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Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources (30)


GR:
"1989: The Night the Wall Came Down." BBC News. BBC, 09 Nov. 1989. Web. 13 Sept. 2015.
This source is a compilation of stories sent in from people that were near the wall the
night it fell and offers detailed recountings of those who witnessed all of the chaos
firsthand. It additionally provides a variety of different perspectives on the situation as
some Germans celebrated the fall, while others approached it with fear of the future.
These stories submitted by everyday people are helpful to our project as they portray the
opinions and concerns of average citizens rather than the skewed viewpoints of people of
power and professionals on the subject. This is useful because often times, FRG and
GDR leaders would provide opinions on the fall that differentiate from the genuine
thoughts of those living under their rule. We will certainly be able to draw some wellworded quotes from this source that encapsulate the feelings that filled Berlin the day the
wall fell. One man described this feeling as electric, as if some great force had been let
loose, and others recall hearing the loud sounds of the chipping as many Berliners were
trying to break through the wall using anything that came to hand.
MA:
Berg, Anke Domschiet. "Young Woman's Berlin Wall Diary Revealed." Sky News. 7 Nov. 2014.
Web.
In this diary excerpt, Anke Domschiet Berg, an East German who lived to witness the fall
of the wall, provides insight into the initial positives and negatives of free movement of
all Germans throughout Berlin. From her primary point of view, Berg explains how in the
early days after the fall, East Germans dropped everything and were crossing over to the
West by the thousands. Working halted, and Berg complained that everything [was]
falling apart. There [were] resignations all the time; everything [had] been turned upside
down. However, in another excerpt from six days after the wall fell, when parts of the
concrete were being physically broken, Berg and her family followed the herd and
explored the Western side of Berlin. Here, Berg was overwhelmed with the cheerful
celebration and the luxury of the West. Not only does this represent the negative and
positive aspects of the fall, but it also demonstrates how the problems of the East were
being masked by the glory of the West. Essentially, East Berlin was becoming weaker,
and the people were too absorbed by their exploration of the West to prevent these
problems from progressing. This provides yet another way in which the West was able to
dominate the East.
MA:
Berlin Embassy to U.S. Secretary of State, "The GDR Political Crisis: Still Deepening," 4
October 1989 Letter to U.S. Secretary of State. 4 Oct. 1989., 14 May 2008. Web.

Sent through cablegram directly from the Berlin Embassy, the U.S. Secretary of State
received this letter as a description of issues that were arising. At the time, the wall was
still up. However, East Germans were still fleeing to West Berlin by taking the train to
Prague, and then waiting for West Berlin to open their doors and allow the herd of East
Berliners in. The cable discusses the plan for October 4th, a specific date in which a
crowd of East Germans would be arriving in West Berlin. The Embassy describes how
the situation, in short, still seems to us to be better characterized as politically pregnant,
not physically explosive, but the gap between power and reality is increasing daily. This
means that the situation at hand had reached its maximum capacity of instability. This
situation that they are referring to is how the SED, the Socialist party that controlled the
GDR, was losing its power over the people, as many of them were trying to either change
the ways of the GDR, or abandon them all together and flee. This cable was sent just a
month before the wall fell, and provides and understanding of the factors that led to the
fall. In addition, by showing Eastern instability, it foreshadows Western control over the
East, as the East Germans had already been seeking refuge in Western values.
OM:
Brokaw, Tom. The Berlin Wall Falls. NBC. Berlin, 10 Nov. 1989. Television.
This news segment from Tom Brokaw, reporting for NBC news, was the only broadcast
from the Berlin Wall the night it fell. In this source, you can see thousands of people
streaming through the wall celebrating and rejoicing the opened border. This shows both
the immediate celebration of both East and West Berliners and the unrealized initial
problem of the huge amounts of people leaving East Berlin. The opened border was only
hours old in this footage and it already shows how eager people are to go into West
Berlin and explore a previously forbidden city. Not only is this footage extremely unique,
it is a genuine representation of the events of that night because it provides a visual of
what it was like the night the wall came down.
OM:
Bush, George H. W. "Address to the German People on the Reunification of Germany." 2 Oct.
1990. Speech.
In this primary source, President H. W. Bush gives a speech celebrating the reunification
of Germany. The reunification of Germany was the final step in resolving the division of
Germany that had been present since the end of World War Two. H. W. Bush stated how
for 45 years, at the heart of a divided continent stood a divided Germany, on the fault
line of the East-West conflict, one people split between two worlds... Today begins a new
chapter in the history of your nation. Forty-five years of conflict and confrontation
between East and West are now behind us. At long last the day has come: Germany is
united; Germany is fully free. This reunification was important because it marked the
end of the division of Germany and the beginning of West Germanys reform of East
Germanys political and economic system which resulted in the diminishment of East
German culture. H. W. Bush goes on to say that the United States is proud to have built
with you the foundations of freedom. This shows how the western countries went in and
disregarded the easts socialist values in favor of their western democratic ideals. This

