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UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF CONSTRUCTIO TECHNOLOGY

CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY II
Instructions for candidates :
Answer any Five (05) questions
All questions carry equal marks
Time : Three (03) hours

01.

Majority

No. of pages
: 03
No of questions : 08

of Superstructure walls of the residential

buildings in Sri Lanka are

constructed with burnt clay bricks.


i).

List the four major operations involved in Brick manufacturing.

ii).

How to prepare the Brick earth for manufacturing ?

iii).

What are various classification of hand moulding ? write short notes on each

iv).

What are the qualities of a good brick ?

v).

Write short note on machine moulding ?


( Total 20 marks )

2.

A special attention should be drawn on ventilation when designing internal space.


i).

Mental & physical comforts of users of proposed space at optimize ventilation


level to be clarified; (what the student need to do?)

ii).

What is meant by natural ventilation of space ?

iii).

Clarify hat is meant by cross ventilation by using diagrams;

iv).

What is mechanical ventilation ? show two examples with sketches to support


the answers ;

v).

Clarify use comfort by exhaust fan ?


( Total 20 marks )

03. Sound control is an essential factor in interior designing ;


i).

What is sound and noise, explain ;

ii).

What are the types of sources of noise ?

iii).

What is Noise pollution ; explain ;

iv).

Explain Noise controlling techniques ?

v).

State steps taken to control sound in designing and construction of a room


meant for diagnoses of patients ; Explain
( Total 20 marks )

04. It is an utmost important factor to satisfy health security of customers. Interior designers
should look into it upon supplying services to Urban & rural sectors ;
i).

What is Septic tank ? Describe with diagrams ;

ii).

What are the factors to consider upon operation of Septic tank ?

iii).

Clarify combined and separate systems in the disposal solid waste ;

iv).

Explain with diagrams usage of soakage pit and related materials ;

v).

What is Conservancy tank ; Explain


( Total 20 marks )

05.

The defects in Sub structure and super structure are surfaced during

life- span

of building. These are known as building defects. Also such defects are seen in service
of the building and such defects are called service defects.
i).

What are main factors attributing to building defects ;

ii).

What is meant by building defects ?

iii).

Describe Common building defects ;

iv).

Explain causes for common building defects and symptoms ;

v).

Explain possible causes for after leakages found in various locations of a


building .
( Total 20 marks )

06.

Timber is different from other materials, In that it is a natural material. Timber is


valuable and variable even within to same tree species.
i).

State the properties of sap wood and Heart wood ?

ii).

Explain factors affecting the strength properties of Timber ?

iii).

What are the advantages using Timber in construction ?

iv).

What are the main objectives of seasoning Timber ?

v).

Write short notes on

The functions in the living tree trunk

Clear Timber

Plywood

Timber size and shape effects


( Total 20 marks)

07. Interior planning of a building shall be completely done because at any moment there
could be a fire. It is an utmost responsibility to ensure security the client.
i).

The building should be planned to ensure accessibility of fire fighting


vehicles. Describe ;

ii).

What are fire fighting equipments installed inside a building ?

iii).

What is fire pillar hydrant? Explain how to use and operate it ?

iv).

Smoke detective sprinklers and fire alarms to be installed in a systematic


plan. Clarify it ;

v).

Explain the role of water sump in a fire extinguishing ;


( Total 20 marks )

08.

The most common use for Portland cement is in the production of concrete. Concrete
is a composite material consisting of aggregate, cement and water.
i).

Write briefly how the cement is produced ?

ii).

What are the constituents of cement and their effects ?

iii).

Write briefly any three types of concrete ?

iv).

Write short notes on mortar ?

v).

What are the important physical properties of cement ?


( Total 20 marks )

1. Important :It seems that all the questions are to assess the
knowledge only at least two, three questions may insert to assess
the higher levels such as application, analysis synthesis etc..

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF CONSTRUCTIO TECHNOLOGY


CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY II - Answers and Marking scheme
01.

i).

Four major operations involved in Brick manufacturing.


1.
Preparation of Brick earth
2.
Moulding of Bricks
3.
Drying of Bricks
4.
Burning of Bricks
( 3 marks 1 x 4 )

ii).

iii).

How to prepare the Brick earth for manufacturing.


1. Removed contains impurities of loose soil
2. Soil is then dug out from earth
3. Spread and weathering for 7-10 days.
4. The clay is then mixed with suitable ingredients by tilting the clay
and ingredients up and down in a kiln.
5. Water is added to clay to make the clay homogeneous and plastic
(5 marks )
What are the various classification of hand moulding ?
Hand moulding is two types ;
1. Table moulding
2. Ground moulding
Short
Table

iv).

