACI 318 standard.
The tower foundation shall be designed independently for each of the four leg to resist
the following loads without excessive rotation or displacement:
-Compression
-Uplift
-Tilting
-Horizontal shear forces
-Bending Moment

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Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

All foundation shall make adequate provision for horizontal shear forces in the region of
the ground line.
As far as practicable, for any standard tower type, the foundation stubs and foundation
designs themselves shall be identical for standard towers and extended towers and leg
extensions.
For all OHL tower foundations A to H, (single circuit & double circuit) tower
foundations, no difference shall be made for the design of tensile and compression
footings. However, for other tower foundations types C, D, E & F of 380 KV double
circuit OHL, the design of the foundations for compression legs may differ in an
approved manner from these for the tension legs.
Allowable soil bearing capacity values for foundations design work are stated in Table1. Additional values shall be recommended by the geotechnical investigation agency to
produce an economical set of foundation designs. The selection of additional or
alternative soil bearing capacity values shall be subject to SEC approval.
Calculation of resistance to uplift shall be related to the frustum angle. The effective
weight of the footing and soil over it shall be included in the calculation of the resistance
to uplift.
The following basic criteria shall satisfy the foundations for transmission lines:

3.2

3.1.1

They shall be stable, and have an adequate factor of safety or level of reliability
against failure.

3.1.2

The movement shall be within such limits as not to impair the function of the
structure.

3.1.3

They shall be economical, or at least cost effective for the particular type of
structure.

Foundation Requirements
Foundations shall be standardized by minimizing the number of designs for each
structure type, covering a selected range of subsurface conditions.
If investigations reveal locations that require special foundations outside the limits of the
pre-selected range, due to actual subsurface conditions, such foundations shall be
designed separately.

TESP12206R0/JQA

Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

4.0

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

SUBSURFACE SOIL INVESTIGATION


The cost-effective and technical requirements of assuring foundation design for transmission
structures need a thorough knowledge of the subsurface conditions along the right-of-way
(ROW). This section is intended to provide guidelines for performing an adequate subsurface
investigation for the design of transmission line structure foundations.
When designing transmission line structure foundations, the engineer shall take into
consideration two factors:
a.
b.

The ultimate load bearing capacity of the subsurface material.


The allowable deformations of the foundation.

Hence, the objectives of a subsurface investigation are to determine the stratigraphy and
physical characteristics (particularly the strength and deformation characteristics which are the
engineering properties) of the soil or rock underlying a given site.
It is necessary to consider the engineering properties of the subsurface materials, construction
costs, the construction aspects of a particular foundation type and how they are influenced by
such factors as groundwater elevation, safety requirements, Geotechnical Consultant capability
and experience, and environmental constraints to determine the most cost-effective foundation.
Moreover, recommendation for foundation selection shall be made by Geotechnical
Investigation Agency based on the specified foundation types.
4.1

Scope of Investigation
Subsurface investigation shall vary depending upon the foundation loads, type of
structure and probable foundation types, type of subsurface material, and previous
knowledge of the subsurface conditions along the line route. It is necessary to use
engineering judgment when considering the scope of the subsurface investigation.
Since transmission lines route runs through many kilometres, the route crosses many
different kinds of soil strength and characteristics that may vary differently.
Of equal significance is the fact that the characteristics of all of the soils encountered
may change radically with changes in the season of the year.
For the above reasons, subsurface soil investigation and soil testing programmes are
imperative, so that a foundation type may be selected which matches the strength
required to the strength available at each structure location. This investigation should
take place for the entire transmission line route prior to the start of construction so that
alternative routings or tower locations may be considered if the required foundations
become prohibitively expensive.

TESP12206R0/JQA

Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

Practically, it is not possible to associate one specific tower type with one specific
foundation design, however, it is usually possible to associate one specific structure type
with a family of foundation designs, from which one family of design can be selected
based on soil consideration and terrain at the tower location. So, it is necessary to
classify the soil along the line route as in section 4.3.
The geotechnical agency shall investigate the subsurface soil condition providing the
information covering the soil mechanics, chemical, geophysical and electrical test
results. Approval of the geotechnical agency who shall conduct the test should come
from the Company approved list of geothecnical agency.
Prior to any design WORK, the contractor shall hire a Geotechnical Consultant,
approved by the company, who shall undertake the geotechnical site soil
investigations. The geotechnical investigation agency shall visit the site, familiarize
and submit a detailed preliminary geotechnical proposal on the following for
COMPANY review:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

Scope of WORK.
Field Investigation method (boring and sampling).
Laboratory investigations (soil tests).
Foundation types for different soil types, conditions and recommendation.
Identification of potential problems such as settlements, de-watering problem,
rock excavation, etc. and their solution.
Soil electrical and thermal resistivity measurement method and procedure.

Contractor shall not start the investigation and boring until they receive the approval of
preliminary geotechnical proposal from company.
The soil borehole shall be every structure location (including angle points). Contractor
shall provide an A-size drawing in SEC format (drawing number, index, plant number
etc.) and showing the location of bore holes. Minimum depth of borehole shall be 2B,
where B is the width of the foundation, and in no case shall be less than 8 meters for
pad/chimney foundations. For augured drilled soil piers, the borehole depth shall be at
least 3 m below the bottom of the pier-anticipated foundation. In case of rock, it shall be
1.0 m under the top of rock.
The contractor shall obtain right to entry and access to the required boring location and
right to perform the boring and any other tests. He shall take every precaution to protect
from damage any existing water sewer, gas and electric conduit lines and other
installations. The work shall comply with all the applicable requirements of all codes
and regulations at site.

TESP12206R0/JQA

Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

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TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

The responsibility of the contractor is to provide to SEC all test reports of the results of
subsurface soil mechanics, chemical, geophysical and electrical investigations. The
report shall clearly indicate:
-Saudi Electricity Company (SEC)
-Contractor's name and address
-Contractor's Project Name and Number
-Laboratory name and address
-Date of beginning and time
-Date of completion and time
-Weather conditions
-Tower Reference number
-Surface elevation
-Name of subcontractor (if any), operator, inspector, engineer or geologist.
-Signature of authorized Geo-tech Engineer and Contractor
Qualified geologist, soil mechanic engineer and more than 10 years experience
technicians is required to work in this investigation either planning or field tests.
Explosives and blasting of any type shall not be permitted.
The subsurface soil characteristics shall be submitted using one or more applicable
methods indicated in every project specification along the line route, the measurements
shall be done wherever the soil characteristic change is encountered along the line route.
The measurements shall be done at every tower location of the OHL. The depth of
borehole at each tower location shall be to minimum ten (10) meters below the ground
surface and soil data shall be recorded at every one (1) meter depth or wherever the subsurface soil characteristics changes (whichever is less).
4.1.1 General
There are three investigatory phases that shall be taken into account namely:
a)

Preliminary Investigation

b)

Design Investigation

c)

Construction Verification

The subsurface investigation program shall follow a sequence of preliminary


investigation leading to design investigation followed by construction
verification. To assist the engineer in judging what scope of subsurface
investigation is best suited for a project, each of these three investigatory phases
is described in the following sections:

TESP12206R0/JQA

Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

4.1.2 Preliminary Investigation


The purpose of the preliminary subsurface investigation is to provide sufficient
information for the following:
a)

Integrating subsurface conditions into the line route selection and


structure location process.

b)

Establishing the most appropriate foundation types for cost comparison.

c)

Assisting in the evaluation of the environmental impact of proposed


construction; for example, dewatering for excavations.

d)

Verifying that available information from previous experience on or near


the right-of-way is applicable to the project under consideration.

e)

Evaluating the terrain for construction purposes.

f)

Evaluating geotechnical problems such as the potential for landslides,


erosion, etc.

g)

Establishing a basis for the development of the de-tailed exploration


program.

The preliminary subsurface investigation shall consist of collecting existing data


relating to subsurface conditions, and making a geotechnical field
reconnaissance of the line route. If considered cost effective, preliminary borings
should be made to verify and increase confidence in existing data and
reconnaissance mapping.
a.

