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Gender Mainstreaming in

ADB Infrastructure
Operations. What really
Kate Nethercott Wilson: Gender Capacity Building Specialist

The views expressed herein are the views of the presenter and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of
Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any
consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to
ADB's terminology.

Gender Capacity Building Work across more than 12
Pacific Infrastructure Projects
Previous RGA in 2009
Increased focus on Infrastructure, want to know what
GAPs key tool for addressing gender in infrastructure.
Percentage of EGM in infrastructure in the Pacific

Gender Related Barriers in


Few women in infrastructure management

Womens Time restrictions
Womens Lack of Capacity
Social attitudes and gender stereotypes
Discriminatory labor practices work against women.
Lack capacity on gender equality issues

Common Infrastructure GAP Features

Targets for womens participation in employment and training
Targets for womens participation in community consultations
and in community committees
Promoting womens employment in non-traditional areas such
as construction and mechanics
Ensuring that the design of infrastructure takes into account
womens needs and priorities

Common Infrastructure GAP Features

Ensuring that women receive equal pay for equal work, when
employed under project contracts
Activities to raise awareness about gender equality and to
build the capacity of partner governments to mainstream
gender into project activities
Employment of gender specialists in project implementing
teams to oversee GAP implementation

Targets for Womens Participation in

Infrastructure Employment
Haapai Cyclone Ian Recovery Project
(HCIRP), Tonga

Project Background
Haapai electricity network being fully replaced after
cyclone damage
Goal is to reconstruct and climate and disaster proof
the electricity network.

ADB Power Tonga

Women carrying out work on site. Using excavator, generator, electric drill to fit power

Tonga Power

Women carrying out work on site. Using ladders, generator and bucket truck fitting
conductor onto power poles.

Tonga Power

Women and men working together side by side in Haapai

Tonga Power

Training for machinery operation and the use of

ladders in Haapai.
Note that men are training alongside the women
in the safe and efficient use of fibreglass
extension ladders.

On the job training: building womens

skills and confidence
Solomon Islands Transport Sector
Development Project (TSDP)

Project Background
Supporting the Solomon Islands government to more
effectively implement its National Transport Plan
Aims to strengthen economic growth, improve access
to basic social services in rural areas, build rural
economies, and increase geographic equity.

Project GAP
Infrastructure subprojects target women beneficiaries during
construction and maintenance
Contracts include HIV/AIDS awareness for men and women
Equal pay for equal work by male and female workers
Employment of women in road work and construction and in
the project team
Community consultations have female participation
Skills training for womens groups
Capacity development of the Ministry of Infrastructure
Development (MID) on gender and development

TSDP Results

TSDP Results

TSDP Results

Demonstrating that Women Can Too:

Challenging Gender Roles and
Timor-Leste Mid-Level Skills Training Project

Project Background
Providing essential skills training for youth in construction and
automotive trades
Targeting and upgrading the strongest training providers to
deliver training at higher than basic levels
supporting the development of competency-based training
standards and curriculum
Improving the quality of teaching staff; facilitating the role of
the private sector; and strengthening the labor market
information system to build demand-driven skills training that
is relevant and responsive to the needs of the expanding
Timorese economy

Project GAP
The GAP focuses on increasing female enrollment by:
raising awareness of non-traditional TVET and related career
options through promotional activities
making the curriculum more gender sensitive
providing gender training to TVET management and teaching
constructing a dormitory and toilets for female trainees
targeting female enrolment of at least 20% in construction and
automotive trades by 2016
Recruiting female trainers in skills areas covered by the project

Timor-Leste Mid Level Skills Training


Timor-Leste Mid Level Skills Training


Summary of What Works

Targets for womens participation in training and
On the job training and other targeted capacity
building of women

Success of other GAP activities

Incorporation of womens needs into the design of
infrastructure activities Implementation varies
Annexing of sidewalks Vanuatu, Annexing of water
connection PNG, ablution block location Vanuatu

Equal pay for equal work Implementation varies


Capacity building of EA and implementing teams

implementation varies

Key Factors Leading to Good Results

GAP targets provide an incentive to come up with
strategies to encourage womens participation
Commitment and leadership by the ADB Project
Commitment and leadership by PMU leadership and
consultant team

Supporting Factors Leading to Good

Engagement of gender specialist to support GAP
Capacity building of EA/IA and PMU team

EA/IA Capacity Building

Ongoing Challenges
Leadership and commitment of ADB POs, PMU
Leadership and Consultant Team Leaders varies
Employment of gender specialists intermittent and
quality of specialists varies
Monitoring and reporting of GAP implementation
progress very limited
Better use of gender expertise
Increased focus on monitoring and reporting GAP

GAPs continue to be an effective tool for ensuring projects
focus on gender equality activities
When GAPs are being implemented, positive stories of
womens participation in employment are emerging
There is still scope to do more to bridge the gap between
policy and practice
ADB POs have an important role to play in GAP
Upskilling of POs in gender analysis and M&E is important so
that POs can more consistently support GAP implementation