(v)

Notes :
Moulding :Should be done by experienced workers and supervision
Bricks are moulded on the table.

Ground Moulding : Small area of land cleaned


Fine sand is sprinkled over it
Mould is dipped in to water and kept on the ground, then clay is
pressed by hand.
( 4 marks )
What are the qualities of a good Brick
1. Should have perfect edges, copper coloured, well burnt and free from
cracks
2. Low thermal conductivity
3. Must be homogeneous and free from voids.
4. Should not be break when dropped
5. Should be sound proof
(4 marks )
Write short notes on machine moulding
*
Machine moulding is used in mass production
*
The tempered clay is placed in to the machine
*
These machines contained a Brick size standards.
*
The tempered clay then cut to required size and comes out.

02.

i).

ii).

( 4 marks )
Functions of Ventilation ;
a. To supply fresh air to meet the respiratory needs of
occupants.
b. To remove airborne contaminations such as dusts, mists,
gases, vapors, tobacco smoke, body odors and bacteria
which may pose
heal hazards
or nuisance to the
occupants and,
c. To maintain the temperature and humidity within and
acceptable range that is appropriate to the activities on the
premise.
( 3
ma
rks
)
Natural Ventilation ;

Natural ventilation is the movement of air into and out the


premises through windows, doors or any openings without any
mechanical aid. The rate of air exchange in this type of
ventilation is inevitably unsteady as it is governed by
geographical, meteorological any many other factors which are
very often beyond the occupants control. Natural ventilation is
suitable only for control of modest heat load any very low
emission and less toxic contaminants.

Adequacy of air inlets and outlets is of great importance to


natural ventilation. As a reference, premises relying entirely on
natural ventilation should have openings of at least 5 to 10% of
the floor area to obtain adequate ventilation in the hot climatic
situation.
(4
marks )

iii).

Cross Ventilation ;
When placing ventilation openings, you are placing inlets and outlets to
optimize the path air flows through the building. Windows or vents placed on
opposite sides of the building give natural breezes a pathway through
the structure.
This called cross ventilation
Single opening

Two openings

Two

openings
Same wall

with windows

Two openings
Adjacent walls

iv).

Two openings
opposite walls

two openings
opposite walls
Different positions
( 4 marks )

Mechanical Ventilation ;
A building ventilation system that uses powered fans or blowers to provide fresh air to
space
( rooms) when the natural forces of air pressure and gravity are not
enough to circulate air through a building. Mechanical ventilation is used to control
indoor air quality, excess humidity, odors and contaminants can often be controlled
via dilution or replacement with outside air.
Principal exhaust

Kitchen

exhaust fan

fan
Bathroom
exhaust fan

Factory exhaust

( 5 marks )
v). Exhaust Fan Mechanism ;
Out-side air
10C-30C

Make up
air
25

Exhaust air
31C-37C

( 4 marks )
03. i). Sound ;
Sound is defined as any pressure variation that the human ear can detect. A wave
motion in set off when an element sets the nearest particle of air into motion. This
motion gradually spreads to adjacent air particles further away from the source.
Depending on the medium sound propagates at different speeds.
Noise : Some sounds are unpleasant or unwanted. These are called noise.

( 3
marks )
ii). Types of sources of noise ;
a. Point source
If the dimensions of a noise source are small compared with the
distance to the listener, it is known as a point source.
Eg. Fans, Chimney stacks
b. Line source
If a noise source is narrow in one direction and long in other
compared to the distance to the listener, it is called a line source,
Eg. Single source such as a long pipe carrying a turbulent fluid.
(3
marks )
iii).

Noise pollution ;
If the noise level exceeds the maximum permissible level given in the Gazette
extraordinary,
( No. 924/12 Thursday May 23 1996 ) schedule I & II. It
could be a noise pollution.
Noise pollution is basically categorized into;
1. Occupational noise pollution
2. Environmental noise pollution
(3
marks )

iv).