source is important because it shows the government of the United Statess reaction to the
reunification of Germany. This source also highlights how for the East, the reunification
of Germany solely meant adopting West Germanys cultures and ideology.
MA:
Bush, George H. W. and Helmut Kohl, Record of Telephone Conversation between George
H.W. Bush and Helmut Kohl. November 17, 1989.
As relations grew between East and West Berlin, Chancellor Helmut Kohl was becoming
increasingly involved with East German affairs in order develop an awareness of the way
in which the East functioned to see what aspects he could "improve." This is shown in
this phone call conversation between Kohl and President George H. W. Bush in which
Kohl informed the President that he intended to give comprehensive assistance to the
East in their political, social, and economic reforms. These reforms included in
imposition of the FRGs democratic ideals, including free elections, free trade unions,
and freedom of the press. Kohl declared that he did not want the East Germans to stay in
Berlin, but he wanted them to return to an improving home. This foreshadows Kohls
future plans in reuniting Germany and portrayed in his 10 Point Plan for German
Unity, and shows that West Germany genuinely believed that in revoking the traditions
and the whole premise of the East German government, they were helping the East rather
than hurting it. In addition, Bush declared during the call that he would give his support
to West Germany in their attempt to fix or improve the East, however he would not
make any rash or extreme decisions in order to avoid problems with the Soviet Union.
This represents the foreground of the conflict between Communism and Democracy, as
the USSR and the U.S. were the symbols for the two political ideologies. It further shows
the power of West Germany and of Chancellor Kohl, as they had the largest world power
on their side.
GR:
Bush, George H. W. and Helmut Kohl, "Telephone Call from President George H. W. Bush to
Chancellor Helmut Kohl of Germany." October 3, 1990. Making the History of 1989.
The day after the two countries officially unified in October of 1990, United States
President George W. Bush called West German Chancellor via telephone to congratulate
him on the official reunification and to show U.S. support for Kohls plan to westernize
Eastern Germany. This source includes a transcript of the conversation, giving it its
primary nature. In the conversation, Kohl gives thanks to U.S. and the Allied Nations
stating, that all American Presidents from Harry Truman all the way up to our friend
George Bush made this possible. Bush responds saying that the American people stand
behind Kohl and his efforts and were honored to have stood behind Kohl through the
negotiations leading up to reunification. This exchange shows how powerful
democratic nations such as the U.S. played a significant role in the process of
reunification and suggests that they will stand by Kohl in the development of a
westernized East Germany.
MA:

Bush, George H. W. "President Bush's Statement on the Anniversary of the Berlin Wall." The
White House, Washington D.C. 12 Aug. 1989. Web. 24 Sept. 2015.
In this speech given on the twenty-eighth anniversary of the construction of the Berlin
Wall, President H.W. Bush presents his negative view on the wall and what it stands for.
He refers to the wall as a relic of a bygone era and a failed philosophy, and describes
the East as a closed societ[y] where basic freedoms are denied. These descriptions
show a clearly biased point of view towards the West, and he continues to reinforce his
support for the West by describing West Berliners as courageous people who tend the
precious fire of freedom with their cultural diversity, economic vigor, and political
pluralism. Bush goes on to say that the goal of the United States is to improve the lives
of all Berliners by helping the West regain a united Germany. Each aspect of West Berlin
that Bush celebrates in this speech is a value that directly contrasts that of East Berlin. By
speaking in this manner, Bush is degrading East Berlin in its economic, political, and
even its cultural aspects. Though this speech is supposed to be about the sad
anniversary of the wall being built, it turns into a speech about demeaning the East, as if
the problem with the wall is solely that East Berlin is on the other side. This source is
very useful because it depicts the most straightforward representation of how much the
West was praised, versus how much the West was belittled. All of these aspects prove
how it was impossible for the East to stand a chance against West Berlin when the wall
fell, as the West had stronger morale and the strongest world power to support them.
OM:
Christian Meier, Nichts trennt die Menschen mehr als die Vereinigung [Nothing Separates
People More than Unification], Sddeutsche Zeitung, December 31, 1992. Web. 12 Oct.
2015.
This journal article was written by Christian Meier, a historian and a professor from the
University of Munich. This source is primary because it was written about the problems
Germany faced in 1992, as reunification was still trying to resolve all of the economic
problems that arose due to the imposition of western culture on the East. Meier begins his
paper by asserting that there is a long history behind the different positions of East and
West Germany. [There were] more than forty years of drifting apart... As a result, two
contradictory collective identities evolved." As these two separate countries evolved, the
GDR was no challenge to the FRG because of the many struggles within the GDR.
However, the FRG actually was a challenge to the GDR. This resulted in tension and
hostility between the two sides while the wall was up, and this tension did not
immediately disappear following the fall of the wall. Inequality after the fall of the wall
and reunification is also shown by the fact that in the West everyone [was] keeping
[their] job, whereas the reality in the East is that 50 percent [had] become unemployed.
After reunification, Eastern and Western Germany were not equal financially, but also in
terms of way of life, living conditions, and attitudes. However, this article also shows
how things were about to get better for the east germans as both east and west Germans
believed that this disruption should be eliminated as quickly as possible. Although
there was inequality between the two sides, when comparing East Germany and the
other Eastern Bloc countries... it must be admitted that East Germany is doing