Existing Data
A considerable amount of data regarding surficial geology, including
distribution of surface water, depth of groundwater, depth and physical
characteristics of bedrock and type and thickness of soil cover, is
available from several resources, such as Geotechnical investigation of
existing transmission line rights-of-way.

TESP12206R0/JQA

Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

b.

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

Field Reconnaissance
Another useful means of obtaining information during the preliminary
subsurface investigation is to perform a field reconnaissance survey of
the transmission line route. The reconnaissance shall be performed by a
geotechnical engineer or engineering geologist. The purpose of the
reconnaissance is to develop a map of the surficial soils showing areas
that may offer particular foundation problems such as deep peat or soft
organic silt, bedrock outcrops, areas of high groundwater table, and areas
of potential slope instability. The soil and rock classifications used in the
mapping shall be based on engineering properties, not on geological or
agricultural distinctions. By combining the information from the field
reconnaissance and existing published information, a preliminary line
route map showing basic soil or rock types, inferred depth to bedrock,
and elevation of the groundwater table can be developed.

c.

Preliminary Borings
The development of a surficial map usually is the final step in the
preliminary investigation. Occasionally, the information available at this
point in the investigation results in the need to interpret the subsurface
conditions within a wide range of possibilities. In this case, it may be
cost effective to obtain a few preliminary borings in those areas where
interpretation is difficult and may affect the foundation design
significantly.
Preliminary borings are generally used for soil classification purposes
only and disturbed samples are thus satisfactory. The most common
methods of obtaining disturbed samples are auger borings and using a
heavy walled split-barrel sampler which is driven into the soil at selected
intervals in the boring. Refer to Company Standard Geotechnical
Investigation for detailed Guidelines and recommendations.
Since ground water affects many elements of foundation design and
construction, its elevation shall be established as accurate as possible if it
is within the probable construction zone. It is generally determined by
measuring to the water level in the borehole after a suitable time lapse. A
period of 24 hours is a typical time interval. However, in clays and other
soils of low permeability, it may require several days to weeks to
determine a meaningful water level. Standpipes or other perforated
casings may be used to prevent the borehole from caving in during this
period.

TESP12206R0/JQA

Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

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TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

4.1.3 Design Investigation


The significance of the design investigation is to provide the design engineer
with sufficient subsurface information in selecting types of foundations most
suitable at each structure location, determine the size and depth of selected
foundation and evaluate potential construction problems.
The information required to achieve these goals includes:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
h)
i)
j)
k)
l)
m)
n)

Type of structure and allowable foundation movements.


Magnitude and duration of structure loading at the ground line.
Stratigraphy of the subsurface materials.
Elevation of the ground water table.
Engineering properties of the subsurface materials.
Submerged and saturated weight of soil
Modulus of subgrade reaction
Coefficient of lateral earth pressure
Rock Quality designation (RQD)
Cone angle for uplift
Standard Penetration Test (SPT) N values
Dutch Cone Penetration Test Rp values

On any transmission line route, these five factors may vary considerably, and the
detailed investigation shall provide the required information in a cost-effective
manner. Ideally, a detailed subsurface investigation would require a boring at
each structure site or foundation
Development of the Subsurface Investigation Program shall be done to obtain
detailed information of the location of the structure foundations. To promote
uniformity in obtaining test data on soil samples obtained in a test boring
program, the procedures and relevant standards described in Design Manual
NAVFAC DM-7 shall be followed. For all foundations, site soil parameters shall
be ascertained from soil borings and from the laboratory soil tests. Soil
properties and parameters which are to be determined are listed below for use in
various design procedures:

TESP12206R0/JQA

Total unit weight of the soil, kN/m3


(The cohesive strength is taken as one half of the unconfined
compressive strength.)

The angle of internal friction of the soil, in degrees

Standard Penetration test value

Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

4.1.4

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

Construction Verification
The Company shall have representatives in the field during foundation
construction to determine if the actual subsurface conditions are similar to those
conditions used in the foundation design. If the subsurface conditions used in the
foundation design differ from the actual conditions, it may be necessary to
enlarge the foundation or change the foundation type.

4.2

Soil Conditions in Saudi Arabia


The more significant soil conditions prevalent in Saudi Arabia include:
4.2.1 Areas of Sabkhah
Sabkhah as described in TCS-Q-113.02 Earthwork Standard is a material that is
firm enough to support roadways when dry but becomes soft and unstable when
wet. Sabkhah areas are to be avoided to the extent that such avoidance is
practical. Because of the length of transmission lines and considerable number
and extent of these areas, the construction of some foundations in this material
may be unavoidable. Therefore, it is mandatory at such locations that
improvement of soil as stated in TCS-Q-113.02 shall be considered and
implemented.
4.2.2 Areas of Aeolian Sand and Marl
The presence of Sands introduces the problem of shifting of the overburden at
the foundation due to wind action. This problem can be alleviated to some extent
by elevating the soil surface at each foundation and stabilizing the elevated
surface with crude oil; this practice tends to prevent the depositing of wind-borne
sand at the foundation. The more severe situation occurs when, instead of being
deposited on the foundation, the, surface sand blows away from the foundation;
the same surface stabilization practice tends to alleviate this situation as well.
However, because this soil stabilization practice will have a limited life, regular
patrols of the line must be made to discover if excessive reveal is causing any
foundations to become unsafe. Foundations in these areas should be marked to
indicate design reveal and maximum safe reveal. Soil stabilization is discussed in
TES-P-122.11, Transmission Line Access roads and Structure Pads.
4.2.3 Rock Areas
Where the surface consists of rock outcroppings, the rock is generally a
weathered limestone that is drillable to a sufficient depth to install wood poles or
tower "rock anchor" type foundations. However, the type of foundations to be
adopted shall be the discretion of design engineer.

TESP12206R0/JQA

Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

4.3

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

Standard Soil Classification


In addition to reports including the required information outlined in Section 8.1, the soil
shall be classified into five types for design purposes. Table-1 shows the main properties
of standard soil classification.
4.3.1 Type A Soil
Intact or solid bed rock which has not been subjected to fracturing due to severe
weathering and which is firmly cemented together.
4.3.2 Type B Soil
Shattered rock or medium to dense cohesionless soil with the water table at a
depth below the foundation equal to or greater than the width of the foundation.
The soil shall have a Standard Penetration Test blow count of 15 or greater.
Medium to stiff cohesive soil with a Standard Penetration Test blow count of 10
or greater. The unconfined compression strength shall be greater than 120
kN/m2.
4.3.3 Type C Soil
Medium to dense cohensionless soil or medium stiff cohesive soil which may be
fissured. The soils may occasionally be below the water table.
4.3.4 Type D Soil
Loose or saturated sand or soft clay. Bracing of the excavation will be required.
4.3.5 Type E Soil
Areas of Sabkhah or unstable soils where characteristics are subject to dramatic
change with the water table. Such soils will require piles to be driven through the
soft, unstable zone into a more stable soil as required to develop the required
foundation capacity.

TESP12206R0/JQA

Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

PAGE NO. 17 OF 59

TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

Table-1
Standard Soil Properties

Soil Type
SOIL CONDITION

C
D
Occasionally Wet
Wet Surface
Surface
Surface

Dry

Location
Water Table

Below
Below
Foundation Foundation

Surface

Unit Weight Soil


kN/m3
Ultimate Soil
Bearing
Pressure
kN/m2 (max.)
Ultimate Soil
Shearing Or Lateral
Shear Stress
kN/m2 (max.)
Plane of Rupture

19.5

15.69

9.81

9.81

9.81

1000

250

100

50

30

100

25

10

300

300

300

Average Blow Count


Cohesionless
Cohesive

Over 50
Over 50

15-50
10-50

8-15
6-10

4-6
4-6

0
0

Dry

E
Wet

Soil symbol

Special Soil Symbol


4.4

Special Soil Type


In case the subsurface soil investigation encounters a very hard soil or very loose soil
properties of which do not fall within Table-l and the total cost of the OHL will be
affected and when the line route length in such area exceeds 1000m; SEC shall modify
the line route in this area if this modification is economically feasible. Otherwise, the
contractor/surveyor shall carry out the required tests in order to provide the special soil
properties along with test reports and his recommendations for cement and tower
foundations. The special soil shall be given a designation letter as required.