Noise Controlling techniques ;


When aiming to reduce the effects of environmental noise on people, the following
aspects should be considered ;

Noise sources
Transmission path
Types of spaces, in which people gather

Above aspects can be covered in 3 different ways as follows ;


1. Use of methods minimizing sound at the source
2. Placing of barriers in-between the source and the receiver.
3. Use of methods that protect receivers end.
Noise generated from the machine it self can be controlled at the source with the help
of methods such as vibration isolation, noise isolation, noise absorption, damping.
( 6
marks )
v. Consultation room to be constructed that dialogue between Doctor and patient
should not be heard outside the room ( sound proof partition wall ). For this
purpose main corridor to be opened to a small lobby while in turn opened to space
used by Doctors. But many channeling centers are run in limited areas, it is

appropriate to utilize dual walls with sound absorption materials in between


walls.
It is not suitable to use glass covers on top edges of the corridors for lighting control.
Reason is light in the corridors would penetrate to consultation rooms there should be
strict control of light in rooms for eye diagnosis.
( 5 marks )
04. i). A Septic tank is basically a vessel buried underground the purpose of which is the
collection, storage and to some limited extent, treatment of sewage.
Access
Inlet Baffle
Liquid
Outlet Baffle
Liquid
Sludge
Sludge
First compartment
Second compartment
( 3 marks )
ii). Septic Tank positioning
A typical septic tank system normally operate gravity, and consists of a tank and a
soakage pit or soak away drain.
Untreated waste water from a property floors into the septic tank, where the solids
separate from the liquids, some solids, such as soap scum or fat, will float to the top
of the tank o form a scum layer . Heavier solids such as human and kitchen wastes,
settle to the bottom of the tank as sludge.
Self forming bacteria in the tank help the system : digest these solids or sludge where
a natural process of anaerobic decomposition occurs in the tank which reduces the
amount of solid matter and provide treatment of the waste. The remaining liquids
flow out the tank to a soak away.
Baffles built into the tank hold back the floating scum from moving past the outlet of
the tank.
( 5 marks )
iii). Combined and separate systems ;
Two types of disposal system are in general use namely the one-pipe system whereby
all the liquid household wastes are put into the septic tank, and the separate or twopipe system whereby the kitchen and bathroom waste bypass the septic tank and
directed to the soil percolation ( soak away ) system directly.
( 2 marks )
iv). Soakage Pit
2m
100 mm pipe
from septic tank

Soil

450 mm Rubble fill


Bed of Rubble fill
Honey comb blocks

450 mm
Standard type man hole cover
Reinforced concrete slab resisting

Standard type man hole cover

on sides of hole
Honeycomb block
laid on their side
400 mm Rubble fill

100 mm pipe
from septic
tank
soi
Bed of
Rubble

Minimum 2 m
Rubble fill

Concrete footing
under wall only
and between rows
of blocks

(6
marks )

v). Conservancy tank ;


A conservancy tank is any corrected tank is any covered tank without an overflow
which is used for the reception and temporary retention of sewerage and that requires
routine at intervals.
Factory prepared to capacity of clients need link up on site and supplied with all
junctions, connectors, bends, pipes and manhole covers.
( 4 marks)
5. i). Factors attributing to building defects ;
a.
b.
c.
d.

The age of the building affected building components


The exact nature of the problem
The presence or absence of human error
Some combination of all those three.
( 3 marks )

ii). Defects occur in various forms and to different extents in all types of buildings,
irrespective of age. The following all contribute to the occurrence of defects in
buildings. The large varieties of building materials used that may not be well
congruent with one other.
Construction techniques
that may not be defect proof
inconsistent or sub-standard workmen-ship.
Use of unsuitable construction details
Extreme site conditions, undermining performance standards
Natural deterioration
Attacks by pollutants
Improper uses of the completed buildings.
( 3 marks )
iii). Common buildings defects ;
1. Defective concrete
2. Water seepage from external wall, window roof or from ceiling
3. Structural cracks in walls
4. Structural cracks in columns & beams

5. Non structural cracks in plaster or other finishes


6. Defective external wall finishes / tiles
( 4 marks )

iv). Causes and symptoms of common defects in building services


System

Symptoms/Phenomenon

Possible Causes

i.

Insufficient water pressure or flows

*
*
*

Brownish water/grit and deposit


Stoppage of supply
Water seepage

*
*
*

*
*
*

Unclean water, algae growth, dirt and deposit


Sudden rise in consumption
Noisy water pumps, noisy water inlets

*
*
*

Blockage or leakage of components of the


supply system such as pipes or valves
Rusty pipes or dirty supply tanks
Pump failure, breakage of supply pipe
Defective water tanks, pipes ( pipe joints) or
valves
Defective or missing water tank cover
Leakage in the system after water meters
Defective water pumps, undue water pressure

Stoppage of supply/ system breakdown

Failure of fuse or circuit breaker

Sudden or frequent fuse or circuit breaker cut off


leading to stoppage
Heating of switches & wires
Sudden or frequent stoppage and larger power
consumption
Electric sparks or shocks, electrocution