incomparably better economically, showing how East Germany was better off in
comparison to what it would have been like if it had remained a communist state. This
source is important because it supports many assertions in our thesis following the fall of
the Berlin Wall though reunification. This support for our thesis involves how life for
East Germans following the fall of the wall was initially difficult because West Germany
dominated and absorbed East Germany, but after this initial struggle for East Germans,
life became better for them than it would have been had they remained under a socialist
regime, which is shown by the comparison of East Germany to other socialist countries
that were still socialist at the time of this article.
OM:
Conversation on GDR-FRG Economic Cooperation between Alexander Schalck and Egon
Krenz," November 06, 1989, History and Public Policy Program Digital Archive,
Published in Hans-Hermann Hertle, Der Fall der Mauer. Die unbeabsichtigte
Selbstauflsung des SED-Staates, 2nd edition, (Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, 1999),
pp. 483-486. Translated for CWIHP by Howard Sargeant.
This conversation between Alexander Schalck, a member of the Central Committee of
the Socialist Unity Party of Germany, and Egon Krenz, East Germanys final communist
leader, regards the future of economic cooperation between East and West Germany once
the wall fell. In this conversation, it became clear that East Germany, or the GDR,
expected West Germany, the FRG, to cover the vast majority of the expenses regarding
opening the border and reunification. In exchange for the FRG covering almost all of
these expenses as well as supplying loans to the GDR, the GDR was willing to submit
their economic control to the FRG. This is important because allowing the FGR to
control the economy of both sides of Berlin provided a starting point for the FRG to
completely change all of the establishments in the GDR. Because the GDR had no
economic control, they could not protect the positive establishments that the citizens of
the GDR enjoyed, eventually causing all of those establishments to be lost.
MA:
Excerpt from the Diary of Anatoly Chernyaev," November 10, 1989, History and Public Policy
Program Digital Archive, Notes of Anatoly Chernyaev, the Gorbachev Foundation
Archive, f. 2, op. 2. Translated by Vladislav Zubok (National Security Archive).
Told from the point of view of an avid Gorbachev supporter, this primary diary excerpt is
from directly after the Wall fell. Anatoly Chernyaev, a Russian historian who worked for
Mikhail Gorbachev and the writer of this piece, mentions the deterioration of socialism as
he lists retired communist parties such as the Polish United Socialist Party and the
Hungarian Socialist Workers Party. He also sarcastically mentions a positive
relationship with the communist parties and leader that remained, such as Fidel Castro
and Kim Il Sung. The main significance of the excerpt, however, is the reference to a
future meeting between Bush, the American President, and Gorbachev, the Soviet leader,
in which the two sides of the East and the West would attempt to find a balance in their
vastly different political, social, and economic ideologies. This relates to the exchange of
ideas when the two sides of the wall encountered one another.

GR:
Guenter Schabowski, "Guenter Schabowski's Press Conference in the GDR International Press
Center," Making the History of 1989, Item #449. Web.
This excerpt from an interview with Guenter Schabowski, East German Communist Party
spokesman, marks the point at which it was announced that East Germans could cross
through the gates into West Germany. Schabowski was given a copy of the new travel
regulations in the morning and had not read them over thoroughly, so when asked when
the East Germans could officially crossover, he gave the reporter a vague answer that
resulted in thousands of East Germans flooding through the gates past confused guards. It
is not only a credible primary source, but it signifies the shaky start of the exchange
between two politically opposing countries who had been separated for so many years.
This premature merging of the two sides foreshadows the difficulties and chaos that they
would encounter later down the road.
OM:
Hein, Christoph. "EAST BERLIN DIARY." The New York Times. The New York Times, 16
Dec. 1989. Print.
This diary excerpt written by Christoph Hein, an author who lived in East Berlin, begins
the night the Berlin Wall fell, and continues through December 4, 1989, almost a month
later. From the day after the wall fell, Hein expresses his doubts over whether or not the
fall would actually benefit East Berlin. He wrote that "the streets and stores of East Berlin
resemble a ghost town" due to the hundreds of thousands of East Berliners flooding into
West Berlin. The former citizens of the GDR were in West Berlin celebrating while East
Berlin suffered. However, according to Hein, the initial celebration did not last long and
the exuberance in [West Berlin]... visibly declin[ed]. There [was] growing displeasure at
the overcrowded and littered streets, [and] at the stores jammed with people. West
Berlins initial acceptance of East Berliners quickly diminished, and the GDR
economically suffered. Hein concluded his entries by writing that in an irony of history,
citizens [were] demanding that the borders be closed. This diary is important because it
shows the progression of initial celebration of both sides into a growing distaste of the
East Berliners from the Western side, and the realization that East Berlin would suffer
just as much as it would benefit going forward. If West Berlin had been more careful and
considerate in uniting the two countries economies, political systems, and social
customs, much of East Berlins suffering could have been avoided. These negative
impacts on both sides of the wall, West Berlins frustration with accommodating the East
Berliners and the declining condition life in of East Berlin, ignited a lasting hostility
between the two sides.
OM:
Kennedy, John F. "Ich Bin Ein Berliner." Germany, Berlin. 26 June 1963. Speech.
In this speech by John F. Kennedy, given in West Berlin twenty-two months after the
construction of the Berlin Wall, he demonstrates the United States support for West

Berlin. This speech criticizes those who say that working with communists is possible by
telling them to come to Berlin, where a wall had to be constructed because of a failure to
cooperate. Kennedy recognized that freedom has many difficulties and democracy is not
perfect, but we have never had to put a wall up to keep our people in, to prevent them
from leaving us. This showcased the problems of communism while making it harder
for communists to attack democracy by recognizing that it is not perfect. By highlighting
how the Soviet Union has to force its citizens not to flee to the West, JFK helps instill the
idea that East Berlin was significantly inferior. When the wall fell, this idea contributed
to the disregard of the values, culture, and ideals of East Berlin.
OM:
Kohl, Helmut. "Bundestag Speech." Bundestag Speech. Germany, Berlin. 28 Nov. 1989. GHDI.
Web. 19 Sept. 2015.
In this speech by Helmut Kohl, the chancellor of West Germany, he outlines his TenPoint Plan for German Unity though which he hoped to reunify Germany. By using this
plan, Kohl hopes to accomplish both German and European unity, however, in order to
do this, he stresses that all of Germany and Europe must become uniform and eradicate
the economic and social differences on [the] continent. This is aimed at East Germany
as Kohl wants to eradicate their culture and traditions in favor of more westernized
aspects. This Ten Point Plan stresses that in order to make any progress, every country
must be uniform and there must a democratically legitimized government in the GDR.
Kohl continues to stress that East Germany must change their ways to match the rest of
Europe, foreshadowing how West Berlin would replace the customs in East Berlin. He
also stresses how the identity of all Europeans [is]... in the basic rights of freedom,
democracy, human rights, and self-determination. All of these rights are democratic
rights that go against the ideologies of socialism, which is what East Berlin and East
Germany functioned around. The Ten Points exemplify how West Germany was only
interested in reforming East Germany to match their own culture and had no interest in
protecting the customs and ideals of East Germany.
GR:
Law on the Privatization and Reorganization of State Owned Property (Trusteeship Law),
Articles 1, 2, 8, 24 (1990). Print.
This primary source provides excerpts from a law enacted months before reunification by
the GDRs legislative body, the Volkskammer. The law imposes regulations on the
reconstruction of GDR economy into that of a free market economy, and forms the basis
for the Trusteeship Agency which would privatize state owned property following
reunification. In the first two articles of this document, the Volkskammer outlines its
goals for a renovated East German economy. These goals reflect the values of capitalism
and private property, which are key Western values. For example, they wanted the GDR
to restore the states commercial activity as quickly and extensively as possible through
privatization, and to make as many businesses as possible competitive, thus protecting
existing jobs and creating new ones. Such ideas directly oppose communistic ideals and
would drastically change the economy of the GDR and the lives of East Germans once