TESP12206R0/JQA

Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

PAGE NO. 18 OF 59

TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

5.0

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

PERFORMANCE CRITERIA
In establishing performance criteria, the definition of foundation failure should be thoroughly
understood by both the foundation designer and structure designer in order to have a safe and
economical foundations design. In essence, failure occurs when pre-established foundation
performance criteria are exceeded. For example, performance criteria could be set at a
magnitude of displacement that would endanger the stability of the structure at a level that
would impair the operational safety of the transmission line. The amount of allowable
displacement is dependent on the type of structure.
5.1

Latticed Towers
Latticed tower foundation loads consist of vertical tension (uplift) or compression forces
and horizontal shear forces. For tangent and small-line angle towers, the vertical loads
on a foundation may be either uplift or compression. For terminal and large-line angle
towers, the foundations on one side may always be loaded in uplift while the other side
may always be loaded in compression. The distributions of horizontal forces between
the foundations of a latticed tower vary with the bracing of the structure. Care shall be
taken to include both the transverse and longitudinal components in all tower members
connected to the foundations. A typical free body diagram is shown in Figure 5.1.
When the foundations of a tower displace and the geometric relationship of the tower to
its foundations remains the same, any increase in load due to this displacement will have
a minimal effect on the tower and its foundation. However, foundation movements that
change the geometric relationship between the tower and its foundations will
redistribute the loads in the tower members and foundations. This will usually cause
greater reactions on the foundation that moves least relative to the tower, which in turn
will tend to equalize this differential displacement.
At the present time, the effects of differential foundation movements are normally not
included in tower design. Several options are available to the engineer considering
differential foundation displacements in the tower design, including designing the
foundations to satisfy performance criteria that will not cause significant secondary
loads on the tower, or designing the tower to with-stand specified differential foundation
movements.

5.2

Single Shaft Monopole Structures


These structures have one foundation precluding differential foundation movement.
Foundation reactions consist of a large, overturning moment and relatively small
horizontal, vertical, and torsional loads. Figure 5.2 presents a free-body diagram of the
loads.

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For single-shaft structures, the foundation movement of concern is the angular rotation
of the shaft in the vertical plane and horizontal displacement of the top of the
foundation. When these displacements have been determined, the displacement of the
conductors can be computed. Under high wind loading, a corresponding deflection of
the conductors perpendicular to the transmission line can be permitted.
Accordingly, a large ground line displacement of the foundation could also be permitted.
Due to foundation rotation, the clearance between the conductors and the structure
would be decreased only for structures with single string insulators. The mid span
ground clearance and the change in line angle would also decrease a negligible amount.
In establishing performance criteria for single-shaft structure foundations, consideration
shall be given to how much total, as well as permanent, displacement can be permitted.
In some cases, large permanent displacements might be aesthetically unacceptable, and
re-plumbing of either the structures, their foundations, or both, may be required. In
establishing performance criteria, the cost of re-plumbing shall be compared to the cost
of a foundation that is more resistant to displacement.
For terminal and large-line angle structures, large foundation deflections parallel to the
conductor are probably not tolerable. For these structures, the deflection may
excessively reduce the conductor to ground clearance, or affect the load capacity of
adjacent structures. There are also problems in the stringing and sagging of conductors if
the deflections are excessive. This problem is usually resolved by construction methods
or use of permanent guys.
5.3

Framed Structures
The stability of these structures is dependent in part on one or more of their joints
resisting moment. The foundation reactions are dependent upon which joints can resist
moment and the relative stiffness of the members. Although these foundation reactions
are statically indeterminate, they can be determined by making assumptions that result
in a statically determinate structure. In addition, the structure can be analyzed as an
indeterminate structure using techniques such as moment distribution or computerized
stiffness matrix procedures.
Figures 5.3 and 5.4 Shows free-body diagrams of four and two-legged framed
structures. If the bases of structures are designed with pins or universal joints, then the
moments acting upon the foundations theoretically will be zero.
Many different types of two-legged, H-framed structures are in use in transmission lines.
This has been particularly true in recent years since visual impact has become of greater
concern.

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The H-framed structure is particularly applicable for wood, tubular steel, and concrete
poles. The cross arm may be pin-connected to the poles. These structures may be
unbraced, braced, or internally guyed as shown in Figure 5.5.
As with latticed towers, past practice has usually not included the influence of
foundation displacement and translation in H-framed structure design. Significant
foundation movement will redistribute the frame and foundation loads. The foundations
can be designed to experience movements that will not produce significant secondary
stresses, or the structure can be designed to a predetermined maximum allowable
displacement and rotation.
5.4

Externally Guyed Structures


There are two general types of externally guyed structures. For all types, the guys
produce uplift loads on the guy foundations and compression loads on the structure
foundation. The guys are generally adjustable in length to permit plumbing of the
structure during construction, and to account for creep in the guy and movement of the
uplift anchor.
5.4.1 The first type of guyed structure consists of a single shaft as shown in Figure 5.6.
This type of structure is often used as a terminal and large-line angle structure,
its flexibility allows most of the load to be resisted by tension in the guys and
compression in the main shaft.
Generally, this type of guyed structure can tolerate significant foundation
movement as far as its own structural integrity is concerned; however, like the
terminal and large-line angle poles discussed in 5.2, when excessive guy anchor
slippage occurs, problems such as conductor-to-ground clearance, security of
adjacent structures, and stringing and sagging conductors can develop.
5.4.2 The second type of externally guyed structure is a conventional latticed tower
guyed to reduce its leg loads and foundation reactions. This approach is often
used to upgrade existing towers.

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The flexibility of the guy combined with the flexibility of the tower is necessary
to compute foundation reactions and anchor loads. The maximum amount of
anchor slippage can be selected, and the tower and anchors designed
accordingly. The initial and final modulus of elasticity of the guys plus the creep
of the guys should be considered. The amount of pretension in the guys should
be specified. Load testing of the guy anchors is recommended to ensure against
excessive slippage. Figure 5.7 shows a typical installation.
The leg foundations are required to resist only horizontal shear forces and
vertical compression or uplift loads. As in the case of the latticed towers,
discussed in 5.1, the load distribution in the component structural elements is
sensitive to the foundation performance. Differential displacements of the tower
legs will result in load redistribution, and may affect the integrity of the tower.

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Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

6.0

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

LOADING CRITERIA
6.1

Loading
Saudi Electricity Company (SEC) has established loading cases, as specified in the latest
revision of TES-P-122.05, "Transmission Structures", for the design of transmission line
systems. Based on this information, the design engineer shall analyze the structural
system and appropriate combinations of axial, shear and moment loads acting on every
foundation for each loading case.

6.2

Overload Capacity Factors


The ultimate foundation reactions obtained from tower analysis shall then be multiplied
by foundation overload capacity factors and shall be applied to the design (stability &
strength) of foundations. The foundation overload capacity factors are as tabulated
below.
Table2-FOUNDATION OVERLOAD CAPACITY FACTORS

TESP12206R0/JQA

Loads On Foundation

Pile Type Foundations

All Other Type


Foundations

Uplift

2.0

1.5

Compression

2.0

1.5

Lateral

2.0

1.5

Overturning

2.0

1.5

Sliding

2.0

1.5

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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

6.3

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

Seismic Load
Generally, tower foundations shall survive under moderate earthquake tremors without
noticeable distress. Foundations shall be designed with corresponding seismic zone
probability of Seismic Design Criteria for R.C structures in Saudi Arabia, King Saud
University College of Engineering and Uniform Building Code or 01-TMSS-01 if the
location is other than those in the Table below.
TABLE-3

SEISMIC ZONE TABULATION


SEISMIC ZONE NUMBER
LOCATION
(SZN)

TESP12206R0/JQA

HAFAR AL-BATIN

DHAHRAN

JEDDAH

2A

KHAMIS MUSHAYT

2B

RIYADH

TABOUK

2A

Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

7.0

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

CONCRETE FOUNDATION
Foundation shall be designed per the requirement of ACI 318M except as modified in this
section. Concrete to be use in the foundation shall meet the requirements of SEC Material
Standard 70-TMSS-03.
7.1

Materials
7.1.1 The minimum of 28 day compressive strength of concrete shall be determined
from the result of the soil chemical analysis. The degree of exposure of concrete
shall be based on the requirements of SEC Material Standard 70-TMSS-03.
In the absence of soil chemical analysis, the Design Engineer will specify the
degree of exposure of concrete to be adopted from the soil chemical analysis of
particular projects in the area.
7.1.2 Reinforcing steel will be deformed bars conforming to SASO SSA 2 with
minimum yield strength of 420 MPa as required by design. Deformations shall
conform to ASTM A615M.
7.1.3 All steel reinforcement sizes and properties shall conform to SASO Standard.

