The Fundamental group is a mathematical group associated to any given pointed topological space that provides a way to determine when two paths, starting and ending at a fixed base point, can be continuously deformed into each other.

© All Rights Reserved

69 visualizações

The Fundamental group is a mathematical group associated to any given pointed topological space that provides a way to determine when two paths, starting and ending at a fixed base point, can be continuously deformed into each other.

© All Rights Reserved

- Problems and Solutions to Abstract Algebra (Beachy, Blair)
- Concise Complex Analysis Solution Manual
- Topology Without Tears
- Topology - Solutions Sections 51-54
- John Willard Milnor - Topology From the Differentiable Viewpoint
- Solutions to Modern Algebra (Durbin, 5E)
- Topology Exercises and Sol1
- Graduate Functional Analysis Problem Solutions w
- Rudin Solutions Chapter 9
- Real and Complex Analysis Solutions Manual
- Some Topology Problems and Solutions
- Stein and Shak Arch i Complex Analysis So Ln
- Abstract Algebra (Beachy, Blair) 7.1 Problems and Solutions
- Graph Theory
- Algebraic Topology Solutions 3
- Quotient Spaces
- Open and Closed Sets
- Problems in Mathematical Analysis I
- Types of Topology
- Quotient Spaces

Você está na página 1de 26

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Miliyon T.

Addis Ababa University

Department of Mathematics

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

1 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

First tell them what you are going to tell them. Tell them.

Tell them what you have told them.

Paul Halmos, I want to be a mathematician

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

2 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Henri Poincare

(1854-1912)

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

3 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Introduction

Basic Set Theory

Basic Group Theory

Basic Topology

Homeomorphism

Fundamental Group

Homotopy

Homotopy of paths

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

4 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

relation which is defined as follows.

Definition

An equivalence relationa on a set X is a relation R X X

such that

Reflexive: (x, x) R for all x X .

Symmetric: (x, y ) R implies (y , x) R.

Transitive: (x, y ) and (y , z) R imply (x, z) R.

a

It helps us a lot in defining the elements of the fundamental group. As we

will soon enough, it would have been too hard (maybe impossible) for us to

define the elements of the fundamental group without it.

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

5 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

group.

Definition (Group)

An algebraic structure with one binary operation (G , ) is called a

group iff the following four conditions(group axioms) are satisfied

Closure: a, b G ab G .

Associative: a, b, c G a(bc) = (ab)c.

Identity: e G 3 ae = ea, a G .

Inverse: a G , a1 G 3 aa1 = e = a1 a.

If is commutative, then G is called an abelian group. In our

definition above there is a word algebraic structure. Which is

nothing but a non empty set together with one or more finitary

operations defined on it. We usually designate ab by ab.

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

6 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

The notion of the fundamental group for the first time appears in

the works of Poincare around 1895. He was trying to classify

topological spaces(Riemann Surfaces) in the same time that he

discover this beautiful concept. So, here we are defining

Topological space.

Definition

A topology on a set X is a collection of subsets of a non empty

set X satisfying the following axioms:

1

and X are in .

sets.

The ordered pair (X , ) is called a topological space(TS).

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

7 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Let X and Y be TS. A map f : X Y is said to be cont. if for

each open subset V of Y , the set f 1 (V ) is an open subset of X .

Lemma

A function f : X Y is continuous if and only if the inverse

image of every closed subset of Y is a closed subset of X .

Proof.

Suppose f : X Y is continuous, and A a closed subset of Y .

Then A0 is open, and so f 1 (A0 ) is open in X . But

f 1 [A0 ] = (f 1 [A])0 ; therefore f 1 [A] is closed. Conversely, assume

A closed in Y implies f 1 [A] closed in X . Let G be an open subset

of Y . Then G 0 is closed in Y , and so f 1 [G 0 ] = (f 1 [G ])0 is closed

in X . Hence, f 1 [G ] is open and therefore f is continuous.

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

8 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Let X = A B, where A and B are closed in X . Let f : A Y

and g : B Y be continuous. If f (x) = g (x) for every x A B,

then f & g combine to give a continuous function h : X Y

defined by setting h(x) = f (x) if x A and h(x) = g (x) if x B.