passed. This effectively shows how East Germans surrendered to the inevitable
westernization of their country and attempted to work with the FRG to make this
exchange occur as smoothly as possible. Through this law, the Volkskammer set the
foundation for the privatization of property and created the base for the Trusteeship
Agency, an institution with goals in line with those of the Western powers. Such efforts
by the GDR show that reunification was inevitable and that it would result in radical
changes to East Germany economy into that of a capitalist economy.
OM:
Mardling, Bob. "THE BERLIN WALL 1961 1989: PERSONAL REFLECTIONS." 19611989: The History Herald. 3 Oct. 2012. Web. 24 Sept. 2015.
In this primary diary source, Bob Mardling recalls his experiences in Berlin while the
wall was up and the day it came down. He recalls that his first impression was the sense
of fear the East German frontier guards instilled into all on the train at the first
checkpoint. They operated in threes under the train, through the train, on top of the
train. This shows how oppressive East Germany was and how strict the border guards
were about letting people cross. He also wrote about how the contrast between the
Zone with its underdeveloped agriculture... and the busy, prosperous streets of West
Berlin could not have been starker. This shows how West Berlin was clearly more
prosperous than East Berlin, and had many improvements it could offer to East Berlin,
even if they did not go about improving East Berlin in the most understanding way.
However, East Berlin still saw the wall as positive because it preserved the culture of
East Berlin and prevented the loss of people from East Berlin into West Berlin. The West
could not understand this which is shown through how in the West the Wall was known
as die Schandmauer (wall of shame), in the East as the anti-fascist Schutzwall
(protection rampart). Despite all of the hardships and limitations of East Berlin,
defiance against the West was something that was instilled at an early age. On Bobs
journey back to West Berlin, he encountered a young East Berlin student, leaving the
GDR for the first time to represent the GDR at a youth conference. Bob writes about how
he was worryingly blinkered in his view and extremely hostile towards the West and all
he believed it stood for. This source is important because it gives a new insight into how
certain East Germans were conditioned to dislike democracy and the West, which
foreshadows the confusion and hostility that the East Germans felt when West Germany
changed all of the East German systems and traditions after reunification.
OM:
"More Holes Cut in Wall." The Journal Times [Racine] 11 Nov. 1989: TheJournalTimes.com. 9
July 2013. Web. 24 Sept. 2015.
This primary news article source was written two days after the fall of the Berlin Wall,
and clearly shows the jubilation of the newly freed East Berliners. We are speechless,
said Helmut Keuchel, 48. This is a fabulous and overwhelming experience. The plans
that East German leader, Egon Krenz, had made for the uncertain future of East Germany
are also shown in this news source.He said reforms would make a new revolution on
German soil that would produce a communist system economically effective,

politically democratic, and morally pure. This is important because it shows how East
Germany initially did not want to reunite with West Germany, but rather reform
communism to make it better so that they could keep their political values intact.
However, the westernized countries did not share these same ideas for the future of East
Germany and President Bush said he would seize every chance to promote democracy
in Eastern Europe. This shows the belief that the westernized countries held that that
democracy and western values were infallibly better than communism and eastern values.
This also shows how the west wanted to reunify and instill western values in East
Germany from immediately after the wall fell while East Germany wanted to make their
own political systems better and remain a communist society.
GR:
Reagan, Ronald. "Speech at the Brandenburg Gate." West Berlin, Germany. 12 June 1987.
Speech.
General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet
Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate! Mr.
Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall! exclaimed Ronald
Reagan in his famous speech at the Brandenburg gate. This primary source provides a
full transcription of Reagans speech encouraging the fall of the wall and urging East
Germany to embrace the idea of unification. The remarks he makes in this speech provide
key examples of the West German motive to impart Western values onto East Germany,
and rid Germany of communism. Reagan stresses the necessity of expanding democracy
to all of Germany and urges Gorbachev to tear down this wall, and reunite the two
countries, in order to spark this essential exchange between the East and the West.
Towards the end of the speech, Reagan addresses the most fundamental distinction
between the West and East: that the totalitarian world [of the East] produces
backwardness because it does such violence to the spirit, thwarting the human impulse to
create, to enjoy, to worship. Statements such as these highlight the corruption of the
Communist bloc, and portray the intentions of Western powers in terms of the merging of
the East and the West. The positive reception by Germans of this speech further
foreshadows the dominance of Western values over East German culture and institutions
that would inevitably accompany the fall of the wall.
MA:
Reichert, Kerstin. "Travel Diary: A Berliner Reflects on the Moment When the Wall Came
Down" 9 Nov. 2009. Web. 27 Sept. 2015.
On the twenty year anniversary of the fall of the wall, Kerstin Reichert, and East German
and a current member of the U.S. Embassy in Berlin, reflected back on the fall. Similar to
the initial reactions of all others, Reichert observed that everyone was so overwhelmed
by joy and happiness. Reichart then describes how the condition that the East Berliners
found themselves in after the well fell seemed like anarchy in comparison to the
totalitarian rule they were accustomed to. After the initial euphoria passed, a 24 year old
and pregnant Reichert was caught up in a cloud of disorientation, uncertainty and fear,
worried for the future of her unborn child. However, twenty years later, Reichart reflects

