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Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014 51

Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014

PERFORMANCE
OFOFHIGHWAY
EMBANKMENTS
CONSTRUCTED
OVER
SRI
LANKAN
PERFORMANCE
HIGHWAY EMBANKMENTS
CONSTRUCTED
OVER SRI LANKAN
PEATY
SOILS
PEATY SOILS
W. A. Karunawardena1 and M. Toki2

W. A. Karunawardena1 and M. Toki2

Director General, National Building Research Organization, Sri Lanka and Senior Geotechnical Engineer, Southern Transport

Development
Project , Oriental
Ltd.,Geotechnical
Japan
1 Director General, National Building
Research Organization,
SriConsultants
Lanka andCo.,
Senior
Engineer, Southern Transport
2
Development
Project
,
Oriental
Consultants
Co.,
Ltd.,
Japan
Team Leader, Southern Transport Development Project, Oriental Consultants Co., Ltd., Japan

2 Team Leader, Southern Transport Development Project, Oriental Consultants Co., Ltd., Japan
ABSTRACT: The construction of the Southern Expressway in Sri Lanka involved extensive ground improvement work as many
parts of the Expressway traverses through flood plains and marshy ground consisting of very soft peat, organic soils, and clays.
ABSTRACT: The construction of the Southern Expressway in Sri Lanka involved extensive ground improvement work as many
Depending
on the
ground traverses
conditions,
various
methods
including
remove
andorganic
replacement,
preloading,
parts of the
Expressway
through
floodground
plains improvement
and marshy ground
consisting
of very
soft peat,
soils, and
clays.
preloading
withonvertical
drains,
dynamicvarious
compaction
vacuum consolidation
were applied
improve
the softpreloading,
soil to build
Depending
the ground
conditions,
groundand
improvement
methods including
remove toand
replacement,
preloading withwith
vertical
drains,
dynamic
compaction
consolidation
were applied
to improve
thelength
soft soil
to build
the
the embankments
heights
varying
from
2 m to 12and
m. vacuum
In this project,
embankments
of about
4 km in
were
constructed
embankments
heights
from
m application
to 12 m. In this
project,
embankments
of about The
4 kmlength
in length
wereembankments
constructed bythat
by improving
thewith
peaty
soil varying
basically
by 2the
of the
heavy
tamping method.
of the
improving the peaty soil basically by the application of the heavy tamping method. The length of the embankments that were built
werebybuilt
by improving
soil byassisted
vacuum
assisted surcharging
around
2.5 km.
details
of the field instrumentation
improving
the peatythe
soilpeaty
by vacuum
surcharging
is around 2.5iskm.
The details
of The
the field
instrumentation
program and
program
and field monitoring
program
to assess
soft ground
presented.ofThe
of the was
ground
field monitoring
program to assess
the soft
groundthe
improvement
areimprovement
presented. Theare
performance
the performance
ground improvement
evaluated in
terms
of the in
degree
of the
physical and
and increase
in
improvement
was
evaluated
termsofofconsolidation,
the degree ofimprovement
consolidation,
improvement
of engineering
the physicalproperties,
and engineering
properties,
pressure and gain
in shear
strength
of thestrength
peaty soil.
The
results
the results
post construction
settlement
and preconsolidation
increase in preconsolidation
pressure
and gain
in shear
of the
peaty
soil.ofThe
of the post surface
construction
surface
monitoring of the expressway carried out up to date reconfirm that the ground improvement work was very successful and the
settlement
of the expressway
carried
out up tolimit
dateof
reconfirm
that the ground improvement work was very successful
expectedmonitoring
residual settlements
are well below
the allowable
the contract.
and the expected residual settlements are well below the allowable limit of the contract.
1

INTRODUCTION

The Southern Highway is Sri Lanka's first E Class highway that


1 INTRODUCTION
links the Sri Lankan capital Colombo with Matara, a major city
The inSouthern
is Sri
E Class
the southHighway
of the island
as Lankas
shown infirst
Figure
1. Thehighway
length ofthat
96
from capital
Colombo
to Galle
been acompleted
linkskm
thesection
Sri Lankan
Colombo
withhad
Matara,
major cityand
in
openedoftothe
traffic
in as
November
Many
partslength
of theofhighway
the south
island
shown in2011.
Figure
1. The
96 km
traverse
flood
and been
marshy
ground consisting
of
section
fromthrough
Colombo
to plains
Galle had
completed
and opened
very soft
peat, organic
soils,
and clays.
Especially,
in the
major
to traffic
in November
2011.
Many
parts of
the highway
traverse
floodflood
plainplains
of Welipenna
River,
Bentota
River and
Gingaga
through
and marshy
ground
consisting
of very
soft
areas,
thick
organic clay
wereplain
found.
peat,River
organic
soils,
and peat
clays.and
Especially,
in thedeposits
major flood
of
These River,
problematic
haveGingaga
low shear
strength,
Welipenna
Bentota soils
River and
River areas,
thick high
peat
and low
bearing
capacity,
and therefore
it needs
and compressibility
organic clay deposits
were
found.
These problematic
soils
have
be strength,
improvedhigh
to compressibility
avoid excessiveand
settlement
and capacity,
prevent
low to
shear
low bearing
expressway
construction.
and stability
thereforefailure
it needsduring
to be improved
to embankment
avoid excessive
settlement
Also, these peaty soils posses high creep settlements and
and prevent stability failure during expressway embankment
therefore it is necessary to improve the soft ground to control
construction. Also, these peaty soils posses high creep settlements
the post construction settlements (Karunawardena 2007). Many
and therefore it is necessary to improve the soft ground to control
ground improvement methods have been used on soft soil to
the improve
post construction
(Karunawardena
2007).
Many
its bearingsettlements
capacity and
to minimize the
anticipated
ground
improvement
methods
used on
soft soil to improve
settlement
in this
sectionhave
of been
Southern
Expressway
Project.
its bearing
and to
minimize
in
Ground capacity
improvement
methods
suchthe
as anticipated
surcharging,settlement
surcharging
this with
section
of
Southern
Expressway
Project.
Ground
improvement
pre-fabricated vertical drains, rock replacement, heavy
methods
such as
surcharging,
surcharging
pre-fabricated
vertical
tamping,
vacuum
consolidation
andwith
piled
embankment
have
drains,
rock
replacement,
heavy
tamping,
vacuum
consolidation
and
been used to improve the soft soil in order to control the post
piledconstruction
embankmentsettlements
have been used
soil in order
to
and totoimprove
ensure the
thesoft
stability
of the
control
the post
construction settlements and to ensure the stability of
highway
embankment.
the highway embankment.
This paper presents the ground improvement methods applied in
Thisa paper
the ground
improvement
methods
applied
in
sectionpresents
of the Southern
Expressway
between
Ch.0+000
km to
a section
of thekmSouthern
Expressway
between
Ch.0+000
km to
Ch.66+160
to improve
the peaty soil,
with some
background
information
the designthe
methodology.
thesome
first 34
km of the
Ch.66+160
km on
to improve
peaty soil, In
with
background
highway,onabout
50% ofmethodology.
the area is covered
information
the design
In the by
firstsoft
34ground
km of and
the
from 34
km50%
to 66ofkm,
distance
covered
by the
soft ground
is
highway,
about
thethe
area
is covered
by soft
ground
and from
around
km.theIndistance
this project,
embankments
aboutis4 around
km in
34 km
to 6612km,
covered
by the soft of
ground
length
wereproject,
constructed
by improving
the peaty
by
12 km.
In this
embankments
of about
4 kmsoil
in basically
length were
the application
of heavy
tamping
length
of the
constructed
by improving
the peaty
soil method.
basicallyThe
by the
application
embankments
that were
by of
improving
the peatythat
soilwere
by
of heavy
tamping method.
Thebuilt
length
the embankments
vacuum
assisted
surcharging
was
around
2.5
km.
The
problems
built by improving the peaty soil by vacuum assisted surcharging
ground
improvement
work and
embankment
was encountered
around 2.5during
km. The
problems
encountered
during
ground
construction
and
the
solutions
given
for
the
are
improvement work and embankment construction and thesame
solutions
given for the same are highlighted and discussed. The details of the
laboratory and field investigations carried out before and after ground51

highlighted and discussed. The details of the laboratory and


field investigations carried out before and after ground
improvement, field
program
and field
fieldinstrumentation
instrumentation
program
and monitoring
field
program
thatprogram
was carried
outwas
during
and after
highway
monitoring
that
carried
outconstruction
during andof after
construction of
highway
to assess the are
softpresented.
ground
embankment
to assess
theembankment
soft ground improvement
improvement are presented.

Figure 1. Location map of the Southern Expressway


2 DETAILS OF THE SUBSOIL PROFILE
2
DETAILS OF THE SUBSOIL PROFILE
Many geotechnical investigations have been carried out since the
Many geotechnical
investigations
been
outofsince
inception
of the project
in order tohave
assess
the carried
condition
the soft
the inception
the projectstage,
in order
to assessinformation
the condition
of
ground.
At theofpreliminary
to provide
to bidders
the
soft
ground.
At
the
preliminary
stage,
to
provide
information
and to facilitate initial designs, boreholes were carried out at 500 m
to biddersAfter
andcommencement,
to facilitate initial
designs,
intervals.
boreholes
were boreholes
carried outwere
at about
carried
out
at
500
m
intervals.
After
commencement,
boreholes for
every 50 m interval in order to provide the necessary information
weredetailed
carrieddesign.
out at about every 50 m interval in order to provide
the
the necessary information for the detailed design.
Site investigation consisted of bore holes with Standard Penetration
Site investigation consisted of bore holes with Standard
Test (SPT), hand augering, Cone Penetration Test with pore pressure
Penetration Test (SPT), hand augering, Cone Penetration Test
measurement (CPTu) as in-situ testing and a series of laboratory
with pore pressure measurement (CPTu) as in-situ testing and a
testing
as index property
undrained
triaxial
series such
of laboratory
testingtests,
suchunconsolidated
as index property
tests,
compression tests and conventional consolidation tests.
The investigation identified that the soft ground area of the highway

Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014


unconsolidated undrained triaxial compression tests and
conventional consolidation tests.

52 Geotechnical
Journal
Vol. 6 that
No. the
1 2014
The investigation
identified
soft ground area of the

highway mainly consisted of peat, organic clay, alluvial clay


andconsisted
loose sand
The clay,
distribution
softand
soil
deposits
mainly
of deposits.
peat, organic
alluvial of
clay
loose
sand
along The
the highway
traceoffrom
to Kurundugahahetekma
deposits.
distribution
soft Kottawa
soil deposits
along the highway
shown
in Figure
2.
traceisfrom
Kottawa
to Kurundugahahetekma
is shown in Figure 2.
and sand
silty were
sand found
were found
as top
soil in
of the
SiltySilty
clay clay
and silty
as top soil
in most
of most
the lowland
up 1.5
to m
a to
depth
of This
1.5 was
m tofollowed
3.0 m. by
This
was
areaslowland
up to a areas
depth of
3.0 m.
sand
to
followed
by the
sandthickness
to lateritic
soillayers
and the
thickness
lateritic
soil and
of the
varied
from 1ofmthe
to 5layers
m.
varied from 1 m to 5 m.
In the flood plains of Panape, Kalu Ganga, Welipenna and Bentota
the flood
plains
of Panape,
Kalu peat,
Ganga,
Welipenna
and
riverInareas
sub soil
consisting
of mainly
organic
clay, very
river
consisting
of mainly
peat, average
organic
soft Bentota
inorganic
clayareas
andsub
silt soil
layers
was found.
The total
clay, of
very
inorganic layer
clay was
and in
siltthelayers
thickness
thesoft
compressible
rangewas
of 4 found.
m to 11The
m.
total
average
thickness
of
the
compressible
layer
was
the
In some areas loose silty sand layers were present under the in
above
range of 4 m to 11 m. In some areas loose silty sand layers were
compressible layers. In the valley areas between hillocks, instead of
present under the above compressible layers. In the valley areas
cohesive inorganic clays, very loose to loose silt and sand were found
between hillocks, instead of cohesive inorganic clays, very
ranging from 0.5 m to 4m thickness. The details of the Geotechnical
loose to loose silt and sand were found ranging from 0.5 m to
properties
of the subsoil
haveofbeen
given by Karunawardena
4m thickness.
The details
the Geotechnical
properties of and
the
Nithiwana
and Toki (2011).
subsoil(2009)
have and
beenKarunawardena
given by Karunawardena
and Nithiwana
(2009) and Karunawardena and Toki (2011).

Figure 2. Distribution of soft ground areas


3 DESIGN OF SOFT GROUND IMPROVEMENT
3
DESIGN OF SOFT GROUND IMPROVEMENT
Soft ground improvement design had to be carried out in order to
Soft ground improvement design had to be carried out in order
control the settlements and to ensure the stability of the highway
to control the settlements and to ensure the stability of the
embankment as required in the technical specification. According
highway embankment as required in the technical specification.
to the
technicaltospecification,
embankment
had to be designed
According
the technical the
specification,
the embankment
had to
and be
constructed
by
improving
the
soft
ground
to control
designed and constructed by improving in
theorder
soft ground
in
the continued
settlement
to 15cm atsettlement
the road center
after
a period
order to control
the continued
to 15cm
at the
road
of 3center
years after
following
the of
acceptance
of the paving.
In addition,
the
a period
3 years following
the acceptance
of the
maximum
differential
had residual
to be not differential
more than
paving.residual
In addition,
thesettlement
maximum
0.3%settlement
change inhad
grade
within
three
to beover
not longitudinally
more than 0.3%
change
in years
grade after
over
construction.
In
order
to
achieve
the
above
criteria,
most
or
of the
longitudinally within three years after construction. In all
order
to
primary
settlement
andcriteria,
some ofmost
the secondary
settlement
would
achieve
the above
or all of the
primary that
settlement
haveand
occurred
under
the final embankment
height
alone
were
forced
some of
the secondary
settlement that
would
have
occurred
to take
place
improving
the softheight
ground.
under
thebyfinal
embankment
alone were forced to take
place by improving the soft ground.
The soft ground was improved mainly by using the following methods
The
ground conditions.
was improved
using thickness
the following
based
onsoft
the subsoil
Softmainly
clay ofby
shallow
was
methods
based on
the subsoil
conditions.
Soft and
clayorganic
of shallow
improved
by placing
a surcharge
load.
Shallow peat
clay
thickness
was improved
by placing
a surcharge
Shallow
deposits
were removed
and replaced
with rock
in orderload.
to support
the
peat and organic
clay deposits
were removed
replaced
with
embankments.
The subsoil
with relatively
thick softand
clay
layers were
rock in
to support
embankments.
subsoil load.
with
improved
byorder
installing
verticalthe
drains
and placing The
a surcharge
relatively
thick
soft
clay
layers
were
improved
by
installing
The embankments on the relatively thick peat and organic deposits
drainsbyand
placing the
a surcharge
The
embankments
werevertical
constructed
improving
ground byload.
heavy
tamping
method
the relatively
thick method
peat and
and on
the vacuum
consolidation
fromorganic
sections deposits
0.0 km to were
34.5
constructed
bykm
improving
therespectively.
ground by heavy tamping method
km and
from 34.5
to 66.5 km
In rock replacement method, all compressible layers of the sub soil
were removed and replaced with rock, completely eliminating the
settlements. In the ground improvement method of application of 52
surcharge load with or without vertical drains, future settlement of the
highway embankment was controlled as required in the contract by
designing of an appropriate surcharge load. Most or all of the primary
settlement and some of the secondary settlement that would have
occurred under the final embankment height alone were forced to

and the vacuum consolidation method from sections 0.0 km to


34.5 km and from 34.5 km to 66.5 km respectively.
In rock replacement method, all compressible layers of the sub
soil were removed and replaced with rock, completely
eliminating
the settlements.
In load.
the ground
improvement
method that
take
place under
the surcharge
In addition,
it was expected
of application
of the
surcharge
load with
or without
drains,
the
soil beneath
embankment
would
becomevertical
over consolidated
future
settlement
of surcharging
the highway of
embankment
as the
or
stiffer
due to the
ground. Thewas
aimcontrolled
of applying
required was
in the
contract100%
by of
designing
of an appropriate
surcharge
to eliminate
primary consolidation
settlement
surcharge
load.
Most orsettlement
all of the primary
andsettlement
some
and
enough
secondary
such thatsettlement
the residual
of the
secondary
settlement
that would
haveThe
occurred
under
the
is
within
acceptable
performance
limits.
residual
settlement
finala embankment
forced to was
takeestimated
place under
for
given length height
of timealone
afterwere
construction
as the
the surcharge
load. In
addition,that
it was
expected
thatrequired
the soiltime
remaining
secondary
settlement
occurs
during the
beneath
embankment
wouldtime
become
over consolidated
or has
after
the the
eliminated
equivalent
of secondary
compression
stiffer due
surcharging
of ground.
The
aim of applying
theover
elapsed.
Intothethedesign
of surcharge,
it was
expected
to have 1.1
surcharge wasratio
to (OCR)
eliminate
100% of clays
primary
consolidation
consolidation
for inorganic
and 1.2
to 1.3 for peat
settlement and enough secondary settlement such that the
and organic clays in order to reduce the secondary settlements during
residual settlement is within acceptable performance limits. The
the operation period.
residual settlement for a given length of time after construction
was estimated
as the
remaining
settlement
that occurs
Special
treatments
were
done in secondary
the construction
of bridge
and under
duringapproaches
the required
after theareas
eliminated
equivalent
of
pass
in time
soft ground
in order
to createtime
a smooth
secondary compression
has elapsed.settlements
In the design
of surcharge,
transferring
of expected differential
between
the approach
it was expected
have
1.1 deck.
over consolidation
forpeat
embankment
andtothe
bridge
The approachratio
area (OCR)
with thin
inorganic
clays andwith
1.2 rock
to 1.3and
forthe
peat
and organic
clays in order
layer
was replaced
approach
embankments
on thick
to reduce
secondary
settlements
during
the operation
period.Piled
peat
layersthe
were
constructed
with using
the Geogrid
Reinforced
Embankment
technique
order
a smooth of
gradient
Special treatments
were in
done
in to
thehave
construction
bridge between
and
the
approach
embankment
and the
bridge
deck.
under
pass approaches
in soft
ground
areas
in order to create a
transferring of
expected differential
settlements
between
4smooth
EMBANKMENT
CONSTRUCTION
ON
PEATY SOIL
the approach embankment and the bridge deck. The approach
area with thin over
peat peaty
layer deposits
was replaced
rock and
the
Embankments
in thewith
Southern
Expressway
approach Ch.
embankments
peat layers
between
0.000 km on
to thick
Ch 34.500
km were constructed by
with usingthe the
Piled Embankment
improving
peatyGeogrid
soil usingReinforced
the heavy tamping
method whereas
techniqueconsolidation
in order totechnique
have a smooth
gradient
betweenthethe
vacuum
was applied
to improve
peaty
approach
andCh.34.500
the bridge km
deck.
soil
in the embankment
section between
to 66.500 km. This Chapter
presents the details of the heavy tamping method and the vacuum
consolidation techniques applied in the project.
4
EMBANKMENT CONSTRUCTION ON PEATY
4.1 Heavy
SOIL Tamping Method
Heavy
tampingover
method
resulted
in ainquick
decreaseExpressway
in void ratio of
Embankments
peaty
deposits
the Southern
the
peaty Ch.
soil 0.000
and instantaneous
settlement
of ground
under impact.
between
km to Ch 34.500
km were
constructed
by
Heavy
tamping
was using
designed
enforce
the settlements
improving
the method
peaty soil
thetoheavy
tamping
method that
would
caused byconsolidation
the construction
of earth was
embankment
whereasbe vacuum
technique
applied on
to soft
ground
applying
impact
energy.
Different
levelskm
hadtoto be
improvebythe
peaty soil
in the
section
betweenenergy
Ch.34.500
imparted
by considering
the anticipated
settlement
compressible
66.500 km.
This Chapter
presents the
details ofofthethe
heavy
layer
under
the respective
embankment heights.
In the
tamping
method
and the designed
vacuum consolidation
techniques
applied in the
project.
estimation
of settlements,
all primary consolidation settlements and
secondary settlements at the end of 3 years after construction were
4.1 Heavy Tamping Method
considered. The estimated settlement of peaty soil layers of different
thickness
under method
various embankment
heights
is shown
Figure
Heavy tamping
resulted in a quick
decrease
in in
void
ratio3. In
of the
peaty soil
instantaneous
settlement
of ground
the
calculation
of and
settlement,
the values
of 0.428,
0.0428, under
0.05, and
impact.
Heavy
tamping
wascc(1+e
designed
to enforce
20
kPa were
used
for the method
parameters
), cr((1+e
), c ,the
and Pc
0
0
settlements that
would
by theindex,
construction
earthvoid
respectively
where
cc is be
the caused
compression
e0 is theofinitial
embankment
on soft ground
byc applying
impact ofenergy.
ratio,
cr is the recompression
index,
is the coefficient
secondary

Geotechnical
Vol.
1 2014pressure.
Different
energy
levels
had
to6 beNo.
imparted
by considering the
consolidation
and Journal
Pc is the
preconsolidation
anticipated settlement of the compressible layer under the
respective designed embankment heights. In the estimation of
settlements, all primary consolidation settlements and secondary
settlements at the end of 3 years after construction were
considered. The estimated settlement of peaty soil layers of
different thickness under various embankment heights is shown
in Figure 3. In the calculation of settlement, the values of 0.428,
0.0428, 0.05, and 20 kPa were used for the parameters cc(1+e0),
cr((1+e0 ), c , and Pc respectively where cc is the compression
index, e0 is the initial void ratio, cr is the recompression index,
c is the coefficient of secondary consolidation and P c is the
preconsolidation pressure.

Figure 3. Predicted settlement in peaty clay due to different


embankment heights.
The energy level required to enforce the designed settlement
was estimated using the graph shown in Figure 4. First, the soft
soil, which was to be consolidated, was overlain by a working

settleme
less tha
introduc

The we
stacking
m by 2
equippe
pounder
is gover
configur
this ope
the tota
function
shown i

In the a
improve
the heig
0.6 and
Accordi
improve

function
of the
weightofofenergy
the tamper
andtothe
the total
amount
applied
thedrop
soil,height
whichasis a
shown
in
the
following
equation
as
reported
by
Lukas
(1995).
function of the weight of the tamper and the drop height as
shown in the following equation as reported by Lukas (1995).
(1)

3rdFigure
Proff3.18-02-2015
Predicted settlement in peaty clay due to different

ifferent

d settlement
irst, the soft
y a working
ovement of
drain) was

In the above equation, Geotechnical


D is the depthJournal
of soft/loose
be(1) 53
Vol. 6 soil
No.to1 2014
embankment
improved,
W
is
the
weight
of
the
tamper
(pounder)
in
tons,
H
Figure 3. heights.
Predicted settlement in peaty clay due to different
In the above equation, D is the depth of soft/loose soil is
to be
the height
of drop
m weight
and n is
athe
constant
ranging
from
0.3
toH is
embankment
heights.
improved,
W isinthe
of
tamper
(pounder)
inbe
tons,
The
level
required
to to
enforce
thethe
designed
settlement
was 0.6
Inand
the above
equation,
D
is
the
depth
of
soft/loose
soil
to
improved,
Theenergy
energy
level
required
enforce
designed
settlement
for theof
peaty
soils
site it was
taken as
0.35.
height
drop
in
mfound
and(pounder)
ninisthe
a constant
from
0.3
to
estimated
using the
graph graph
shown in Figure
4. First,
the the
softsoft
soil,
Wthe
is the
weight
of
theabove
tamper
in practically
tons,ranging
H is thepossible
height
of drop
wasThe
estimated
in Figure
4. First,
to
the
data,
the
energyusing
levelthe
required shown
to enforce
the designed
settlement According
0.6
and
for
the
peaty
soils
found
in
the
site
it
was
taken
as
0.35.
which
was
to
be
consolidated,
was
overlain
by
a
working
platform
of
in
m
and
n
is
a
constant
ranging
from
0.3
to
0.6
and
for
the
peaty
soils
soil,was
which
was tousing
be consolidated,
was overlain
working
depth
that above
could be
achieved
in the present
estimated
the graph shown
in Figureby4.aFirst,
the soft improvement
According
to it the
data,
the practically
possible
lateritic
soil to
thesoil
movement
of machinery.
Then, a strong
found
inwas
the about
site
wasmtaken
as
0.35.
According
to the to
above
platform
of facilitate
lateritic
to facilitate
movement
of
operation
3.5
to
4
m.
However,
according
the data,
soil, which
was to be
consolidated,
wasthe
overlain
by a working
improvement
depth
that
could
be
achieved
in
the
present
type
fibre
drain
(band
drain)
was
installed
by
a
machine
in
soft
subsoil
the
practically
possible
improvement
depth
that
could
be
achieved
in
machinery.
Then,
a
strong
type
fibre
drain
(band
drain)
was
investigation,
it
was
observed
that
the
soft
compressible
layer
platform of lateritic soil to facilitate the movement of
operation was about 3.5 m to 4 m. However, according to the
in installed
a square
pattern
with aainspacing
of 1 m.
required
by
a machine
soft subsoil
in The
a square
pattern
withwas
a was thickness
the present
operation
was above
about 3.5
m to of
4 m.
However,
according
was
higher
than
in
most
the
locations
and
machinery.
Then,
strong
type
fibre
drain
(bandenergy
drain)
investigation, it was observed that the soft compressible layer
spacing
m. aby
The
required
energy
was in
applied
the
soil
by
applied
to of
the1soil
dropping
large
weight
on
the to
ground
surface
to the investigation,
it was observed
that the
softnot
compressible
layer
the underneath
soft layers
were
improved and
installed
by
machine
in asoft
subsoil
a square
pattern
with a therefore
thickness
was higher deeper
than above
in most
of the locations
dropping
a
large
weight
on
the
ground
surface
repeatedly
in
repeatedly
in
phases
on
a
grid
pattern
over
the
entire
full
base
width
thickness
was
higher
than
above
in
most
of
the
locations
and
therefore
properly
by
heavy
tamping.
These
underneath
deeper
soft
layers
spacing of 1 m. The required energy was applied to the soil by
therefore the underneath deeper soft layers were not improved
on a grid
pattern
overon
thepasses.
entire
full
base
width
of the
of phases
the dropping
embankment
usingweight
multiple
A
high
energy
level
wasin were
theproperly
underneath
deeper
soft layers
not improved
properly
improved
the
heavy
tamping
operation
by keeping
a by
a large
the
ground
surface
repeatedly
by after
heavy
tamping.
Thesewere
underneath
deeper
soft
layers
embankment
multiple
passes.
high
energy
applied
in 5 phases
whereas
onlyover
4 phases
werefull
usedbase
to level
apply
a of
lowthe surcharge
load for
a underneath
sufficient
period
of
time.
5 a
heavy
tamping.
These
deeper soft
layers Figure
were
improved
phases
onusing
a grid
pattern
theAentire
widthwas
were
improved
after
the
heavy
tamping
operation
by
keeping
applied
in 5 phases
whereas
only passes.
4 phasesAwere
to apply
the load
major
in theby heavy
energy
requirement.
after
the heavy
tamping
keeping
a surcharge
load for
embankment
using
multiple
highused
energy
levela was illustrates
surcharge
forsteps
aoperation
sufficient
period tamping
of
time. ground
Figure
5 a
low applied
energy requirement.
adopted
in thesteps
project.
sufficient
period
time.
Figure
major steps
in the
in 5 phases whereas only 4 phases were used to apply a improvement
illustrates
the ofmajor
in5 illustrates
the heavythetamping
ground
heavy
tamping ground
low energy requirement.
improvement
adoptedimprovement
in the project.adopted in the project.

Figure 5. Major steps in heavy tamping ground improvement.