7.2

Details of Design
7.2.1 Axial forces within the pier, both tension and compression will be considered to
extend the full length of the pier. The effect of skin friction in diminishing the
axial load will be ignored insofar as reinforcement design is concerned. Skin
friction on the pier will be considered in calculating resistance to external loads
on the pier.
7.2.2 Shear reinforcement requirements, if any, will be determined from the maximum
shear in the foundation due to tower design loads including overload capacity
factors. If shear reinforcement is required, it will be provided for full length of
the pier.
7.2.3 Pier embedment lengths will be given in 0.30 meter intervals.
7.7.4 Piers for steel monopoles will be located concentrically with the pole shaft.
Piers of latticed steel towers will be offset from back-of-angle at top of concrete
to allow for stub angle placement.

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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

7.3

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

Details of Reinforcement
7.3.1 Minimum longitudinal reinforcement shall as per ACI 318M requirements. More
reinforcement may be required by bending in the pier or as noted below. Not less
than 20 mm bar size will be used for longitudinal reinforcement and not larger
than 32 mm bar size will be used in any pier.
7.3.2 Minimum tie size will be 12 mm diameter bar. More ties may be required by
shear in the pier. Maximum spacing of ties shall not exceed 16 longitudinal bar
diameters, 48 tie diameters or pier least dimension, nor more than 50 cm.
7.3.3 Lap splice (compression and tension) lengths have been calculated as 1.7 x
development length for longitudinal steel (Class C splice) and 1.7 x development
length x 0.8 for 'tie steel (see Chapter 12 of ACI 318M, Code and Commentary).
Splice of rebar shall be staggered and not more than 50% at one location.
7.3.4 Vertical bars shall be placed within the ties, and tied to the ties at each
intersection. Tie wire shall be a minimum of 1.31 mm2.
7.3.5 Welding is not permitted.
7.3.6 Minimum concrete cover shall be 7.5 cm, measured from the Concrete surface to
the outside surface of the ties. (This minimum concrete cover allows for some
hole out-of-roundness and/or out-of-plumbness which may occur during
construction, and for some flexibility of the reinforcing cage.)
7.3.7 Longitudinal steel shall extend to 7.5 cm below top of concrete, and 10 cm +/2.5 cm above the design bottom of the pier. If, during construction the pier, it is
slightly longer than detailed, the rebar cage shall be lifted to within 7.5 cm of the
top of the pier.

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Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

8.0

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

FOUNDATION CLASSIFICATIONS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS


The SEC OHL Survey & Soil Investigation specifies five types of soils: A, B, C, D & E, while
OHL Tower foundations shall be classified into:
1.

Pad and Chimney (PA)

2.

Auger (AU)

3.

Anchor (AN)

4.

Pile (PI)

5.

Grillage (GR)

Each of these five foundation types shall be subclassified into several classes: 1.2. 3. 4. ...etc.,
depending on the applied loads, foundation size, dimensions, reinforcement. etc. Therefore,
each tower foundation shall be distinguished by two parts, first part shall be one of the above
mentioned types (i.e. PA, AU, AN, PI or GR) while the second part shall be class l or class 2 or
class 3, ...etc. (Example AU2 means Auger foundation of class 2).
Applicable foundation type in accordance with the type of soils shall generally be:
Soil Type A: Anchor (AN). Auger (AU) & Pad & Chimney (PA)
Soil Type B: Auger (AU) and Pad & Chimney (PA)
Soil Type C: Auger (AU) and Pad & Chimney (PA)
Soil Type D: Pad & Chimney (PA) and Pile (PI)
Soil Type E: Pad & Chimney (PA). Pile (PI) & Grillage (GR)
In general, the foundation shall be of reinforced concrete. Four separate footing foundations
shall be offered for each lattice tower.
Under all reinforced foundations a blinding layer of concrete of 100 mm has to be laid. All
foundation types shall have an average height of 600 mm above ground. In flooded areas the
height of foundations above ground shall be minimum (1.2m) and shall be designed to resist the
mechanical loads and chemical flood water effect.

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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

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The thickness of the concrete layer above all steel reinforcing parts shall not be less than 75mm.
All foundations upper part shall be slightly sloped to prevent accumulation of water. All
foundations situated at a distance of less than 30 m from any roadway shall be protected by a
crash barrier to ensure the protection of towers against vehicles. The general design of the crash
barriers shall be as per TES-P-119.19.
Different sizes of each foundation type shall be designed for various types of towers and heights
from this standard in order to produce an economical family of foundations for all supports.
Special precautions will be required with towers sited in or adjacent to Waddis. The foundations
and bases of these towers shall be properly protected to withstand the effects of flash-flooding.
The types of foundations usually used for transmission lines of various constructions can be
summarized as follows:
8.1

Direct Embedment Foundations


Usually wood monopoles and H-frame are directly embedded in the soil in a preaugered hole; the hole is backfilled with compacted sand or crushed rock backfill.
Backfill in sandy soils should be compacted to 85% Relative Density in accordance with
ASTM D4253 and ASTM D4254; backfill in cohesive soils shall be compacted to 95%
Modified Proctor in accordance with ASTM D698.
To improve bearing capacity for downward loads, pole bearing plates can be added to
produce a greater bearing area. To improve uplift capacity, additional screw anchors
can be added to engage a larger volume of resisting soil.
To improve lateral load capacity, pole keys may be added to spread the lateral load over
a larger area. Direct embedment, coupled with these various improvements, should be
suitable in all areas except Sabkhah.

8.2

Driven Pile Foundations


Wood structures located in Sabkhah areas will probably require either piling, driven
through the soft and unstable zone into soil or soft rock that is more dense and stable, or
larger diameter concrete piers extending down to, and anchored into, bedrock. When
wood poles are attached to steel piles, care shall be taken in design to avoid removal of
wood in locations that cause weakening of the pole.
Latticed tower located in areas of Sabkhah, pile foundations or deep piers anchored into
bedrock will be required.

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Where low ground bearing capacity and high water table are encountered either concrete
pad and chimney with enlarged pad or pile (bored or driven) foundation may be used.
Tests will be carried out on test piles installed at specific pile sites to confirm that the
design based on the soil data are satisfactory.
Piles of material other than concrete require the special experience of the proposed
system. In any case, such systems require SEC approval. The minimum bearing capacity
of a pile shall be 250 kN. Lateral loads shall be resisted by passive earth pressure.
Concrete pile shall contain minimum of 370 kg/m3 cement and a minimum compression
strength of 37.5 MPa. The maximum water/cement ratio shall be 0.42.
8.3

Drilled Pier Foundations


Usually steel poles are founded on cast-in-place concrete piers, thus disassociating the
structure design from the foundation design, except for common loadings. Usually, steel
latticed structures also are founded on cast-in-place drilled piers.