Proof.

Let C be a closed subset of Y . Now

h1 (C ) = f 1 (C ) g 1 (C ),

by elementary set theory. Since f is continuous, f 1 (C ) is closed

in A hence closed in X . Similarly, g 1 (C ) is closed in B and

therefore closed in X . Their union h1 (C ) is thus closed in X .

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

9 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Definition (Homeomorphism)

Let X and Y be topological spaces; let f : X Y be a bijection.

If both the function f and the inverse function

f 1 : Y X

are continuous, then f is called a homeomorphism.

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

10 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Definition (Path)

Let I = [0, 1], the closed unit interval. A path from a point a to a

point b in a topological space X is a continuous function

f : I X with f (0) = a and f (1) = b. Here a and b are called

initial and terminal points respectively.

Figure : Path

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

11 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Definition (Homotopy)

If f and f 0 are continuous maps of the space X into the space Y ,

we say that f is homotopic to f 0 if there is a continuous map

F : X I Y such that

F (x, 0) = f (x)

and

F (x, 1) = f 0 (x)

for each x. Where I = [0, 1] the unit interval. The map F is called

a homotopy between f and f 0 .

If f is homotopic to f 0 we write f ' f 0 . If f ' f 0 and f 0 is a

constant map, we say that f is nulhomotopic. We think of a

homotopy as a continuous one-parameter family of maps from X

to Y . If we imagine the parameter t as representing time, then the

homotopy F represents a continuous deforming of the map f to

the map f 0 , as t goes from 0 to 1.

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

12 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Definition

If f : I X and f 0 : I X are two paths with the same initial

point p X and the same terminal point q X . We say that f is

homotopic to f 0 if there is a continuous map F : I I X 3

F (s, 0) = f (s)

F (0, t) = p

and

and

F (s, 1) = f 0 (s),

F (1, t) = q

see figure 2.

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

13 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Theorem

The relations ' and 'p are equivalence relations.

Proof.

(i) Given f it is trivial that f ' f ; the map F (x, t) = f (x) is the

required homotopy. If f is a path, F is a path homotopy.

(ii) Given f ' f 0 , we show that f 0 ' f . Let F be a homotopy

between f and f 0 . Then G (x, t) = F (x, 1 t) is a homotopy

between f 0 and f . If f a path homotopy so is G .

(iii) Suppose that f ' f 0 and f 0 ' f 00 . WTS f ' f 00 . Let F be a

homotopy between f and f 00 and let F 0 be a homotopy between f 0

and f 00 . Define G : X I Y by the equation

(

F (x, 2t),

for t [0, 1/2]

G (x, t) =

0

F (x, 2t 1), for t [1/2, 1]

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

14 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Proof.

The map G is well-defined, since if t = 1/2, we have

F (x, 2t) = f 0 (x) = F 0 (x, 2t 1)

Because G is continuous on the two closed subsets X [0, 1/2]

and X [1/2, 1] of X I , it is continuous on all of X I , by (6).

Thus G is the required homotopy between f and f . The following

figure illustrates if F and F 0 are path homotopies, so is G

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

15 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Definition (Concatenation)

If f is a path in X from x0 to x1 , and if g is a path from x1 to x2 ,

we define the product of f g of f and g to be the path h given by

the equations

(

f (2s),

for s [0, 1/2]

h(s) =

g (2s 1), for s [1/2, 1]

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

16 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Definition

A loop in a topological space is a path in the space whose initial

point and terminal point are the same. If the initial point and

terminal point of a loop in the topological space X are both the

point x0 X , we will say that the loop is based at x0 .

Let X be a topological space and x0 be a point in X . Then the x0

neighborhood of curves in X , C (X , x0 ), is the collection of all

continuous mappings f : I X of the unit interval into X such

that f (0) = x0 = f (1). i.e. the collection of all loops based at x0 .

Definition

Let f and g be two maps in C (X , x0 ) that means f and g are

loops based at x0 . Then f is homotopic to g modulo x0 if f and g

are homotopic in a usual sense with some additional restriction.