Figure 5. Major steps in heavy tamping ground improvement.
.
4.2 Effect of the Fiber drain Installation for the Tamping
Figure 4. Relationship between the enforced settlement and .
4.2Energy
Effect of the Fiber drain Installation for the Tamping
applied
energy
Figure
4. Relationship between the enforced settlement and The
4.2inEffect
of the Fiber of
drain
the Tamping
Energy
situEnergy
permeability
peatInstallation
is relativelyfor
higher
than that of
Theapplied
energy energy
intensity per phase was gradually increased from
ordinary
clays
and
therefore,
it
was
assumed
that
quick
Theininsitu
situpermeability
permeability of
of peat is
The
is relatively
relatively higher
higherthan
thanthat
thatof of
15%
- 20%
of theintensity
total
intensity
30%
- 40%increased
atfrom
the last
of excess
pore water
pressure was
wouldassumed
occur within
the
The
energy
intensity
per energy
phase
gradually
increased
15%
The
energy
per was
phase
wasto gradually
from dissipation
ordinaryclays
clays
therefore,
that
quick
ordinary
and and
therefore,
it wasitassumed
that quick
dissipation
phase
prior
to
the
ironing
phase.
The
spacing
of
the
prints
of
the
during theoftamping
operation.
However,would
it wasoccur
noted
that the
- 20%15%
of the
totalofenergy
intensity
30% - to
40%
at -the
lastat phase
- 20%
the total
energyto
intensity
30%
40%
the last peat
excess
pore
water
pressure
within
ofdissipation
excess pore
water
pressure
would
occur within
peat
during
the
pounder
on ironing
theThe
square
grid
estimated
asprints
2H to
process
of pore
water
pressure
dissipation
wasitthe
rather
slow
prior
to
the dropped
ironing
spacing
ofwas
the
printsofofthethe
pounder
phase
prior to phase.
the
phase.
The
spacing
of the thetamping
peat
during
the
tamping
operation.
However,
was
noted
that
operation.
However,
it
was
noted
that
the
process
of
pore
2.5H,
where
is the thickness
of the compressible
layer. where
As
therefore no
further
densification
can be achieved
by
pounder
dropped
on the
gridaswas
as the
2HHto and the
dropped
on theH
square
grid
was square
estimated
2H estimated
to 2.5H,
ofdissipation
pore
water
pressure
dissipation
was rather
water process
pressure
was
rather
slow
and
therefore
no slow
further
strength
improved
the spacing
wasthereduced
in
the
additional
energy
to
the
soils.
This
could
have
been
where
is the
thickness
of
the compressible
layer.
As the imparting
is ground
the 2.5H,
thickness
ofHthe
compressible
layer.
As
ground
strength
and therefore
no
further densification
can be achieved
densification
can
be achieved
by imparting
additional
energy
tobythe
subsequent
phases.
In
the
ironing
phase,
a
smaller
drop
height
due
to
the
rapid
reduction
of
permeability
of
the
peaty
soil
as
a
ground
strengthwas
improved
spacing
was reduced
improved
the spacing
reduced the
in the
subsequent
phases. Ininthethe
imparting
additional
energy
to
the rapid
soils.reduction
This could
have been
soils.
This
could
have
been
due
to
the
of
permeability
wassubsequent
used at veryphases.
close spacing
for
removing
surface
unevenness
the structure
of the soil,
In the
ironing
smaller
drop
height result
dueofto damage
the rapidtoreduction
of permeability
of thepresence
peaty soilofas a
ironing phase, a smaller drop
height
was phase,
used ata very
close
spacing
of the peaty
soil asofa clay
result of damage
to
the structure paths.
of the soil,
and was
to compact
at shallow
depths.
and of
long
used
at the
verysoil
close
spacing
surface
result ofamount
damage
to thecontent
structure
thedrainage
soil, presence of
for removing
surface
unevenness
andfor
to removing
compact the
soil atunevenness
shallow substantial
presence itofwas
substantial
amount
of clay
content
andto long
drainage
Therefore,
noted
that
the
energy
level
required
achieve
and
to
compact
the
soil
at
shallow
depths.
substantial amount of clay content and long drainage paths.
During tamping, once the depth of the crater formed by the drop
depths.
paths.
Therefore,
it was
noted was
that very
the energy
level
required to
the
designed
enforced
settlement
high
as
the
excess
Therefore,
it
was
noted
that
the
energy
level
required
to
achieve
of pounder
exceededonce
the height
of of
thethe
pounder,
the crater
wasdrop
During tamping,
the depth
crater
formed
bydrop
the
achieve
the designed
enforced
very
as
excess
pore
pressure
wasenforced
not allowed
tosettlement
dissipate
as expected.
During
the depth
of the
crater
formed
by the
the
the
designed
settlement
was was
very
highhigh
as Having
thethe
excess
backoftamping,
filled
andonce
leveled
with
soil.
The
dimension
of
craterof
pounder
exceeded
the
height
of
the
pounder,
the
crater
was experienced
pore
pressure
was
not
allowed
to
dissipate
as
expected.
Having
the
above
difficulty,
it
was
decided
to
install
pounder
exceeded
the
height
of
the
pounder,
the
crater
was
back
filled
pore pressure was not allowed to dissipate as expected. Having
wasback
recorded
inand
order to calculate
the volume
of soil introduced.
filled
with soil.
dimension
of the crater
strong the
type
fibre
drains
in the
peaty
soil
prior
to
experienced
above
difficulty,
it was
decided
to install
special
and
leveled
with
soil. leveled
The
ofinThe
the
crater
wasofrecorded
in special
experienced
the
above
difficulty,
it
was
decided
to the
install
The
above
process
was dimension
continued
all
phases
tamping
was
recorded
in
order
to
calculate
the
volume
of
soil
introduced.
tamping
in
order
to
eliminate
the
development
of
high
excess
strong
type
fibre
drains
in
the
peaty
soil
prior
to
the
tamping
in
order
to
calculate
the
volume
of
soil
introduced.
The
above
process
special strong type fibre drains in the peaty soil prior to order
the
operation.
Using
the cratercontinued
fill volumes,
the enforced
The above
in allUsing
phases
tamping
water pressure
during
the heavy
tamping
operation.
to tamping
eliminate
the
development
ofthe
high
excess
poreof water
pressure
was continued
in allprocess
phases was
of tamping operation.
theof
crater
fill pore
in
order
to
eliminate
development
high
excess
operation. Using the crater fill volumes, the enforced during the heavy tamping operation.
volumes, the enforced settlements were calculated and if the enforced
pore water pressure during the heavy tamping operation.
Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014
settlement was less than the required then another phase of tamping53
was settlements
introduced until
requiredand
settlement
was achieved.
werethe
calculated
if the enforced
settlement was 53
less than the required then another phase of tamping was
The weight of the pounder was 15 tons and it was built by stacking
introduced until the required settlement was achieved.
and bolting a series of 25 mm thick mild steel plates, 2 m by 2 m in
of the
pounder
was crane
15 tons
was builtwith
by
planThe
area.weight
A 60 ton
capacity
mobile
thatand
wasit equipped
stacking and
bolting
25 mm thickofmild
plates,
2
an automatic
lifting
anda series
releaseofmechanism
the steel
pounder
was
2m
in plan operation.
area. A 60The
ton capacity
that was
usedminbythe
tamping
height ofmobile
drop iscrane
governed
by
equippeddimension,
with an automatic
lifting and
of and
the
the pounder
crane capacity
andrelease
boom mechanism
configuration
pounder
was used
the tamping
operation.
The height
ofdepth
drop
hence,
was found
to beina maximum
8m
in this operation.
The
is governed bygenerally
the pounder
dimension,
boom
of improvement
depends
on thecrane
total capacity
amount and
of energy
configuration
and
hence,
was
found
to
be
a
maximum
8
m in
applied to the soil, which is a function of the weight of the tamper
this
operation.
The
depth
of
improvement
generally
depends
on
and the drop height as shown in the following equation as reported
the total
amount of energy applied to the soil, which is a
by Lukas
(1995).
function of the weight of the tamper and the drop height as
shown in the following equation as reported by Lukas (1995).
(1)
In the above equation, D is the depth of soft/loose soil to be
improved, W is the weight of the tamper (pounder) in tons, H is
the height of drop in m and n is a constant ranging from 0.3 to
0.6 and for the peaty soils found in the site it was taken as 0.35.
According to the above data, the practically possible
improvement depth that could be achieved in the present
operation was about 3.5 m to 4 m. However, according to the
investigation, it was observed that the soft compressible layer

Figure 6. Comparison of Applied energy vs. Enforced


settlement with and without fibre drains
Figure 6 shows the applied tamping energy level in order to
achieve the designed enforced settlement with and without fibre
drain installation in similar ground conditions. As shown in
Figure 6, the energy that was required to achieve the designed
enforced settlement in fibre drain installed peaty ground was
significantly lower than the energy required without fibre

surface to
installation
up to a de
square pa
horizontal
top of th
connected
horizontal
installed a
ditches we
20 m in
perforated
displacem
settlement
After insta
pipes and
covered by
laid on top
provide a
boundary
applied us
Industry C
hoses to th
leaks throu

Figure 6. Comparison of Applied energy vs. Enforced

with and
without
fibre
drains
54settlement
Geotechnical
Journal
Vol.
6 No.
1 2014

Figure 6 shows the applied tamping energy level in order to


Figure
6 shows
the applied
tamping
energy with
leveland
in order
to achieve
achieve
the designed
enforced
settlement
without
fibre
the
designed
enforced
settlement
with
and without
fibre drain
drain
installation
in similar
ground
conditions.
As shown
in
installation
conditions.
shown in
6, the
Figure 6, in
thesimilar
energyground
that was
required As
to achieve
theFigure
designed
enforced
in tofibre
draintheinstalled
ground
was
energy
that settlement
was required
achieve
designedpeaty
enforced
settlement
lower peaty
than ground
the energy
required without
fibrethe
insignificantly
fibre drain installed
was significantly
lower than
drains.required
This clearly
shows
partThis
of the
applied
energy
was of
energy
without
fibre that
drains.
clearly
shows
that part
in energy
compressing
the incompressible
water.
Therefore,
thewasted
applied
was wasted
in compressing the
incompressible
provision
of aprovision
strong band
drainband
suchdrain
as such
fibreasdrains
to
water.
Therefore,
of a strong
fibre drains
heavy tamping
tampingimpact
impact
is useful
in reducing
the
towithstand
withstand heavy
is useful
in reducing
the required
required
tamping
level by
asKarunaratne
described by
Karunaratne
tamping
energy
level energy
as described
(2007).
(2007).
4.3 Vacuum Consolidation Method
4.3 Vacuum Consolidation Method
The
that were
werebuilt
builtbybyimproving
improving
Thelength
lengthofof the
the embankments that
thethe
peaty
2.52.5
km.
The
peatysoil
soilbybyvacuum
vacuumassisted
assistedsurcharging
surchargingis isaround
around
km.
above
lengthlength
was divided
into Sections.
The base
of a section
The above
was divided
into Sections.
The width
base width
of a
was
40 mwas
and 40
themlength
varied
between
m to 7050m.mThe
average
section
and the
length
varied50
between
to 70
m.
The average
height
around
8 m,
withofthe
of 22 of
height
was around
8 m,was
with
the crest
width
22crest
m andwidth
side slope
and side
of 1 vertical: 1.5 horizontal.
1m
vertical:
1.5slope
horizontal.
The
carried out
outusing
usingthetheCompact
Compact
Thevacuum
vacuumconsolidation
consolidation was
was carried
Vacuum
Consolidation
(CVC)
patent
by
Maruyama
Industry,
Japan.
Vacuum Consolidation (CVC) patent by Maruyama Industry,
AJapan.
brief description
of
the
method
adopted
at
the
site
is
given
A brief description of the method adopted at the sitebelow
is
and
the schematic
is shown
in Figure
7.
given
below andconstruction
the schematic
construction
is shown
in Figure
7.
Settlement gauge
Primary separator tank

Water hose

Monitoring unit
Pump unit
Drain water
Suction hose

Secondary
separator tank

Airtight sheet

Vacuum pressure
Perforated pipe

Vertical drain

Figure 7.
Schematic construction of compact vacuum
Consolidation
In the application of vacuum consolidation method, about a 1.0 m
toIn1.5
thick fill was
constructed
on the original
themapplication
of vacuum
consolidation
method,ground
about asurface
1.0
tomform
a
working
platform
for
the
band
drain
installation
machine.
to 1.5 m thick fill was constructed on the original ground
Band drains were installed by a machine up to a designed depth
from the original ground surface in a square pattern with a spacing
54
of 1 m. Thereafter, flexible horizontal drains (300 mm wide and
4 mm thick) were laid on top of the fill with a horizontal spacing
of 1 m and then connected to the vertical band drains in order to
ensure adequate horizontal drainage capacity. Subsequently, the tank
system was installed and connected to the designed pipe systems.
Small ditches were excavated perpendicular to the horizontal drains
at 20 m intervals and filled with aggregates after placing perforated
pipes. Instrumentation such as settlement plates, displacement stakes,
electrical piezometers and differential settlement gauges were also
installed at the designed depths. After installation of vertical drains,
horizontal drains, perforated pipes and separator tanks, the surface of
the treatment area was covered by a protection sheet. Thereafter, an
air tight sheet was laid on top and the periphery trench system was
constructed to provide air tightness and the necessary anchorage at
the boundary of the treatment area. Vacuum pressure was then applied
using a vacuum pumping system patented by Maruyama Industry Co.
Ltd, Japan by connecting the suction and water hoses to the vacuum
pump. After confirming that there were no leaks through the air tight
sheet, filling was commenced.

displacement stakes, electrical piezometers and differential


settlement gauges were also installed at the designed depths.
After installation of vertical drains, horizontal drains, perforated
pipes and separator tanks, the surface of the treatment area was
covered by a protection sheet. Thereafter, an air tight sheet was
laid on top and the periphery trench system was constructed to
provide air tightness and the necessary anchorage at the
The fill was
applied
in stages,
partly
due to pressure
the stability
boundary
of the
treatment
area.
Vacuum
wasconsideration
then
and
partly
due
to
practical
constrains
in
transporting
the required
applied using a vacuum pumping system patented by Maruyama
high quality
fill Japan
material
an average
compacted
unit weight
Industry
Co. Ltd,
by with
connecting
the suction
and water
of
18kN/m3.
It
was
expected
to
apply
the
surcharge
by
means
hoses to the vacuum pump. After confirming that there were
no of a
vacuum
pressure
70kPa
to compensate
the primary consolidation
leaks
through
the airoftight
sheet,
filling was commenced.
settlements and to minimize the secondary settlements that can take
The
fillinwas
applied highway
in stages,embankment.
partly due However,
to the stability
place
the proposed
in some areas
consideration
and
partly
due
to
practical
in and
the applied vacuum pressure was less than theconstrains
designed value
transporting
theabove
required
highsurcharge
quality was
fill applied
materialbywith
anof both
therefore the
designed
means
3
. It designed
was expected
to kept
average
compacted
unit embankment
weight of 18kN/m
vacuum
pressure and
fills. The
load was
apply the surcharge by means of a vacuum pressure of 70kPa to
until the expected settlement completed.
compensate the primary consolidation settlements and to
minimize
theMONITORING
secondary settlements
that can take place in the
5 FIELD
PROGRAM
proposed highway embankment. However, in some areas the
An extensive
monitoring
to understand
applied
vacuum pressure
wasprogram
less thanwas
the carried
designedoutvalue
and
the fieldthe
behavior
of the foundation
to the
therefore
above designed
surcharge soil
wasdue
applied
bydifferent
means ofground
both
vacuum pressure
and The
embankment
fills. The
designed
load was
improvement
methods.
improvement
of the
soft ground
was
kept untilthrough
the expected
settlement completed.
monitored
the measurement
of settlement and the excess
pore water pressure during the construction period. Settlement plates
were installed at the top of the soft layer or on top of the pioneer
and piezometers
were installed
at the middle of the soft layer.
5 layer
FIELD
MONITORING
PROGRAM
The settlement stakes were installed near the toe of the embankments
An extensive monitoring program was carried out to understand
to check the stability during the construction. In addition to the
the field behavior of the foundation soil due to the different
above,improvement
in the areas methods.
improved The
by vacuum
consolidation,
a vacuum
ground
improvement
of the soft
pressure
monitoring
unit
was
used
to
measure
the
vacuum
pressure
ground was monitored through the measurement of settlement
at the
the pump
under
the pressure
air tight during
sheet. Also,
a water discharge
and
excessand
pore
water
the construction
meter Settlement
was used to
measure
rate and
discharged
period.
plates
werethe
installed
at the
the total
top of
the soft water
flow
due
to
the
vacuum
operation.
An
automatic
data
acquisition
layer or on top of the pioneer layer and piezometers were unit
was connected
with the
vacuum
monitoring
installed
at the middle
ofpiezometer,
the soft layer.
The pressure
settlement
stakes unit
andinstalled
water discharge
to keep
continuous records.
Thethe
locations
were
near themeter
toe of
the embankments
to check
of the during
instrumentation
in one ofInthe
CVC improvement
Sections
stability
the construction.
addition
to the above, in
the are
shown
in Figure
with the consolidation,
treatment area dimensions.
areas
improved
by8 vacuum
a vacuum pressure
monitoring unit was used to measure the vacuum pressure at the
Installed instruments were monitored at selected time intervals to
pump and under the air tight sheet. Also, a water discharge
investigate the performance of the expected ground improvement
meter was used to measure the rate and the total discharged
process
stability
of the
embankments.
The filling
water
flowand
duethe
to the
vacuum
operation.
An automatic
data rates
and
the
vacuum
pressure
were
adjusted
when
the
stability
acquisition unit was connected with the piezometer, vacuum of the
embankment
was
seen
toand
be6water
atNo.
risk,
based onmeter
the field
monitoring
Geotechnical
Journal
1discharge
2014
pressure
monitoring
unit Vol.
to keep
data. During
the first
weeks of
operation,inthe
continuous
records.
Thetwo
locations
of the
thevacuum
instrumentation
onevertical
settlement
and
lateral
movement
devices
were
monitored
twice
a day
of the
CVC improvement
areand
shown
in movement
Figure 8 with
operation,
the vertical Sections
settlement
lateral
devices
the
frequency
of
monitoring
was
increased
with
the
progress
theand
treatment
area
dimensions.
were monitored twice a day and the frequency of monitoring
of was
the embankment
construction
work. After
construction
of the
increased were
with
the progress
of the
embankment
Installed
instruments
monitored
at selected
time intervals
embankment
up
to
the
required
level,
monitoring
frequency
was
construction the
work.performance
After construction
embankment
up to
to reduced
investigate
of
theofofthe
expected
ground
to oncelevel,
a week.
But dailyfrequency
records
thereduced
vacuum
pressure
the
required
monitoring
was
to
once
a at
improvement
process
and
theasstability
of
the embankments.
The taken
pump
andBut
under
therecords
sheet
well
asvacuum
piezometer
readings
were
week.
daily
of
the
pressure
at
pump
and
filling rates and the vacuum pressure were adjusted when the
from
the the
beginningastowell
the completion
date of the treatment.
under
piezometer
were taken
stability
of the sheet
embankment as
was
seen to bereadings
at risk, based
on thefrom
the
beginning
to
the
completion
date
the treatment.
field monitoring data. During the first twoofweeks
of the vacuum
40m

Sta.47+850

SP-1 SP-6
SP-2 SP-5

70m

10m

SP-7
SP-8

Vacuum
acquisition unit

10m

Water
discharge

SP-3 SP-4

Sta.47+920
Surface settlement plates
Sub surface settlement gauge

SP-9

Water
discharge
record meters
Piezometer
Settlement stakes

Figure 8. Plan of the embankment and instrumentation layout


The loading curve that shows the placement of the fill, the
surface settlement of the settlement gauge installed under the
center of the embankment, the observed vacuum pressure under
the sheet and the pore water pressure (PWP) in the piezometer
installed in the middle of the peat layer, water discharge rate
and cumulative water discharge with time for one of the CVC
improvement area are shown in Figures 9(a), 9(b), 9(c) and 9(d)

Figure 9.
2.3

Settlement stakes

Sub surface settlement gauge

Figure 8. Plan of the embankment and instrumentation layout


Figure
8. Plancurve
of thethat
embankment
instrumentation
The
loading
shows theand
placement
of the layout
fill, the
the
the
center
the embankment,
the observed
vacuum
pressure
under
surfaceofsettlement
of the settlement
gauge
installed
under
the
the
sheet
and embankment,
the pore waterthepressure
(PWP)
in the
piezometer
center
of the
observed
vacuum
pressure
under
installed
in
of thepressure
peat layer, water
discharge
rate
the sheet
andthe
themiddle
pore
water
the
piezometer
The loading
curve
that
shows
the placement(PWP)
of theinfill,
the
surface
and
cumulative
water
discharge
withlayer,
time water
for onedischarge
of the CVC
installed
in
the
middle
of
the
peat
rate
settlement
of the settlement
gaugeininstalled
under
the center
of the
improvement
area
are shown
Figures
9(a),for
9(b),
9(c)
and
9(d)
and cumulative
water
discharge
with time
one
of the
CVC
embankment,
the
observed
vacuum
pressure
under
the
sheet
and
the
respectively.
improvement
are in
shown
in Figures 9(a),
9(b),in9(c)
9(d)
pore water
pressurearea
(PWP)
the piezometer
installed
the and
middle
respectively.
of the peat layer, water discharge rate and cumulative water discharge
6 ASSESSMENT
OF
THE area SOFT
GROUND
with time
for one of the CVC improvement
are shown in
Figures
IMPROVEMENT
9(a), 9(b),
9(c)
and
9(d)
respectively.
6 ASSESSMENT
OF
THE
SOFT
GROUND
TheIMPROVEMENT
performance of the ground improvement was evaluated in
6 ASSESSMENT OF THE SOFT GROUND IMPROVEMENT
terms
of the degree
consolidation,
improvement
of the
The performance
of theofground
improvement
was evaluated
in
physical
and
engineering
properties,
increase
in
The performance
of the
ground
evaluated in terms
terms of the
degree
of improvement
consolidation,was
improvement
of the
pressure
and
gain in
shearofstrength
of the peaty
of thepreconsolidation
degree of and
consolidation,
improvement
the physical
andin
physical
engineering
properties,
increase
soil.
preconsolidation
andingain
in shear strength
of the peaty
engineering
properties,pressure
increase
preconsolidation
pressure
and
soil.
gain in
shearEstimation
strength ofofthe
peaty of
soil.
6.1
degree
Consolidation

surface
settlement
the shows
settlement
gauge installed
3rd Proff
The 18-02-2015
loading
curveofthat
the placement
of theunder
fill,

6.1 ground
Estimation
of of
degree
ofachieved
Consolidation
The
improvement
was investigated by
6.1 Estimation
of degree
Consolidation
calculating
the
degree
of
consolidation
using
observed field
The ground improvement achieved was the
investigated
by
settlements
before
termination
of the
vacuum
operation
andfield
the
The ground
improvement
achieved
was
investigated
byobserved
calculating
calculating
the
degree
of consolidation
using the
removal
surcharge.
The
degree
ofobserved
consolidation
is
calculated
the degree
ofofconsolidation
using
thethe
settlements
settlements
before termination
of
vacuum field
operation
and the
the
ratio
of
the
current
settlement
to
the
expected
ultimate
beforeas
termination
of
the
vacuum
operation
and
the
removal
of
removal of surcharge. The degree of consolidation is calculated
primary
settlement.
In thesettlement
present
work,
ultimate
primary
surcharge.
degree
consolidation
is calculated
as the ratio
of
as theThe
ratio
of theofcurrent
to the expected
ultimate
settlement
and theto degree
consolidation
were
estimated
by
the current
settlement
the
ultimate
primary
settlement.
primary
settlement.
In expected
theof present
work,
ultimate
primary
method
outlined
in Asaoka
(1978)
and and
hyperbolic
method
In thethe
present
work,
ultimate
primary
settlement
degree
ofby
settlement
and
the
degree
of consolidation
werethe
estimated
described
inoutlined
Tan
etin al.
usingandoutlined
the
measured
field
consolidation
were
estimated
by(1991)
the(1978)
method
in Asaoka
the method
Asaoka
hyperbolic
method
settlement
data.
(1978)
and
hyperbolic
method
described
in
Tan
et
al.
(1991)
using
the
described in Tan et al. (1991) using the measured field
measured
field settlement
data.
settlement
data.
The graphical plot of the Asaoka method based on the observed
The graphical
plot
of the center
Asaokaofmethod
based (SP
on the
observed
settlement
under
embankment
at
vacuum
The graphical
plotthe
of the of
Asaoka
method based
on5)the
observed
settlement
under ground
the
center
embankment
(SP 5)
at vacuum
consolidated
improvement
section
from
Ch.47+850
km
settlement
under
the
center
of
embankment
(SP
5)
at
consolidated
ground km
improvement
section
from
Ch.47+850 kmvacuum
to Ch.
to
Ch.
47+920
is
shown
in
Figure
10.
consolidated
ground
improvement
section from Ch.47+850 km
47+920
km is shown
in Figure
10.
to Ch. 47+920 km is shown in Figure 10.

devices
nitoring
ankment
nt up to
o once a
mp and
en from

Si
Si

2.1
2.2

- 0.8638

2.0
2.1

S - 1.993m- 0.8638

1.9
2.0
1.8
1.9
1.7
1.8
1.7

S - 1.993 m

45o
1.7

o
451.8

1.9

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.3

S i-1

S i-1
Figure 10. Graphical plot of Asaoka
method

Figure
10.that
Graphical
plotofofCVC
Asaoka
methodthe achieved degree
It
is seen
at the end
treatment
It is seen that at the end of CVC treatment the achieved degree of
of
consolidation
is
around
97%.
The
degree
consolidation
It is seen thatisataround
the end
of CVC
treatment
the of
achieved
degree
consolidation
97%.
Theondegree
of
consolidation
was also
was
also
calculated
based
the
pore
water
pressure
of consolidation
is the
around
97%.
The
degree
of consolidation
calculated
based
on
pore
water
pressure
measurements
(PWP),
measurements
(PWP), and
laboratory
consolidation
testing
of
waslaboratory
also calculated
based
on the
pore water
pressure
and
consolidation
testing
of
peaty
samples
after
the
peaty
samples
after
the
treatment
program.
The
comparison
measurements
(PWP),
and laboratory
consolidation
testing of
of
treatment
program.
The comparison
ofmethod
the
degree
of consolidation
the
degree
of
consolidation
for
each
is
shown
in
Table
peaty
the treatment
for
eachsamples
method after
is shown
in Table 1.program. The comparison of
1.
the degree of consolidation for each method is shown in Table
1.
Table
1. Estimation of the degree of consolidation
Table 1. Estimation of the degree
of consolidation
Degree
of Consolidation
Location
Asaoka Degree
Laboratory
of Consolidation PWP
Method
Data
Location
Asaoka
Laboratory
PWP
Ch. 45+380
83.10%
Method
Data
97.83%
79.46%
Ch. 45+430
73.87%
Ch. 45+380
83.10%
97.83%
79.46%
100.00%
45+430
Ch. 47+850
73.87%
97.10%
100.00%
Ch. 47+920
100.00%
100.00%
Ch. 47+850
97.10%
100.00%
80.21%
Ch.
47+920
Ch. 52+950
100.00%
97.57%
100.00%
Ch. 53+000
90.91%
80.21%
Ch. 52+950
97.57%
100.00%
Ch.
53+000
96.70%
90.91%
Ch. 53+660
96.65%
68.71%
Ch. 53+730
83.62%
96.70%
Ch. 53+660
96.65%
68.71%
Ch. 53+730
83.62%

6.2 Improvement of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Peat

ayout

uated in
of the

2.2
2.3

In order to assess the secondary settlements, for each monitoring


point, the long-term settlement was predicted by extrapolating the
secondary settlement rate over a period of 3 years. Predictions were
made by preparing a plot of displacement against log (time) for each
settlement plate, with the best-fit line through the data extended to
define the likely settlement after 3 years. The surcharge was removed
only after confirming the residual settlement by considering both the
primary and secondary consolidation settlements as described above.

ge
meters

ROUND

Figure
9. Field monitoring data
2.3

55
55If the degree of consolidation from the PWP measurement is assumed
to be accurate, Asaoka Method accurately estimates the degree
of consolidation in treatment areas 47 + 850 to 47 + 920 and 52 +
950 to 53 + 00 whereas Asaoka method over predicts the degree of
consolidation in treatment areas 45 + 380 to 45 + 430 and 53 + 660 to
53 + 730. However, in treatment area 53 + 660 to 53 + 730 the degree
of consolidation from the laboratory test results agree very well with
the same estimated from the Asaoka method. Therefore, based on
this investigation it can be concluded that the degree of consolidation
estimated from the Asaoka method is reasonably accurate.

m
tion unit

Site investigation was carried out to assess the actual ground


improvement in the areas improved by the heavy tamping and
vacuum consolidation method just before the removal of surcharge.
Investigation was carried out in the improved as well as the adjacent
unimproved area in order to assess the ground improvement. Site
investigation comprised of advancing of bore holes with Standard
Penetration Test (SPT), collection of undisturbed soil samples,
performing of Field Vane Shear Test Cone Penetration Test (CPT)
and performing of laboratory tests. The improvement of physical and
mechanical properties of peat due to heavy tamping improvement

Figure 9. Field monitoring data


2.3
2.2
2.1

Si

fill, the
nder the
re under
zometer
rge rate
he CVC
and 9(d)

Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014 55

Figure 9. Field monitoring data

- 0.8638

2.0

S - 1.993 m

1.9
1.8

45o

1.7
1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.3

improvement. Site investigation comprised of advancing of bore


holes with Standard Penetration Test (SPT), collection of
undisturbed soil samples, performing of Field Vane Shear Test
Cone Penetration Test (CPT) and performing of laboratory tests.
56 The
Geotechnical
Journal
Vol. 6and
No.mechanical
1 2014 properties of peat
improvement
of physical
due to heavy tamping improvement is described in
Karunawardena
and Tokiand(2011).
The The
location
of ofthe
is described
in Karunawardena
Toki (2011).
location
the
investigations
carried
at CVC
improved
areas
of Ch.
investigations
carried
out out
at CVC
improved
areas
of Ch.
47+47+
850
85047+920
to Ch. 47+920
is shown
in 11.
figure
11.observed
The observed
to Ch.
is shown
in figure
The
subsoilsubsoil
profile
profilefrom
deduced
from the
borehole investigation
is shown
deduced
the borehole
investigation
is shown in Figure
12. in
In
Figure
12.
In
the
same
figure
recorded
SPT
values
are
also
the same figure recorded SPT values are also plotted along the depth.
plotted along the depth.
47+850

Unimproved Area
BH4
BH3

BH5
BH2 BH1

3
m

BH6

Improved
Area

BH7

The reduction of secondary compression is very important as the


secondary compression phenomenon is dominant in the peaty soil.
The results of long term consolidation tests carried out in the improved
and unimproved peaty samples are shown in Table 3. It reveals that
the coefficient of secondary consolidation has reduced from a range
of 0.10 to 0.13 to a range of 0.03 to 0.06. Subsequently the ratio of
has decreased from 0.050 to 0.029 due to ground improvement. The
estimation carried out based on the above information assures that
the residual settlement would be less than 150 mm by the end of 3
years after construction as required in the contract Karunawardena
and Nithiwana (2009).