on the fall with relief that her son was able to receive the opportunities that living in a
democratic nation offered. This shows that there was instability at first for the East
Berliners and they had to struggle and work tirelessly to be successful in a free market
economy, they created a more stable environment for the future. Though there may not be
complete equality between the East and West Berliners today, the situation at hand is still
better than it would be if communism had prevailed.
GR:
Schmemann, Serge. "Two Germanys Unite After 45 Years With Jubilation and a Vow of Peace."
The New York Times 3 Oct. 1990. Nytimes.com. Web. 24 Sept. 2015.
This newspaper article by The New York Times published the morning after the fall of the
wall gives details on the initial encounter between the two sides and the events that
followed immediately after. The article opens up by essentially comparing the U.S. to
West Germany, describing how a copy of the American Liberty Bell, a gift from the
United States at the height of the cold war, tolled from the Town Hall, and the black, red
and gold banner of the Federal Republic of Germany rose slowly before the Reichstag.
This quote represents how West Germany and their plans for East Germany were
founded on the same principles of liberty, freedom, democracy, and capitalism that the
U.S. was founded on. It additionally discusses how approximately one million people,
East and West Germans, joined together and sang the West German national anthem,
which would become the national anthem for a united Germany. These examples provide
evidence of West German superiority from the very beginning of the exchange while also
showing the initial relief and joy East Germans felt at the time of the fall.
MA:
Stone, Tim. "BUSINESS FORUM: THE TWO GERMANYS; What Follows the Fall of the
Wall." New York Times 24 Dec. 1989. U.S. History in Context. Web. 12 Sept. 2015.
This New York Times article, published just one month after the infamous fall, discusses
the desires of the East and the West in terms of reunification. It mainly touches upon the
economic aspects of reunification, explaining how it would be beneficial for the West,
and detrimental for the East. The East would have to renovate their economy in order to
be both self-sufficient and prosperous if they were to avoid reuniting with their
democratic neighbor. The article goes on to explain what must occur in order for East
Germany to achieve this prosperity. It also directly relates to the pre-established
resentment of the East towards the West. It receives its primary nature from both the date
it was published, and from the author, a man named Tim Stone who lived in West Berlin
to experience life with the wall, and to witness it fall. This is significant because it shows
how Western Economic superiority made reunification very hard to avoid because the
East could not compete against West Germany once the wall fell.
GR:
Thatcher, Margaret. "Margaret Thatcher discusses the fall of the Berlin Wall,"Making the
History of 1989.

The morning after the fall of the wall, Prime Minister of England, Margaret Thatcher held
a press conference answering questions regarding the current situation and the future for
Germany. An excerpt from the conference offers evidence on the motives of Allied
leaders in terms of reunification. When asked about the possibility of a united Germany,
Thatcher suggested that many necessary steps would have to be taken in order for this to
happen successfully. She emphasized the criticality of building a genuine democracy in
Eastern Germany as the first step to reunification, a viewpoint shared by FRG leader
Helmut Kohl and by many other westernized nations. Additionally, Thatcher discusses
that West Germany must help the East set up political parties, create an election system,
and assist in economic reform. Essentially, this source shows how even leaders from
other countries felt that it was their duty to save Germany from their communistic ways,
and to bestow democratic and western values onto East German culture and government.
OM:
"The Collapse of the GDR Economy." Neues Deutschland [East Germany] 11 Jan. 1990: GHDI Documents. Web. 11 Oct. 2015.
In this primary source, the communist newspaper Neues Deutschland admitted to the
impending collapse of the command economy of East Germany. This report was
published two months after the fall of the Berlin Wall, but before official talks about
reunification began, and it was the first time that the communist government admitted to
the shortcomings of their socialist economy. It was the GDR government behind this
newspaper article as the government heavily controlled the media in the GDR. By
explicitly outlining the economic problems the GDR was facing, this news report states
how despite strenuous and industrious efforts, the speed of economic development has
slowed perceptibly. The problems that contributed to this lack of development included
planning mistakes in industry, insufficient supplies of consumer goods, [and] an
infrastructure that fell far short of satisfying the demands made upon it. As a result of
these shortcomings of the GDRs economy, productivity in the GDR was some 40
percent lower than in the FRG. Because of the GDRs much lower productivity than the
surrounding capitalist countries, the GDR began importing much more than they were
able to export, hurting the economy further. The main cause of the inadequate volume of
exports to the non-socialist economies and the lack of effectiveness in foreign trade lies
in the impossibility of making sufficient export goods available. In addition, products did
not meet the scientific and technical standards necessary to remain competitive. This is
significant because it shows how the GDR was unable to compete with the surrounding
capitalist countries once the wall fell. Significance also lies in the fact that by admitting
that the GDR economy was worsening and falling apart by standing next to the FRG, the
communist officials had given up hope for a reform of the GDR socialist regime, leaving
reunification as the only option to salvage the GDR. As a result, the FRG was able to
absorb the GDR without a fight, causing the domination of the FRG in the new reunified
country.
MA:

"The Visit." Human and Civil Rights: Essential Primary Sources. Ed. Adrienne Wilmoth Lerner,
Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, and K. Lee Lerner. Detroit: Gale, 2006. 164-168. U.S. History
in Context. Web. 12 Sept. 2015.
This source is a primary magazine article that tells the story of author Timothy Garton
Ashs visit to former leader of the German Democratic Republic, Erich Honecker, at
Berlins Moabit Prison. The source is preceded by an introduction that provides
background information on who Honecker was in relation to politics and the history of
Germany, and showcases his devotion to the Soviet Union and to the Communist Party. It
goes on to explain how he came to be the President of East Germany, and what actions he
took as president, such as establishing the Stasi secret police force. The story that Ash
tells is very powerful, as Honecker argues that life was better in East Germany before the
split, which relates to the idea that the reunification of Germany hurt the the people of the
East rather than helping them. This piece is also significant because Honecker was jailed
by the Western government for actions he took during his leadership, showing the
submission of the East to the West.
OM:
"Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany," September 12, 1990, U.S. Embassy
in Germany, German Embassy.
The Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, more commonly known as
the Two Plus Four Treaty, was the last of the three treaties that reunified the GDR and the
FRG. All three of these treaties reunified Germany, however this last treaty was the final
and most important of the three. The first two of these treaties were The State Treaty
between the FRG and the GDR on the Creation of a Monetary, Economic, and Social
Union between the GDR and the FRG signed on May 18, 1990, and the Unification
Treaty also between the FRG and the GDR signed on August 31, 1990. Both of these
treaties outlined the logistics of reunifying Germany such as the conversion of the GDR
command economy to a market economy and the division as well as the implementation
of the FRGs political, economic, and social structures in the new eastern states.
However, the final Two Plus Four Treaty was the most important, as it outlined the
new Germany in respect to the rest of the world. This Treaty was signed by the Allied
Powers of the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union along with the
FRG and the GDR, and was the document that finally solidified German autonomy and
self-control in the aftermath of World War Two. With this treaty, and with the
unification of Germany as a democratic and peaceful state, the rights and responsibilities
of the Four Powers relating to Berlin and to Germany as a whole lose their function.
This meant that by signing this treaty, all non-German troops had to be withdrawn from
Germany, terminating the influence of the Soviet Union of East Germany when the
Soviet troops were extracted. This treaty in whole also established the a new Germany of
the combined FRG and GDR, agreed on set, guaranteed borders, limited Germanys
weapons and military, and allowed Germanys continued membership in NATO. This
treaty is important because gaining the support of the Big Four was vital in reunifying
Germany because Germany needed the permission of the Big Four to reunify as they all
still had major influence and control over Germany as well as the Soviet Union still

having large amounts of troops stationed in East Germany. This treaty is also important
because it was the final step to actually reunifying Germany, and deciding Germanys
role in the world after reunification.
MA:
"US Memorandums of Conversation, George H. W. Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev at Malta
Summit, 2-3 December 1989," December 02, 1989, History and Public Policy Program
Digital Archive, George Bush Presidential Library, National Security Council,
Condoleezza Rice and Arnold Kanter files. Obtained by Joshua R. Itzkowitz Shifrinson.
This lengthy conversation between the President of the United States, George H.W. Bush,
and the leader of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, goes in depth on many issues
including dangerous weapons, cold-war conflicts, democratic changes to communism
Gorbachev imposed known as perestroika, and many others. Among these many other
issues, the two discuss the reunification of Germany, which they refer to as The German
Question. Gorbachev expresses that The Soviet Union was afraid that the topic of
reunification [would] be exploited for electoral gain, that it [would] not be strategic
factors but the mood of the moment that [would] take the upper hand, showing initial
concern for the East. However, as the conversation progresses, both Bush and Gorbachev
agreed to let history decide how the process [would] develop and what it [would] lead to
in the context of a new Europe and a new world. During this time, it was clear that West
Germany held the real power over the situation, and coming to this agreement meant that
Gorbachev was allowing the West to maintain this power. Expanding on this idea, later in
the conversation, after Secretary of State James Baker joins, they discussed the idea of
Western values and how it pertained to The German Question. Baker stated that he
was advocating for reunification to happen based on the principles of openness,
pluralism, and a free market. In response to this, Gorbachev simply questions why this
set of values is referred to as Western values, rather than defending East Germany or
trying to ensure that these radical changes go smoothly. This lack of support provides
another explanation on why East Germany submitted to the West so easily and why they
were not able to preserve aspects of their government and culture that they wanted to.
GR:
"Verbal Message from Mikhail Gorbachev to Helmut Kohl," November 10, 1989, History and
Public Policy Program Digital Archive, SAPMOBA, DY 30/IV 2/2.039/319. Translated
for CWIHP by Howard Sargeant
This verbal message from Mikhail Gorbachev to Helmut Kohl addresses the inevitable
chaos that would result from the two countries being open to one another for the first
time. Gorbachev asks that Kohl take the extremely pressing steps necessary to prevent a
complication and destabilization of the situation and essentially asks him to cooperate in
order to make the unification as smooth as possible for East Germany. Given its primary
nature, this source provides significant and reliable information on the political
interactions as it was a message between leaders from both sides of the wall. This will
help us provide evidence on the logistics of the exploration onto opposing sides and the
beginning of necessary communications and collaborations between government leaders