Here is the restriction: If H is the homotopy between f and g ,

then H(0, t) = x0 = H(1, t).

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

17 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Theorem

The set of path homotopy equivalence class of loops based at

x0 X is a group under the multiplication defined by

[][] = []. This group is denoted by 1 (X , x0 ) and is called the

fundamental group of X at x0 .

Proof outline.

I. The operation is well defined.

II. Associative

III. The identity element is ex0 .

IV. The inverse of (t) is (1 t).

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

18 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

to have the fundamental group of X . In other words, we would like

to have the fundamental group depend only on the space, and not

on the particular point of the space that we base our loops at.

Theorem

Let x0 , x1 X . If there is a path in X from x0 to x1 then the

groups 1 (X , x0 ) and 1 (X , x1 ) are isomorphic.

Proof.

To show the two groups are isomorphic is just a matter of finding a

bijective map from one to the other.

Let be a path from x0 to x1 . If is a loop based at x0 , then

( 1 ) is a closed path based at x1 .

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

19 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Proof.

We therefore define u : 1 (X , x0 ) 1 (X , x1 )

by u [] = [ 1 ] that is, follow 1 from x1 to x0 , then

follow around back to xo , then follow back to x1 , all giving a

loop based at x1 .

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

20 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Proof.

u ([] []) = u ([ ])

= [ 1 ]

= [ 1 1 ]

= [ 1 ] [ 1 ]

= u ([]) u ([])

Thus, u is a homomorphism.

Using the path 1 from x1 to x0 we can define

u 1 : 1 (X , x1 ) 1 (X , x0 )

by u 1 ([]) = [ 1 ].

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

21 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Proof.

Now, check

u 1 u [] = u 1 [ 1 ] = [ 1 1 ] = []

u u 1 [] = u [ 1 ] = [ 1 1 ] = []

So, u is bijective and hence an isomorphism.

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

22 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Conclusion

Determining whether two given topological spaces are

homeomorphic is a fundamental question in topology.

Showing two space are homeomorphic is a matter of

has also a continuous inverse.

If we can find some topological property that holds for one

topological space but not for the other, then this two spaces

are not homeomorphic.

Example

1

and the second is not.

leaves a connected space and deleting a point from R doesnt.

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

23 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

Example

i. R2 is not homeomorphic to R3 . Because deleting a

point from R3 leaves a simply connected space, but

deleting a point from R2 does not.

ii. S 2 T using similar argument.

As we have seen earlier, the idea of simple connectedness is

generalised through the fundamental group, which includes

simple connectedness as a special case. The condition of simple

connectedness is just the condition that the fundamental group of

X is the trivial group. So, the most important way of determining

two spaces are not homeomorphic is by using their fundamental

group.

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

24 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

A Man is topologically equivalent to torus.

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

25 / 26

Outline

Introduction

Fundamental Group

Conclusion

References

James Munkres

Topology, Second Edition.

I.M singer

Lecture notes in elementary topology and geometry.

Seymour Lipschutz

Genereal Topology (1965).

Miliyon T.