47+920
Vane Shear

Bore Hole

ement is
estimates
0 to 47 +
hod over
45 + 380
treatment
from the
estimated
estigation
estimated

for each
dicted by
riod of 3
plot of
ate, with
he likely
only after
both the
described

Figure 11. Investigation locations


Outside

Crest

Center
Fill Height
11.1 m

3m

unimproved areas. The summary of laboratory test results from


the peat samples collected from the improved and unimproved
area of Ch.47+850 to Ch.47+920 is given in Table 3.
Consolidation tests revealed the significant reduction in the
compression index which is proportional to primary
consolidation settlement. The compression index of the peat
layer has reduced from a range of 2.65 to 2.13, to as low as 0.90
The
observed
change
in the
peaty soil layer
the changes
as
a result
of the
ground
improvement.
The thickness,
average reduced
in water
content
value
is about
1.65.and void ratio due to CVC ground improvement
are given in Table 2. Accordingly, the initial thickness of the peat
The
secondary
is very
important
as
layerreduction
has beenofreduced
by compression
50%-60% after
ground
improvement.
the
secondary
compression
phenomenon
is
dominant
in
the
The above reduction reasonably agreed with the percentage change
peaty
soil. content
The results
long
termvalues
consolidation
of water
and of
void
ratio
obtained tests
fromcarried
peaty soil
out in the improved and unimproved peaty samples are shown
collected from the improved and unimproved areas. The summary
in Table 3. It reveals that the coefficient of secondary
of laboratory test results from the peat samples collected from the
consolidation has reduced from a range of 0.10 to 0.13 to a
improved and unimproved area of Ch.47+850 to Ch.47+920 is given
range of 0.03 to 0.06. Subsequently the ratio of C / Cc has
in Table 3. Consolidation tests revealed the significant reduction in
decreased
from 0.050
0.029isdue
to groundtoimprovement.
The
the compression
indextowhich
proportional
primary consolidation
estimation
out based index
on theofabove
information
assures from
settlement.carried
The compression
the peat
layer has reduced
that the residual settlement would be less than 150 mm by the
a range of 2.65 to 2.13, to as low as 0.90 as a result of the ground
end of 3 years after construction as required in the contract
improvement. The average reduced value is about 1.65.
Karunawardena and Nithiwana (2009).

Settlement 2 m

Fill Material
Peaty/
Organic
Soil

56
(SPT N) Value

Silty Sand

Figure 12. Subsoil profile of improved and unimproved area

Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014

l ground
ping and
moval of
d as well
e ground
g of bore
ection of
hear Test
ory tests.
es of peat
ibed in
of the
Ch. 47+
d subsoil
shown in
are also

The observed change in the peaty soil layer thickness, the


changes in water content and void ratio due to CVC ground
improvement
arein given
in Table water
2. Accordingly,
thevoid
initial
Table
2 Change
peat thickness,
content and
ratio due to CVC improvement
thickness of the peat layer has been reduced by 50%-60% after
Peat above
Layer reduction reasonably agreed
% Change
ground improvement. The
Water Content (%)
Void Ratio
Location
in Thickness
with
the percentage Thickness
change of (m)
water content and void ratio
values obtained from
peaty soil collected
the improved
and
Initial
of Peat
Final fromInitial
Final
Initial
Final
unimproved
test results163.6
from
378.3
6.83
3.916
Ch.45+380-areas. The summary of laboratory
7.70 from 2.30
70.13
the
peat samples collected
the improved and unimproved
Ch.45+430
406.8
137.3
10.11
3.805
area of Ch.47+850 to Ch.47+920 is given in Table 3.
Consolidation tests revealed the significant reduction in the
370
141.0
5.54
1.810
Ch.47+850- index4.70
compression
which is2.00proportional to primary
57.45
Ch.47+920
398 of the168.0
5.58
1.940
consolidation settlement. The compression index
peat
layer has reduced from a range of 2.65 to 2.13, to as low as 0.90
378.3
175.7
4.10
1.900
as
a result of the ground improvement. The
average reduced
Ch.52+9505.85
2.85
51.28
value
is about 1.65.
Ch.53+000
471.2
105.8
9.35
2.580

The reduction of secondary compression is very important as


Ch.53+660111.6
86.6
5.25
2.76
the
secondary compression
phenomenon
is122.9
dominant in79.7
the
Ch.53+730
peaty soil. The results of long term consolidation tests carried
out in the improved and unimproved peaty samples are shown
in Table 3. It reveals that the coefficient of secondary
consolidation has reduced from a range of 0.10 to 0.13 to a
of 0.03 of
to laboratory
0.06. Subsequently
the ratio of C / Cc has
Tablerange
3. Summary
test results
decreased from 0.050 to 0.029 due to ground improvement. The
Depth
Wn on the above information assures
cu
estimation carried
out based
Location
eo
cc
c
(m)
(kPa)
that the residual settlement
the
% would be less than 150 mm by
end of 3 years after construction as required in the contract
3.0
227 4.21 1.80 0.055 85
Improved
Karunawardena and Nithiwana (2009).

Area BH1

3.5

266

4.50

1.95

0.061

120

Improved

3.5

141

1.81

0.90

0.037

55

3.06
2.66

1.810
2.000

47.43

% Change
of Water
Content
56.75
66.25

% Change
of Void
Ratio
42.66
62.36

61.89
57.79

67.33
65.23

53.56
77.55

53.66
72.41

22.40
35.15

40.85
24.81

6.0
5.0

oid ratio

roperties

4.0
3.0

Pc = 33 kPa

Unimproved Area- BH3

Pc = 180 kPa
Improved Area-BH5

5.85

2.85

378.3
471.2

175.7
105.8

4.10
9.35

1.900
2.580

51.28

53.56
77.55

53.66
72.41

3rd Proff
18-02-20155.25
Ch.53+730

2.76

111.6
122.9

86.6
79.7

3.06
2.66

1.810
2.000

47.43

22.40
35.15

40.85
24.81

Ch.52+950Ch.53+000
Ch.53+660-

Table 3. Summary of laboratory test results


Depth Wn
(m)
%

eo

cc

cu
(kPa)

Improved
Area BH1

3.0

227

4.21

1.80

0.055

85

3.5

266

4.50

1.95

0.061

120

Improved
Area BH2, 5

3.5

141

1.81

0.90

0.037

55

4.5

168

1.94

1.94

0.048

70

Unimproved
Area BH3

2.5

370

5.54

2.13

0.110

22

3.5

398

5.58

2.65

0.120

33

6.3
in Preconsolidation
Pressure
andand
Undrained
Shear
6.3ncrease
Increase
in Preconsolidation
Pressure
Undrained
Strength
Shear Strength

expectedthat
thatthe
thesubsoil
subsoilbehaves
behavesin inanan
over
consolidated
ItItisisexpected
over
consolidated
state
state during
the service
life structure
of the structure
the completion
during
the service
life of the
after theafter
completion
of ground
of ground improvement.
This can
bepre-consolidation
verified by the pressure
preimprovement.
This can be verified
by the
consolidation
pressure
determined
through
the
1-D
determined through the 1-D consolidation test. Consolidation
tests
consolidation test. Consolidation tests carried out from section
carried out from section Ch.47+850 to Ch.47+920 indicated that
Ch.47+850 to Ch.47+920 indicated that the preconsolidation
the preconsolidation pressure of the peaty soil found under the
pressure of the peaty soil found under the embankment has
embankment
has 28
increased
from
28range
kPa to38160
kPakPa
range
to 160
increased from
kPa 38
kPa
180
kPakPa
range
180 kPa
range
after
ground
improvement
as
shown
in
Figure
after ground improvement as shown in Figure 12. The12.
The
expected
induced
peaty
layer
to the
proposed
expected
loadload
induced
on on
the the
peaty
layer
duedue
to the
proposed
2 2
embankment
is
around
145
kN/m
.
Therefore,
the
subsoil
will
will
embankment is around 145 kN/m . Therefore, the subsoil behave
under
the under
over consolidated
with an Over
Ratio
behave
the over state
consolidated
state Consolidation
with an Over
(OCR)
of 1.2
to Ratio
1.3 during
theofservice
the highway
and life
hence
Consolidation
(OCR)
1.2 to life
1.3 of
during
the service
d void ratio due
to CVC
improvement
will
give rise and
to very
small
settlements
in rise
the future.
of only
the highway
hence
will
only give
to very small
% Change
% Change
% Change
settlements
in the future.
ntent (%)
Void Ratio
Waterother sections
of Void also
in Thickness
Consolidation test results
related to ofsome
Consolidation
test results
related to some
other sections also
Content
of Peat
Final
Initial thatFinal
indicated
the pre-consolidation
pressure
of the peatyRatio
soil found
indicated
that
the pre-consolidation pressure
of the peaty
soil
163.6 under
6.83the embankment
3.916
56.75
42.66
has
increased
as
shown
in
Table
4. Table
70.13has increased as shown in Table
found under the embankment
4.
137.3 4 also
10.11
3.805
66.25
62.36 due to
the expected
load induced
on theonpeaty
layer
Table shows
4 also shows
the expected
load induced
the peaty
layer
the
proposed embankment
and the subsoil
over consolidation
ratio.
due
proposed embankment
and
141.0
5.54to the1.810
61.89the subsoil
67.33over
According
to
the
data
in
Table
4,
the
sub
soil
will
behave
under
57.45
consolidation ratio. According to the data in Table 4, the subthe
168.0 over
5.58
1.940state with an Over Consolidation
57.79
65.23
Ratio
soil consolidated
will behave under
the over consolidated state with
an(OCR)
Over of
0.98
to 1.33. It Ratio
should(OCR)
be noted
here tothat
even
though be
thenoted
applied
Consolidation
of
0.98
1.33.
It
should
175.7
4.10
1.900
53.56
53.66
vacuum
and the
fill
surcharge
load
is adequate
to fill
yield
51.28
here thatpressure
even though
the
applied
vacuum
pressure
and the
105.8 ansurcharge
9.35
2.580
77.55
72.41
load
adequate
OCR
value in the
range
of
OCR value
inis the
range to
ofyield
1.2 toan1.3,
sometimes
the
calculated
1.2
to
sometimes
calculatedvalue.
OCR
is less
than
that
OCR
is 1.3,
less than
that thethe
anticipated
This
might
be
due the
to the
86.6
3.06
1.810
22.40
40.85
47.43
anticipated
might
be the
dueconsolidation
to 35.15
the inaccurate
Pca value
inaccurate
value This
obtained
from
test as
result of
79.7
2.66 Pcvalue.
2.000
24.81
obtained
from the consolidation test as a result of sample
sample
disturbance.
disturbance.
6.0
5.0

85

4.0

120
55
70
22
33

drained

solidated
mpletion
the prehe 1-D
m section
olidation
ment has
180 kPa
12. The

void ratio

cu
(kPa)

The SPT and Field Vane Shear results indicate that the strength has
improved
in the compressible layer due to the ground improvement
6.0
and as a result the status of the compressible layer has been changed
Pc = 33 kPa
from
state. The strength gained due to ground
5.0very soft to medium stiff Unimproved
Area- BH3
improvement was investigated by calculating the ratio between the
increments
of undrained shear strength of peaty soil and the effective
4.0
kPasoil was determined from
c = 180
stress . The undrained cohesion ofPthe
peaty
unconsolidated un-drained triaxial tests
and the
preconsolidation
Improved
Area-BH5
3.0
pressure was obtained from oedometer tests on undisturbed soil
samples. The ratio between the increment of undrained shear strength
2.0
of peaty soil and the effective stress after the treatment program was
obtained to be 0.25 to 0.49.
1.0
Improved Area-BH1
7 OBSERVED SETTLEMENT
AFTER PAVEMENT
Pc = 160 kPa
0.0
CONSTRUCTION
1
10
100
1000
10000
The surface settlement of thelog
highway
(stress)embankment constructed over
the improved soft ground was monitored by installing the settlement
Figure
12. Consolidation
Testafter
Results
markers
at 50 m intervals
construction of the road pavement.
The
observed
total
surface
settlement
up tothat
September
2012, ten
The SPT
and FieldJournal
Vane Shear
the strength
Geotechnical
6results
No.
1indicate
2014 Figure
after in
opening
to Vol.
traffic,
is shown
13. ground
hasmonths
improved
the compressible
layer in
due to the
improvement and as a result the status of the compressible layer
Tablechanged
4. Increase
in preconsolidation
pressure
andstate.
undrained
has been
from
very soft to medium
stiff
The
shear
strength
strength
gained
due to ground improvement was investigated by
calculating the ratio between the increments of undrained shear
strength of peaty soilExpecte
and the effective stress (cu / v ) . The
Pc
Cu (cu / v
Location
d Load
OCR
undrained
cohesion of
the peaty
soil was
determined
(kPa)
(kPa) from
(kPa)triaxial tests and the preconsolidation
unconsolidated un-drained
pressureCh.45+38
was obtained from oedometer
on undisturbed
soil
180 tests1.13
79.0
0.49
0- The ratio between
160.0 the increment of undrained shear
samples.
160
1.00
57.0
0.36
Ch.45+430
strength
of peaty soil and the effective stress after the treatment
Ch.47+85
200
1.37
55.0
0.36
program was obtained to be 0.25 to 0.49.
0145.0
180
1.25
70.0
0.45
Ch.47+920

void ratio

Location

Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014 57

Ch.52+95 SETTLEMENT
OBSERVED
150 AFTER
0.98 PAVEMENT
41.5
0.27
0152.5
CONSTRUCTION
170
1.11
38.2
0.25
Ch.53+000
Ch.53+66
170 embankment
1.13
54.0
0.36
The surface
of the highway
constructed
0- settlement 150.0
147
0.98by installing
50.5
0.34
over the
improved soft ground was
monitored
the
Ch.53+730
settlement markers at 50 m intervals after construction of the
road pavement. The observed total surface settlement up to
September 2012, ten months after opening to traffic, is shown in
Figure 13.
7

57
Unimproved Area- BH3

Pc = 180 kPa
Improved Area-BH5

2.0
1.0
Pc = 160 kPa

0.0
1

10

100

log (stress)

Improved Area-BH1
1000

10000

Figure 12. Consolidation Test Results


The SPT and Field Vane Shear results indicate that the strength
has improved in the compressible layer due to the ground
improvement and as a result the status of the compressible layer
has been changed from very soft to medium stiff state. The
strength gained due to ground improvement was investigated by
calculating the ratio between the increments of undrained shear
strength of peaty soil and the effective stress (cu / v ) . The

AC

The autho
Sri Lanka
towards w
10

RE

Asaoka, A
Soil and F

Karunawa
Clay usin
University

Karunawa
embankm
method fo
17th Int
Engineeri

Pc = 33 kPa

3.0

carried ou
properties
soil will b
to 1.3 dur
post con
expresswa
improvem
settlement

Figure 13. Results of the surface settlement monitoring


Initially, for about a 6 month period, before the road was opened
to traffic, surface settlement was monitored at both the center
Initially, for about a 6 month period, before the road was opened to
and the edge of the embankment. The observed settlements
traffic, surface settlement was monitored at both the center and the
were in the range of 0 mm to 5 mm in most of the ground
edge
of the embankment.
The observed
settlements
were
in thehigh
range
improved
sections except
at very few
locations
where
of embankments
0 mm to 5 mmwere
in most
of
the
ground
improved
sections
except
constructed over thick peat deposits by
at improving
very few locations
where
high embankments
the vacuum
consolidation
method. were
The constructed
observed
over
thicksettlement
peat deposits
by improving
the vacuum
surface
in those
areas was around
10 mmconsolidation
to 20 mm
method.
observed
surface
in thoseofareas
was around
at endThe
of six
months
after settlement
the construction
the pavement.
10After
mm tothe20highway
mm at end
six months
after the
construction2011,
of the
wasofopened
to traffic
in November
pavement.
After
the highway
was opened
traffic
November
settlement
monitoring
was carried
out onlytoalong
thein
edge
of the
highway
embankment
considering
safety
2011,
settlement
monitoring
was carried
outreasons.
only along the edge of
theThe
highway
embankment
considering
safety
reasons.
observed settlement was less than 5 mm in most of the
sections and in only two locations the settlement exceeded 20
mm. The maximum observed settlement was 35 mm and the
settlement prediction using the monitoring data indicates that
the estimated residual settlement is less than 15 mm at the end
of 3 years after the handing over of the project.

Karunawa
Tamping
of a Hig
Conferenc
Hong Kon

Karunarat
Oriental
Developm
(2007).

Lukas, R
Dynamic
95-037, U

Tan, T.S.
consolidat
ASCE ( 1

58 Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014


The observed settlement was less than 5 mm in most of the sections and
in only two locations the settlement exceeded 20 mm. The maximum
observed settlement was 35 mm and the settlement prediction using
the monitoring data indicates that the estimated residual settlement
is less than 15 mm at the end of 3 years after the handing over of the
project.
8 CONCLUSION
This paper presents successful application of ground improvement
work carried out in the construction of Southern Highway project
in Sri Lanka. Ground improvement methods such as heavy tamping
method and vacuum consolidation techniques were applied to
construct the high embankments over thick peaty deposits. In both
methods, a surcharge load had been applied to over consolidate the
peaty soil. Field monitoring data obtained during the construction
period indicates that the primary consolidation settlement due to final
load of the highway embankment has already been completed and
the secondary settlement had been reduced to control the residual
settlement within acceptable performance limits. Investigations
carried out at the site show that both physical and mechanical
properties of the peat have improved significantly and the peaty
soil will behave in an over consolidated state with a ratio of 1.2 to
1.3 during the service life of the highway. The results of the post
construction surface settlement monitoring of the expressway carried
out up to date reconfirm that the ground improvement work was
successful and the expected residual settlements are well below the
allowable limit in the contract.
9 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors are grateful to the Road Development Authority of Sri
Lanka, for the necessary approval and support extended towards
writing this paper.

10 REFERENCES
Asaoka, A. Observational Procedure of Settlement Prediction. Soil
and Foundation, (1978), 18(4): 87-101
Karunawardena, A. Consolidation Analysis of Sri Lankan Peaty Clay
using Elasto-viscoplastic Theory. Doctoral Thesis, Kyoto University,
Japan. (2007).
Karunawardena, A. and Nithiwana, W. Construction of a trial
embankment on peaty ground using vacuum consolidation method
for a highway construction project in Sri Lanka. Proc., 17th Int. Conf.
on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Alexandria,Vol. 3.
. (2009), pp. 2200-2203
Karunawardena, A. and Toki, M. Application of the Heavy Tamping
Method on Sri Lankan Peaty Clay for the Construction of a Highway
Embankment. Proc. of 14th Asian Regional Conference on Soil
Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Hong Kong, China. (2011)
Karunaratne, G.P. Technical report on Heavy Tamping Trial, Oriental
Consultants Co., Ltd., Japan, Southern Transport Development
Project, JABIC founded Section, Sri Lanka (2007).
Lukas, R. G. Geotechnical Engineering Circular No. 1, Dynamic
Compaction, Federal Highway Report. FHWA-SA-95-037, U.S.A.
(1995)
Tan, T.S., Inoue, T. & Lee, S.L. Hyperbolic method for consolidation
analysis, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE ( 1991),117(11):
17231737

3rd Proff 18-02-2015

Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014 59

Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014

DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE OF BRIDGE APPROACHES CONSTRUCTED USING


DESIGN
AND PERFORMANCE OF BRIDGE APPROACHES
USING GEOGRID-REINFORCED
GEOGRID-REINFORCED
PILEDCONSTRUCTED
EMBANKMENT
METHOD
PILED EMBANKMENT METHOD
11
2
2
W.W.
A.A.Karunawardena
W.S.N.M
Wedikkarage
Karunawardena and
andW.S.N.M
Wedikkarage

Director
General,National
National Building
Building Research
Organization,
Sri Lanka
1 Director
General,
Research
Organization,
Sri Lanka
2
2 Former
Geotechnical
Engineer,
National
Building
Research
Organization,
Sri Lanka
Former Geotechnical Engineer, National Building Research Organization, Sri Lanka

ABSTRACT: The specified maximum allowable residual settlement under an embankment fill could be far too excessive and
fatal at bridge approaches for high speed vehicles. Therefore, it is necessary that there should not be any settlement at the adjacent
ABSTRACT:
The near
specified
maximum
allowable
settlement
under
embankment
fill opposite
could be far
and fatal at
embankment
the bridge
deck
and notresidual
more than
about 10
mmansettlement
at the
endtoo
of excessive
the embankment,
saybridge
20 m
approaches
for
high
speed
vehicles.
Therefore,
it
is
necessary
that
there
should
not
be
any
settlement
at
the
adjacent
embankment
near
away.As such, it is understood that the embankment for the bridge approach must be improved adequately in order to achieve
the
bridge
deck
and
not
more
than
about
10
mm
settlement
at
the
opposite
end
of
the
embankment,
say
20
m
away.As
such,
it is
the above objectives. This paper reports a case history of the design and performance of geogrid- reinforced piled embankments
understood that the embankment for the bridge approach must be improved adequately in order to achieve the above objectives. This
constructed
in and
the Southern
Expressway
in Sri
Lanka.
In the present
work,atgeosynthetic
paper
reports ata the
casebridge
historyapproaches
of the design
performance
of geogrid-project
reinforced
piled
embankments
constructed
the bridge
reinforcement
hasSouthern
been successfully
pileInfoundations
improve
settlement
performance.
from the
approaches
in the
Expresswayincorporated
project in Sriwith
Lanka.
the present to
work,
geosynthetic
reinforcement
hasThe
beenload
successfully
embankmentwith
is effectively
transferred
to thesettlement
columns using
multipleThe
layers
geosynthetic
reinforcement
embedded
in the to
gravel
incorporated
pile foundations
to improve
performance.
loadoffrom
the embankment
is effectively
transferred
the
columns
usingacts
multiple
layers
of geosynthetic
reinforcement
embedded
thereduces
gravel mat,
which acts as
a load transfer
platformofthat
mat, which
as a load
transfer
platform that
bridges over
the pilesinand
the differential
settlement
at the surface
the
bridges
over theIn
piles
reduces
the differential
settlement
at thethe
surface
of methodology,
the embankment.
this paperanalysis,
the information
about
embankment.
thisand
paper
the information
about
the project,
design
the In
numerical
and details
ofthe
the
project, the design methodology, the numerical analysis, and details of the construction together with the results of the field settlement
construction together with the results of the field settlement monitoring carried out during and after embankment construction
monitoring carried out during and after embankment construction are presented.
are presented.
Keywords: soft ground, peat, differential settlement, geogrid-reinforced piled embankment, pile foundations

Keywords: soft ground, peat, differential settlement, geogrid-reinforced piled embankment, pile foundations
1 INTRODUCTION

which consist of very soft to soft, highly compressible soil layers of


high thickness. This paper reports a case history of the design and
compressible soil layers of high thickness. This paper reports a case
performance of geogrid- reinforced piled embankment
history of the design and performance of geogrid- reinforced piled
constructed at the Panape (Figure 1) bridge approach in the
embankment constructed at the Panape (Figure 1) bridge approach in
Southern Expressway project in Sri Lanka.
the Southern Expressway project in Sri Lanka.