8.4

Anchor Foundations (AN)


Anchors are long, very slender structural elements. Plate anchors are long rods with flat
plates in various levels. They are placed in excavated holes and backfilled with soil.
Grouted anchors are long rods which are placed in excavated holes and then grouted to
fill the annulus. Anchors often are installed in a group and tied together through a cap to
form a foundation. However, many variations are employed for specific situations.
Anchor foundation shall be permitted only in a solid, sound non-weathering ledge rock.
The holes in rock shall be made in such a manner as to eliminate the possibility of
serious cracking of the rock. The dimensions of the hole shall be approved, but the depth
of stub actually grouted into the rock shall in no case be less than 1000 mm. The stubs
shall be completely galvanised, except that it shall be permissible to cut off, on site,
lengths at the bottom ends of the stubes where the upper surface of the rock is at or near
ground level. The stubs shall be firmly keyed and grouted into the rock and shall be
encased as. for other types of foundation with the exception that the encasing concrete
shall extend down to the upper surface of the rock. Where the use of stubes embedded in
rock is not economical, other types of anchor foundation may be used if approved by
SEC.
Field load tests shall be carried out to demonstrate adequacy of used anchor foundation.
Rock anchor shall be high strength deformed rods, centered and grouted in holes whose
diameters are at least twice the diameter of the rods.

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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

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The uplift capacity of the anchor foundation shall be equated to:

8.5

The yield strength of the anchor rod.

In sound homogenous rock to the shear resistance of an inverted cone surface of


the rock with its apex at the bottom of the anchor contained with an angle of 90
to which is added the weight of the cone of rock thus described.

In fissured rock only the weight of a 30 cone of rock shall be considered


resisting uplift.

The rock to grout bond resistance based on an ultimate rock to grout strength
equal to 10% of unconfined compressive strength of the rock or grout whichever
is smaller. The minimum grouted length rod shall not be less than 40 times the
rod diameter in sound ledge rock but in no case less than 1.5 m, while in fissured
rock the minimum length shall be 3 m.

Pad & Chimney Foundation (PA)


This type of foundation shall be used wherever possible. The foundation shall be
designed with the centreline of the chimney having the same batter as the tower leg and
intersecting the footing at its centroid. The pad & chimney crossection shall be of
cylindrical, rectangular or square shape.
In order to achieve maximum uplift resistance the footing slab shall be preferably
engaged into the undisturbed soil by undercutting at the base level, otherwise disturbed
soil parameters shall be used.
The minimum depth of foundation shall be 1.8m. The minimum size of the chimney
shall be 600 mm diameter in circular cross-section OR 0.3 m2 area in rectangular and
square cross section with a minimum dimension of 550 mm.
The tower stub shall be extended into the main concrete pad and encased in reinforced
concrete which shall extend without joints from the pad to a specified height above
ground level. All steel work below ground level shall be firmly keyed, grouted and
designed to withstand the loads due to the specified condition.
Adhesion between the galvanised stubs and pad and chimney foundations shall not be
entirely relied upon for transmitting load to the foundations, stubs shall be provided with
bolted on cleats which shall comply with the requirements of Technical Data Schedule
and shall be capable of supporting 60 percent of the ultimate uplift or compressive load.
In the case of foundations employing short stubs eg. rock or caission foundations, the
cleats shall be capable of supporting 100 percent of the ultimate uplift or compressive
loads.

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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

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Subject to the agreement of SEC in each location, concrete pad and chimney
foundations as stated earlier in this clause will generally be employed with undercut
excavations. At tower sites where soil conditions will permit a satisfactory undercut
without risk of collapse, the base of the excavation walls shall be so undercut. The
undercut shall extend to a minimum of 300 mm outside the walls of the excavation
which shall be vertical. The outer edge of the undercut shall also be vertical for a
minimum of l00 mm and the upper surface sloped to an angle of 50 from the
horizontal. All undercutting of excavations for foundations as defined shall be carried
out by hand tools and the use of excavators will not be permitted.
Care shall be taken to ensure that inclusions of foreign matter do not occur during
concreting and the base and sides of the excavation shall be lined with waterproof paper
to prevent the migration of cement and fine aggregate. The passive pressure shall be
neglected in relation to horizontal forces on pad and chimney foundation for purposes of
design.
8.6

Auger Foundation (AU)


Where ground conditions permit, the use of auger foundation will be permitted, subject
to the satisfactory type test of the proposed auger foundation. The auger foundation shall
be undercut type.
The foundation design shall be based on uplift frustum principles with the frustum
developed from the edge of the undercut. To ensure that the design undercut is properly
filled with homogenous concrete, a parallel section of shaft shall be cut for a length of
100 mm below the outer edge of the undercut. The foundation shall be of steel
reinforced concrete construction. Lateral loads shall be resisted by lateral earth pressure.

8.7

Grillage Foundation (GR)


Grillage foundation may be used for tower Type A, B, C, G & H only. The steel grillage
shall consist of angle members suitably connected to the stubs with the flat surfaces
bedded on a level layer of sand or fine gravel of not less than 15mm in thickness to
ensure that the grillage shall be level and that all loads shall be distributed uniformly on
the surrounding earth If the grillage consists of an open grill the spaces between the bars
shall not exceed the width of a bar. The depth of excavations shall be carefully taken out
to the proper level.
Pyramidal grillages shall have their centroid in line with the tower legs.
The net area of the bases of steel grillages shall be used for bearing calculation.

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The design of steel grillages shall be in accordance with allowable unit stresses and
design formulation used for tower design. As an allowance for corrosion grillage
member thicknesses shall be increased by 2 mm on all surfaces over the design
thickness. Minimum bolt diameter shall be 16 mm.
The use of steel grillages will not be permitted in highly corrosive soils, below the
highest ground water level.
Backfilling in sandy soil shall be compacted to 85% relative density, while in conhesive
soil shall be compacted to 95%. Filling an over-excavated hole with earth or hard filling
will not be permitted and in this event the level shall be made up with a concrete pad not
less than 75 mm thick at no extra charge.
All steelwork for grillage foundation shall be galvanised and shall be treated with two
coats of bitumastic paint (or other approved protective coatings) and carried up the
steelwork for 300 mm above ground level.

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Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

9.0

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

DESIGN PROCEDURES
9.1

Procedure for Drilled Pier Foundations


In general, drilled shaft foundations are applicable to the, three major types of
transmission structures, that is, latticed towers, H-structures (framed, pinned, and
braced), and single shafts (monopoles).
For single-shaft structures, both longitudinal and transverse loads and their resultant
overturning moments are resisted by the lateral interaction of the drilled shaft foundation
with the materials in which it is embedded. The same is true for transverse loads on
pinned H-structures and for longitudinal loads in pinned, framed, and braced Hstructures. However, for framed and braced H-structures, the transverse overturning
moments are resisted primarily by axial loads in the drilled shaft foundation.
Both transverse and longitudinal loads on latticed towers are resisted primarily by axial
loads in the shafts, although the shafts will also be subjected to lateral ground-line
shears. Figure 9.1 illustrates the loads applied to the three types of structures and the
loads transmitted to their foundations.
Drilled concrete shafts are applicable to all three structure types, but are particularly
appropriate for single shaft structures where high overturning moments are anticipated.
For latticed towers, both straight shaft and belled shafts are commonly used. The drilled
shafts can be installed vertically or on a batter that has the same true slope as the leg, as
shown in Figure 9.2. Where the shafts are installed with the true leg batter, the shaft
shear load is greatly reduced. For H-structures and single-pole structures, the shafts are
normally constructed vertically.
Direct embedment foundations are applicable to single-pole structures and H-structures.
They are not applicable to latticed towers. The uplift capacity of directly embedded
foundations is related to the quality of the backfill and the adhesive and frictional forces
that can be mobilized at the pole-backfill interface. Significant end-bearing on hollow
poles can only be achieved if the pole base is closed with a base plate. Additional
bearing capacity can be obtained by installing bearing plates or similar base expanding
devices.
Precast-prestressed, hollow concrete shafts are applicable where large overturning
moments are to be resisted, as in the case of single-pole structures. They may also be
used in H-structures and latticed towers.
Analysis techniques for drilled shaft foundations subjected to various loading modes are
described in Reference 11f.