Fundamental Group

26 / 26

- Problems and Solutions to Abstract Algebra (Beachy, Blair)Enviado porC. Ephrem Stuyvesant
- Concise Complex Analysis Solution ManualEnviado por黃文菊
- Topology Without TearsEnviado porDeskartes
- Topology - Solutions Sections 51-54Enviado porLeonardo Amorim Silva
- John Willard Milnor - Topology From the Differentiable ViewpointEnviado porandhrimnir
- Solutions to Modern Algebra (Durbin, 5E)Enviado porJason Rosendale
- Topology Exercises and Sol1Enviado porChris Walsh
- Graduate Functional Analysis Problem Solutions wEnviado porLuis Zanxex
- Rudin Solutions Chapter 9Enviado porxmattyicex
- Real and Complex Analysis Solutions ManualEnviado porferney10
- Some Topology Problems and SolutionsEnviado porM2C7r6
- Stein and Shak Arch i Complex Analysis So LnEnviado porsticker592
- Abstract Algebra (Beachy, Blair) 7.1 Problems and SolutionsEnviado porC. Ephrem Stuyvesant
- Graph TheoryEnviado porRanjith M Kumar
- Algebraic Topology Solutions 3Enviado porChris Walsh
- Quotient SpacesEnviado porducquang00
- Open and Closed SetsEnviado porzanibab
- Problems in Mathematical Analysis IEnviado porChansocheatTieng
- Types of TopologyEnviado porVIKALP KULSHRESTHA
- Quotient SpacesEnviado porSimon Rampazzo
- Complex Analysis (Solutions) - SteinEnviado porJordi Vila
- The Fundamental GroupEnviado poraaron
- Solutions of Munkres TopologyEnviado porMarcelo Hernández Caro
- Topology Jan 2010 SolutionsEnviado porAlex 'Magoo' McGaw
- Calculus on Manifolds. Spivak. SolutionsEnviado porEcdee Fts
- 284185717-Munkres-Solucionario.pdfEnviado porJhonatan Orlando
- Principles of Topology [Croom] 9812432884Enviado porquills40
- Problems-and-Solutions-For-Complex-AnalysisEnviado porMete Torun
- Homotopy Groups and Exact SequencesEnviado porParampreetWalia
- Notes2.Covering.spacesEnviado porMutt3012

- Primary Decomposition of IdealsEnviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Analysis NoteEnviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Functional Worksheet IEnviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Functional 3Enviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Differential IIEnviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Unique FactorizationEnviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Distribution 1Enviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Real Analysis Test 1Enviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Analysis-2 Test.pdfEnviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Functional 1Enviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- PDE 1Enviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Topology IEnviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Differential IEnviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Functional 2Enviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Analysis 2 IEnviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Analysis IIIEnviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Computational MathematicsEnviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Analysis 2 IIEnviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Analysis IIEnviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Analysis IEnviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Algebra IIIEnviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Algebra IIEnviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Algebra IV.pdfEnviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Algebra 2Enviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Algebra IEnviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Discrete Metric SpaceEnviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Triangle InequalityEnviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Basel Problem via FourierEnviado porMiliyon Tilahun
- Bernoulli NumbersEnviado porMiliyon Tilahun

- Topology Exercises and Sol1Enviado porChris Walsh
- Baez, From Finite Sets to Feynman DiagramsEnviado porΣωτήρης Ντελής
- Topology and DataEnviado porLukas Strnad
- hwsol.pdfEnviado porJeoff Libo-on
- Quiz_2[42].pdfEnviado porShambhavi Singh
- Mathematics 4530-Fall 2013Enviado porFabian Molina
- Homotopy Theory: Elementary Basic Concepts.Enviado porArelyala
- Topology and DataEnviado pormalik_john6261
- Algebraic Topo Homework 2Enviado porDinh Quy Duong
- Homework SolutionsEnviado poremerson
- Homotopy Type TheoryEnviado poraadas asdasda
- MATH 4530 – Topology Fall 2010Enviado porFabian Molina
- Alg Topology IITBEnviado porCLAP or SLAP II
- SimpCxesEnviado porEpic Win
- Hw 3 SolutionsEnviado porpiggioggio
- ProbsIEnviado porMutt3012
- Evans L.,Thompson R. Introduction to algebraic topology.pdfEnviado pormonte
- McCleary ColEnviado pormarkos
- atEnviado porAnonymous MNQ6iZ
- Algebraic Topology by Tim PerutzEnviado porRafael Almeida
- algaibric topologyEnviado porSoniyaKanwalG
- MarleEnviado porSrinivas Rau
- Richard H. Crowell and Ralph H. Fox- Introduction to Knot TheoryEnviado porSprite090
- FormsEnviado porCriticalerror2162
- TopologyEnviado porLuis Morales
- Abstract Homotopy Theory_ the Interaction of Category Theory and Homotopy TheoryEnviado porgermanschultze
- Solutions of Munkres TopologyEnviado porMarcelo Hernández Caro
- Calculus DocumentEnviado porJoe Smith
- twins paradox- geometry reviewEnviado porCristianRivera