The
Southern Highway is Sri Lanka's first E Class highway that links
1 INTRODUCTION
the Sri Lankas Commercial Capital Colombo with Matara, a major
TheinSouthern
Highway
is Sri The
Lankas
first
highway
that
city
the south
of the island.
length
of E96Class
km section
from
links the to
SriGalle
Lankas
Capital
Colombo
Matara,
Colombo
hadCommercial
been completed
and
openedwith
to traffic
in a
major city 2011.
in the Many
south of
the of
island.
lengthtraverse
of 96 km
section
November
parts
the The
highway
through
from
Colombo
to
Galle
had
been
completed
and
opened
to
traffic
flood plains and marshy ground consisting of very soft peat,in
November
2011.
of the highway
traverse
through
organic
soils,
andMany
clays.parts
Especially,
in the major
flood
plainflood
of
plains and marshy
ground consisting
very soft
peat,
organic
soils,
Welipenna
River, Bentota
River and of
Gingaga
River
areas,
where
and clays.
Especially,
the deposits
major flood
plain
of Welipenna
River,
thick
peat and
organicinclay
were
found.
Many ground
Bentota River and Gingaga River areas, where thick peat and organic
improvement methods such as surcharging, surcharging with preclay deposits were found. Many ground improvement methods such
fabricated vertical drains, rock replacement, heavy tamping and
as surcharging, surcharging with pre-fabricated vertical drains, rock
vacuum consolidation were used to improve the soft soil in order
replacement, heavy tamping and vacuum consolidation were used
to control the post construction settlements and to ensure the
to improve the soft soil in order to control the post construction
stability of the highway embankment. According to the technical
settlements and to ensure the stability of the highway embankment.
specification, the embankment had to be designed and
According to the technical specification, the embankment had to
constructed by improving the soft ground in order to control the
be designed and constructed by improving the soft ground in order
continued settlement within 15cm at the road center after a
to control the continued settlement within 15cm at the road center
period of 3 years following the acceptance of the pavement. The
after a period of 3 years following the acceptance of the pavement.
application of the above soft ground improvement methods and
The application of the above soft ground improvement methods
performance
of highway
roadroad
embankments
constructed
and performance
of highway
embankments
constructedusing
using
different
ground
improvement
techniques
have
been
different ground improvement techniques have beendescribed
describedbyby
Karunawardena
Karunawardena and
and Toki
Toki(2013).
(2013).
In addition to the above soft ground improvement work, special
In addition to the above soft ground improvement work, special
treatments were done in the construction of bridge and underpass
treatments were done in the construction of bridge and
approaches in soft ground areas in order to create a smooth
underpass approaches in soft ground areas in order to create a
transferring of expected differential settlements between the
smooth transferring of expected differential settlements between
approach embankment and the bridge deck. There are about 18 nos.
the approach embankment and the bridge deck. There are about
bridges and underpass approaches located in the soft ground areas
18 nos. bridges and underpass approaches located in the soft
within the first 34 km of Sothern Expressway trace and four of them
ground areas within the first 34 km of Sothern Expressway trace
are on major flood plains and contain a thick deposit of very soft
and four of them are on major flood plains and contain a thick
highly compressible peat. To mitigate the settlement effect, rock
deposit
of very
soft highly
compressible
peat.
To mitigate
the
replacement
method
was carried
out as the
ground
improvement
settlement
effect,
rock
replacement
method
was
carried
out
as
for the bridge and the underpass approach locations which consist
the
ground
improvement
for
the
bridge
and
the
underpass
of thin layers of soft soils in the subsurface. Alternatively, Geogrid
approach
locations
which consist(GRPE)
of thin has
layers
of soft
soils inforthethe
Reinforced
Piled Embankment
been
proposed
subsurface.
Alternatively,
Geogrid
Reinforced
Piled
Embankment
bridge approach locations which consist of very soft to soft, highly
(GRPE) has been proposed for the bridge approach locations

Figure 1. Location map of the bridge approach


Figure 1. Location map of the bridge approach
2 SUBSOIL CONDITION
The Panape Bridge is located at Ch.16.195 km in Southern Highway
2 SUBSOIL
route.
The siteCONDITION
area is a typical low lying marshy land. The subsurface
of the site was investigated by carrying out two boreholes at Ch16+236
and
16+255.
Boreholes
were advanced
through
The Ch
Panape
Bridge
is located
at Ch.16.195
kmthein overburden
Southern
and
drivenroute.
down The
to the
layer.
Penetration
Highway
sitecompetent
area is a rock
typical
lowStandard
lying marshy
land.
Tests
(SPT) wereof
performed
theinvestigated
overburden soil
and disturbed
and
The subsurface
the site in
was
by carrying
out two
undisturbed
samples and
wereChcollected
different were
depthsadvanced
to obtain
boreholes atsoil
Ch16+236
16+255.atBoreholes
soil
profilethe
andoverburden
parameters and
required
fordown
the design.
2 shows
the
through
driven
to theFigure
competent
rock
assumed
subsurface
layer. Standard
Penetration Tests (SPT) were performed in the
overburden soil and disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were
collected at different depths to obtain soil profile and parameters
59

required forJournal
the design.
shows the assumed subsurface
Geotechnical
Vol. 6Figure
No. 122014
Geotechnical
Journal
Vol. 6Vol.
No.61 2014
60
Geotechnical
Journal
No. 1 2014
required for the design. Figure 2 shows the assumed subsurface
required for the design. Figure 2 shows the assumed subsurface

Figure 2. Idealized subsoil profile at the location


Investigations revealed that the subsoil is composed of soft
organic clay layer followed by very soft peat layer with some
decayed wooden pieces. Total thickness of the above organic clay
Figure
2. Idealized
Idealized
at
the
location
Figure
2.
subsoil
profile
at the
location
and peat
layers issubsoil
aroundprofile
6.5 m and
these
compressible layers are
underlain by layers of sand, about 3 m in thickness. The summary
Investigations
revealed
that
subsoil
is1. composed
soft
of the laboratory
tests that
are
given
in the
Table
Investigations
revealed
the the
subsoil
is
composed
of softoforganic
Figure
Idealized
profile
at thesoft
location
organic2.clay
layer subsoil
followed
by very
peat layer with some
clay layer followed by very soft peat layer with some decayed wooden
decayed wooden pieces. Total thickness of the above organic clay
pieces.
Total
thickness
of that
the above
organic isclay
and peat layers
is
Table
1. layers
Summary
of laboratory
tests
Investigations
revealed
subsoil
composed
of soft
and
peat
is around
6.5 mthe
and
these compressible
layers
are
around
6.5
m
and
these
compressible
layers
are
underlain
by
layers
organic
clay
layer
followed
by
very
soft
peat
layer
with
some
underlain by layers of sand, about 3 m in thickness. The summary
of
about
3 mtests
in thickness.
The
summary
the laboratory
tests
decayed
wooden
pieces.
Total
of the
organic clay
of sand,
the Borehole
laboratory
are
giventhickness
in the
Table
1.ofabove
16+255
16+236
andgiven
peat
layers
is around
are
in
the Table
1. 6.5 m and these compressible layers are
Location
underlain by layers of sand, about 3 m in thickness. The summary
Table 1. Summary of Consolidation
laboratory tests
test Table 1.
of the laboratory tests are given in the
Table 1. Summary of laboratory tests
Depth /m
4.0~4.6
5.5~6.1
Borehole
16+255 tests
16+236
Table 1. Summary
of
laboratory
Cc
1.8
1.24
Location
'c
65
68
Borehole
Consolidation
16+255 test
16+236
Triaxial Test
Location
Depth /m
4.0~4.6
5.5~6.1
Depth /m
3.5~4.1
Consolidation
test
Cc
1.8
1.24
c'
8.85
'c /m
65
68
Depth
4.0~4.6
5.5~6.1
'
25.4
Cc
1.8 Test
1.24
Triaxial
Unconfined compressive strength test
65
68
'c /m
Depth
3.5~4.1
Depth/(m)
15.7 ~ 16.7
13.95 ~ 14.95
Triaxial
c'
- Test
8.85
UCS/(N/mm)
Depth' /m

20.36
-

11.9
25.4
3.5~4.1

profile at the site deduced through soil investigation.


bridge structure interface movements qualitatively as given in
Table 2 and the approximated differential settlements related to
each rating are also given in the same table.
profile at the site deduced through soil investigation.
By referring to the data given in Table 2, it was intended to limit the
By
referring
to the data
given in Table 2, itqualitatively
was intendedasto given
limit in
bridge
structure
interface
settlement
to less than
20mm movements
near the bridge and less than
150mm
the
settlement
to
less
than
20mm
near
the
bridge
and
less
than
Table
2atand
the
differential
settlements
related to
atprofile
20m away
the
bridgethrough
by constructing
a Geogrid Reinforced
thefrom
siteapproximated
deduced
soil investigation.
150mm
at 20m
from in
the bridge
by constructing a Geogrid
eachEmbankment
rating
areaway
also
given
Piled
(GRPE)
in the
the same
bridgetable.
approach area.
Reinforced
Piled Embankment
(GRPE) in thequalitatively
bridge approach
bridge structure
interface movements
as area.
given in
The
Geogrid
Reinforced
Piled Embankment
(GRPE) consists
Table
2 and the
approximated
differential settlements
related of
to
By referring to the data given in Table 2, it was intended to limit
eachGeogrid
rating
given
ina the
same
table.
vertical
piles,are
pilealso
caps
and
load
transfer
platform
(LTP)
which
is
The
Reinforced
Piled
Embankment
(GRPE)
consists
of
the settlement to less than 20mm near the bridge and less than
reinforced
bypile
geosynthetics
(geogrids/geotextiles).The
load from
vertical
piles,
caps
and
a
load
transfer
platform
(LTP)
which
is
150mm at 20m away from the bridge by constructing a Geogrid
reinforced
byPiled
geosynthetics
(geogrids/geotextiles).The
load from
the
road
pavement,
and invehicles
transferred
to
By embankment,
referring
to
the
data
given
in Table
2,the
it bridge
wasare
intended
to area.
limit
Reinforced
Embankment
(GRPE)
approach
the
embankment,
road
pavement,
and
vehicles
are
transferred
piles
the toLTP
the20mm
piles near
transfer
loadand
to less
the tohard
the through
settlement
lessand
than
thethat
bridge
than
piles
through
thebypassing
LTP
and
the
piles
transfer
load
thea hard
150mm
at 20m
away
from
bythat
constructing
Geogrid
bearing
stratum
the the
softbridge
soil
deposits.
The to
mechanism
of
The Geogrid
Reinforced
Piled
Embankment
(GRPE)
consists of
bearing
stratum
bypassing
the
soft
soil
deposits.
The
mechanism
Reinforced
Piled
Embankment
(GRPE)
in
the
bridge
approach
area.
transferring
of
the
load
to
the
piles
in
this
system
is
performed
by
the
piles, of
pile
a load
platform
(LTP) which is
ofvertical
transferring
thecaps
loadand
to the
pilestransfer
in this system
is performed
arching
actionbyofgeosynthetics
the soil in LTP. (geogrids/geotextiles).The
The arching action is furtherload
enhanced
reinforced
by
the arching
action of the soil
in LTP. The arching action isfrom
Geogrid
Reinforced
Piled
(GRPE)
of
byThe
theembankment,
geosynthetics
in the
LTP. Embankment
Theand
arching
action
is consists
effectively
the
road
pavement,
vehicles
are
transferred
further enhanced by the geosynthetics in the LTP. The arching to
vertical
piles,
pile
caps
and
a
load
transfer
platform
(LTP)
which
is
mobilized
in thethe
granular
soils
and
hence
it is very
important
to
a
piles through
LTP
and
the
piles
transfer
thatand
load
to the
action
is effectively
mobilized
in
the
granular
soils
hence
it use
ishard
reinforced
by
geosynthetics
(geogrids/geotextiles).The
load
from
bearing
stratum
the pile
soft
soil deposits.
The The
mechanism
granular
material
the LTP.
The
spacing,
platform
very
important
toinbypassing
use
a granular
material
in load
the transfer
LTP.
pile
thetransferring
embankment,
road
pavement,
andin
vehicles
are transferred
to
of
of the
load
to the
piles
this
is performed
thickness
and required
tensile
strength
of
the system
geogrids/geotextiles
spacing,
load
transfer
platform
thickness
and
required
tensile
pilesthe
through
theaction
LTP and
the
piles
transfer
thatarching
load to action
the hard
by
arching
of
the
soil
in
LTP.
The
were
determined
to comply with the design
requirements.
strength
of the geogrids/geotextiles
were determined
to comply is
bearing enhanced
stratum bypassing
the soft soil deposits.
TheThe
mechanism
further
by
the
geosynthetics
in
the
LTP.
arching
with the design requirements.
of
transferring
of
the
load
to
the
piles
in
this
system
is
action is effectively mobilized in the granular soils and performed
hence it is
by the
arching action
of
the soil in
LTP.
The
arching
is
very
to use
a granular
material
in the
LTP. action
The pile
Table
2.important
Classification
of approach/bridge
interface
description
Table
2. al,
Classification
approach/bridge
description
further
enhanced
by of
the
geosynthetics
ininterface
the
The arching
spacing,
load
platform
thickness
and LTP.
required
tensile
(Long
et
1998)transfer
(Long
et isal,effectively
1998)
action
mobilized in the granular
soils and hence
it is
strength
of
the geogrids/geotextiles
were determined
to comply
very
important
to
use
a
granular
material
in
the
LTP.
The
pile
with
the designApproach/
requirements.
Qualitative
Bridge
Approximate differential
spacing, load transfer platform thickness and required tensile
visual
Interface Description
settlement/(mm)
strength of the geogrids/geotextiles were determined to comply
rating
Table
2. Classification of approach/bridge interface description
with the design requirements.
(Long et al, 1998)
0
No bump
0
Qualitative
Approach/
differential
Table
2. Classification
of Bridge
approach/bridge Approximate
interface description
visual
Interface
settlement/(mm)
1et al, 1998)
Slight
bumpDescription
25
(Long
rating
Qualitative
Approach/
Bridge
Approximate
2
Moderate
bump,
readily
50 differential
visual
Interface
settlement/(mm)
recognizable
0
No bump Description
0
rating
31
Significance
bump,
75 25
Slight bump
required
repair
0
No bump
0
2
Moderate bump, readily
50
41
Large
bump,
>75 25
Slight
bumpsafety
recognizable
hazard
Moderate bump,
readily
50
32
Significance
bump,
75
recognizable
required
repair
3.1 Arrangement of Piles
3.1 Arrangement
of Piles
Significance
75
43
Large
bump, bump,
safety
>75

required
repair is mainly based on required
hazard
The design
designofofpilepile
arrangement
The
arrangement
is mainly
based on required settlement
2
settlement profile. 400x400 mm square precast concrete piles
profile. 4400x400 Large
mm2 square
precast
concrete
piles with
a precast
bump,
safety
>75
with
precast concrete
pile cap
with 0.8m x 0.8m dimensions
'
Depth/(m)
15.7 ~- 16.7
13.9525.4
~ 14.95
3.1 aArrangement
of Piles
concrete
pile caphazard
with
0.8m x 0.8m dimensions were used in the
were used in the construction of GRPE system. Piles were driven
3 DESIGN
CONCEPT compressive strength test
construction
of GRPE
Piles
wereincreasing
driven into
the2.5
weathered
Unconfined
into the weathered
rocksystem.
at a grid
spacing
from
m to
UCS/(N/mm)
20.36
11.9
rock
at
a
grid
spacing
increasing
from
2.5
m
to
3.0
m.
The
design
of
pile
arrangement
is
mainly
based
on
required
3.0
Depth/(m)
15.7 ~ 16.7
13.95 ~ 14.95
3.1m. Arrangement of Piles
2
settlement profile. 400x400 mm square precast concrete piles
A bridge approach must be constructed to allow road way to meet
Awith
closed
spacing
isconcrete
maintained
near
the
bridge
minimize
a
precast
pile
cap
with
0.8mapproach
x 0.8m todimensions
the
elevation of the bridge.
to provide
UCS/(N/mm)
20.36Therefore, it is necessary
11.9
AThe
closed
spacing
is
maintained
near
the
bridge
approach
to
the
differential
settlement
between
the
bridge
deck
and
approach
arrangement
is mainly
based
required
weredesign
used inofthepile
construction
of 2GRPE
system.
Piles on
were
driven
3 smooth
DESIGNtransition
CONCEPT(reduced differential settlement) at bridge
minimize
the
differential
settlement
between
the
bridge
deck
and
square
precast
concrete
piles
settlement
profile.
400x400
mm
embankment.
Pile
spacing
is
then
increased
with
the
increase
of
into the weathered rock at a grid spacing increasing from 2.5 m
to
approaches and the bridge. This can be achieved by transferring
approach
embankment.
Pile
spacing
is
then
increased
with
the
with
a
precast
concrete
pile
cap
with
0.8m
x
0.8m
dimensions
distance
away
from
the
approach
slab
to
ensure
the
smooth
transition
3.0 m.
the differential settlement between the embankments and the
increase
of distance
awaytofrom
the
approach
slab
to ensure
the
A bridge approach
be constructed
allow road
way toriding
meet
were
used
insettlement
the construction
of GRPE
system.
Piles
were
driven
of
differential
an adequate
distance
without
creating
an
deck
to anmust
adequate
length totoensure
a smooth
DESIGN
CONCEPT
33 bridge
DESIGN
CONCEPT
smooth
transition
ofrock
differential
settlement
to an from
adequate
the
elevation
of
the
bridge.
Therefore,
it
is
necessary
to
provide
into
the
weathered
at
a
grid
spacing
increasing
2.5
m to
surface. Long et.al (1998) classified the approach embankment
abrupt
vertical
jump
at
the
beginning
of
the
bridge
approach
A closed spacing is maintained near the bridge approach to
smooth transition (reduced differential settlement) at bridge
3.0 m.
minimize the differential settlement between the bridge deck and
A
bridge
approach
must
be
constructed
to
allow
road
way
to
meet
A
bridge
approach
must
be
constructed
to
allow
road
way
to
meet
the
approaches and the bridge. This can be achieved by transferring 60
approach embankment. Pile spacing is then increased with the
the
elevation
of
the
bridge.
Therefore,
it
is
necessary
to
provide
elevation
of
the
bridge.
Therefore,
it
is
necessary
to
provide
smooth
the differential settlement between the embankments and the
A closedofspacing
maintained
near
the bridge
to
increase
distanceis away
from the
approach
slab toapproach
ensure the
smoothdeck
transition
(reduced
settlement)
at bridge
transition
(reduced
differentialdifferential
settlement)
at bridge
approaches
bridge
to an adequate
length
to ensure
a smooth
riding
3.2
Designthe
of Load
Transfer
Platform
minimize
differential
settlement
between thetobridge
deck and
smooth
transition
of
differential
settlement
an
adequate
approaches
the(1998)
bridge.
This canby
betransferring
achieved by
and
the bridge.
This
can
be classified
achieved
thetransferring
differential
surface.
Longand
et.al
the
approach
embankment
approach embankment. Pile spacing is then increased with the
the differential
settlement
between the
andtothe
The load transfer platform (LTP) transfers the load to piles. It is
settlement
between
the embankments
andembankments
the bridge deck
an
increase of distance away from the approach slab to ensure the
bridge deck
to toanensure
adequate
length
to ensure
smooth
riding 60 assumed that this reinforced LTP acts as a beam, which transfers the
adequate
length
a smooth
riding
surface. aLong
et.al (1998)
smooth
of differential
settlement
to ofanLTP,
adequate
load
to pilestransition
(Collin 2004).
Accordingly,
in the design
it
surface. Long
(1998)embankmentbridge
classified the approach
embankment
classified
the et.al
approach
structure
interface
movements qualitatively as given in Table 2 and the approximated
differential settlements related to each rating are also given in the 60
same table.
c' Unconfined compressive
8.85
strength test

was equal to one half the clear span between piles, and the soil
layers of reinforcement was 200- 450 mm, the platform thickness
arch
was to
fully
within
depth piles,
of the
was equal
onedeveloped
half the clear
spanthe
between
andplatform.
the soil
Therefore, the thickness of the LTP was selected as 1.2m, which
arch was fully developed within the depth of the platform.
was
tentatively
half of the
pileLTP
spacing.
A granular
material
is
Therefore,
the thickness
of the
was selected
as 1.2m,
which
compulsory
to
be
in
the
LTP
and
hence
dense
graded
aggregate
was tentatively halfGeotechnical
of the pile spacing.
granular
is
Journal AVol.
6 No. material
1 2014 61
base course (ABC) material was planned to be used for LTP.
compulsory to be in the LTP and hence dense graded aggregate
course (ABC)
material was planned to be used for LTP.
4DETAILED
DETAILED
ANALYSIS
4base
ANALYSIS

3.2 Design of Load Transfer Platform


3.2 Design of Load Transfer Platform
The load transfer platform (LTP) transfers the load to piles. It is
rd
3assumed
Proff 18-02-2015
this platform
reinforced(LTP)
LTP transfers
acts as a beam,
which
transfers
The load that
transfer
the load
to piles.
It is
the load to piles (Collin 2004). Accordingly, in the design of LTP, it
assumed that this reinforced LTP acts as a beam, which transfers
the load to piles (Collin 2004). Accordingly, in the design of LTP, it
3.3 Length
Length of
of Treatment
Treatment from Bridge
Bridge

4 DETAILED ANALYSIS
Thecurrent
current
problem
is mainly
related
to deformation
soft
soil
The
problem
is mainly
related
to deformation
of softofsoil
under
under
a veryproblem
complex
load
transferring
system
and
even
more
a The
verycurrent
complex
load transferring
system
and
even
more
complex
is mainly related to deformation of soft soil
complex
geometry
due load
to the
the bridge
approach.
geometry
tocomplex
the skewness
of skewness
the bridgeof
approach.
ismore
very
under
a due
very
transferring
system
andThere
even
There
is
very
few
or
almost
no
closed
form
solution
to
estimate
complex
geometry
due form
to thesolution
skewness
of the bridge
approach.
few
or almost
no closed
to estimate
deformations
of
deformations
of
this
of ano
problem.
There
few
orkind
almost
closed form solution to estimate
this
kindisofvery
a problem.
deformations of this kind of a problem.
The
Theapplication
applicationofofthree
threedimensional
dimensionalFinite
FiniteElement
Element (FE)
(FE) analyses
would
bebe
ideal
for the
analysis
of deformations.
However,
the analysis
would
ideal
for
the
analysis
of
deformations.
However,
the
The application of three dimensional Finite Element (FE) analyses
analysis
would
require
very
powerful
computers
and
longer
time.
would
require
very
powerful
computers
and
longer
time.
Even
if
it
is
would be ideal for the analysis of deformations. However, the
Even
if
it
is
used,
the
results
may
not
differ
very
much
when
used,
the
results
may
not
differ
very
much
when
compared
with
a
two
analysis would require very powerful computers and longer time.
compared
a two
Therefore,
carrying
out
dimensional
Therefore,
outdiffer
a twovery
dimensional
FE
Even
if it with
ismodel.
used,
thedimensional
resultscarrying
maymodel.
not
much
when
a
two
dimensional
FE
Analysis
is
worth
and
a
software
package
Analysis
is worth
package
called
PLAXIScarrying
8.2 2D was
compared
with aand
twoa software
dimensional
model.
Therefore,
out
PLAXIS 8.2 2D
was used
for theand
analysis.
In the
finite
acalled
two
Analysis
worth
a software
package
used
for dimensional
the analysis. FE
In the
finite is
element
analysis,
the problem
was
element
analysis,
the
problem
was
solved
as
a
two-dimensional
called asPLAXIS
8.2 2D was plane
used strain
for the
analysis.
finite
solved
a two-dimensional
problem
withIna the
symmetry
plane strain
problem
with a symmetry
condition
applied at the
element
analysis,
solved
as a two-dimensional
condition
applied
atthe
the problem
centerusing
ofwas
the
embankment
usingcondition.
the with
center
of
the
embankment
the
with
plane
strain
planestrain
straincondition.
problem Numerical
with a symmetry
condition
applied
at the
plane
modeling
enables
the
analysis
of
Numerical
modeling
enablesusing
the analysis
ofplane
embankment
loading
center
of
the
embankment
the
with
strain
condition.
embankment
loading
soilconditions
behavior without
in various
conditions
without
soil
behavior
in
various
resorting
to
simplified
Numerical modeling enables the analysis of embankment loading
resorting
to simplifiedhelps
assumptions.
This helps
understand
the
assumptions.
to understand
the to
behavior
of the
soil
behavior inThis
various conditions
without resorting
to simplified
behavior
of the and
displacement
and
stresses
inand
thethe
subsoil
and
thelateral
piles,
displacement
stresses
in
the
subsoil
piles,
total
assumptions. This helps to understand the behavior of the
movement
of and
the stresses
soil,ofaxial
in the
pile
and
thepile
tension
in
total
lateral movement
the
soil,subsoil
axial
forces
the
and
the
displacement
in forces
the
and
thein
piles,
total
lateral
the geogrids.
Thesoil,
method
of analysis,
important
materials
tension
in theofgeogrids.
The
of
important
materials
movement
the
axialmethod
forces
inanalysis,
the pile
and the tension
in
involved
theconstruction
construction
GRPE
system
are
in
involved
inin the
GRPE
systemimportant
are described
described
in the
the
the
geogrids.
The methodofofof
analysis,
materials
following
section.
following
involved section.
in the construction of GRPE system are described in the
following section.
4.1 Foundation Soils
4.1 Foundation Soils
4.1 Foundation Soils
Soft peaty clay and organic clay was modeled using soft soil model
Soft
peaty
clay and
organicinclay
modeled
using soft
model
which
is readily
available
thewas
software
program.
It issoil
based
on
Soft
peaty
clay and
organic
clay
was
modeled
using
soft
soil
model
which
is
readily
available
in
the
software
program.
It
is
based
on
the
the
Cam-Clay
theory
and
required
parameters
other
than
shear
which is readily
in the
softwareother
program. It
is based
on
Cam-Clay
theory available
and required
parameters
shear
strength
strength
parameter
c' friction
angle than
(')
and
dilatancy
the
Cam-Clay
theory(cohesion,
and required
parameters
other
than
shear
parameter
(cohesion,
c frictioncompression
angle () and
dilatancy
angle
())
angle ())
are modified
index
modified
strength
parameter
(cohesion, c' friction angle
(')(*),
and dilatancy
are
modified
compression
index
(*),
modified
recompression
index
.
The
relationship
recompression
index
(*)
and
initial
void
ratio,e
angle ()) are modified compression indexo (*), modified
of *
* with
consolidation
test*results
as
(*)
andand
initial
void laboratory
ratio,e
. The
relationship
and
*arewith
o
relationship
recompression
index
(*) and
initial
void ratio,eofo. The
follows.
laboratory
consolidation
test
results
are
as
follows.
of * and * with laboratory consolidation test results are as
follows.
(1)

3.3 Length of Treatment from Bridge


The
settlementofofthe
thepavement
pavement
should
be gradually
changing
The settlement
should
be gradually
changing
from
from
zero
at
the approach
slab
to a maximum
of only
150
mm
zero
at
the
approach
slab
to
a
maximum
of
only
150
mm
anywhere
The settlement of the pavement should be gradually changing
anywhere
end years
of
three
after of
construction.
To
else, zero
at theelse,
ofthethree
construction.
To 150
limitmm
the
from
at end
theatapproach
slab
toafter
ayears
maximum
only
limit the maximum gradient to 1% a treated length of 15m from
anywhere
else, at the
end
of three
years
construction.
To
maximum gradient
to 1%
a treated
length
of after
15m from
the approach
the
approach
slab isgradient
needed and1%
to aeliminate
abrupt of
deformation
limit
maximum
treated length
15m from
slab isthe
needed
and to eliminatetoabrupt
deformation
(settlement)
at the
(settlement)
at
the
junction
of
the
piled
embankment
and the
the
approach
slab
is needed
and toand
eliminate
abrupt deformation
junction
of
the
piled
embankment
the
embankment
beyond,
a
embankment
beyond,
a transition
length
is needed.
(settlement)
at
the
junction
of the
piled
embankment and the
transition length
is needed.
embankment beyond, a transition length is needed.
Therefore,it was
wasintended
intendedtotouseuse
GRPEforfor
average
length
of
GRPE
anan
average
length
of 25m
25m
from
the bridge,
which
complied
with
the specified
limits.
from
the
bridge,
which
complied
with
the
specified
limits.
The
last
Therefore,it was intended to use GRPE for an average length of
The
10m
ofbridge,
theisGRPE
is considered
as athe
de-skewing
10m last
of
the
GRPE
considered
as a de-skewing
section section
due
the
25m
from
the
which
complied
with
specified
limits.
due
the
skewness
of
the
bridge
abutment.
skewness
of the
abutment.
The
last 10m
ofbridge
the GRPE
is considered as a de-skewing section
due the skewness of the bridge abutment.
3.4 Estimation of Tensile Strength of Geosynthetic Material
3.4 Estimation of Tensile Strength of Geosynthetic Material
3.4 Estimation of Tensile Strength of Geosynthetic Material
There are few methods developed to determine the required
There are few methods developed to determine the required tensile
tensile
strength
of
geogridsdeveloped
in the LTP.to
Thedetermine
method proposed
in BS
There
methods
theinrequired
strengthare
of few
geogrids
in the LTP. The method
proposed
BS 8006
8006
(1995)
is
widely
used.
Han
(1999)
proposed
a
method
to
tensile
ofused.
geogrids
the LTP.
The method
proposed
in BS
(1995) strength
is the
widely
Hanin(1999)
proposed
a method
estimate
estimate
required
tensile
strength
of geogrids
basedto on
case
8006
(1995)tensile
is widely
used.of Han
(1999)
proposed
method
to
the required
based
on case astudies
related
studies
tostrength
GRPE
andgeogrids
the information
Figure
3 is
estimaterelated
the required
tensile
strength
of geogridsinbased
on case
to GRPE and
the information
in Figure
3 is3developed
on that
developed
based
on that method.
Figure
was used based
to estimate
studies related to GRPE and the information in Figure 3 is
method.
Figure
3 was
used
to estimate
the tensile strength of the
the
tensile
strength
of
the
geogrid
material.
developed based on that method. Figure 3 was used to estimate
geogrid
material.
the
tensile
strength of the geogrid material.
As
in Figure
Figure 3,
3, ifif there
thereisisnonocontribution
contribution
from
foundation
As shown
shown in
from
foundation
soil
soil
and
for
6.5
m
high
embankment,
tension
in
reinforcement
will
As
3, if there istension
no contribution
from foundation
andshown
for 6.5inmFigure
high embankment,
in reinforcement
will be 600
be 600 kN/m. With bulk safety factor of three (3) for the damages
soil
andWith
for 6.5
m high
tension
in the
reinforcement
will
kN/m.
bulk
safetyembankment,
factor of three
(3) for
damages during
during
installation,
longsafety
term factor
creep,ofchemical
and
be
600 kN/m.
Withterm
bulk
three (3)degradation
for and
the damages
installation,
long
creep,
chemical
degradation
biological
biological
degradation,
ultimate
tensilechemical
strengthdegradation
of geogrids was
during
installation,
long
term
creep,
and
degradation,
ultimate
tensile
strength
of geogrids
was taken
as 600
1800
taken
as 1800
kN/m.Therefore,
3 numbers
of geogrids
with
biological
degradation,
ultimate
tensile with
strength
of
geogrids
was
kN/m.Therefore,
3
numbers
of
geogrids
600
kN/m
of
ultimate
kN/m
tensile strength
were embedded
in the
LTP600
at
taken of
as ultimate
1800 kN/m.Therefore,
3 numbers
of geogrids
with
tensile strength
embedded in the LTP at 300mm vertical spacing.
300mm
verticalwere
spacing.
kN/m of ultimate tensile strength were embedded in the LTP at
300mm vertical spacing.

(1)
Clayey
mat was
was modeled
modeled
Clayey sand,
sand, bedrock,
bedrock, embankment
embankment and
and gravel
gravel mat
assuming
elastic-perfectly
plastic
behavior
which was
modeled
assuminglinear
linear
elastic-perfectly
plastic
behavior
which
was
Clayey sand, bedrock, embankment and gravel mat was modeled
using
Mohrusing
Coulomb
model.
Relevant
soilRelevant
parameters
are
tabulated
modeled
Mohr
Coulomb
model.
soil
parameters
assuming linear elastic-perfectly plastic behavior which was
are
tabulated
inMohr
TableCoulomb
3.and
The
foundation
andwere
embankment
soil
inmodeled
Table
3. The
embankment
soil
modeled
using
usingfoundation
model. Relevant
soil
parameters
were
modeled
using 711 triangular elements.
711
triangular
elements.
are tabulated in Table 3. The foundation and embankment soil
were modeled using 711 triangular elements.