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Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

9.2

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

Procedure for Driven Pile Foundations


A pile is a structural element that is used to transmit loads through soft soils to denser
underlying soils or rock. The pile is normally installed by top driving with a pile
hammer.
Piles provide high axial load capacity and relatively low shear or bending moment
capacity. Therefore, pile foundations are normally used more often for latticed towers,
which have low shear and high axial loads, than for framed structures or single-shaft
structures, which have high moment and shear loads.
Driven piles will be analyzed as described in Reference 11f.

9.3

Procedure for Anchor Foundations


Anchors are used to permanently support guyed structures, as well as to temporarily
support other structure types during erection and stringing. The legs of latticed towers
can be anchored directly by rock anchors or helix type anchors. The uplift capacity of
spread foundations may be increased through the use of anchors as shown in Figure 9.4.
Guys and anchors are also extensively used to terminate wire loads on wood structures
and to increase wood structure capacity for high transverse loading. At intermediate
structure locations, guy and anchors may be utilized to provide additional longitudinal
strength. Anchors can be used to increase the load capacity of existing foundations.
Anchors will be analyzed as described in Reference 11f.

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Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

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TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING STANDARD

10.0

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

LOAD TESTS
10.1

General
10.1.1 Purposes of Load Tests
Transmission line structure foundations are load-tested for the following reasons:
a)

Verification of the foundation design for a specific transmission line.

b)

Verification of the adequacy of a foundation after construction.

c)

Assistance in research investigations.

Load tests conducted as part of a foundation investigation for a particular


transmission line help the engineer determine the most cost-effective foundation
for support of transmission line structures. These tests are performed after the
preliminary subsurface investigation of the right-of-way and prior to the final
design of the foundations.
Load tests conducted as a check on the adequacy of a foundation after
construction verify that the foundation can withstand a particular load. These
tests are performed routinely on grouted soil or rock anchors to ensure their
capacity. It may be necessary to load test existing foundations if higher loads are
proposed, for example, as a result of reconductoring.
Load tests may be conducted on transmission structure foundations to improve
general knowledge of foundation behavior. Results of these research studies lead
to improved transmission structure foundation design methods and, in the long
term, help reduce foundation costs.
Many load tests have been performed in such a manner that the results are of
little value to the engineering profession. For example, the literature contains
many examples of load test results that do not include an accurate and complete
description of the soil or rock in which the load tests were performed.
This section is intended to guide engineers to develop testing programs that
provide a sufficient quantity and quality of information to make the tests more
useful to the individual engineer and to the engineering profession in general.

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10.1.2 Benefits
In general information provided by load tests reduces the uncertainties inherent
in the design of foundations, resulting in a more economical and safe design. A
load test program shall be justified by a cost/benefit analysis, that is, the
expected cost of the load test program shall be weighed against the potential
benefits of the information obtained from the load tests. Examples of the benefits
of load tests are:
a.

When a large number of Foundations


Number of foundations is to be constructed, the cost of a load test
program may be relatively small when compared to the foundation cost
savings that might result from the load test information.

b.

Subsurface Conditions
Uncertain soil/rock properties result in uncertainties in determining
foundation behavior. One accurate way to determine foundation behavior
in a particular soil type is to perform full-scale load tests. Results of load
tests performed in one soil type may allow the efficient design of
foundations in similar soil types.

c.

Design Methods
It may be cost effective to verify the validity of an existing, modified, or
new design method. For a particular foundation type, whether it is
conventional or unique, there may be several design methods that seem
applicable, but result in widely different foundation dimensions.
Foundation load test results can lead to the selection of the appropriate
method. When a new or modified design method is proposed that would
allow a reduction in foundation costs, it is prudent to verify the validity
of the method with load tests.

d.

Construction Techniques
The construction technique used to build a specific foundation may have
a major effect on the behavior of the foundation. For example, the degree
of disturbance of the natural soil around a drilled shaft foundation is a
significant factor in design. It may not be possible to know in advance to
what degree a particular construction technique will disturb certain
subsoil. Foundations constructed using several techniques could be
tested to determine the actual effect of each construction technique.

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e.

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

Structural Design
Foundation load tests may be performed to determine if a cost-efficient
structural design procedure can be used. It is possible that these tests
could be done in conjunction with any of the above.

10.1.3 Types of Load Tests


Load tests can be classified on the basis of the type of load applied. Generally,
the load types are as follows:
a)
b)
c)

Uplift
Compression
Lateral Load

d)
e)

Overturning
Torsional

The design engineer should decide whether to: 1) apply one type of load to the
test foundations making it easier to interpret foundation response to loading; 2)
apply several types of loads simultaneously simulating actual load conditions,
but making interpretation of the foundation response more difficult, or 3) set up
the test program employing combinations of the load application scenarios given
above.
10.2

Instrumentation
The type of instrumentation required will depend on the data to be obtained to meet the
needs of the test program. As a minimum, loads applied to the foundation and
movements of the foundation shall be measured. The necessity for measuring other
parameters such as stresses in the soil and foundation, movements of soil and rock, or
both, in the zone of influence of the foundation, and pore water pressures in the soil near
the foundation should be evaluated.
Selection of the proper instruments to obtain the desired measurements shall be done by
a qualified engineer who is fully aware of the advantages and disadvantages of available
instruments. A thorough inventory of geotechnical instruments to measure load,
deformation, earth pressure, pore pressure, and temperature has been complied by
others. Seldom will one manufacturer have all of the instruments best suited to the test
program.
The fundamental attributes of an instrumentation system have been well documented. A
well planned instrumentation system shall consider the following:

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10.2.1 The variables to be measured


The measurements made during load tests are, in the order of their importanceloads, displacements, stresses and pore-water pressures.
10.2.2 The Physical Phenomenon employed in the measuring system
The technique by which a measurement is made will have an influence on the
attributes that follow.
10.2.3 Durability
The intrinsic ability of the instrument to survive in its environment - resistance to
impact, prolonged submergence, corrosive substances, temperature variations
and others.
10.2.4 Sensitivity
The smallest significant change in the variable being measured that the
instrument will detect.
10.2.5 Response Time
The ability of the measuring system to detect rapid changes in the value of the
variable being measured. This is very important in dynamic measurements and in
pore pressure measurements.
10.2.6 Range
The difference between the maximum and minimum quantities that can be
measured by a particular instrument without undergoing any alteration.
10.2.7 Reliability
The ability of an instrument to retain its specified measuring capabilities with
time.
10.2.8 Environmental Calibration
In many cases the presence of an instrument alters the behavior of the soil or
rock in the vicinity of the instrument. The environmental calibration is the
relationship between the real measurement and ideal measurement where the
ideal measurement is the value the measured variable would have had if the
instrument were not present.

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10.2.9 Accuracy
Accuracy can be defined as the tolerance of the instrument, tolerance being the
value added to or subtracted from a particular reading such that the resulting
computed range of readings bounds the actual value of the variable.
10.2.10 Data Reliability
The ability to check for erroneous readings by comparison with a separate
instrument installed in a similar position or the ability to recalibrate in-situ and
check a reference or zero reading.
Generally, the best instruments for field use are those that are of a simple, basic
design and, hence, are reliable. When new or innovative instruments are used, it
is prudent to have reliable back-up instruments until the new instruments have
proven themselves. Elaborate instrumentation programs have often failed to
produce useful results because of the use of unsuitable instruments installed and
operated by unskilled personnel.
Attention to detail in the installation of the instruments is of utmost importance.
The process of installation and in-situ calibration shall be reviewed well in
advance of installation. Problems during installation should be anticipated and
contingency plans developed to cope with the problems.
When long term tests are to be performed, stable reference points are usually
required for monitoring vertical or horizontal movements, or both. The reference
points shall be founded outside the expected zone of influence of the foundation.
10.3

Scope of Test Program


10.3.1 Literature Review
The first step toward a successful load test is a review of the literature, including
ASTM standards, to determine how tests have been performed in the past. Past
load test results may give an indication of expected movements and stresses of
foundations under loads similar to those proposed for the test program.
When reviewing load test literature, some of the important questions to consider
are the following:

TESP12206R0/JQA

a)

What foundation type was tested and how does it compare to the
proposed test foundation?

b)

How was the foundation constructed?