from both sides. Gorbachev recognizes that the decision to allow the opening of the gates
was a difficult one, which foreshadows the issues the two leaders will encounter later as
they will be confronted with more significant political and cultural issues.
GR:
Weizscker, Richard Von. "Serving World Peace in a United Europe." Berlin, Germany. October
3, 1990. germanyhistorydocs.org. Web.
In this speech delivered by FRG President, Richard Von Weizscker, on the day of
reunification celebrates the external unity that has finally been achieved, while also
calling for additional efforts to create an internal unity among Germans. He explains
how from the bottom of our hearts, we feel gratitude and joy and at the same time a
great, serious obligation. This obligation he refers to is to create a united country that
can coexist peacefully, and in a way that is beneficial to everyone, including East
Germans. Weizscker recognizes later in the speech how difficult it is for many East
Germans to adjust to the drastic changes that have occurred since the day of the fall. He
mentions a East German woman who spoke to him about how the fall has impacted her
life. Though she is grateful for the freedoms that have accompanied the deterioration of
the socialist party, to simultaneously replace from one day to the next almost every
element of ones own life with something new and unfamiliar exceeds human
capabilities. By including this brief anecdote, Weizscker provides evidence as to how
the complete suppression of East German infrastructure and culture created troubles for
East Germans, as discussed in our thesis.
GR:
Wrner, Manfred. "Final Communiqu, 14 December 1989," speech, Brussels, Belgium, 1989,
NATO, Online Library, NATO.
This source provides an excerpt from a speech given by a representative from NATO
regarding the future for East-West relations. The representative, Manfred Wrner,
discusses the necessary changes that will need to be made to East Germany looking
forward. Through his statements he essentially promises that NATO will support West
Germany in these reforms in hopes of making an East Germany as democratic as the
West. At the end of the speech, Wrner explains how they will continue to offer both an
agreed set of principles for promoting peace, greater co-operation and democratic values
and a means of giving these principles practical substance and effect. This primary
source allows us another point of reference to back up our argument that West German
values were able to triumph those of the East while also providing an additional source of
West German support, which came from NATO.

Secondary Sources (20)


GR:
Albrecht, Melanie. Morrissey, Olivia. Russell, Gillian. Interview of Albrecht, Radoslav.
"Conversation with Radko Albrecht About Berlin Today." Telephone interview. 27 Sept.
2015.

This interview with a distant relative of Melanies, who has lived in West Berlin since
2008, provides insight on the dynamic between East and West Berlin today from the
perspective of a modern Berlin citizen. Through his answers in the interview, Albrecht
addresses some differences he has noticed between the two sides even decades after the
fall. Though he lives in West Berlin, Albrechts office is located on the Eastern side and
he has noticed that in terms of architecture and style, the East is slightly more modern
and hip, while the West is slightly more old-fashioned and conservative. This minor
difference is a result of the massive building projects and renovations made to East
Germany following the fall, as the socialist regime left the East in a terribly run down
state. Due to these renovations, Albrecht reasons, the culture and nightlife in East
Germany is slightly different to this day. When asked about relations between East and
West Berliners, Albrecht expressed that there is almost no noticeable hostility between
the people from either side. However, like in any society, there are groups of radical
people on either side of a political spectrum in Germany who are still frustrated by the
Fall of the Wall. These insights show how the differences between the two sides are
rather minute, and supports our assertion that though the sides arent integrated
completely in every facet of life, the renovated East is better off today than it was in the
socialist regime.
Albrecht, Melanie. Morrissey, Olivia. Russell, Gillian. Interview of Granieri, Ronald
"Conversation with Professor Ronald Granieri of University of Pennsylvania." Telephone
interview. 27 Sept. 2015.
In a telephone conversation with Ronald Granieri, the Executive Director of the Foreign
Policy Research Institute, as well as a lecturer in International Studies at the University of
Pennsylvania, we were able to discuss many topics essential to our argument regarding
the fall of the Berlin Wall. We began by inquiring about the difficulties that East
Germans faced in adjusting to a westernized culture. From here we were able to obtain
knowledge encompassing how many East Germans had been used to guaranteed
employment and they were used to subsidised food prices, and they had to deal suddenly
with an economy that didnt offer the same kinds of protection. Despite these hardships
described by Granieri, the professor went on to confirm that reunification has overall
been beneficial for the former East Germans. The conversation then transitioned to a
discussion surrounding the Soviet Union and their decreasing involvement in East
German affairs. Granieri described how Gorbachev basically said to the East Germans
that they have to start pushing to do [Gorbachevs liberal] reforms, and he would not save
them. Granieri furthered his explanation through addressing how Gorbachev realized
that if he wanted to help the Soviet Union improve and develop, that he had to improve
relations between the Soviet Union and the West. This shows how even the Soviet
Union had turned their backs on the struct communism and isolation that the East
German regime embodied. To conclude the interview, we ask questions surrounding the
results of reunification. Apart from addressing renovations in eastern Germany, Granieri
noted how the Berlin Wall was one of the last concrete expressions of unresolved
questions that came at the end of World War II, as an emblem of the Cold War. This,
combined with Gorbachev and the Soviet Union not using force to maintain control over

East Germany, meant that the essence of the Cold War was lost, and that the centerpiece
of the cold war was definitely over.
MA:
Albrecht, Melanie. Morrissey, Olivia. Russell, Gillian. Interview of Schwartz, Thomas A.
"Conversation with Professor Thomas Schwartz of Vanderbilt University." Online
interview. 2 Oct. 2015.
In a interview with Thomas A. Schwartz, a professor of political science and European
studies at Vanderbilt University, we obtained key information and insights from an expert
on the subject. The conversation began with questions on the foundations of East German
communism as they pertained to relations between East Germany and the Soviet Union.
Schwartz explained how East Germany relied on the Soviets to hold the communist
system together. The professor then went on to say that this reliance on the Soviet Union
was shaken when Mikhail Gorbachev introduced liberal changes to communism, and
halted their support for countries including East Germany, and that this essentially led to
the fall of the wall. From here the conversation shifted to East German struggles and
inequality. Schwartz argued that East Germany was capable of competing with other
communist countries but it wasnt capable of competing with West Germany. Because
of this, East Germans mass migrated to West Germany, and furthered the economic
destruction of East Germany. He explained how those who held government positions,
including teachers, often lost their jobs, and were replaced by West Germans. This shows
suppression of East German culture, as argued in our thesis. Additionally, Schwartz
argued that today, it is almost impossible to see the distinct visual difference between
East and West Germany, yet there still is an acknowledgement of difference between
the two sides. The professor explained that this is due to cultural differences, and
resentment at the time of reunification: the East resented how the West patronized them,
and the West resented the communist customs that the East had become adjusted to.
Despite all of these negative factors, Schwartz argued that reunification was a relatively
peaceful takeover, and that for the most part, if you had to say, there are substantially
more winners than losers. This interview entails a plethora of information that supports
our argument. It specifically supports our ideas on the nature of reunification in which the
East Germans evidently struggled, yet their lives are still better because of the events that
occurred.
OM:
Albrecht, Melanie. Morrissey, Olivia. Russell, Gillian. Interview of Stein, Mary Beth.
Conversation with Professor Mary Beth Stein of George Washington University.
Telephone interview. 15 Oct. 2015.
In this interview with Professor Stein of George Washington University, we were able to
further our in depth understanding of the Fall of the Berlin Wall and the events
surrounding it. She elaborated on how heavily impacted East Germany was by the Soviet
Union as well on commenting on how much better life was for people in the West. This
western superiority is shown through how there was always the concern that their own
population would be discontent if they saw how much better they had it in the West. We