Earth leakage, overloading

*
*

Overloading
Uneven distribution of phases

Inadequate earth bonding

Alarm not working ( when tested) false alarm or


warning lights on signal panels
Portable equipment lost or misplaced, glass
panels of alarm switch box broken
Non-functioning of equipment

Alarm wiring defect, short circuit

Inadequate protection or poor management

Inadequate maintenance or servicing

Stoppage, excessive noise during operation,


indicator lamps off, unstable lifting
malfunctioning of buttons and indicator lamps.
Occasional overrun
Doors not closing properly

Ageing of parts, mechanical failure

*
*

Defective mechanical parts, frequent stoppage,


alarm signals

Landing misalignment
Parts ageing, mechanical failure, rubbish
obstructing operation
Inadequate servicing

Air

Not cool enough, not warm enough

Conditioning/
Heating

*
*

Noisy, no air movement


Engines sound normal but no air movement

*
*

*
*

Noisy blowers or propellers movement


Poor indoor air quality

*
*

Dripping and substandard output of cool or


warm air
Noisy blowers or propellers movement

Poor efficiency, leakage of refrigerant dust


and dirt at heat transmission fins
Loosen parts, blowers or propellers breakage
Dust screens blocked, air ducts and grilles
needs cleaning
Misalignment of motor shafts
Insufficient fresh air intake, mal-function of
intake air filter
Insulation failure

Misalignment of motor shafts

ii.

Water Supply

Electricity
Supply

*
*
*
iii.

Fire Services

*
*
*

iv.

Lift and
Escalator

*
*
*

v.

( 5 marks )

v). Water Leakages and their causes


Location of Leakage of Seepage
i.
Underside of roofs ( Such as
Flat roof, podium roofs ) and

Possible Causes
*
Damage or deterioration of waterproofing layer
*
Leakage at access doors or top hatch doors

ii.

Bottom of light walls

*
*
*
*
*

Deterioration of corrugated steel roofing materials and joints


Defective enclosure for water tanks
Cracks of parapet walls affecting the water proofing membrane
Inadequate protection / improper installation of sleeve around openings through roof slab
Excessive movements of construction joints

Ceiling with internal areas


above

Leakage from bathroom or kitchen above usually caused by seepage from fitments,
bathtubs, shower trays, buried pipes or drains due to improper construction of joints,
installation of sealants or occurrence of cracks
Waterproof cement rendering underneath floor tiles for the floor above not
installed/specified or such waterproofing features damaged by installation of sockets or
conduits
Mal-function of waterproofing in nearby external features such as balconies or external
walls above.

*
*
iii.

Walls

*
*
*

Water penetration through external wall defects such as cracks, joints, honeycombs,
spalling, weak points, holes, punctures, leftovers of debris, and movement of external wall
components
Water penetration through defective external wall finishes such as loosened mosaic tiles,
cracked ceramic tiles & paint surface; through poor cladding or curtain walls
constructions; or weaknesses in water-resisting components
Water leakage through party walls between units of pre-fabricated elements, or between
buildings.

iv.

Floor

*
*
*

Seepage from defective pipe works or sanitary fitments


Temporary floods and overflows
Defective bathroom fitments such as bathtubs, shower trays or hand wash basins, or the
improper installation of pipe works or necessary sealants

v.

Window

*
*
*
*

Improper fillings around frames


Deformation of frame and sashes, defective gasket, sealant or putty for window glass
setting or frames
Air conditioning box or platform tilting inwards.
Insufficient sealant around air conditioning units

vi.

Basement

*
*

Inadequate or damaged waterproofing tanking ( may be due to movements or punctures )


Deterioration of water stops at construction/movement joints

vii.

Buried or underground
drains
or pipes

Seepage through defective joints or pipes caused by poor installation or differential


movements/ settlements, movement of building structures or ground or water table

*
*
*
*

Corrosion of pipes at junctions with floors or walls


Invasion of water into conduits and distribute throughout the network
Blockage leading to excessive pressure built up
Attack by rodents or roots of plants

Exposed ( or in pipe ducts )

Supply pipes or drains

*
*

Inadequacy in design of drains such as insufficient diameter of drains, bends being too
sharp, etc
Blockage of drains by rubbish/ sand collected in the system especially in bends or traps
Insufficient number or deterioration of brackets leading to hammering and breakage of
supply pipes
Blockage of open joints such as hoppers of down pipes by plants or rubbish
Unauthorized additions overloading the drainage system

viii

*
*

( 5 marks )
06.