Figure 3. Variation of tensile strength of the reinforcement with


other parameters
Figure
3. Variation of tensile strength of the reinforcement with
other parameters
Figure 3. Variation of tensile strength of the reinforcement with
other parameters
was considered that a minimum of three layers of reinforcements had
to be used to create the platform, the spacing between the layers of
reinforcement was 200- 450 mm, the platform thickness was equal
to one half the clear span between piles, and the soil arch was fully
developed within the depth of the platform. Therefore, the thickness
of the LTP was selected as 1.2m, which was tentatively half of the pile
spacing. A granular material is compulsory to be in the LTP and hence
dense graded aggregate base course (ABC) material was planned to
be used for LTP.

61
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Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014


Geotechnical
No. 1 2014
Geotechnical
JournalJournal
Vol. 6 Vol.
No. 16 2014

62 Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014


Table 3 provides material parameters of soils for FE analysis.
Table 3 provides material parameters of soils for FE analysis.
3 provides
material
parameters
soils
for FEPeat
analysis.
/Organic
Clayey
WR /fresh
Embankment
Table 3Table
provides
material
parameters
of soilsoffor
FE analysis.
Parameter
Symbol
Unit
LTP
Clay
Sand
rock
fill Embankment
Peat
/Organic
Clayey
WR
/fresh
Peat /Organic
Clayey
WR /fresh
Embankment
Parameter
Parameter
SymbolSymbol Unit Unit
LTP LTP
Clay Clay
Sand Sand rock rock
fill fill
sat

Saturated unit weight


Saturated
unit weight
Saturated
unit weight
Dry unit Weight
Dry
unit Weight
Dry unit
Weight
Horizontal Permeability

kN/m
10.3
16
sat
kN/m kN/m
10.3 10.3
16
kN/m
3
14
dry
3
kN/m kN/m
3
14
m/Day
1.5
0.864

sat
dry
x

Horizontal
Permeability
Horizontal
Permeability
Vertical Permeability

dry

Vertical
Permeability
Vertical
Permeability
Young's Modulus

x
m/Daym/Day
1.5
m/Day
1.5

y
m/Daym/Day
1.5
MN/m
10

Young's
Modulus
Young's
Modulus
Poissons Ratio

MN/m
MN/m
kN/m

Poissons
Poissons
Ratio Ratio
Cohesion
Cohesion
Cohesion
Friction
Angle

1.5
10

0.4

0.4

Compression
Compression
index index
Swell
Index
Swell Index
Swell Index

22

22
0.009

22

0.864 0.864 0.009 0.009


40
4200
40
0.25
5

40

4200 4200
0.2

0.25 0.25 0.2


1000

o
kN/m
5
kN/m
20 5
30 5
o
- o
20 - 30
1.2520
- - 0.11.25 1.25
0.1 0.1

Friction
Angle
Friction
Angle
Compression
index

14

22

20

22

20

20

18

20

20

20

20

18
20
20
8640
1.5 0.864 0.864 0.009 0.009
0.086 0.086 8640 8640
0.864
0.009
0.086
8640

10
0.4
5

22

16

1000
451000

30 - 45
-

0.2

45

18
0.086

0.086 0.086 8640 8640


30
175
0.35
20

30

0.2

0.35 0.35

30 20
- 30
-

30

20

40

30 -

175

175

0.2

0.2

40

40

4.2 Piles and Geogrids


4.3 Model Analysis 1- Settlement of the embankment without
4.2 Piles
and Geogrids
4.3treatment
Model Analysis 1- Settlement of the embankment without any
Piles were
modeled
as plate element and geogrids were modeled
any
treatment
4.3 was
Model
Analysis
Settlement
the
embankment
4.2
Piles
and
Geogrids
4.3
Model
Analysis
1of model
the of
embankment
without
4.2
Piles
and
Geogrids
using geogrid element in the software program. Relevant material
The analysis
carried
outSettlement
to1-verify
the
performance
of without
Piles
were
modeled
as as
plate
element
and and
geogrids
werewere
modeled
any
treatment
Piles
were
modeled
plate
element
geogrids
modeled
any
treatment
Piles
were
modeled
as
plate
element
and
geogrids
were
modeled
parameters
are tabulated
Table
and 5 respectively.
soft soil behavior. FE model was developed considering
using geogrid
elementin in
the 4software
program. Relevant material predicting
The analysis was carried out to verify the model performance of
The analysis
was carried
to the
verify
the any
model
performance
of
using geogrid
element
in the software
program.
Relevant
material
The
analysis
was carried
out
to out
verify
model
performance
of
using geogrid
element
in the software
program.
Relevant
material
the
normal
construction
without
ground
parameters are tabulated in Table 4 and 5 respectively.
predicting softembankment
soil behavior. FE
model was developed
considering
the
predicting
soft
soil behavior.
FE model
was
developed
considering
parameters
are
tabulated
in(pile)
and 5 respectively.
predicting
soft
soil
behavior.
FE model
was
developed
considering
parameters
are tabulated
in Table
4Table
and 54 respectively.
Table
4-Properties
of
plate
element
improvement
i.e.
consolidation
settlement
of
the
soft
soils
due
to
normal embankment construction without any ground improvement
the loading.
normal
embankment
construction
without
any ground
Pile spacing
2.5m
3m
theconsolidation
normal
embankment
construction
without
any ground
embankment
i.e.
settlement of the
soft soils due
to embankment
Table 4-Properties
plate element
improvement
i.e.
consolidation
settlement
of
the
soft
soils
Table 4-Properties
of plateofelement
(pile) (pile)
improvement
i.e.
consolidation
settlement
of
the
soft
soils
due
todue to
loading.
Pile
spacing
embankment
loading.
Pile spacing
2.5m 2.5m
embankment
loading.
Elastic
modulus,
E
20
203m 3m
The total settlement after the application of full load was 3.6 m.
The total settlement after the application of full load was 3.6 m.
/GPa
Karunarathna
thethe
variation
of
Karunarathna (2007)
(2007)developed
developedsome
somecurves
curvesforfor
variation
modulus,
E 20
20
20
ElasticElastic
modulus,
E
20
consolidation
settlement
of
peat/peaty
clay
deposits
with
the
The
total
settlement
after
the
application
of
full
load
was
The
total
settlement
after
the
application
of
full
load
was
3.6
m.3.6 m.
of
consolidation
settlement
of
peat/peaty
clay
deposits
with
the
Area,
/m2
0.16
0.16
/GPa A/GPa
embankment
height
and(2007)
thickness
of
said
soft
soil
as invariation
Karunarathna
developed
some
curves
the
of
Karunarathna
(2007)
developed
some
fordeposit
the
of
embankment
height
and
thickness
of said
softcurves
soil deposit
asfor
invariation
Figure
Figure
4.
From
that
curve
also,
same
settlement
can
be
obtained
consolidation
settlement
of
peat/peaty
clay
deposits
with
the
settlement
peat/peaty
deposits
with the
4.consolidation
From that curve
also, same of
settlement
can beclay
obtained
and hence
2
Moment
of
2.1840.16
10-5 0.16 1.2640.16
10-5 0.16
Area,
A /m2
Area, A
/minertia,
and
hence
it can be
considered
as the
validation
of
the
developed
and
thickness
ofsoft
said
soft
soil
deposit
height
and
thickness
said
soil
deposit
as in as in
itembankment
can
beembankment
considered
asheight
the validation
ofofthe
developed
FE
model.
4
I /(m /m)
FEFigure
model.
Figure
presents
for 1.
the be
analysis
4.5deformation
Fromcurve
thatdeformation
curvesame
also,
same
settlement
can
be obtained
5Figure
presents
contours
forcontours
the
analysis
Figure
4.
From
that
also,
settlement
can
obtained
-5
-5
1. and hence
Moment
of inertia,2.184 2.184
Moment
of inertia,
10-5 101.264 1.264
10-5 10
and hence
it can
be considered
the validation
the developed
it can be
considered
as the as
validation
of the of
developed
4
4
EA
/(kN/m)
1
280
000
1
066
666.7
I /(m /m)
I /(m /m)
FE model.
5 presents
deformation
contours
the analysis
FE model.
Figure Figure
5 presents
deformation
contours
for thefor
analysis
1.
1.
2
EI
436.8
252.8
EA/m)
/(kN/m)
1 280 000
1 066 666.7
EA/(kNm
/(kN/m)
1 280
000
1 066
666.7
2
EI 2/(kNm
EI /(kNm
/m) /m)

436.8 436.8

Table 5-Properties of Geogrids


Tensile strength, T /kNm

600

Table 5-Properties
of Geogrids
Table 5-Properties
of Geogrids
Allowable
strain,
/% T /kNm 6
Tensile
strength,
Tensile strength, T /kNm
600
EA
Allowable
Allowable
strain, strain,
/%

EA

EA

/%

252.8 252.8

1000
6

600
6

1000 1000

Figure4.4.Variation
Variationof
ofconsolidation
consolidation settlement
settlement with
thickness
Figure
withpeat
peat
thickness
andembankment
embankment height
height (Karunarathna,
and
(Karunarathna,2007)
2007)

4. Variation
of consolidation
settlement
withthickness
peat thickness
Figure Figure
4. Variation
of consolidation
settlement
with peat
and
embankment
height
(Karunarathna,
2007)
and embankment height (Karunarathna, 2007)

62

62

62

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3Geotechnical
Proff 18-02-2015
Journal Vol. 6

No. 1 2014

Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014 63

4.4
4.4 Analysis
Analysis2-2-Analysis
Analysisof
ofGRPE
GRPE
The
GRPE
analyzed,
is
Theschematic
schematicdiagram
diagramofofthethe
GRPEsystem,
system,which
whichwas
was
analyzed,
presented
in
Figure
6.
The
main
components
of
GRPE
and
relevant
is presented in Figure 6. The main components of GRPE and
material
are given inare
that
Figure.
relevantproperties
material properties
given
in that Figure.

Figure 5. Settlement color contours without any treatment


Figure 5. Settlement color contours without any treatment

Figure 6. Schematic diagram of GRPE model


Figure 6. Schematic diagram of GRPE model
and Figure
Figure 88 provide
provide the
the analysis
analysis results
results of GRPE
GRPEfor
for
Figure 77 and
different pile spacing,
spacing, namely
namely 2.5m
2.5m and
and 3.0m
3.0m respectively.
respectively. Pile
Pile
different
spacing of 2.5 m represents
represents the
and
3.03.0
mm
thearea
areaclose
closetotothe
thebridge
bridge
and

spacing
fromfrom
the bridge.
As mentioned
above, stageabove,
construction
spacingaway
away
the bridge.
As mentioned
stage
procedure
was procedure
used in thewas
analysis
simulate
actual
construction
usedininorder
the to
analysis
in the
order
to
construction
simulate theprocess.
actual construction process.

Figure 7. Plot of vertical displacements of 2.5 m pile space section


Figure 7. Plot of vertical displacements of 2.5 m pile space
section

Figure 8. Plot of vertical displacements of 3.0 m pile space section


Figure 8. Plot of vertical displacements of 3.0 m pile space section
(shadings)
(shadings)

63

Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014


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No.112014
2014

64 Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014

4.5 Results
Resultsof
ofthe
theAnalysis
Analysis
4.5
Table
the
predicted
settlement
each
Table6Results
6gives
gives
the
predicted
settlementafter
aftercompletion
completionof of
each
4.5
Results
of
of the
the
Analysis
Analysis
construction
phase.The
predicted
maximum
about
construction
phase.The
predicted
maximum
settlement
isisofabout
20
Table
6 gives
gives
the
the predicted
predicted
settlement
settlement
after
aftersettlement
completion
completion
of
each
each
20construction
mm
the
bridge
andmm
31away
mm
awaysettlement
from
the is
bridge.
mm
nearnear
the phase.The
bridge
andpredicted
31
from
the
bridge.
Settlement
construction
phase.The
predicted
maximum
maximum
settlement
is
about
about
Settlement
after
three
years
after31
completing
the
construction
of be
aftermm
three
years
after
completing
the
construction
of the
GRPE
can
20
near
near
the
the
bridge
bridge
and
and
31
mm
mm
away
away
from
from
the bridge.
bridge.
GRPE
can
be
estimated
using
stage
construction
option
in
PLAXIS.
estimated
using
stage
construction
option
in
PLAXIS.
Accordingly,
Settlement
Settlement after
after three
three years
years after
aftercompleting
completingthe
theconstruction
constructionofof
Accordingly,
the of
construction
of
the only
embankment,
only
4
after the
the embankment,
4option
mm of
GRPE
canconstruction
be
beafter
estimated
estimated
using
using
stage
stageconstruction
construction
option
ininsettlement
PLAXIS.
PLAXIS.
mm
of
settlement
will
occur
in
three
year
period
near
the
bridge
will
occur inafter
threethe
yearconstruction
period nearof
thethe
bridge
approach only
and
Accordingly,
Accordingly,
after
the
construction
of
the
embankment,
embankment,
onlyonly
44
approach
andfrom
onlythe
7mm
away
from
theyear
bridge
approach.
7mmofaway
bridge
approach.
mm
settlement
settlement
will
will
occur
occur
in
inthree
three
year
period
period
near
nearthe
thebridge
bridge
Table
6 - Settlement
afteraway
each
construction
stage
approach
and
and only
only 7mm
7mm
awayfrom
fromthe
thebridge
bridge
approach.
approach.
Settlement after
Table 6 -- Settlement
Settlement
aftereach
eachconstruction
construction
constructionstage
stage
stage
Settlement of the
Time
top of the
Settlement
Settlementofofthe
the
Interval of
Time
Time
embankment
top
topofofthe
the
Stage
Load application
load
Interval
Intervalofof
2.5embankment
m
3.0 m
embankment
Stage
Load
Load application
application application
load
load
pile
pile
2.5
2.5mm
3.0
3.0mm
/(Days)
application
application spacing
spacing
pile
pile
pile
pile
/(Days)
/(Days)
Initial
Existing ground +
spacing
spacing spacing
spacing
stage
piles
+ ++
Initial Driven
Existing
Existing
ground
ground
Geogrid + Gravel
0
0
0
stage
Driven
Driven piles
piles ++
Mat (1.2 m
Geogrid
Geogrid ++ Gravel
Gravel
00
00
00
Thick)
Mat
Mat (1.2
(1.2 m
m
Initial
stage
Thick)
Thick)
Stage
+Embankment(
21
2
2
Initial
Initial stage
stage
1
Stage 1.5m)
+Embankment(
+Embankment(
21
21
22
22
1
Stage
1.5m)
1.5m)
Stage
1+Embankment (
21
5
6
Stage
Stage
2
Stage 1.5 m)
1+Embankment
1+Embankment((
21
21
55
66
2
Stage
1.5
1.5 m)
m)
Stage
2+Embankment (
21
10
15
Stage
Stage
3
Stage 1.5 m)
2+Embankment
2+Embankment((
21
21
10
10
1515
3
1.5
1.5 m)
m)

Stage
4
Stage
Stage
4Stage
4
5
Stage
Stage
55
Stage
6 Stage
Stage
66
Stage
7 Stage
Stage
77

Stage
3+Embankment (
Stage
Stage
0.8 m)
3+Embankment
3+Embankment
( (
0.8
0.8m)m)
Stage
4+ Open to
traffic
Stage
Stage4+4+
Open
Open
to to
traffic
traffic
Stage 5+ Open to
traffic
Stage
Stage5+5+
Open
Open
to to
traffic
traffic
Stage 6+ Open to
traffic
Stage
Stage6+6+
Open
Open
to to
traffic
traffic

21

16

24

2121

1616

24 24

21

20

30

2121

2020

30 30

200

20

31

200
200

2020

31 31

800

20

31

800
800

2020

31 31

4.6 Differential Settlement


4.6 Differential Settlement
Differential settlement
is is
defined
as theasdifference
in the settlement
Differential
settlement
defined
the difference
in the
4.6
4.6 Differential
Differential
Settlement
Settlement
at
the
center
of
the
pile
and
at
the
mid
span
of
the
pile
spacing.
The
settlement
at
the
center
of
the
pile
and
at
the
mid
span
of
the
pile
Differential
Differentialsettlement
settlementis isdefined
definedas asthethedifference
differencein inthe
the
observedThe
differential
settlement
at settlement
the embankment
top
was almost
spacing.
observed
differential
at
the
embankment
settlement
settlementatatthe
the
center
center
ofof
thethe
pile
pile
and
and
at at
thethe
mid
mid
span
span
of the
of the
pilepile
zero.was
Differential
settlement
at pilesettlement
top level is
abouttop
10 level
mm and
top
almost
zero.
Differential
is
spacing.
spacing.The
Theobserved
observed
differential
differential
settlement
settlement
atat
at
thepile
the
embankment
embankment
14 mm10
formm
2.5 m
and143.0mm
m pile
spacing
respectively.
As such,
the
about
and
for
2.5
m
and
3.0
m
pile
spacing
top
topwas
wasalmost
almostzero.
zero.Differential
Differentialsettlement
settlement
at at
pilepile
toptop
level
level
is is
anticipated differential
settlement
indifferential
the embankment
is inwithin
respectively.
Asand
such,
anticipated
settlement
the
about
about1010mm
mm
and14the
14mm
mmforfor2.52.5m
mand
and3.03.0
mm
pilepile
spacing
spacing
the acceptableislimits.
Itthe
canacceptable
be seen that
the differential
settlement
embankment
within
limits.
Itsettlement
can
be seen
that
respectively.
respectively.AsAs
such,
such,
the
the
anticipated
anticipated
differential
differential
settlement
in the
in
the
decreases
from settlement
the pile head
to the from
top of
the
embankment.
This
the
differential
decreases
the
pile
head
to
the
top
embankment
embankmentis iswithin
withinthe
theacceptable
acceptable
limits.
limits.
It can
It can
be be
seen
seen
that
that
is the
due embankment.
to the development
of
soil
arching
at the pile
and the
of
This isdecreases
due
to the
development
of head
soil
arching
the
thedifferential
differential
settlement
settlement
decreases
from
from
thethe
pilepile
head
head
to to
the
the
toptop
efficient
load
transfer
mechanism
created
by
the
load
transfer
atofthe
the
pile
head and This
the
efficient
transfer
mechanism
created
of
theembankment.
embankment.
This
is is
due
due
toload
to
thethe
development
development
of of
soilsoil
arching
arching
platform
constructed
with geogrids
on topwith
of geogrids
the pile. on
According
by
the
load
transfer
platform
constructed
top of
at
atthe
thepile
pilehead
head
and
and
the
the
efficient
efficient
load
load
transfer
transfer
mechanism
mechanism
created
created
to the
analysis,
theretohas
been
no discernible
differential
settlement
the
pile.
According
the
analysis,
there
has
been
no
discernible
bybythe
theload
loadtransfer
transferplatform
platform
constructed
constructed
with
with
geogrids
geogrids
on on
toptop
of of
noticed at the
site sincenoticed
the construction.
differential
settlement
at the
site has
since
the
construction.
the
thepile.
pile.According
According
totothe
the
analysis,
analysis,
there
there
has
been
been
no
no
discernible
discernible
The
final design
drawing
and at
the
approximate
settlement
profile
differential
differential
settlement
settlement
noticed
noticed
at
the
the
site
site
since
since
the
the
construction.
construction.
Thelongitudinal
final design direction
drawing and
thepresented
approximate
settlement
profile10in
in
are
in
Figure
9
and
The
Thefinal
finaldesign
designdrawing
drawingand
and
thethe
approximate
approximate
settlement
settlement
profile
profile
longitudinal direction are presented in Figure 9 and 10 respectively.
respectively.
in
inlongitudinal
longitudinaldirection
directionarearepresented
presentedin inFigure
Figure9 9andand10 10
respectively.
respectively.

Figure 9. Final Design Drawing


Figure
Figure9.9.Final
FinalDesign
DesignDrawing
Drawing
Figure 9. Final Design Drawing
64
6464

Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014


Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014

3rd Proff 18-02-2015

Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014 65

5 OBSERVED SETTLEMENT DURING AND AFTER CONSTRUCTION

5 OBSERVED SETTLEMENT DURING AND AFTER


5To OBSERVED
CONSTRUCTION
verify the SETTLEMENT
design and DURING
to checkAND
theAFTER
performance
of the
CONSTRUCTION
embankment, monitoring of settlement was carried out.
To
verify
thethe
design
and toand
check
performance
of the embankment,
To
verify
tothecheck
of
Settlement
was design
monitored
during
and the
afterperformance
construction
of the
monitoring
of settlement
carried
out. Settlement
monitored
embankment,
monitoring
of the
settlement
was was
carried
out.
embankment.
Figure
13was
shows
observed
settlement
values
of
during
and after
of the
embankment.
13 of
shows
Settlement
wasconstruction
monitored
during
andtop
after
the settlement
plate
installed
at the
of construction
theFigure
LTP during
the
the
observed settlement
values
of the
the observed
settlement
plate installed
at the
embankment.
Figureof13
shows
settlement
values
of
construction
period
the
embankment.
As shown
in the
figure,
top
the
LTP
during
the
construction
period
of
the
embankment.
As
theofsettlement
plate
installed
at
the
top
of
the
LTP
during
the
observed settlement reasonably agrees with the predicted
shown
in the shown
figure,
observed
agrees
with
construction
periodthe
the embankment.
shownofinthe
thesurface
figure,
settlement
inofFigure
12. settlement
Also, theAsreasonably
results
the
predicted
settlement
shown
in Figure
12. Also,
thethe
results
of the
the
observed
settlement
reasonably
with
predicted
settlement
monitoring
indicate
that agrees
the
observed
settlements
surface
settlement
monitoring
indicate
that
theresults
observed
settlements
settlement
in
12.
Also,
the
surface
were in
theshown
range
of Figure
0 m to
3m
one
year
after ofthethe
road
was
were
in
the
range
of
0
m
to
3
m
one
year
after
the
road
was
opened
settlement
monitoring
indicate
that
the
observed
settlements
opened to traffic.
towere
traffic.
in the range of 0 m to 3 m one year after the road was
opened to traffic.
Figure 10. Settlement in longitudinal section of embankment
Figure 10. Settlement in longitudinal section of embankment
Figure
10. Settlement
longitudinalinsection
of embankment
4.7 Stresses
and the in
Deformation
Geogrid
4.7 Stresses
and the
Deformation
Geogrid
The
load transfer
platform
consists in
of 1.2
m gravel mat comprising

4.7
Stresses
the
Deformation
in1.2
Geogrid
of
layersand
ofplatform
biaxial
geogridsofwith
strength
of 600
kPa. Theof
Thethree
load
transfer
consists
m
gravel mat
comprising
The
load
transfer
platform
consists
of
1.2
m
gravel
mat
comprising
mobile
tensile
strength
of
geogrids
placed
on
3m
pile
spacing
is
three layers of biaxial geogrids with strength of 600 kPa. The mobile
of
threestrength
biaxial
geogrids
with
strength
of 600
The
shown
inlayers
Figureof
It indicates
more
strength
hasin
tensile
of11.
geogrids
placedthat
on 3m
piletensile
spacing
is kPa.
shown
mobile
tensile
strength
of more
geogrids
pile
is
been
in the geogrids
attensile
theplaced
edge
ofon
the3m
pile.
Figuremobilized
11.
It indicates
that
strength
has
beenspacing
mobilized
shown
in
Figure
11.
It
indicates
that
more
tensile
strength
has
in the geogrids at the edge of the pile.
been mobilized in the geogrids at the edge of the pile.

Figure 13. Observed settlement during the construction


Figure 13. Observed settlement during the construction
6 CONCLUSION
AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Figure 13.
Observed
settlement during the construction
6 CONCLUSION
AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
For comfortable rides, elimination of differential settlement between
6Forembankment
CONCLUSION
AND
the
and
the RECOMMENDATIONS
approach
slab is very
important. Atsettlement
a distance
comfortable
rides,
elimination
of differential
ofbetween
about 20the
m from
the slab, the
settlement
should beslab
comparable
embankment
and
the approach
is very
with
the
treated
settlement
under the
which
is
For
comfortable
rides,
elimination
of embankment
differential
settlement
important.
Atground
a distance
of about
20
m
from thefill
slab,
the
150
mm.
Settlement
of
the
untreated
ground
is
large
and
soft
ground
between
embankment
and thewith
approach
slab isground
very
settlementthe
should
be comparable
the treated
treatment
is therefore
essential
limit the
differential
in
important.
At
a distance
oftoabout
20fill
m which
from the
slab, mm.
the
settlement
under
the
embankment
issettlement
150
the
approach embankment.
settlement
should
be comparable
the and
treated
Settlement
of
the untreated
ground with
is large
soft ground

Figure 11. Mobilized Tensile Strength in 1st geogrid from top


Figure 11. Mobilized Tensile Strength in 1st geogrid from top
Figure 11. Mobilized Tensile Strength in 1st geogrid from top
4.8 Mobilized Strain
The estimated vertical displacements of the geogrid placed on 3.0
4.8
Mobilized
Strain
m
spacing Strain
are shown in Figure 12.The calculated maximum
4.8 pile
Mobilized
The
vertical
displacements(2004)
of thereported
geogrid placed
3.0
totalestimated
strain is 0.3
%. Gangakhedkar
that toon
avoid
Thepile
estimated
vertical
displacements
the geogrid
placed
on
m
spacing
are shown
in Figure of
12.The
calculated
maximum
long
term
localized
deformations
at
the
surface
of 3.0
them
pile spacing
shown
in Figure
12.The
maximum
total
total
strain isare
0.3
%.
Gangakhedkar
(2004)calculated
reported
that
to avoid
embankment,
the
long
term
strain
should
be
kept to
a minimum
strain isterm
0.3 %.
Gangakhedkar
(2004) reported
that surface
to avoid
long
term
long
localized
at
the
ofwhich
the
strain
value
of
2 % for deformations
the permanent
construction
work,
localized
deformations
the
surface
of thebeembankment,
the long
embankment,
long at
term
strain
should
kept to a minimum
agrees
with
thethe
calculated
value.
term strain
kept
a minimumconstruction
strain value of
2 % which
for the
strain
valueshould
of 2 %befor
thetopermanent
work,
permanent
work,
which agrees with the calculated value.
agrees
withconstruction
the calculated
value.

settlement
theessential
embankment
fill differential
which is settlement
150 mm.
treatment is under
therefore
to limit the
The
proposed
system for ground
construction
of bridge
approaches
Settlement
ofGPRE
the
untreated
is large
and soft
ground
in the
approach
embankment.
reduces
the istotal
settlement
of thetoembankment;
more importantly,
treatment
therefore
essential
limit the differential
settlement
the
differential
settlement
between the pile and foundation soil is
in
the
approachGPRE
embankment.
The
proposed
construction
of bridge
approaches
very
small
and hence system
upwardfor
lunges,
which may
be created
due to
reduces
the
total
settlement
of
the
embankment;
the settlement between the bridge deck and the embankment,more
will
The proposedthe
GPRE system forsettlement
construction
of bridgethe
approaches
between
beimportantly,
eliminated. The differential
conceptual design or preliminary
designpile
for and
the
reduces
the total
settlement
of the
embankment;
more
foundation
is veryout
small
andon
hence
upward
lunges,
may
situation
wassoil
carried
based
published
data
and which
guidelines.
importantly,
thetodifferential
settlement
between
the deck
pile and
be created
due
settlement
the FE
bridge
Then
the system
wastheanalyzed
withbetween
a validated
model and
it
foundation
soil is very
small
and hence upward
lunges, which
may
the
embankment,
will
be
eliminated.
The
conceptual
design
was found that the specified design criteria were met. The results or
of
be
created due
to the
between
the bridge
deck and
preliminary
design
for settlement
the situation
was carried
out based
on
the settlement monitoring carried out during and after construction
the
embankment,
will
be eliminated.
The
conceptual
designwith
or
published
data
and
guidelines.
Then
the
system
was
analyzed
of bridge approach embankment indicates that the settlement
preliminary
design
forand
theit situation
was
out based
on
a validated FE
model
was found
thatcarried
the specified
design
performance of bridge approach is satisfactory and confirms to the
published
data met.
and guidelines.
Then
was analyzed
with
criteria
were
The results
ofthe
thesystem
settlement
monitoring
design
criteria
a validated
modeland
andafter
it was
found that the
specified
design
carried
out FE
during
construction
of bridge
approach
criteria were indicates
met. The
of the settlement
monitoring
embankment
thatresults
the settlement
performance
of bridge
carried
and after
approachoutis during
satisfactory
and construction
confirms to of
thebridge
designapproach
criteria
embankment indicates that the settlement performance of bridge
approach is satisfactory and confirms to the design criteria

Figure 12. Vertical displacements in 1st geogrid from top


Figure 12. Vertical displacements in 1st geogrid from top
Figure 12. Vertical displacements in 1st geogrid from top

65
65

66 Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014


References
British Standard BS 8006, 1995, Code of Practice for Strengthened/
Reinforced Soils and Other Fills. British Standard Institution, London.
Collin, J. G. 2004. Column Support Embankment Design
Consideration, Proc 5th Annual Geotechnical Conference, University
of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, February 27, 2004.
Gangkhedkar R. 2004. Geosynthetic Reinforced Pile Supported
Embankments, Thesis for Degree of Master of Engineering,
University of Florida.
Han J. 1999. Design and Construction of Embankment on Geosynthetic
Reinforced Platforms Supported by piles, Invited Speaker, Proc.1999
ASCE/ PaDOT Geotechnical Seminar, Hershey, PA.