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c)

What type and magnitude of loads were applied and how were the loads
measured?

d)

What were the subsurface conditions at the test site?

e)

What parameters were measured and what instruments were used to


measure them?

f)

What was the reliability of the instruments?

g)

What were the values of the measured parameters and how do they
compare to predicted values?

h)

What were the conclusions of the test program and are they reasonable?

i)

Is there enough information to draw your own conclusions?

10.3.2 Development of Field Testing Program


The major elements to consider in developing a field testing program are listed
below:

TESP12206R0/JQA

a)

Foundation Types to be tested: The foundation types to be tested will


depend on which foundations are most promising for supporting the
proposed design loads in the subsurface conditions at the structure
locations. One or several foundation types can be tested. The
foundation(s) may be conventional or unique, designed by established,
modified, or new techniques.

b)

Location of Test Sites: Selecting proper sites for testing is of extreme


importance. The main goal here is to choose site(s) having subsurface
conditions representative of those that are expected to be encountered
along the proposed transmission line corridor. If subsurface conditions
vary considerably on the right-of-way, the engineer should weigh the
benefits of conducting tests in each of the subsurface conditions. Access
to the site(s) should be as easy as possible, and if more than one test is to
be performed at a particular site, adequate space should be available to
allow sufficient distance between individual tests to eliminate influence
of one test on another.

c)

Number of Test Foundations: The number of foundations to be tested


should be determined by a cost/ benefit analysis. The number required is
related to the selection of test sites.

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d)

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

Additional Geotechnical Investigations: The data obtained from the test


program will be of value to the profession only if the subsurface and
soil/rock properties are defined thoroughly.
The soil / rock properties at each test site should be known with sufficient
accuracy to interpret the test results. Commonly, the preliminary
subsurface exploration will provide the index properties of the soil or
rock, or both, along the right-of-way. In order to permit adequate
evaluation of the test results, test site require a thorough geotechnical
investigation.
In general, undistributed soil sample should be obtained from the
immediate test site. Complete soil descriptions based on the Unified Soil
Classification system should be made an appropriate index property test
performed on all samples. Engineering properties such as soil modulus
should be made.
Not only will this subsurface information be important to the
interpretation of the test results, it will also allow other engineers to
assimilate the results with their own experience.

TESP12206R0/JQA

e)

Type of Test to Perform: The types of tests that may be performed are
given in section 10.1.3. The test types required should be based on the
expected combination of loads to be applied to the transmission line
foundations as installed. Generally, much more information is obtained if
the foundation can be loaded to failure.

f)

Construction Techniques: The method and materials used to construct


test foundation should be the same as those anticipated to be used to
construct the production foundations. Some test programs center around
the use of various construction techniques to determine the one best
suited for the constructing a larger number of foundations. In this case,
each technique employed for the test program should be capable of being
repeated for the construction of the foundations on the project.

g)

Instrumentation: Deciding on the number and type of instrument to use


and the appropriate locations of the instruments is a critical step in the
tests program. The engineer should determine what the critical
parameters reflecting foundation behavior are and select instruments to
measure these parameters. The instruments should provide sufficient
information on the actual foundation behavior to allow comparisons to be
made with predicted behavior.

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In designing the instrumentation system, it is helpful to anticipate the data that


will be obtained and to try to draw conclusions from use of these data. This
rehearsal often reveals areas of the foundation that are under-instrumented or
over-instrumented. This would lead to a rearranging of the instruments to obtain
a better end result.
Excavations for construction of the test foundations are helpful in accurately
determining the subsurface conditions at the test site. The subsurface conditions
revealed during construction operations shall be described in detail. Photographs
of the construction operations and subsurface conditions should be taken
frequently.
Care shall be taken to protect vulnerable instrument parts; electrical wires shall
be tied down to prevent them from being pulled accidentally during construction
operations.
Instruments shall be monitored often during the construction phase. Initial noload readings on instruments shall be taken in the field after sufficient time has
elapsed for the instruments to adjust to field moisture and temperature
conditions. Electrical instruments shall be protected from moisture.
10.3.3 Test Performance
Preferably, the test shall be conducted in good weather; if this is not possible,
adequate protection for the-instruments shall be provided. The accuracy of the
instrumentation system shall be judged on the day of the test; some instruments
perform poorly in inclement weather. Before any loads are applied to the
foundation, a set of zero or no load readings shall be taken on all instruments.
Electrical readout instruments usually require a warm-up time to obtain stable
readings.
The loading and unloading schedule shall be established in advance of the test.
The number of loading and unloading cycles depends on the requirements of the
test program. The loads shall be applied in increments and readings of the
instruments taken during each increment. The criteria of proceeding to the next
load increment shall be established. This is usually done by plotting, during the
test, displacement of the foundation as a function of time for a given load. If, in
the opinion of the test engineer, displacements with time become insignificant
then the next load is applied. A plot of load versus displacement shall be made as
the test progresses to obtain immediate indications of the foundation behavior
under load.

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It is important to have good communication between the personnel applying the


loads to the foundation, the personnel taking readings of instruments, and the test
supervisor. If the instrument readings indicate an unsafe situation, the personnel
taking readings must be able to direct the loads to be dropped immediately.
Loads shall be applied to the foundation only by order of the test supervisor.
This requirement is to ensure safety and to enable instruments to be read on
schedule.
Loads applied to test foundations for transmission structures can be very large.
Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to proceed with caution and provide safety
to all.
When the performance of a load test requires unusual or difficult timing in
applying loads and reading instruments, it is recommended that a mock test be
perform to familiarize the test personnel with the required procedures.
It is recommended that photographs be taken during the test for documentation
purposes.
Some test programs will require post-test excavations to inspect the foundation
and the mode of failure in the surrounding soil or rock or both. These
excavations shall be well-planned so that information critical to the investigation
will not be inadvertently destroyed by the excavator.
10.3.4 Analysis and Documentation
Analysis of test results can be divided into two parts
a)

Those performed while the test is in progress; and

b)

Those performed after completion of the test.

Analysis performed while the test is in progress gives an immediate indication of


the behavior of the foundation and allows a better control of the test program.
For example, in a static load tests, the time required for sustaining each load
increment can be judged by a displacement versus time plot made in the field
while the foundation is under a particular load.
Usually, the next load increment is applied after a certain time rate of
displacement for the foundation has been reached. Applying the next load too
soon may cause the load-versus-displacement curve to be erroneous.
Plotting measurements in the field can help to point out anomalous readings.
These readings can be double-checked to determine if a simple error has
occurred or to possibly verify the reading.
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If the actual transmission structure is used to apply loads to the test foundation,
the engineer shall consider instrumenting the structure to better understand its
behavior under actual load conditions. The decision to instrument the structure
shall be based on a cost/benefit analysis in the same manner as the foundation
test program.
Some instrument readings may give an indication of impending failure of a
structural member of the test setup. These instruments shall be monitored
frequently and the readings analyzed to determine if it is safe to continue the test.
It is helpful in analyzing data to put it in a figurative form. For example, a table
of lateral displacement values along the length of a caisson tends to be difficult
to interpret, whereas a figure showing displacement profiles at each load
increment gives a good indication of the lateral displacement behavior of the
caisson. Visually depicting the data obtained during the test helps to identify
trends in the foundation behavior and allows other engineers to quickly grasp the
essential elements of the test.
The results of the tests shall be interpreted in a manner which satisfies the
requirements of the test program. Some tests will require only a simple
determination of whether a foundation moved less than an allowable value under
the maximum design load. Others will require analysis to arrive at a new method
of designing a particular foundation. The analysis shall consider the actual
subsurface conditions at the test site, including additional subsurface information
obtained during excavation for the foundation.
The behavior of the foundation predicted by widely used analytical methods
shall be compared to the actual behavior of the foundation determined on the
basis of test results. This comparison shall give an indication of the adequacy of
a particular design method for the foundation type and subsurface conditions at
the test site.
The analysis shall take into account the recent weather history of the test area
that is, wet, dry, or frozen ground.
When extrapolating the results of load tests to the design of actual foundations
on the line, it must be realized that subsurface conditions will not be known at
the actual structure sites to the degree of accuracy that they are known at test
sites. Also, construction control at structure sites will probably be much less
strict than at the test sites. The engineer has the option to add a degree of
conservatism in the design of foundations to account for the variability of
subsurface conditions and probable variances in construction technique.