(i)

State the properties


Sap wood
Light coloured
Consist of the living portions ( growing cells )
Stores food materials
Less durable and susceptible to decay
More porous and therefore, preservatives can be easily penetrated.
Heart wood

Older portion of the trunk


Inner zone and dark in colour
More durable than sap wood and less susceptible to decay
Permeable to preservative treatment
(5 marks)

(ii)

Factors affecting the strength properties of Timber


Moisture content
Strength of Timber is highly affected by moisture content of Timber
The presence of defects causes loss of strength
Full strength can be achieved with timber in which the grains are
oriented parallel to the edges of the Timber
Duration of load
(3 marks)

(iii)

What

(iv)

Main objectives of seasoning Timber


When Timber is first felled t is knows as green timber and has a
very high moisture content ( Approx 50%)
Before it can be used it must be dried.
If this process is not controlled properly defects can occur that
can ruin good timber.
Aim of seasoning it to dry out the wood to a suitable moisture
content of 22% or less.
( 4 marks)

(v)

are the advantages of using timber in construction


Timber is light, strong and durable
It takes shocks and impacts without rupturing
If offers a good electrical resistance
It has good sound absorption and thermal insulation qualities.
(3 marks)

Write short notes;

The functions in the living tree trunk ;


A structural role
It supports the crown of leaves, the food production organs of the
plant.
A conducting role
It moves water and essential nutrients for food production from the
roots of the tree to the leaves.
A storage role

It stores food so that it is always available to the plant even


through the tree may not have leaves.

Clear Timber ;
Timber with no defect is called clear timber.

Plywood ;
i.
Plywood is obtained by gluing three more veneers. Veneers
are thin sheets of wood.
ii.

The veneers are obtained as slices from different woods.

iii.

The veneers are placed in different layers in any odd number,


the grains successive veneers being at right angles.

iv.

The layers thus arranged are pressed to from plywood.


( 5 marks)

07. i). Building to be provided with pathways for fire-fighting vehicles minimize on either
side it. The accessible roads to be so constructed to bear the weight of truck about
13-25 tons. Further height of the ways should be free to ensure he easy passage the
vehicles. Accessible roads should be clearly shown by directional boards.
( 4 marks )
ii). Fire fighting equipments to be installed inside a building ;
1. Foot paths to fire staircase to be clear
2. Fire extinguishers used for various types of fire.
( 3 marks )
iii). Fire Pillar Hydrant ;
Fire pillar hydrant is a special pipe which built close or around a building. This is
connected to pipe basement water system or under-ground water levels seen in the
vicinity of industrial building or factory. When water in fire vehicle is limited,
exhausted hose reel is connected to this system. As a result water is continuously
accessible.
( 5 marks )
iv).

Installation of Smoke detective sprinklers and fire alarms;

Sprinklers are activated based on

smoke sensitive. As alarms are positioned in

sprinkler area. Sound from alarms

are subsided by noise of flushing water, its

purpose is minimized.
v).

( 3 marks )
Role of water sump ;
There is a necessity for underground water levels in addition to over-head tanks
particularly for industrial and commercial buildings. If water in underground water
tank is maintained properly, it could be use for fire extinguishing purposes. It is
more appropriate to install an underground water system connected to fire pillar
hydrant.
( 5 marks )

08. (i)

(ii)

Write briefly how the cement is produced.


Cement is prepared by intimately mixing calcareous, clayey and iron oxide
bearing materials, burning them at a clinkering temperature, and grinding the
clinker. A small percentage of gypsum is also added with the clinker.
( 3 marks )
What are the constituents of cement and their effects

Tricalcium silicate
Responsible for the development of strength during early stages.

Dicalcium silicate
This contributes to the development of strength after the first stages.

Tricalcium Aluminate
This has very little commenting value and hydration of C 3A is extremely
rapid give rise to flash set in the absence of gypsum

Tetracalcium Aluminoferrite
This has the least commenting value. The presence of the ferric oxide
gives cement its characteristics colour.
(4 marks )

(iii)

Three types of concrete


Light weight concrete
Is made by using light weight aggregates. Light weight concrete
have low structural strength. Mostly used for non structural elements.

(iv)

Water-resistant concrete Using below ground works, water retaining structures like
tanking, dams, jetties and bridges.

water

Shot crete
Spray concrete, not using form work or mould, srayed directly on to
the surface.
( 3 marks)
Write short notes on mortar ;

(v)

Mortar is a paste prepared by adding required quantity of water to


mixture of cement ( or lime) and fine aggregate ( sand). The durability,
quality and strength of mortar depends on the quantity and quality of
ingredients.
( 4 marks)
What are the important physical properties of cement.

Fineness

Soundness

Setting time

Strength

Loss of ignition

Heat of Hydration

Specific gravity test


(6 marks)