Hoppe E.J. 1999.Guidelines for the use, design, and construction of


bridge approach slabs, Virginia Transportation Research Council,
Charlottesville, Virginia.
Karunarathne G. P. 2007. Technical Report on Geogrid Reinforced
Piled Embankment for Bridge Approaches for STDP Package 1.
Karunawardena, A. &Toki, M, 2013, Design and Performance
of Highway Embankments Constructed Over Sri Lankan Peaty
Soils. Proc. 18th Int. Conf. on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical
Engineering, Paris, p. 2949-2952.
Long, J. H., Stark T.D., Olson S.M., & Samara E.M. 1998.
Differential movement at embankmentbridge structure interface
in Illinois, Transportation Research Record Illinois Department of
Transportation, Illinois.

3rd Proff 18-02-2015

Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014 67

PRACTICE OF REINFORCED EMBANKMENT ON HARD FOUNDATION - A CASE STUDY OF


PHITSANULOK, THAILAND
P. Baral1*, D.T. Bergado2, C. Rujikiatkamjorn3 and A.S. Balasubramaniam4
1* PhD Candidate, Centre for Geomechanics and Railway Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Wollongong,
NSW, Australia. (Corresponding Author, Email- pb994@uowmail.edu.au)
2 Professor, School of Engineering and Technology, Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani, Thailand.
3 Associate Professor, Centre for Geomechanics and Railway Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Wollongong,
NSW, Australia.
4 Professor, Centre for Infrastructure Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, Griffith University, QLD, Australia.
ABSTRACT: A full scale reinforced test embankment was designed and constructed by Department of Highways (DOH) on
hard foundation (i.e. Soil stratum containing relatively stiff to very stiff clay) in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand. Two types of
reinforcements were used. One side, called reinforced steep slope (RSS) with folded polymer facing at an angle of 70 degrees
from the horizontal, was reinforced with polymeric reinforcements consisting of polyester (PET), polypropylene (PP) and high
density polyethelene (HDPE). The other side, called mechanically stabilized earth wall (MSEW) with vertical segmental concrete
facing, was reinforced with metallic reinforcement consisting of metallic strips (MS) and steel wire grids (SWG). The behaviour
of the RSS and MSEW slopes were observed, back-analysed by sensitivity analysis and compared with the predictions from
FEM PLAXIS 3D simulations. As expected the vertical settlements were very small for the hard foundation. The corresponding
lateral movements from the RSS side were much larger than the MSEW side due to the higher stiffnesses of the former than
the later. The magnitudes of the reinforcing material stiffnesses decrease in the following order: metallic strips (MS), steel
wire grids (SWG), polypropylene (PP) high density polyethelene (HDPE) and polyester (PET). The polymeric reinforcements
have comparable ultimate tensile strengths at 100 KN/m. The predictions from the FEM PLAXIS 3D simulations were in good
agreement with the field measurements in terms of vertical and lateral deformations as well as strains in the reinforcements.
1 INTRODUCTION
In past years, many researchers studied the behaviour of several
reinforced earth structures (i.e. mechanically stabilised earth wall/
embankment) on Bangkok soft soil. Most of them were constructed
in the premises of AIT campus. The fully instrumented steel grid
reinforced embankment was constructed in the campus of Asian
Institute of Technology in March 1989. The backfill of this reinforced
embankment were clayey sand, lateritic and weathered clay whereas
the reinforcement used was steel grid. Shivashankar (1991) observed
the behaviour of a welded wire wall with poor quality, cohesivefriction backfills on soft Bangkok clay.
Later on, In May, 1993, another embankment was constructed in AIT
campus with polymer grid reinforcement as a reinforcing material.
The reinforcement used in this embankment was Tenax TT 201
geogrid SAMP, which is uniaxial oriented polymer grid reinforcement
(Alfaro, 1996). Furthermore, Long (1996) studied about the behaviour
of a geotextile reinforced embankment on soft ground. This study
was focussed on the interaction parameter between soil and geotextile
reinforcement, the localized mobilization of geotextile reinforcement
force related with slip failure, the performance behaviour of geotextile
reinforced embankment on soft ground and the closed-form solution
for rotational stability analysis of reinforced embankment. Similarly,
Voottipruex (2000) studied the behaviour of full scale embankment
built in AIT campus which was reinforced with hexagonal wire
mesh upto 6m with 10 degree inclined of gabion facing. The facing
consisted of large rectangular wire baskets wired all together and
was filled with rock and height of each basket was 1m. Two types
of reinforcements, galvanized coated and PVC coated with unequal
aperture size, were used in the two different sections along the length
of the wall.
Furthermore, Lai et al (2006) performed the full scale MSE
embankment laid on fully instrumented Deep Mixing Method
DMM improved ground. The behaviour of the full scale test
embankment showed that deep mixing improvement method reduced
the settlement of reinforced soil test embankment by 70 %, which
was an effective finding. Tanchaisawat (2008) performed the study
about the interaction between geogrid and tire chips-sand mixture,

performances of full scale geogrid reinforced test embankment and


numerical simulation of this full scale test embankment. The results
revealed that the aperture sizes of geogrid affected most for the direct
shear resistance of geogrids. He concluded that larger aperture size
may lead to higher direct shear resistance.
Recently, Artidteanget al (2014) has studied the behaviour of a
full-scale test embankment constructed in AIT campus with silty
sand backfill on soft ground reinforced with kenaf limited life
geotextiles (LLGs) and found that the time to achieve 90 % degree of
consolidation for this embankment was lesser than the estimated life
of kenaf LLGs. The main finding of this research was utilization of
kenaf LLGs as soil reinforcement for short-term application.
Moreover, Cisneros(1989), Abiera (1991), Mir (1996), Kabiling
(1997), Modmoltin (1998), Wongsawanon (1998), Srikongsri (1999),
Visudmedanukul (2000), Asanprakit (2000), Kongkitkul (2001),
Supawiwat (2002), Youwai (2003), Rittirong (2003) , Prempramote
(2005), Tin (2009) and Nualkiang (2011) studied and analysed the
behaviour of various reinforced earth embankment and its components
during their research in AIT.
A full-scale test embankment was constructed in Phitsanulok
Province, Thailand on hard ground using five different types of
reinforcing materials (polymeric on one side and metallic on the
other side). The reinforced steep slope (RSS) was reinforced with
polymeric material with folded soil bags as the facing material, and
the mechanically stabilised earth (MSE) wall was reinforced with
metallic reinforcement with precast concrete panels as the facing
material. This embankment was fully instrumented with piezometers,
settlement plates, inclinometers, total pressure cells and strain gauges
and subjected to careful field monitoring to obtain high-quality data.
The aim of this study was to compare the behaviour of polymericand metallic-reinforced embankments on hard foundation with 3D
numerical simulations conducted using PLAXIS 3D. Particular
attention was given to the lateral displacements, vertical settlements,
total vertical pressures and tensile forces in the reinforcement.

Geotechnical
Journal
Vol.
No.
1 2014
Geotechnical
Journal
Vol.
6 6No.
1 2014
Geotechnical
Journal
Vol. 6Vol.
No.61 No.
20141 2014
68
Geotechnical
Journal
2 DESCRIPTION OF THE EMBANKMENT AND
DESCRIPTION OF
OF THE
THE EMBANKMENT
EMBANKMENT AND
AND
INSTRUMENTATION
2 2 DESCRIPTION
INSTRUMENTATION
INSTRUMENTATION
2 6-m-high
DESCRIPTION
OF embankment
THE EMBANKMENT
A
reinforced earth
was constructedAND
and
6-m-high
reinforcedearth
earthembankment
embankmentwas
wasconstructed
constructedand
and
INSTRUMENTATION
A A6-m-high
reinforced
designed
by the
Department of Highways
(DOHs) of
Thailand near
designed
by
the
Department
of
Highways
(DOHs)
of
Thailand
near
designed
by
of Highways
(DOHs)
of
Thailand
near
Highway
No.the
11Department
(Phitsanulok-Uttaradit)
in was
Phitsanulok
Province
A Highway
6-m-high
reinforced
earth
embankment
constructed
and in
No.
(Phitsanulok-Uttaradit)
in
Phitsanulok
Province
Highway
No.
1111
(Phitsanulok-Uttaradit)
in(DOHs)
Phitsanulok
Province
in
in
central
Thailand.
The
test
embankment
was
18
m
long
and
15
designed
by
the
Department
of
Highways
of
Thailand
near
central
Thailand.
The
test
embankment
was
18
m
long
and
15m
central
Thailand.
The
test
embankment
was
18
m
long
and
15
mm
wide
at
the
top.
On
one
side,
the
reinforced
steep
slope
(RSS)
was
Highway
No.
11 (Phitsanulok-Uttaradit)
in Phitsanulok
Province
in
wide
at
the
top.
On
one
side,
the
reinforced
steep
slope
(RSS)
was
wide
at Thailand.
the top.
On
onetest
side,
the70reinforced
steep
slope
(RSS)
constructed
with
aThe
face
sloping
degrees
the
horizontal
and
central
embankment
wasfrom
18
m
long
and 15was
m
constructed
with
a
face
sloping
70
degrees
from
the
horizontal
and
constructed
with
a face
sloping
70reinforced
degrees
from
the
horizontal
and
wide
at theoftop.
On
one
side,
the
steep
slope
(RSS) was
consisting
folded
soil
bags.
On
the
other
side,
the
mechanically
consisting
of
folded
soil
bags.
On
the
other
side,
the
mechanically
consisting earth
ofwith
folded
soil
bags. was
On
the
otherfrom
side,
the
mechanically
constructed
awall
face
sloping
70was
degrees
the
horizontal
and
stabilised
(MSEW)
installed
with
vertical
concrete
stabilisedearth
earthwall
(MSEW)
installed
with
vertical
concrete
stabilised
wall
(MSEW)
was
installed
with
vertical
concrete
consisting
of
folded
soil
bags.
On
the
other
side,
the
mechanically
panels
as
the
facing.
Three
types
of
polymeric
geogrids
reinforcement
panels as as thethe facing.
facing. Three
Three types
types ofof polymeric
polymeric geogrids
geogrids
panels
stabilised
earthinwall
installed
with vertical
concrete
were
installed
the (MSEW)
reinforced
steep
slope
(RSS)
facing,slope
and (RSS)
two
reinforcement
were
installedinwas
in
the
reinforced
steep
reinforcement
were
installed
the
reinforced
steep
slope
(RSS)
panels
the
facing.of metallic
Threewere
types
of polymeric
geogrids
types
of as
metallic
reinforcement
installed
inwere
the mechanically
facing,
and
two
types
reinforcement
installed
facing,
and twowere
typesinstalled
of metallic
reinforcement
were
in in
thethe
reinforcement
in
the (MSEW)
reinforced
steepinstalled
slope
(RSS)
stabilised
earth wall
(MSEW)
facing.
The threefacing.
types
of
polymeric
mechanically
stabilised
earth
wall
The
three
types
mechanically
stabilised
wall (MSEW) facing.
three in
types
facing,
andreinforcement
two
types
ofearth
metallic
wereThe
installed
the
geogrid
were reinforcement
polyester
(PET),
high-density
ofpolymeric
polymeric
geogrid
reinforcement
werepolyester
polyester
(PET),
highof
geogrid
reinforcement
were
(PET),
highmechanically
stabilised
earth
wall
(MSEW)
facing.
The
three
types
densitypolyethylene
polyethylene
(HDPE)
andpolypropylene
polypropylene
(PP).The
Thetwo
two
polyethylene
(HDPE) (HDPE)
and
polypropylene
(PP). The(PP).
two
types
of
density
and
oftypes
polymeric
geogrid
reinforcement
were
polyester
(PET),
highof
metallic
reinforcement
were
steel
wire
grids
(SWG)
and
metallic
reinforcement
were steelwere
wire
grids
(SWG)
and
metallic
types
of
metallic
reinforcement
steel
wire
grids
(SWG)
and
density
polyethylene
(HDPE)
andwas
polypropylene
(PP).
The
two
metallic
strips
(MS).
The
vertical
spacing
was
0.5
m
and
the
length
strips
(MS).
The
vertical
spacing
0.5
m
and
the
length
of
the
metallic
(MS). The verticalwere
spacing
was
0.5grids
m and(SWG)
the length
types
of strips
metallic
steel
wire
and
reinforcement
was
5 m.Thegrid
spacing
MSEW
wall
was
reinforcement
was reinforcement
5 m.Thegrid
spacingspacing
for
MSEW
wall
waswall
0.375m
ofof
thethe
reinforcement
was
5vertical
m.Thegrid
forfor
MSEW
was
metallic
strips
(MS).
The
spacing
was
0.5
m
and
the length
0.375m
for
the
first
layer
of
reinforcement
and
0.5m
for
the
for
the first
layer
of
reinforcement
and 0.5m for the
remaining
layer.
0.375m
for
the
first
layer
of
reinforcement
and
0.5m
for
the
ofremaining
the reinforcement
was 5 m.Thegrid
spacing for MSEW
wall was
layer.
Extensive
field
instrumentation
program
was
Extensive
field
instrumentation
program
was
established
to
monitor
remaining
Extensive
field
instrumentation
program
was
0.375m
forlayer.
the monitor
first
layer
of
reinforcement
and
0.5m
forfor
thethe
established
both
thebehavior
behavior
andperformance
performance
both
the behavior
andboth
performance
forand
the
embankment/wall,
established
to tomonitor
the
for was
the
remaining
layer.
Extensive
field
instrumentation
program
embankment/wall,
geogrid
reinforcement
and
steel
reinforcement
geogrid
reinforcement
and
steel
reinforcement
and
subsoil
condition.
embankment/wall,
geogrid
reinforcement
and
steel
reinforcement
established
to condition.
monitor both
the instrumentation
behavior and performance
for
the to
and
subsoil
Subsoil
was
installed
prior
Subsoil
instrumentation
was
installed
prior to
the
construction
of
the
and
subsoil
condition.
Subsoil
instrumentation
was
installed
prior
to
embankment/wall,
geogrid
reinforcement
and
steel
reinforcement
the
construction
of
the
embankment/wall.
Monitoring
work
was
embankment/wall.
work was carried
outinstalled
duringwork
and
after
the
construction
ofMonitoring
the
embankment/wall.
Monitoring
was
and
subsoil
condition.
Subsoil
instrumentation
was
prior
to
carried
out
during
and
after
the
construction
completion.
The
carried
out during
and embankment/wall.
afterThe
themonitoring
construction
completion.
The
the
construction
completion.
instruments
installed
the
construction
of the
Monitoring
work
was
monitoring
instruments
installed
to
check
the
vertical
and
horizontal
monitoring
instruments
installed
to
check
the
vertical
and
horizontal
to
check
the
vertical
and
horizontal
displacements,
stresses,
excess
carried
out during
and after
construction
completion.
Thethe
displacements,
stresses,
excessthe
pore
waterpressures,
pressures,
depthto to
displacements,
stresses,
excess
water
depth
pore
water pressures,
depth
to thepore
groundwater
table and
strains
in the
monitoring
instruments
installed
to
check
the vertical
and
horizontal
groundwater
table
and
strains
in
the
reinforcing
material
included
groundwater
table and
strains
inpore
the water
reinforcing
material
included
reinforcing
material
included
inclinometers,
settlement
plates,
displacements,
excess
pressures,
depth
tototal
the
inclinometers,stresses,
settlement
plates,
totalpressure
pressure
cells,
standpipe
inclinometers,
settlement
plates,
total
cells,
standpipe
pressure
cells,
standpipe
piezometers,
vibrating-wire
strain
gauges
groundwater
table
and
strains
in
the
reinforcing
material
included
piezometers,vibrating-wire
vibrating-wirestrain
straingauges
gaugesand
andfibre
fibreoptic
opticstrain
strain
piezometers,
and
fibre optic
strain
gauges.plates,
The
instruments
include
5 inclinometers,
inclinometers,
settlement
total
pressure
cells,
standpipe
gauges.
Theinstruments
instruments
include
5inclinometers,
inclinometers,
45settlement
settlement
gauges.
The
include
5
45
45
settlement
plates,
6 total
pressure
cells, 5 and
standpipe
piezometers,
vibrating-wire
strain
gauges
fibre piezometers,
optic
strain
plates,
6total
total
pressure
cells,
5standpipe
standpipe
piezometers,
2reference
reference
6 The
pressure
cells,
piezometers,
2 settlement
gauges.
instruments
include
5 inclinometers,
2plates,
reference
benchmarks
and
55 instrument
houses.
In 45
addition,
two
benchmarks
and
5
instrument
houses.
In
addition,
two
observation
benchmarks
and
5 were
instrument
In addition,
two observation
plates,
6were
total
pressure
cells,
5houses.
standpipe
piezometers,
2depth
reference
observation
wells
installed
tothe
measure
the fluctuation
in tothethe
wells
installed
to
measure
fluctuation
in
the
wells
were
to measure
the fluctuation
in the
depth
to the
benchmarks
and
5 instrument
houses.
Incross
addition,
two
observation
depth
to theinstalled
groundwater
The
and section
cross
section
of
the
groundwater
table.
Thetable.
plan
andplan
of
MSE
groundwater
table.
The
plan
and
cross
section
ofdepth
thethetoMSE
wells
were
installed
to
measure
the
fluctuation
in
the
the
MSE
wall/embankment
withthe
thelocation
location monitoring instruments
areare
wall/embankment
with
instruments
wall/embankment
with
the
location
monitoring
instruments
are
groundwater
table.
The
plan and cross section of the MSE
shown
in in
Figs.
1 and
2,
respectively.
shown
Figs.
1 and
respectively.
shown
in Figs.
1 and
2, 2,
respectively.
wall/embankment
with
the location monitoring instruments are
shown in Figs. 1 and 2, respectively.

Figure
1.Plan
MSE
wall/embankment.
Figure
1.Plan
ofof
MSE
wall/embankment.
Figure 1.Plan of MSE wall/embankment.

Figure 2.Cross section of MSE wall/embankment indicating the


Figure2.Cross
2.Crosssection
sectionofofMSE
MSEwall/embankment
wall/embankmentindicating
indicatingthethe
Figure
location
of the monitoring
instrument.
location
of
the
monitoring
instrument.
location
of the monitoring
Figure 2.Cross
section ofinstrument.
MSE wall/embankment indicating the
3 SUB-SOIL PROPERTIES
location of the monitoring instrument.
SUB-SOIL
PROPERTIES
3 3 Foundation
SUB-SOIL
PROPERTIES
3.1
Soil
Foundation
Soil
33.13.1
SUB-SOIL PROPERTIES
Foundation
The
soil profile Soil
in Phitsanulok Province generally consists of hard
The
soil
profile
Phitsanulok
Province
generally
consistsofofof
hard
ground.
One
borehole
(BH-1) Province
was
located
in theconsists
middle
the
3.1
Foundation
Soil
The
soil
profile
in inPhitsanulok
generally
hard
ground.
One
borehole
(BH-1)
was
located
in
the
middle
of
embankment.
Three
additional
boreholes
were
bored
adjacent
tothe
ground.
borehole
(BH-1) Province
was located
in theconsists
middle ofofhard
the
The
soil One
profile
in Phitsanulok
generally
embankment.
Three
additional
boreholes
were
bored
adjacent
to
the
embankment
near
the RSSboreholes
facing
towere
obtain
more
data on
thethe
embankment.
Three
additional
bored
adjacent
to
the
ground.
One borehole
(BH-1)
was located
inmore
the middle
ofthethe
embankment
nearthe
RSSfacing
facing
toobtain
obtainmore
dataononthe
soil
soil
profile fornear
the
3Dthe
model
of
thetoembankment
foundation.
These
embankment
RSS
data
soil
embankment.
Three
additional
boreholes
were boredfoundation.
adjacent
toThese
the
profile
for
the
3D
model
of
the
embankment
additional
boreholes
were
designated
as
BH-2,
BH-3
and
BH-4.
The
profile
for the
3Dthe
model
the embankment
foundation.
These
embankment
near
RSS of
facing
to obtain
more
dataand
on BH-4.
the
soil
additional
boreholes
were
designated
BH-2,
BH-3
The
borehole
locations
are
shown
in
Fig.
Figures
3foundation.
indicate
the
soil
additional
boreholes
were
designated
as1.as
BH-2,
BH-3
and BH-4.
The
profile
for
the
3D
model
of
the
embankment
These
borehole
locations
are
shown
in
Fig.
1.
Figures
3
indicate
the
soil
profiles
to
BH-1
BH-4,
respectively.
The
depth
of
boreholecorresponding
locations
shown
intoFig.
Figures
3 indicate
the The
soil
additional
boreholesare
were
designated
as1.BH-2,
BH-3
and
BH-4.
profiles
corresponding
to
BH-1
to
BH-4,
respectively.
The
depth
of
the
groundwater
was
2
m
below
the
ground
surface.
From
fig.
3,
an
profiles
corresponding
to
BH-1
to
BH-4,
respectively.
The
depth
of
borehole
locations was
are shown
in Fig.
1.
Figures
3 indicate
the
soil
the
groundwater
2
m
below
the
ground
surface.
From
fig.
3,
an
the
groundwater
was profile
2 m BH-1
below
ground
From
3, on
an
abrupt
change
in soil
was noticed
if respectively.
wesurface.
observed
BH-1
data
profiles
corresponding
totheBH-4,
Thefig.
depth
of
abrupt
change
in
soiltoprofile
was
noticed
we
observed
BH-1
data
abrupt
change
in was
soil
was
noticed
if if
we
observed
BH-1
data
the
3m layer
and2profile
the
deeper
stratum
(11m-20m)
but other
three
theonfirst
groundwater
m
below
the
ground
surface.
From
fig.
3,
an
the
first
3m
layer
and
the
deeper
stratum
(11m-20m)
but
other
on
the change
first
3minlayer
and thewas
deeper
stratum
(11m-20m)
but other
borehole
showed
the
result
in
terms
of
SPT value.
abrupt
soilconsistent
profile
noticed
if we
observed
BH-1
data
three
borehole
showed
consistent
result
terms
SPT
value.
three
thethe
consistent
in in
terms
ofof
SPT
value.
on
theborehole
first 3mshowed
layer and
the deeperresult
stratum
(11m-20m)
but
other
three borehole showed the consistent result in terms of SPT value.

Figure
Soil
profile
SPT
value
(considering
BH
1-4)
Figure
3. 3.
Soil
profile
SPT
value
(considering
BH
1-4)
Figure 3. Soil profile SPT value (considering BH 1-4)
4 COMPONENETS OF MSE WALL/EMBANKMENT
COMPONENETS
OF MSE WALL/EMBANKMENT
4 4 Backfill
COMPONENETS
4.1
Properties OF MSE WALL/EMBANKMENT
Backfill
Properties OF MSE WALL/EMBANKMENT
44.14.1
COMPONENETS
Backfill
The
backfill Properties
materials used in this embankment consisted of 50%
backfill
materials
usedin silty
inthis
this
embankment
consisted
of50%
50%
lateritic
soil Properties
mixed
withused
50%
sand
(by volume).
The of
backfill
4.1The
Backfill
The
backfill
materials
embankment
consisted
lateritic
soil
mixed
with
50%
silty
sand
(by
volume).
The
backfill
material
was
classified
as
poorly
graded
sand
(SP).
It
had
an
optimum
lateritic
soil mixed
withused
50%insilty
(by volume).
The of
backfill
The
backfill
materials
this sand
embankment
consisted
50%an
material
was
classified
poorly
graded
sand
(SP).It
Ithad
had
moisture
content
of 7.8%,asaaspoorly
maximum
dry unit
weight
19.62
kN/
material
was
classified
graded
sand
(SP).
an
lateritic
soil
mixed
with
50%
silty
sand
(by
volume).
The
backfill
optimum
moisture
content
of
7.8%,
a
maximum
dry
unit
weight
m3.
A
friction
angle
of
42
degrees
and
a
cohesion
of
80
kPa
were
optimum
moisture
content
of
7.8%,
a
maximum
dry
unit
weight
material
was classified
asangle
poorly
graded
sandand(SP).
It had ofan80
19.62
kN/m3.
A
friction
degrees
a cohesion
measured
in aAdirect
shear
test.
Effective
friction
angles
ofof32.8
19.62
kN/m3.
friction
angle
ofof
4242
degrees
and adry
cohesion
80
optimum
moisture
content
of 7.8%,
atest.
maximum
unit angles
weight
kPa
were
measured
in
a
direct
shear
Effective
friction
degrees
and
37
degrees
and
effective
cohesions
of
0
and
20
kPa
were
kPa
were
measured
in
a
direct
shear
test.
Effective
friction
angles
ofof
19.62
kN/m3.
A
friction
angle
of
42
degrees
and
a
cohesion
of
80
32.8
degrees
and
37
degrees
and
effective
cohesions
of
0
and
20
kPa
measured
in
two
different
consolidated
undrained
(CU)
triaxial
tests.
32.8 were
degrees
and 37 in
degrees
and
effective
cohesionsfriction
of 0 and
20 kPa
kPa
measured
a direct
shear
test. Effective
angles
of
were
measured
in
two
different
consolidated
undrained
(CU)
triaxial
The
properties
of
the
backfill
material
are
tabulated
in
Table
1.
were
measured
in
two
different
consolidated
undrained
(CU)
triaxial
32.8
degrees
and 37 degrees
and
effective
cohesions
of 0 and
20
kPa1.
tests.
The
properties
of
backfill
material
are
tabulated
Table
tests.
The
properties
ofdifferent
thethe
backfill
material
are
tabulated
in in
Table
1.
were measured
in two
consolidated
undrained
(CU)
triaxial
Table
1.
Properties
of
backfill
material
tests.
The
properties
of
the
backfill
material
are
tabulated
in
Table
1.
Table 1. Properties of backfill material
=material
20.8%,
PL=17.3%,
PI=3.5%.
Atterberg
Limit
Table
1. Properties
of backfill
LLLL
= 20.8%,
PL=17.3%,
PI=3.5%.
Atterberg
Limit
Test
Test
Atterberg
Limit LL = 20.8%, PL=17.3%, PI=3.5%.
Sample
No.
Sieve
Analysis
Test Sample
Test
No.
11
Sieve
Analysis
Test
Sieve Analysis Test

6868
68

Percent
finer
(#200
sieve)
= 0.94%
Sample
No.
1(#200
Percent
finer
sieve)
= 0.94%
CuCu
=
40,
Cc
=
0.34
=
40, Ccfiner
= 0.34
Percent
(#200 sieve) = 0.94% Cu
= 40, Cc = 0.34

GeotechnicalJournal
JournalVol.
Vol.66 No.
No.112014
2014
Geotechnical
rdGeotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014
3 Proff 18-02-2015

Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014 69

Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014

Unified
Unified
Classification
Classification
Unified
Classification
AASHTO
AASHTO
Unified
Classification
Classification
AASHTO
Classification
Classification
Compaction
Test
Compaction
AASHTO Test
Compaction Test
Classification

SampleNo.
No.22
Sample
Sample
No. 2(#200 sieve) = 0.14% Cu
Percentfiner
finer
Percent
(#200 sieve) = 0.14% Cu
42.86,Cc
Cc== 0.55
0.55
==
42.86,
Percent
finer
Sample
No.
2 (#200 sieve) = 0.14% Cu
=
42.86,
Cc
=
0.55(SP)
Poorlygraded
gradedsand
sand
Poorly
(SP)
Percent finer (#200
sieve) = 0.14% Cu
sand (SP)
=Poorly
42.86,graded
Cc = 0.55
A-2-4(0)
A-2-4(0)
Poorly graded sand (SP)
A-2-4(0)
Maximum
drydensity
density((,d,max) )==19.62
19.62
Maximum
dry
d max
A-2-4(0)
3
3
kN/m
kN/m
Maximum dry density ( , ) = 19.62
d max

kN/m3 water content (OMC) = 7.8


Optimum
Optimum
water
content((OMC)
= 7.8
Maximum
dry density
Compaction Test
d,max) = 19.62
3
%%
Optimum
water content (OMC) = 7.8
kN/m
% = 50.5%
CBR
CaliforniaBearing
Bearing CBR
= 50.5%
California
Optimum
water content (OMC) = 7.8
Ratio
(CBR)
Test
Ratio
(CBR) Bearing
Test
CBR = 50.5%
California
%
Ratio (CBR)
Test
Frictionangle
angle = 42 degrees
Direct
ShearTest
Test
Direct
Shear
CBR = 50.5%= 42 degrees
California
Bearing Friction
Friction
= 42 degrees
Direct
Shear
Test
cohesion=angle
=80
80kPa
kPa
Ratio (CBR) Test
cohesion
Triaxial
TestTest
(CU
Direct
Shear
Triaxial
Test
(CU
test)
test)
Triaxial Test (CU
test)
Triaxial Test (CU
test)

cohesion
= 80
Test
No.angle
Friction
angle == 32.8
32.8
Friction
=kPa
42 degrees
Test
No.
Friction
angle
1
degrees
1cohesion
degrees
Test No.= 80
Friction
angle
=
32.8
kPa
1
degrees
cohesion==00kPa
kPa
Test No. cohesion
Friction angle = 32.8
cohesion
=
0
kPa = 37
No. Friction
Friction angle
angle
1Test No.
degrees
Test
= 37
2
degrees
2 Test No. degrees
Friction = 0angle
cohesion
kPa = 37
2
degrees = 20 kPa
cohesion
kPa = 37
Test No. cohesion
Friction = 20
angle
cohesion
=
20
kPa
2
degrees
cohesion = 20 kPa

Figure4.Reinforcing
4.Reinforcingmaterials.
materials.
Figure
Figure 4.Reinforcing materials.
Figure 4.Reinforcing materials.