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In foundation engineering, the accumulation of experience from full-scale load


tests is an extremely important asset. However, unless the experiences gained
from individual load tests can be summarized in such a manner that they can be
assimilated readily, they lose their value to the engineering profession. One
important aspect of making test results readily assimilated is to present complete
and accurate subsurface information.
The test report shall be presented such that an engineer unfamiliar with the test
can easily follow the procedures and the behavior of the foundation and
surrounding ground. The technique used to construct and test the foundation
should be fully explained.

Figure 5.1
TYPICAL LOADS ACTING ON LATTICED TOWER FOUNDATIONS

HORIZONTAL LOADS
(TRANSVERSE AND
LONGITUDINAL
COMPONENTS)
VERTICAL LOADS

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Figure 5.2
TYPICAL LOADS ACTING ON FOUNDATIONS FOR
SINGLE SHAFT STRUCTURES

OVERTURNING
MOMENTS

HORIZONTAL
LOADS

TORSIONAL
MOMENTS

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VERTICAL
LOADS

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Figure 5.3
TYPICAL LOADS ACTING ON FOUNDATIONS FOR
FOUR-LEGGED FRAMED STRUCTURES
VERTICAL
LOADS
HORIZONTAL
LOADS
MOMENTS

TORSIONAL
MOMENTS

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Figure 5.4
TYPICAL LOADS ACTING ON FOUNDATIONS FOR
TWO-LEGGED FRAMED STRUCTURES
MOMENTS

VERTICAL LOADS

TORSION

HORIZONTAL LOADS

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Figure 5.5
TYPICAL H-FRAME STRUCTURES

UNBRACED

BRACED

GUYS

INTERNALLY GUYED

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Figure 5.6
SINGLE-SHAFTS, EXTERNALLY GUYED STRUCTURE

GUYS

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Figure 5.7
EXTERNALLY GUYED LATTICED TOWER GUYS

GUYS

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Figure 9.1
LOADS APPLIED TO TRANSMISSION STRUCTURES
AND THEIR FOUNDATIONS
HORIZONTAL
WIND FORCE
COMPONENT

DEAD
LOAD

DEAD
LOAD

UPLIFT ON
FOUNDATION

HORIZONTAL
WIND FORCE
COMPONENT
FOUNDATION

DOWNWARD
FORCE ON
FOUNDATION

VERTICAL
DOWNWARD
LOAD ON
FOUNDATION

SHEAR FORCE ON
FOUNDATION
a.) Lattice Tower (Four-Legged) Structures

PINNE

MOMENT
ACTING ON
FOUNDATION

SHEAR FORCE ON
FOUNDATION

b.) Single Shaft Structures

FIXED
CABLE OR
X-BRACE

c.) H - Structures
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Figure 9.2
DRILLED CONCRETE SHAFT ORIENTATION

STRAIGHT SHAFT

B
BELL
B

B
TOWER LEG
LACING
A

BELL

BATTERED SHAFT

(a) Plan

LACING
TU

LACING
TU

TRUE LEG SLOPE


TRUE LEG SLOPE

BELL
BELL

(b) Section A-A (Battered Shaft)

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(c) Section B-B (Straight Shaft)

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Figure 9.3
TYPICAL PLATE ANCHOR
Compacted
Backfill

Excavation for Log

Narrow Trench
for Rod
Narrow Trench
to Install Anchor
Rod
Excavated
Trench for Log
Installation

SIDE VIEW

TOP VIEW

(a) Log Anchor


Rod

Curved Plate

Backfill
Driven Rod
or Augered
Hole for Rod

Augered Hole
for Plate

SIDE VIEW

Slotted Hole

PLATE DETAIL
(b) Nevercreep Anchor

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Figure 9.4
TYPICAL ANCHORED SPREAD FOUNDATIONS

Grouted Zone
Pre-stressed Tendon

PRE-STRESSED ANCHOR
FOUNDATION
(To resist Overturning
Moments of Uplift)

ROCK ANCHOR
FOUNDATION
(To resist Uplift)

SOIL ANCHOR
FOUNDATION
(To resist Uplift)

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Figure 10.1
TEST SETUPS FOR MOMENT AND SHEAR LOADS
DYNAMOMETER
HYDRAULIC
LOAD - DEVICE
CABLE

EARTH
ANCHO

FOUNDATION

24 in SQUARE
20 TON
HOLLOW RAM
JACK

1 in DIAMETER PIPE
SLEEVE

4 ft 6 in

12 in X 12 in JACK TIMBER
STRUT

10 TON
JACK

FIN GRADE

6 ft

15 ft

10 ft

15 ft
2 ft DIAMETER REINFORCE
CONCRETE PILES

WIRE ROPES

DYNAMOMETER
WINCHES

GUY

8 ft X 17 ft
CAISSON
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SCREW ANCHOR

Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

SCREW ANCHOR

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Figure 10.2
TEST SETUPS FOR UPLIFT LOADS
NOT LESS
THAN 8 FT.
CROSS BEAM

HYDRAULIC

STEEL STRAP
BEARING
PLATES

REACTION
BEAMS

TIMBER CRIB
MAT OR
REACTION
PILES
TEST PILE

TEST PILE

END VIEW

SIDE VIEW

NOT LESS
THAN 8 FT.
JACKING
COLLAR

BEARING
PLATES
CROSS
BEAMS

BEARING
PLATES

HYDRAULIC

TIMBER CRIB
MAT OR
REACTION
PILES
TEST PILE
TEST PILE

SIDE VIEW

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END VIEW

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Figure 10.3
TEST SETUPS FOR COMPRESSION LOADS
TEST BEAM
HYDRAULIC
JACK RAM
TEST PILE

STEEL
PLATE
DIAL
GAGES

TEST PILE

REFERENCE
BEAM

ANCHOR PILE

WEIGHTED BOX OR PLATFORM


CROSS BEAM
TIMBER CRIBBING

STEEL
PLATE
REFERENCE
BEAM

DIAL
GAGES
TEST PILE

BEARING
PLATES

STEEL
BEAMS

TEST BEAM
HYDRAULIC
JACK RAM

TEST PLATE

HYDRAULIC
JACK RAM
TEST BEAM

DIAL

TEST PLATE

CONCRETE
PILE CAP

REFERENCE
BEAM

ANCHOR PILES

TEST PILE GROUP

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11.0

TES-P-122.06, Rev. 0

REFERENCES

Title

Author (Manufacturer Agency,


etc)
Bureau of Reclamation
(U.S. Department of the Interior)

Design Standards
No. 10

b) Foundation Design M. J.
Tomlinson Book and
Construction

M. J. Tomlinson

Book

c) Line Manual

Rural Electrification
Administration (U.S.
Department of Agriculture)

REA Bulletin 62-1

d) Soil Mechanics,
Foundations, and Earth

Naval Facilities Engineering


Command (Department of the
Navy)

Design Manual
NAVFC DM-7,
March 1971.

e) The Ultimate Resistance


of Rigid Piles Against
Transversal Forces

J. Brinch Hansen

Danish
Geotechnical
Institute, Bulletin
No. 12

f) IEEE Trial-Use Guide


IEEE for transmission
Structure Foundation
Design
g) Foundation Analysis and
Design

IEEE

IEEE Std. 691

a) Concrete Footing Design


and Details in
Transmission Structures

TESP12206R0/JQA

Joseph E. Bowles

Date of Approval: September 8, 2008 G.

Publication

Book

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