Figure 5.5. Photograph


Photograph showing
showing vertical
vertical face
face and
and sloping
sloping face
face
Figure
showing
metallic
andpolymeric
polymeric
reinforcements
respectively.
showing
and
reinforcements
respectively.
Figure metallic
5.
Photograph
showing
vertical face
and sloping face
showing
metallic
and Panel
polymeric reinforcements respectively.
4.3
Precast
Concrete
4.3
Precast
Panel
Figure
5. Concrete
Photograph
showing vertical face and sloping face
4.3 Precast
Concrete
Panel
The
vertical
facing
used
theMSEW
MSEW
portionof
ofthe
theembankment
embankment
showing
metallic
and
polymeric
reinforcements
respectively.
4.3
Precast
Concrete
Panel
The
vertical
facing
used
ininthe
portion
consisted
of
segmental
precast
concrete
blocks
1.5
m
1.5 mm
consisted
of Concrete
segmental
precast
blocks 1.5
m embankment
1.5
ThePrecast
vertical
facing used
in theconcrete
MSEW portion
of the
4.3
Panel
0.15m
in
size.
The
model
parameters
used
in
the
numerical
The
vertical
facing
used
in
the
MSEW
portion
of
the
embankment
0.15m
in
size.
The
model
parameters
used
in
the
numerical
analysis
consisted of segmental precast concrete blocks 1.5 m analysis
1.5 m
for
the
precast
concrete
panels
are
summarised
Table
3.Interface
consisted
segmental
precast
concrete
blocks
m
the
1.5embankment
m
Interface
0.15m
The
vertical
facing
used
inparameters
the
MSEW
portion
ofTable
for
the
precast
concrete
panels
are
summarised
inin
3.
0.15m
inofsize.
The model
used
in1.5
the
numerical
analysis
element
was
placed
between
soil
element
and
concrete
panel
consisted
of
segmental
precast
concrete
blocks
1.5
m 3. 1.5
m
in
size.
model
parameters
used
insummarised
the
numerical
analysis
forpanel
the
element
was
placed
inin between
soil
element
and
concrete
for
theThe
precast
concrete
panels
are
in
Table
Interface
during
simulation.
0.15m
in
size.
The
model
parameters
in the
numerical
analysis
precast
concrete
panels
are
summarised
inelement
Table
3.and
Interface
element
during
simulation.
element
was placed
in between
soilused
concrete
panel
for
the
precast
concrete
panels
are summarised
in Table
3. Interface
during
simulation.
was
placed
in between
soil element
and concrete
panel
during
Table
Properties
concrete
panel
facing
Table
3.3.Properties
ofofconcrete
panel
facing
element
was placed
in between
soil
element and concrete panel
simulation.
Table 3.
PropertiesName
of concrete panel
facing
during
simulation.
Parameter
Value
Unit
Parameter
Name
Value
Unit
Parameter
Name
Value
Unit
Table
of concrete
facing
Material
typepanel
Elastic
Type 3. Properties
type
Elastic
Type
ofof Material
behaviour
behaviour
Material type Value
Elastic
Type
of Name
Parameter
Unit
behaviour
EA
42,000,000
kN/m
Normal
kN/m
Normal
Material type 42,000,000
Elastic
Type
of EA
stiffness
EA
42,000,000
kN/m
stiffness
Normal
behaviour
2
stiffness
EI
78,500
kN.m2/m
/m
Flexural
EI
78,500
kN.m
Flexural
EA
42,000,000
kN/m 2
Normal
rigidity
rigidity
EI
78,500
kN.m
/m
Flexural
stiffness
rigidity
d
0.15
M
Equivalent
dEI
0.15
MkN.m2/m
Equivalent
78,500
Flexural
thickness
thickness
d
0.15
M
Equivalent
rigidity
thickness
w
3.6
kN/m/m
Weight
wd
3.6
kN/m/m
Weight
0.15
M
Equivalent
3.6
kN/m/m
Weight ratio w
0.15
thickness
Poissons
0.15
-Poissons ratio
0.15
Poissons ratio w
3.6
kN/m/m
Weight
Plate
Model
Plate
Model
Plate
Model ratio
0.15
Poissons

4.2 Reinforcements
4.2Reinforcements
Reinforcements
4.2
Two
types of reinforcement, namely polymeric and metallic
4.2
TwoReinforcements
types ofofwere
reinforcement,
namely
polymeric
and metallic
metallic
Two
types
reinforcement,
namely
polymeric
and
reinforcement,
used in the
reinforced
embankment.
The
reinforcement,
were
used inin the
the
reinforced
embankment.
The
reinforcement,
were
used
reinforced
embankment.
The
Two
types
of
reinforcement,
namely
polymeric
and
metallic
polymeric
reinforcement types used were high-density polyethylene
4.2
Reinforcements
polymeric
reinforcement
types
used
were
high-density
polyethylene
polymeric
reinforcement
typesin
used
were
high-density
polyethylene
reinforcement,
were used
thepolyester
reinforced
embankment.
The
(HDPE),
polypropylene
(PP)
and
(PET).
metallic
(HDPE),
polypropylene
(PP)
and
polyester
(PET).The
The
metallic
Two
types
of reinforcement,
namely
polymeric
and
metallic
(HDPE),
polypropylene
(PP)
and
polyester
(PET).
The
metallic
polymeric
reinforcement
types
used
were(MS)
high-density
polyethylene
reinforcement
consisted
of
metallic
strips
and
steel
wire
grids
reinforcement
consisted
metallic
strips
(MS)and
and
steel
wire
grids
reinforcement,
were used
in and
thestrips
reinforced
embankment.
The
reinforcement
consisted
ofof
metallic
(MS)
steel
grids
(HDPE),
polypropylene
(PP)
polyester
(PET).
The
metallic
(SWG).
The
properties
ofof
the
reinforcement
are
tabulated
inwire
Table
2.2.
(SWG).
The
properties
the
reinforcement
are
tabulated
in
Table
polymeric
reinforcement
types
used
were
high-density
polyethylene
(SWG).
The
properties
of
the
reinforcement
are
tabulated
in
Table
2.
reinforcement
consisted
of
metallic
strips
(MS)
and
steel
wire
grids
The
reinforcing
materials
used
ininthe
embankment
are
shown
ininFig.
The
reinforcing
materials
used
the
embankment
are
shown
Fig.
(HDPE),
polypropylene
(PP)
and
polyesterare(PET).
Thein metallic
The
reinforcing
materialsofused
the embankment
are shown
in
Fig.2.
(SWG).
The
properties
the in
reinforcement
tabulated
Table
4.reinforcement
The
MSEW
facing
withwith
metallic
reinforcement
the
RSS
facing
The
MSEW
facing
metallic
reinforcement
and
the
RSS
consisted
of
metallic
(MS) and
andare
steel
wire
grids
4.4.
The
MSEW
facing
with
metallic
reinforcement
and
the
RSS
The
reinforcing
materials
used
in thestrips
embankment
shown
in
Fig.
with
polymeric
reinforcement
are
shown
in
Fig.
5.
facing
with
polymeric
reinforcement
are
shown
in
Fig.
5.
(SWG).
The
properties
ofwith
the reinforcement
areintabulated
Table
2.
facing
with
polymeric
reinforcement
are shown
Fig. 5.andin the
4. The
MSEW
facing
metallic
reinforcement
RSS
The
reinforcing
materials
used in the embankment
are shown
in Fig.
facing
with polymeric
reinforcement
are shown in Fig.
5.
4. The MSEW facing with metallic reinforcement and the RSS
Table
Properties
reinforcing
material
facing2.2.
with
polymeric
reinforcement
are shown in Fig. 5.
Table
Properties
ofofreinforcing
material
Table
2.
Properties
of
reinforcing
material
Material
Tensile Thickness
Thickness Normal
Normal
Type
Material
Tensile
Type
Name
Strength
(mm)
Stiffness,
Name
Strength
(mm)
Stiffness,
Material
Tensile
Thickness
Normal
Type
Table 2. Properties(kN/m)
of reinforcing material EA
(kN/m)
EA
Name
Strength (mm)
Stiffness,
(kN/m)
Material
Tensile
Thickness (kN/m)
Normal
Type
(kN/m)
EA
Name
Strength
(mm)
Stiffness,
(kN/m)
277.6
4.00
88,000
Metallic Strip
Strip 277.6
88,000
Metallic
-(kN/m) 4.00
EA
(MS)
(MS)
4.00
88,000
Metallic Strip 277.6
(kN/m)
(MS)
128.1
6.00
35,000
Steel
Wire 128.1
6.00
35,000
Steel
Wire
- -4.00
88,000
Metallic
Strip 277.6
Grid
(SWG)
Grid
(SWG)
128.1
6.00
35,000
Steel
Wire
(MS)
Grid (SWG)
83.6
1.50
925
Polyester
Miragrid
1.50
925
Polyester
Miragrid
128.1
6.00
35,000
Steel
Wire 83.6
(PET)
GX80/30
(PET)
GX80/30
83.6
1.50
925
Polyester
Miragrid
Grid (SWG)
(PET)
GX80/30
91.9
1.45
1,360
Polypropylene
Secugrid
91.9
1.45
1,360
Polypropylene
Secugrid
83.6
1.50
925
Polyester
Miragrid
(PP)
80/80
Q1
1.45
1,360
(PP)
80/80
Q1
Polypropylene 91.9
Secugrid
Plate
Model
4.4Interface
InterfaceShear
ShearStrength
Strength
(PET)
GX80/30
4.4
(PP)
80/80
Q1
85.8
1.91
1,320
High-Density
TT
090
85.8
1.91
1,320
4.4 Interface
Shear
Strength
High-Density
TT
090
The
interaction
between
the backfill
backfill soil
soil and
and the
the reinforcing
reinforcing
91.9
1.45
1,360
Polypropylene
Secugrid
The
interaction
between
the
Polyethylene
SAMP
Polyethylene
SAMP
85.8
1.91
1,320
High-Density
TT 090
materials,
namely,
the
metallic
strips
(MS),
steel
wire
grids
(SWG),
4.4
Interface
Shear
Strength
(PP)
80/80
Q1
materials,
namely,
the
metallic
(MS),soil
steeland
wire the
gridsreinforcing
(SWG),
TheInterface
interaction
between
thestrips
backfill
(HDPE)
4.4
Shear
Strength
(HDPE)
Polyethylene
SAMP
polyester
(PET),
polypropylene
(PP)and
and
high-density
polyethylene
polyester
(PET),
polypropylene
(PP)
high-density
polyethylene
materials,
namely,
the
metallic
strips
(MS),
steel
wire
grids
(SWG),
85.8
1.91
1,320
High-Density
TT 090
(HDPE)
The
interaction
between
the
soil
and
The
interaction
between
the backfill
backfill
soil
and the
the reinforcing
reinforcing
polyester
(PET),
polypropylene
(PP)
and
high-density
polyethylene
69materials, namely, the metallic strips (MS), steel wire grids (SWG),
Polyethylene
SAMP 69
materials, namely, the metallic strips (MS), steel wire grids (SWG),
(HDPE)
69
polyester
polyester(PET),
(PET),polypropylene
polypropylene(PP)
(PP)and
andhigh-density
high-densitypolyethylene
polyethylene
(HDPE), was assessed by conducting large-scale direct shear tests.
69

Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014

70 Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014


The interface coefficients, Rinter, of the different types of reinforcing
(HDPE), was assessed by conducting large-scale direct shear tests.
materials and the backfill soil shear strength are tabulated in Table
The interface coefficients, Rinter, of the different types of reinforcing
4.
The large-scale
direct shear
tests were
conducted
under different
materials
and the backfill
soil shear
strength
are tabulated
in Table
normal
stresses
(i.e.,
30,
60
and
90
kPa)
and
revealed
that the
4. The large-scale direct shear tests were conducted under different
maximum
interface
shear
stresses
between
the
steel
wire
grids
normal stresses (i.e., 30, 60 and 90 kPa) and revealed that and
the
soil
were highest,
by thebetween
interfacethe
shear
between
maximum
interfacefollowed
shear stresses
steelstresses
wire grids
and
soil and
between
metallic
and soil,shear
and between
three
weresoil,
highest,
followed
bystrips
the interface
stresses the
between
types
of geogrids
and soil.
soil and
soil, between
metallic strips and soil, and between the three
types of geogrids and soil.
Table 4. Interface coefficient (Rinter) and soil shear strength used in
Table 4. Interface
coefficient (Rinter) and soil shear strength used in
PLAXIS
3D
PLAXIS 3D
Soil to

Friction angle

Cohesion
(kPa)

Rinter

Soil

40

23

1.00

strip

36

23

0.87

Steel
wire
grid (SWG)

40

28

1.00

Miragrid
GX80/30 PET

33

21

0.79

Secugrid
80/80 Q1 PP

35

25

0.83

TT
090
SAMP HDPE

33

24

0.77

Steel
(MS)

5 CONSTRUCTION OF FULL SCALE MSE WALL


5
CONSTRUCTION OF FULL SCALE MSE WALL
Full scale MSE wall was constructed with full instrumentation
Full scale MSE wall was constructed with full instrumentation
program
as outlined
outlined in
Preliminary design
design based
based on
on
program as
in section
section 2.
2. Preliminary
proposed
wall geometry
geometrywas
wascarried
carriedoutoutprior
prior
execution
of
proposed wall
thethe
execution
of the
the
construction
work.
Geogrid,
steel
grid
and
steel
strip
as
the
construction work. Geogrid, steel grid and steel strip as the
reinforcement
the MSE
MSE wall
was prepared
prepared in
in the
the desired
desired length
length
reinforcement for
for the
wall was
prior the installation work.
Preliminary
Design
MSE
Wall/Embankment
5.1 Preliminary
Design
of of
MSE
Wall/Embankment

The external stability was examined using the conventional Bishops


of reinforcement at the peak pullout resistance was checked not to
method of slope stability analysis. A conservative estimate of
exceed its yield point.
minimum factor of safety is assessed to be around 1.5. The soil
The external
stability was
using the
conventional
Bishops
strength
was assumed
to beexamined
fully mobilized
along
the potential
failure
method Factor
of slope
stability
estimate of
surface.
of safety
was analysis.
defined asAtheconservative
maximum reinforcement
minimum
factordivided
of safety
is assessed
to be for
around
1.5. to
The
soila
force
available
by the
force required
stability
give
strength
was assumed
factor
of safety
of unity. to be fully mobilized along the potential
failure surface. Factor of safety was defined as the maximum
reinforcement
force
available divided by the force required for
5.2
Construction
Method
stability to give a factor of safety of unity.
Site clearing and leveling works were carried out for the marking of
5.2 Construction Method
the position of the proposed MSE wall/embankment. First course of
Site clearing
and facing
leveling
works
were
carried
for theusing
marking
of
pre-cast
concrete
panels
were
placed
intoout
position
lifting
the position During
of the proposed
MSE wall/embankment.
First course
of
equipment.
the installation
of the precast concrete
facing
pre-castvertical
concrete
panels
were of
placed
using
panel,
and facing
horizontal
alignment
each into
panelposition
was inspected
liftinga equipment.
the installation
of theof precast
concrete
using
spirit level. During
Adjustment
of the verticality
the facing
panel
facing
panel,
horizontal
alignment
each in
panel
was
was
carried
outvertical
with theand
help
of securing
wooden of
wedges
between
inspected
spirit made
level. of
Adjustment
therod
verticality
the
the
facing using
panel. aClamp
timber andofsteel
completeofwith
facing panel
was tocarried
with the help
of facing
securing
wooden
fastener
was used
secure out
the positioning
of each
panel
from
wedges in between the facing panel. Clamp made of timber and steel
movement.
rod complete with fastener was used to secure the positioning of
each facing
panel from movement.
Geogrid
reinforcement
form delivered in roll form (approximately

100m
perreinforcement
roll) from the factory.
It was cutinby
length
7.0m each and
Geogrid
form delivered
roll
formof(approximately
optical
fiber
with
sensors
was installed
designated
the
100m per
roll)
from
the factory.
It wasatcut
by lengthlocations
of 7.0mofeach
selected
geogrid
at theinstalled
site.
and optical
fiberreinforcement
with sensors was
at designated locations
of the selected geogrid reinforcement at the site.
Steel grid and steel strip with 5.0m length was installed and connected
Steel
grid panel
and steel
strip
with 5.0m
lengthgauges
was installed
to
concrete
facing.
Vibrating
wire strain
were fixedand
to
connected
to concrete
panel facing.
Vibrating
wire strain gauges
steel
reinforcement
at designated
locations
at the site.
were fixed to steel reinforcement at designated locations at the site.
The
(silty
sand)
waswas
spread
at the
The first
firstcourse
courseofofbackfill
backfillmaterial
material
(silty
sand)
spread
at rear
the
of
the
precast
concrete
facing
panel.
Compaction
of
backfill
material
rear of the precast concrete facing panel. Compaction of backfill
to
95% proctor
the backfill
materialmaterial
was carried
out by
material
to 95% density
proctor of
density
of the backfill
was carried
aout
vibratory
compactor.
A small vibratory
was utilizedwas
to
by a vibratory
compactor.
A small compactor
vibratory compactor
carry
outtothecarry
compaction
at narrow
areaatwith
interference
of
utilized
out the work
compaction
work
narrow
area with
the
instruments
installed.
Afterinstalled.
the completion
the compaction
interference
of the
instruments
After theofcompletion
of the
compaction
(1) the
of steel grid reinforcement
work,
(1) thework,
first layer
of first
steel layer
grid reinforcement
was installed was
into
installed and
intoattached
positiontoand
attachedconcrete
to the facing
precastpanel
concrete
position
the precast
by lapfacing
joint
panel by lap(Fig.6).
joint mechanism
(Fig.6).
The lap
mechanism
was
mechanism
The lap joint
mechanism
wasjoint
secured
by inserting
inserting
a 10mmsteel
diameter
deformed
steel
barmesh.
across
the
asecured
10mm by
diameter
deformed
bar across
the lap
fold
Steel
lap
fold
mesh.
Steel
grid
was
installed
horizontally
along
the
wall.
grid was installed horizontally along the wall. The effective length
Thethe
effective
length ofwas
the 5.0m
reinforcements
was 5.0m
afterconnection.
deducting
of
reinforcements
after deducting
for the
for the connection. (2) the first layer of steel strip reinforcement was
(2) the first layer of steel strip reinforcement was installed into
installed into position and attached to the precast concrete facing
position and attached to the precast concrete facing panel by using
panel by using a 12mm diameter galvanized bolt (Fig.7). (3) the first
a 12mm diameter galvanized bolt (Fig.7). (3) the first layer of
layer of geogrid reinforcement was installed into position and turn
geogrid
reinforcement
was installed
intoof
position
and turn
geogrid
up geogrid
reinforcement
at the face
the slope
and up
return
the
reinforcement
the face ofof
the1 slope
andthe
return
the reinforcement
reinforcement at
a minimum
m into
embankment
below thea
minimum
of 1 m intolayer
the embankment
the next reinforcement
next reinforcement
(Fig. 8). Thisbelow
embankment
was required
layer
(Fig.
8). This
was to
required
bag with
grass (Fig.
seed
soil bag
with
grassembankment
seed at the face
retain soil
backfill
materials
at
9).the face to retain backfill materials (Fig. 9).

Preliminary design of the MSE wall was carried out based on the
Preliminary design of the MSE wall was carried out based on the
external and internal stability analysis of the geometry of the wall.
external and internal stability analysis of the geometry of the wall.
Limit equilibrium method of analysis was adopted for the
Limit
equilibrium
of analysis
was adopted
preliminary
preliminary
designmethod
by assuming
the interaction
offor
thethe
reinforcement
design
by
assuming
the
interaction
of
the
reinforcement
the
with the backfill material based on the laboratory test datawith
carried
backfill
material
the laboratory
test data
carried
outvolume)
in AIT.
out in AIT.
Siltybased
sandon
mixed
with lateritic
soil(1
: 1 by
Silty
sand
mixed
with lateritic
: 1 bymaterial.
volume) sourced from
sourced
from
Phitsanulok
is usedsoil(1
as backfill
Phitsanulok is used as backfill material.
The wall height assumed for the preliminary design is 6m with
vertical
Verticalfor
spacing
of5 (five)design
type isof6mreinforcement
The
wallfacing.
height assumed
the preliminary
with vertical
adoptedVertical
is 0.50 m
and horizontal
only steel strip
is 0.50
facing.
spacing
of5 (five)spacing
type offor
reinforcement
adopted
is
m center
to center
of thespacing
0.05 mfor
wide
strip
of reinforcement.
0.50
m and
horizontal
only
steel
strip is 0.50 mPrecast
center
Subsequent course
courseofofbackfill
backfill
material
measuring
of 0.50m
Subsequent
material
measuring
of 0.50m
thick thick
were
concrete
facing
panel
of 1.50m
height,
1.50m width
andconcrete
0.15m
to
center of
the 0.05
m wide
strip of
reinforcement.
Precast
were spread
over
thesurface
plan surface
area covering
the embankment.
2
spread
over
the
plan
area
covering
the
embankment.
Similar
for and
the
thickness
with height,
surface 1.50m
area width
of 2.25
m is used
facing
paneland
of 1.50m
and 0.15m
thickness
Similar compaction
work
was out
carried
outthe
before
next of
course
of
compaction
work was
carried
before
nextthe
course
precast
construction
of the
Concrete
of facing panel
was
30
with
surface area
of wall.
2.25 m2is
usedstrength
for the construction
of the
wall.
precast
concrete
facing
panel
was
installed.
The
procedure
as
concrete facing panel was installed. The procedure as mentioned
MPa.
Concrete strength of facing panel was 30 MPa.
mentioned
above was
until the
full height
of 6.0m was
above
was repeated
untilrepeated
the full height
of 6.0m
was achieved.
achieved.
The internal stability, tension in the reinforcement behind the failure
The
internal
stability, against
tensionthe
in the
reinforcement
behind
the failure
surface
was checked
lateral
internal earth
pressures.
The
During
of the
the embankment,
embankment, field
field density
test at
at
During the
the construction
construction of
density test
surface
was checked
the lateral
internal earth
lateral earth
pressure against
coefficient
was assumed
to bepressures.
uniform
various
selected
places
were
carried
out
using
sand
cone
replacement
various selected places were carried out using sand cone
The
lateral the
earth
pressure
to be to
uniform
throughout
height
of thecoefficient
wall at the was
valueassumed
corresponding
the at
method
to ensure
compaction
wascompaction
carried out to
replacement
method
to ensure
wasminimum
carried of
out95%
to
throughout
the(Kheight
of
the
wall
at
the
value
corresponding
to
).
The
effects
of
compaction
were
ignored
in
this
rest condition
o
standard
minimumproctor
of 95%density.
standard proctor density.
preliminary
design. The
pullout ofresistance
inclusive
of the
the
at rest condition
(Ko). total
The effects
compaction
were ignored
friction
over the reinforcement
behind
theresistance
failure surface
in
this preliminary
design. The total
pullout
inclusivewas
of
checked
to be
than the driving
forces
due to surface
the internal
the
friction
overgreater
the reinforcement
behind
the failure
was
lateral earth
pressure.
tensiondue
force
each
layer
checked
to be
greaterAlso,
thanthe
themaximum
driving forces
to inthe
internal
lateral earth pressure. Also, the maximum tension force in each layer 70
of reinforcement at the peak pullout resistance was checked not to
exceed its yield point.

3rd Proff 18-02-2015

Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014

Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014 71

Figure 9.The wrap face construction of geogrid reinforcement


6
NUMERICAL
SIMULATION
AND
STAGED
6
NUMERICAL
SIMULATION
AND
STAGED
CONSTRUCTION
CONSTRUCTION
PLAXIS
(Version 2011)
numerical
PLAXIS 3D
3D (Version
2011) was
was utilised
utilised as
as the
the 3D
3D FEM
FEM numerical
simulation
order to
to minimise
minimise the
the effects
effects
simulation tool
tool for
for the
the embankment.In
embankment.In order
of
PLAXIS 3D
3D discretisation
discretisation was
of test
test embankment
embankment boundaries,
boundaries, the
the PLAXIS
was
formulated
boundary conditions
conditions were
were specified
specified at
at distances
distances
formulated and
and the
the boundary
of two times the length and width of the reinforced embankment in
the
the x and y directions, respectively, as well
well as at a distance of four
times the height
height of
ofthe
thereinforced
reinforcedembankment
embankmentininthethe
z direction.
z direction.
A
finite
element
A
finite
elementmesh
meshwas
wascreated
created(Fig.
(Fig.10)
10)toto carry
carry out
out the
the finite
using PLAXIS 3D, and the
element analysis of the embankment using
material properties of the embankment components were established
(Table 5).
5). The
The generation
generation of
of an
an appropriate
element mesh
mesh and
(Table
appropriate finite
finite element
and
the generation
generation of
of properties
properties and
and boundary
conditions on
on an
an element
element
the
boundary conditions
level were
were automatically
automatically performed
level
performed by
by the
the PLAXIS
PLAXIS mesh
mesh generator
generator
based
on
the
input
of
the
geometry
model.
The
total
based on the input of the geometry model. The total number
number of
of
elements and nodes in PLAXIS 3D model was found to be 101325
elements and nodes in PLAXIS 3D model was found to be 101325
and 148547, respectively whereas the average size of the element
and 148547, respectively whereas the average size of the element
was found to be 1.646m. Soil properties as determined from tests on
was
found
to befour
1.646m.
Soil properties
from tests
on
samples
from
boreholes
were usedasasdetermined
the main inputs
for the
samples
from
four
boreholes
were The
usedwater
as thelevel
main
inputs
foundation
soils
in the
FEM model.
was
fixedfor
at 2the
m
foundation
in the FEM
model.The
The water
level was
at 2 m
below thesoils
ground
surface.
polymeric
andfixedmetallic
below
the ground were
surface.characterised
The polymeric as
and metallic
reinforcements
geogrids,reinforcements
with their
were
characterised
as geogrids,
with
corresponding
properties,
corresponding
properties,
whereas
thetheir
precast
concrete panels
were
whereas
the precast
were load
characterised
characterised
as plate concrete
elements. panels
A surcharge
equivalentastoplate
1.2elements.
A was
surcharge
equivalent
1.2-m-thick fill
m-thick fill
placedload
at the
top of thetoembankment
113was
daysplaced
after
thethe
start
and the
wasstart
allowed
to run for
at
topof
of construction
the embankment
113 modelling
days after the
of construction
186 the
daysmodelling
(125 dayswas
for allowed
construction
andfor61186
days
for (125
consolidation
and
to run
days
days for
analysis). Theand
total61
period
was divided
into 16 The
stagestotal
for
construction
days(186
for days)
consolidation
analysis).
the modelling
of the
mechanically
wall.modelling
The staged
period
(186 days)
was
divided intostabilised
16 stagesearth
for the
of
construction
and consolidation
stages
by placing and
the
the
mechanically
stabilised earth
wall.were
The modelled
staged construction
backfill material,
along
the corresponding
at
consolidation
stages
werewith
modelled
by placing the reinforcement,
backfill material,
incremental
depths
of
0.5
m
per
stage,
until
the
embankment
along with the corresponding reinforcement, at incremental depths of
reached its sufficient height, followed by 0.25 m of cover. The
0.5 m per stage, until the embankment reached its sufficient height,
embankment was then loaded with a surcharge equivalent to a 1.2followed by 0.25 m of cover. The embankment was then loaded with
m-thick fill 113 days after the start of its construction, and
aconsolidation
surcharge equivalent
to ato1.2-m-thick
the time
start
was allowed
proceed forfill
61 113
days.days
Theafter
loading
of
its construction,
and11.
consolidation was allowed to proceed for 61
curve
is plotted in Fig.
days. The loading time curve is plotted in Fig. 11.

Figure 6.The connection between concrete facing and steel grid


reinforcement

Figure 7.The connection between concrete facing and steel strip


reinforcement

Figure 8.The wrap face construction of geogrid reinforcement

71

Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014


Table 5. Material conditions and parameters used in PLAXIS 3D.
SoilGeotechnical
Description
Model Vol.Condition
72
Journal
6 No. 1 2014sat (kN/m )
3

unsat(kN/m3)

Table
5. Material conditions
and
parameters used
in PLAXIS213D.
M-C
Drained
22.7
Backfill
Table 5. Material conditions and
parameters used
in PLAXIS
3D.
3
Drained
19
17
Clayey sandy silt M-C
Soil Description
to
silty fine
Soilclayey
Description
sand
Backfill
Medium
dense
Backfillsand
Clayey
sandy silt
clayey
to
clayey
silty
Clayey sandy fine
silt
sand
to clayey silty fine
Stiff
to
very
stiff
Medium
dense
sand
clay
clayey
sand dense
Medium
clayey sand
Very
clay stiff
Stiff stiff
to very
clay
Stiff to very stiff
Hard
clay clay

E (kPa)

c' (kPa)

'
()

kx
(m/day)

ky
(m/day)

0.3
0.3

0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

20,000
18,000
E (kPa)
E (kPa)
20,000
37,500
20,000
18,000
18,000

10
1c' (kPa)
c' (kPa)
10
5
110
1

37
33
'
()
'
()
37
34
37
33
33

0.8
0.001
kx
(m/day)
kx
(m/day)
0.8
0.001
0.8
0.001
0.001

0.4
0.0005
ky
(m/day)
ky
(m/day)
0.4
0.0005
0.4
0.0005
0.0005

Model
Model
M-C
M-C
M-C
M-C

Condition
Condition
Drained
Drained
Drained
Drained

sat (kN/m )
sat (kN/m3)
22.7
18
22.7
19
19

unsat(kN/m3)
unsat(kN/m3)
21
16
21
17
17

M-C
M-C
M-C

Undrained
Drained A
Drained

17
18
18

15
16
16

0.35
0.3
0.3

40,000
37,500
37,500

50
5
5

24
34
34

0.00002
0.001
0.001

0.00001
0.0005
0.0005

M-C
M-C
M-C
M-C

Undrained
Undrained A
A
Undrained A
Undrained A

17
17
17
17.5

15
15
15
15.5

0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35

50,000
40,000
40,000
80,000

80
50
50
100

26
24
24
28

0.00004
0.00002
0.00002
0.00004

0.00002
0.00001
0.00001
0.00002

M-C
Undrained A
17
15
0.35
50,000
80
26
Very stiff clay
0.00004
0.00002
Note:
Undrained
A uses
parameters
and strength in0.35
PLAXIS
3D.
M-Cthe effective
Undrained
A
17for stiffness15
50,000
80
26
Very stiff
clay
0.00004
0.00002
M-C
Undrained A
17.5
15.5
0.35
80,000
100
28
Hard clay
0.00004
0.00002
measured and simulated lateral deformations of the PE (on
M-C
Undrained A
17.5
15.5
0.35
80,000
100
28
Hard clay
0.00004
0.00002

polymeric side) and MS (on metallic side) reinforcement,


Note: Undrained A uses the effective parameters for stiffness and strengthrespectively.
in PLAXIS Large
3D. lateral displacements at the top of the PP, PET,
Note: Undrained A uses the effective parameters for stiffness and strength
in HDPE
PLAXIS
3D. reinforcement (i.e RSS facing) at 186 days were
and
geogrid
measured and simulated
lateral deformations of the PE (on
noted
after
the
1.2-m-thick
surcharge
was added.The
polymeric
side)
and MS
(on metallic
side)ofhorizontal
reinforcement,
measured and
simulated
lateral
deformations
the PE field
(on
deformation
indicated
by
inclinometers
for
all of
polymeric
and
respectively.
Large
lateral
displacements
at
the
top
the
PP,larger
PET,
polymeric
side)
and
MS
(on
metallic
side)
reinforcement,
metallic
reinforcements
agreed
well
with
simulation
data
and
metallic
reinforcements
agreed
well
data
and
HDPE
geogrid
reinforcement
(i.ewith
RSSsimulation
186
days
were
respectively.
Large
lateral
displacements
atfacing)
thesimulated
topatof
theand
PP,larger
PET,
deformation
were
noticed
for
successfully
polymeric
deformation
were
noticed
for
successfully
simulated
polymeric
noted
after
the
1.2-m-thick
surcharge
was
added.The
horizontal
field
and
HDPE
geogrid
reinforcement
(i.e
RSS
facing)
at
186
days
were
reinforcements
in comparison
with metallic
reinforcements due
due
to
reinforcements
in
comparison
with
metallic
to
deformation
by surcharge
inclinometers
forreinforcements
all polymeric
and
noted after theindicated
1.2-m-thick
was added.The
horizontal field
higher
stiffness
of
the
metallic
reinforcements. In
In addition,
addition, larger
larger
higher
stiffness
of
the
metallic
reinforcements.
metallic
reinforcements
well with simulation
data and larger
deformation
indicated agreed
by inclinometers
for all polymeric
and
deformation was observed on the top of the embankment after the
deformation
were noticed
for well
successfully
simulated
metallic reinforcements
agreed
with simulation
data polymeric
and larger
1.2-m-thick
has
which
was
confirmed
bydue
tilting
surcharge
hasbeen
been
added,
which
was confirmed
by
reinforcements
in comparison
with
metallic
reinforcements
to
deformationsurcharge
were
noticed
foradded,
successfully
simulated
polymeric
of
embankment
on
topmost
partwith
inpart
field
as
shown
in Fig.in
14.In
tilting
of
embankment
topmost
intoo
field
too
shown
Fig.
higher
stiffness
of comparison
the on
metallic
reinforcements.
Inasaddition,
larger
reinforcements
in
metallic
reinforcements
due
to
14.In
simulation
results
agreed
well
with
the
field
general,
the simulation
results
withembankment
the
observations
deformation
wasthe
onagreed
the
topwell
of
the
after
the
highergeneral,
stiffness
ofobserved
the
metallic
reinforcements.
Infield
addition,
larger
Figure 10.3D Discretisation model of MSE wall/embankment.
observations
and
polymeric
reinforcements
were
successfully
and
polymeric
reinforcements
were
1.2-m-thick
surcharge
has on
been
added,
wassimulated
confirmed
by
deformation
was
observed
the
top successfully
of which
the embankment
afterthan
the
simulated
than
metallic
reinforcements
terms
of in
lateral
metallic
in topmost
terms
ofadded,
lateral
deformation.
tilting
ofreinforcements
embankment
on
part
in which
fieldintoo
as shown
Fig.
1.2-m-thick
surcharge
has
been
was
confirmed
by
deformation.
14.In
the simulation
results
agreed
wellaswith
theinfield
tilting general,
of embankment
on topmost
part in
field too
shown
Fig.
Figure 10.3D Discretisation model of MSE wall/embankment.
observations
reinforcements
werewith
successfully
14.In general,and
the polymeric
simulation results
agreed well
the field
Figure 10.3D Discretisation model of MSE wall/embankment.
simulated
reinforcements
in were
terms successfully
of lateral
observationsthan
and metallic
polymeric
reinforcements
deformation.
simulated than metallic reinforcements in terms of lateral
deformation.

Figure 11. Construction details of MSE wall/embankment.


7FigureRESULTS
AND DISSCUSSIONS
11. Construction
details of MSE wall/embankment.
Figure 11. Construction details of MSE wall/embankment.
7.1 Lateral Deformation
77The
RESULTS
ANDAND
DISSCUSSIONS
lateral
deformation
of each type of polymeric reinforcement
RESULTS
DISSCUSSIONS
(i.e.,
PP and AND
HDPE)
on the RSS side and each type of metallic
7 PET,
RESULTS
DISSCUSSIONS
7.1
Lateral
Deformation
Lateral
Deformation
reinforcement
(i.e., MS and SWG) on the MSEW side obtained
7.1 field
Lateral
Deformation
from
measurements
using
inclinometers
is compared
with the
The lateral
deformation
of
each
type
of
reinforcement
The
lateral simulation
deformationresults
of
each
type
of polymeric
polymeric
reinforcement
numerical
at
186
days
after
the
end
of the
(i.e.,
PPdeformation
and HDPE)
HDPE)of
oneach
the RSS
RSS
side
and
each type
type
of
The PET,
lateralPP
typeside
of and
polymeric
reinforcement
(i.e.,
PET,
and
on
the
each
of metallic
metallic
construction.
Inclinometers
I3
and
I5
refer
to
thetype
inclinometers
reinforcement
(i.e.,
MS
and
SWG)
on
the
MSEW
side
obtained
(i.e.,
PET,
PP
and
HDPE)
on
the
RSS
side
and
each
of
metallic
Figure 12.Inclinometer readings at the facing of the high-density
reinforcement
MS
and
SWG) on Figures
the MSEW
obtained
installed
the (i.e.,
PE
MS,
respectively.
andside
13 show
the
from
fieldin measurements
using
inclinometers
is 12
compared
with the
reinforcement
(i.e.,and
MS
and
SWG)
on the MSEW
side
obtained
polyethylene (HDPE) geogrid reinforcement.
from field measurements using inclinometers is compared with
numerical
simulation results
186 days after
the endwith
of the 72
from field measurements
usingatinclinometers
is compared
the numerical simulation results at 186 days after the end of the
construction.
Inclinometers
refer after
to the
numerical simulation
resultsI3 atand
186I5 days
theinclinometers
end of the
Figure 12.Inclinometer readings at the facing of the high-density
construction.
I3
refer
installed
in theInclinometers
PE and MS, respectively.
andinclinometers
13 show the
construction.
Inclinometers
I3 and
and I5
I5 Figures
refer to
to12the
the
inclinometers
polyethylene
(HDPE) geogrid
reinforcement.
Figure 12.Inclinometer
readings
at the facing of the high-density
installed
in
the
PE
and
MS,
respectively.
Figures
12
and
13
installed in the PE and MS, respectively. Figures 12 and 13 show the
show the measured and simulated lateral deformations of the PE 72 polyethylene (HDPE) geogrid reinforcement.
(on polymeric side) and MS (on metallic side) reinforcement, 72
respectively. Large lateral displacements at the top of the PP, PET,
and HDPE geogrid reinforcement (i.e RSS facing) at 186 days were
noted after the 1.2-m-thick surcharge was added.The horizontal
field deformation indicated by inclinometers for all polymeric and

Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014


Journal Vol. 6
rd
3Geotechnical
Proff 18-02-2015

No. 1 2014

Journal
Vol. is6 found
No. 1to2014
73
measured in the field Geotechnical
and the value of
settlement
be low
as the embankment was constructed on hard ground.
measured in the field and the value of settlement is found to be low
as the embankment was constructed on hard ground.

(a)

Compression of the foundation 186 days after construction


(Level 0.00 m).

(a)

Compression of the foundation 186 days after construction


(Level 0.00 m).

Figure 13. Inclinometer readings at the facing of the metallic strip


(MS) reinforcement.
Figure 13. Inclinometer readings at the facing of the metallic strip
(MS) reinforcement.

(b) Compression of the embankment (Level 0.00 m to Level 5.50


m) 186 days after construction.

Figure 14. Figure showing tilt of inclinometer at the top of RSS


facing.

Figure
15.Compression
of the PE-MS
(b) Compression
of theprofile
embankment
(Levelsection.
0.00 m to Level 5.50
186 days
after
construction.
7.3 m)
Strains
in the
Reinforcements
7.3
Strains
in the Reinforcements
Figure
15.Compression
profilestrains
of the PE-MS
section. and polymeric
The
measured
and simulated
in the metallic
Surface
and
subsurface
settlement
plates
were
installed
in
the
reinforcement
were
in
good
agreement.
The
strains were
measured
7.2 Vertical Deformation
The
strains in the metallic
and polymeric
7.3 measured
Strains inand
thesimulated
Reinforcements
embankment at different locations to measure vertical settlements.
using vibrating-wire strain gauges in the metallic reinforcement
7.2 Vertical Deformation
reinforcement were in good agreement. The strains were measured
The maximum
settlement at
the base ofplates
the embankment
(Level
(SWG
and MS)and
andsimulated
using fibre
opticinstrain
gauges in
polymer
The measured
strains
the metallic
andthepolymeric
Surface
and subsurface
settlement
were installed
in 0.00
the
using vibrating-wire strain gauges in the metallic reinforcement
m)
ranged
from
60
to
80
mm
186
days
after
construction.
The
Surface
and
subsurface
settlement
plates
were
installed
in
the
geogrids
(PET,were
PP and
HDPE).
For the The
metallic
reinforcement,
the
reinforcement
in good
agreement.
strains
were measured
embankment at different locations to measure vertical settlements.
(SWG and MS) and using fibre optic strain gauges in the polymer
compression
ofsettlement
the foundation
found
increase
slightly
embankment
at
different
locations
to measure
vertical
settlements.
strains
were lower than
thegauges
geogridinstrains
becausereinforcement
the metallic
using vibrating-wire
strain
the metallic
The
maximum
at the was
base
of the to
embankment
(Level
geogrids
(PET,
PP
HDPE).
thestrain
metallic
reinforcement,
the
towards
the facing,
as shown
Fig.
for the PE-MS
section.
The maximum
settlement
at the in
base
of 15a
the embankment
(Level
0.00
reinforcement
much
stiffer
than
the
polymer
geogrids.
The
(SWG and
MS)was
andand
using
fibre For
optic
gauges
in
the polymer
0.00 m) ranged from 60 to 80 mm 186 days after construction. The
strains
were
lower
than
the
geogrid
strains
because
the
metallic
Similarly,
compression
of the
embankment
0.00 mThe
to
m) ranged the
from
60 to 80 mm
186
days after (Level
construction.
measured
and simulated
strains inFor
thethe
metallic
strips
(MS) after 125
geogrids (PET,
PP and HDPE).
metallic
reinforcement,
the
compression of the foundation was found to increase slightly towards
reinforcement
was
much
stiffer
than strains
the the
polymer
The
Level
5.50 m)ofvaried
20 to
mm, astoshown
in Fig.
15b,
compression
the between
foundation
was40 found
increase
slightly
and
186were
daysare
plotted
Fig.geogrid
16whereas
corresponding
strains
strains
lower
thaninthe
becausegeogrids.
the metallic
the
facing,
as
shown
in
Fig.
15a
for
the
PE-MS
section.
Similarly,
16b
and the
17bfacing,
for the
PE-MS insection.
hard section.
ground
towards
as shown
Fig. 15aDue
for to
thethe
PE-MS
measured
and simulated
the metallic
strips
aftergood
125
in
the polymer
geogridHDPE
areinplotted
in Fig.
17. In(MS)
general,
reinforcement
was muchstrains
stiffer
than
the
polymer
geogrids.
The
the
compression
ofmagnitudes
the embankment
(Level
0.00 m(Level
to Level
5.50
m)
foundation,
vertical
settlements
were
Similarly,
thethe
compression
of of
the the
embankment
0.00
m
to
and
186 daysare
plotted
in
Fig.
16whereas
the corresponding
strains
agreement
wassimulated
observed
between
measured
and simulated
measured
and
strains
in thethe
metallic
strips (MS)
after
125
varied
between
20
to 40
mm, as shown
in Fig.
16b andin17b
the
relatively
low.
The
settlement
of 15b,
the
PE-MS
section
at
Level 5.50
m) varied
between
20profile
to 40
mm,
as shown
Fig.for15b,
in
polymer
are
plotted
in the
Fig.corresponding
17.to
Inbilinear
general,strains
good
strains.
The
linegeogridHDPE
of maximum
strain
corresponded
rather
andthe
186
daysare
plotted
in Fig.
16whereas
PE-MS
Due
to the
hard section.
ground
foundation,
thehard
magnitudes
different
levels
of the
the
embankment
(0.00
the
base
of the
16b andsection.
17b for
PE-MS
Duem toat the
ground
than
behaviour.Theoretically,
the
strains
should
zerostrains.
atgood
the
agreement
was
observed between
measured
in thelinear
polymer
geogridHDPE
are the
plotted
in Fig.and
17.simulated
In be
general,
of
the
vertical
settlements
were
relatively
low.
The
settlement
profile
embankment
and
5.50
m
at
the
top
of
embankment)
are plotted
foundation, the magnitudes of the vertical settlements
were
end
of
embankment
(at astrain
distance
of 5m
facing)
but
due
to
agreement
observed
between
the from
measured
andrather
simulated
The
line
ofwas
maximum
corresponded
tothe
bilinear
than
of
the PE-MS
at differentdata
levels
the
(0.00the
m
together
with
the
in ofof
Fig.
15a,b.
relatively
low.section
The simulated
settlement
profile
theembankment
PE-MSOverall,
section
at
the
difficulties
inaccuracies
associated
with
strain
strains.
The line and
of maximum
strain
corresponded
bilinear
rather
linear
behaviour.Theoretically,
the strains
should
betosensitive
zero
at the
end
at
the baselevels
ofresults
the of
embankment
and 5.50
m the
at the
top
of embankment)
simulation
are
with
deformations
different
the consistent
embankment
(0.00
mvertical
at the
base of the
gauges,
there
is (at
certain
value of
strain
at
the
of reinforcements
than
linear
behaviour.Theoretically,
the
strains
should
be zero
at the
the
of
embankment
a distance
of 5m
from
the end
facing)
but
due to
embankment
and 5.50
at simulated
the top ofdata
embankment)
areOverall,
plotted
are
plotted together
withmthe
in Fig. 15a,b.
(see
Figs.
16
and
17).
end
of
embankment
(at
a
distance
of
5m
from
the
facing)
but
due
to
difficulties and inaccuracies associated with sensitive strain gauges,
together
with results
the simulated
data with
in Fig.
15a,b. deformations
Overall, the
the
simulation
are consistent
the vertical
the difficulties
and of
inaccuracies
with sensitive
there
is certain value
strain at theassociated
end of reinforcements
(seestrain
Figs.
73
simulationinresults
the vertical
measured
the fieldare
andconsistent
the value ofwith
settlement
is founddeformations
to be low as
gauges,
there is certain value of strain at the end of reinforcements
16
and 17).
the embankment was constructed on hard ground.
(see Figs. 16 and 17).
Figure 14. Figure showing tilt of inclinometer at the top of RSS
facing.Vertical Deformation
7.2

73

Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014

Geotechnical
Journal
Vol. 6Vol.
No.61 No.
20141 2014
74
Geotechnical
Journal
Geotechnical Journal Vol. 6 No. 1 2014

Figure16.Strains in metallic strip (MS) reinforcement.


Figure16.Strains in metallic strip (MS) reinforcement.

total pressures after surcharge and after consolidation were almost


constant
and good
agreement
between
the measured
and
simulated
consolidation
were almost
constant
and good
agreement
between
the
values
were
obtained.
measured
and
simulated
values
wereand
obtained.
consolidation
were
almost
constant
good agreement between the
measured and simulated values were obtained.
consolidation were almost constant and good agreement between the
measured and simulated values were obtained.

Figure 18. Observed data from total pressure cells 125 days and 186
days after
start of data
construction.
Figure
18.the
Observed
from total pressure cells 125 days and 186
days after the start of construction.
Figure 18. Observed data from total pressure cells 125 days and 186
days after the start of construction.

Figure16.Strains in metallic strip (MS) reinforcement.

Figure 19. Polynomial distribution of total pressures corresponding


to each 19.
pressure
cell. distribution of total pressures corresponding
Figure
Polynomial
to each pressure cell.
Piezometers
7.5
Piezometers
Figure
19. Polynomial distribution of total pressures corresponding
7.5
Piezometers
to
each
pressurepore
cell.water pressures were discussed to explain the
The observed
The observed pore water pressures were discussed to explain
settlement
process
of embankment.
Thediscussed
predictedto pore
water
The
observed
pore
water
were
explain
the
7.5 settlement
Piezometers
the
process
of pressures
embankment.
The predicted
pore water
pressures byprocess
one-dimensional
method and
were
settlement
of embankment.
TheSkemptons
predicted method
pore water
pressures
by
one-dimensional
method
and
Skemptons
method
were
The observed
pore
waterdata.
pressures
discussed tomethod
explainwere
the
compared
to the
observed
pressures
by
one-dimensional
methodwere
and Skemptons
compared
the observed
data.
settlementto
of embankment.
The predicted pore water
compared
toprocess
the observed
data.
Porewater
pressures
were obtained
piezometersmethod
during were
and
pressures by
one-dimensional
methodfrom
and Skemptons
Porewater
from pore
after
construction.
Thewere
build
up of excess
water pressures
obtained
piezometers
during was
and
compared
topressures
the observed
data.
after
construction.
The build pore
up ofwater
observed
and the maximum
pressure
was pressures
obtained. was
The
excess
pore water
Porewaterexcess
pressures
were pressures
obtained
from
piezometers
during The
and
observed
water
are
plotted
inwas
Fig.obtained.
20.
and
thepore
maximum
pore water
pressure
after construction.
The
buildpressures
up of excess
pore water
was
observed
excess pore
water
are plotted
in Fig.pressures
20.
observed and the maximum pore water pressure was obtained. The
observed excess pore water pressures are plotted in Fig. 20.

Figure17.Strains in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geogrid


reinforcement.
Figure17.Strains in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geogrid
reinforcement.
7.4
Total Pressure
Figure17.Strains
in Cells
high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geogrid
7.4
Total Pressure Cells
reinforcement.
Total pressure cells were installed at various locations at the base of
7.4 Total Pressure Cells
the
at level
0.00
m (see
18).locations
The totalatpressure
Total
pressure
cells
were
installed
at Fig.
various
the basecell
of
7.4 embankment
Total Pressure
Cells
TP2
indicated
that
the
highest
total
pressure
measured
was
275
kPa
the
embankment
at
level
0.00
m
(see
Fig.
18).
The
total
pressure
cell
Total
pressure
cells
were
installed
at
various
locations
at
the
base
of
Totalindicated
pressure
cells
were
installed
atpressure
various
locations
at
the275
base
of
after
186
days,that
while
the
maximum
total
pressure
recorded
by
TP5
TP2
the
highest
total
measured
was
kPa
the
embankment
at
level
0.00
m
(see
Fig.
18).
The
total
pressure
cell
the embankment
at level
(see total
Fig. 18).
Thethan
total
pressure
cell
was
175
values
aremabnormally
higher
the
weight
of
after
186kPa.
days,These
while
the0.00
maximum
pressure
recorded
by TP5
TP2
indicated
that
the
highest
total pressure
measured
was
275
TP2embankment.
indicated
thatThe
the
highest
pressure
measured
wasweight
275 kPa
kPa
the
pressures
measured
by
TP1,
TP4
and
was
175
kPa. These
values
are total
abnormally
higher
thanTP3,
the
of
after
186
days,
while
the
maximum
total
pressure
recorded
by
afterembankment.
186 days,
while
total
recorded
by TP5
TP5
TP6
ranged
from
130the
to maximum
150 kPa,
whichpressure
are TP1,
consistent
with
the
the
The
pressures
measured
by
TP3, TP4
and
was
175ofkPa.
These
values are abnormally
higher
thantotal
the weight
of
weight
the
embankment.
in consistent
the
pressures
TP6 ranged
from
130 to 150The
kPa,variation
which are
with the
the
embankment.
The
pressures
measured
by
TP1,
TP3,
TP4
and
TP6
embankment.
The
pressures
measured
by
TP1,
TP3,
TP4
and
measured
by
the
6
pressure
cells
at
ground
level
are
compared
with
weight of the embankment. The variation in the total pressures
ranged
from
130
150
which
areinconsistent
thewith
weight
TP6results
ranged
from
130
tokPa,
150
kPa,
which
are 18.
consistent
the
the
the
3D
simulations
Fig.
There
was
an
measured
byfrom
the 6to
pressure
cells
at ground
level
arewith
compared
with
weight
of
the
embankment.
The
variation
in
the
total
pressures
of
the
embankment.
The
variation
in
the
total
pressures
measured
unexpectedly
highthe
value
for TP2,
which
have
the results from
3Drecorded
simulations
in Fig.
18. might
There
wasbeen
an
measured
by the
pressure
cells
atfor
ground
level
compared
with
by
the
pressure
at
ground
level
are
with
the can
results
due
to 6some
problem
with
the instrumentation.
This
issue
be
unexpectedly
high6cells
value
recorded
TP2,compared
whichare
might
have
been
the results
the 3D
simulations
in was
Fig. an18.
There
was
an
from
3Dbyfrom
simulations
inpolynomial
Fig.
There
unexpectedly
confirmed
plotting
the
distribution
of total
pressures
due
tothesome
problem
with
the 18.
instrumentation.
This
issue
canhigh
be
unexpectedly
high
value
recorded
for
TP2,
which
might
have
been
from
each
of
the
pressure
cells
with
respect
to
embankment
height,
value
recorded
for
TP2,
which
might
have
been
due
to
some
problem
confirmed by plotting the polynomial distribution of total pressures
dueshown
to
some
problem
with
the
instrumentation.
Thisbyissue
can
be
Figure 20.Pore water pressure measurements
as
in
19. The
total
pressures
surcharge
and
after
from
each
of Fig.
the
pressure
cells
with
respect
to embankment
height,
with
the
instrumentation.
This
issue
can
be after
confirmed
plotting
the
confirmed
by
plotting
the
polynomial
distribution
of
total
pressures
as shown indistribution
Fig. 19. The
pressures from
after each
surcharge
after 74 Figure 20.Pore water pressure measurements
polynomial
of total pressures
of theand
pressure
from with
each respect
of the pressure
cells with
respect
embankment
height,
cells
to embankment
height,
as to
shown
in Fig. 19.
The 74
Figure 20.Pore water pressure measurements
as shown in Fig. 19. The total pressures after surcharge and after
74

3rd Proff 18-02-2015


8 CONCLUSIONS
A full-scale reinforced embankment was designed and constructed
on a hard foundation in Phitsanulok, Thailand, with polymeric
reinforcement on one side and metallic reinforcement on the other
side. The metallic reinforcement in the mechanically stabilised
earth wall (MSEW) facing consisted of metallic strips (MS) and
steel wire grids (SWG) whereas the polymer reinforcement in the
reinforced steep slope (RSS) facing consisted of polypropylene (PP),
high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polyester (PET) geogrids.
The behaviour of both the metallic and polymeric reinforcement
was monitored and observed. The lateral and vertical embankment
deformations in the MSEW facing were very small, according to the
field monitoring results. The deformations of the RSS facing were
much greater than those in the MSEW facing because the polymeric
reinforcement was not as stiff as the metallic reinforcement. The
reinforcing materials can be listed in the following descending order
in terms of stiffness: metallic strips (MS), steel wire grids (SWG),
polypropylene (PP), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polyester
(PET). The measured lateral and vertical deformations for both
facings, with the different types of reinforcement, agreed well with
those predicted from the numerical simulation using PLAXIS 3D.
The data from the total pressure cells showed that the total pressures
after surcharge (125 days) and after consolidation (186 days) were
almost the same and that the measured and simulated values were
in good agreement, except for the total pressure measured by cell
TP2, which was found to have an instrument error. Furthermore, the
strains in the metallic reinforcement and polymeric reinforcement
agreed well with the strains predicted from the simulation. The line
of maximum strain for both the metallic and polymeric reinforcement
exhibited bilinear behaviour as expected. Although the embankment
was made up of mixed soils and abrupt changes were noted in the soil
profile at the field site, the simulations from PLAXIS 3D were able
to simulate the overall embankment behaviour and good agreement
was observed between the field measurements and simulation results.
9 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors wish to thank the Department of Highway (DOH) and
International Engineering Consultants (IEC), Thailand for their
support.
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