also were able to learn how the cultures diverged after 40 years of separation. One
example of this is how there were 5 levels of censorship before an author could get
published in East Germany. This is important because it showed how East German
culture was restricted and people only had access to literature and media that was
approved by the government. Because of this, after the wall fell and Germany reunified,
East German culture changed overnight. Professor Stein also elaborated on how
young people today no longer think of themselves as east or west, they just consider
themselves to be German and physically, the east no longer looks like the east under
socialism which are important point to supporting our thesis in that the impact of the
Fall of the Berlin Wall is that East is much better off than it would have been if had
remained under a communist rule. Overall, this interview is important because it helped
us gain a plethora of valuable information that we are able to integrate into our website in
order to more completely support our thesis.
OM:
Asisi, Yadegar. The Wall: The Asisi Panorama of a Divided Berlin. 2012. Asisi Panorama
Berlin, Berlin.
Displayed in Berlin, this large scale 360 degree panorama rests just next to where the
Wall itself stood, and shows what life was like in the era before it fell. It is very helpful in
providing a complete visual representation of the two distinctly different sides of Berlin.
In the painting, you can see a more modern and prosperous Western Berlin in stark
contrast to an outdated and run down East Berlin. This indicates Asisis perspective from
that time period as he studied painting at West Berlins University of the Arts from 1978
to 1984. Because his time spent in West Berlin, he only experienced the wall from that
point of view, and was influenced by the biased idea that West Berlin was vastly superior
to East Berlin. However, Asisi stated that the intention of this panorama is to make [the]
shocking normality [of the Berlin Wall] palpable, and not to glorify the West. This
source not only demonstrates the clear difference between the two halves of a formerly
united city, but also shows how the Berlin Wall was an instrumental part of the lives of
those who lived in Berlin. The painting shows how used to the wall the citizens of East
and West Berlin were and how encountering the wall was so common it rarely deserved
any attention. As a whole, this source allows rare insight into what daily life was like
under the shadow of the Berlin Wall.
GR:
Barnato, Katy. "25 Years after the Berlin Wall: Whats Changed?" CNBC. 07 Nov. 2014. Web.
26 Sept. 2015.
This article by CNBC, published on the anniversary of the fall, addresses what has
changed for Germany since the fall and focuses in on the difficulties that accompanied
this exchange of ideas. CNBC writer Katy Barnato explains how altering Easter
Germanys economy to be capitalist was accompanied by many struggles and downfalls.
She explains that the task for West Germany to bring the standard of living in the former
German Democratic Republic into line with its own would prove to be a difficult one.
Desperate efforts of West German institutions to improve East Germany economy had

very little effectiveness and these reforms were often extremely pricey. The article
provides many statistical examples of these difficulties and will help us back up our
assertions that the exchange of ideas was less than smooth, especially for East Germans.
MA:
Buckley, William F. The Fall of the Berlin Wall. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2004. Print.
This book written by the founder of the conservative journal the National Review
William F. Buckley Jr. begins with the premise of the wall being built, and discusses
issues that arose during the 1960s that led to the wall being built under leader Walter
Ulbricht. The book also describes the twenty-eight years in which the people lived under
the shadow of the wall. Buckley additionally provides a detailed description the events
that led to the fall of the wall. Buckley explains how the iron curtain was fraying, and
how perestroika, the policies that Gorbachev enforced to make communism more liberal,
was creating instability in East Germany. Gorbachev was also very busy with problems
within the Soviet Union, so East Germany stopped receiving support or any kind of
intervention from the Soviet Union. Buckley declares that this combined with consistent
nightly emigration and Egon Krenzs rule of East Germany ultimately led to the meeting
in which Gnther Schanowski announced free movement through the Berlin Wall.
Buckley takes a further right-wing standpoint on the events that occurred, as he discusses
positive outcomes of reunification, as well as East German desire for democracy. This
can be expected as Buckley is known to be a conservative thinker, and he views
reunification in an extremely positive light because it helped rid the world of
communism. Despite this slight bias, Buckley still provides extremely useful and relevant
information on events that led to the fall of the wall, which supports our argument that
changes in communism led to instability in East Germany that could no longer be
contained, and that this led to the fall of the Berlin Wall.
GR:
Conrad, Christoph, Michael Lechner, and Welf Werner. "East German fertility after unification:
crisis or adaptation?" Population and Development Review 22.2 (1996): 331+. US
History Collection. Web. 13 Sept. 2015.
This scholarly article provides some statistical evidence regarding fertility and marriage
that supports the concept that East Germany underwent rapid social changes while the
lifestyle of Germans from the West remained primarily unaffected. This concept is
highlighted in our thesis and helps justifies the assertion that the East become completely
westernized in every facet of life after the unification. Though the article is not a
primary source, it was written by experienced and credible professors whom have
extensively studied the topic. The study discussed in the article outlines how family
policy and birth rates changed in the GDR after the wall fell and after the countries
formally united. Even though these changes may otherwise seem trivial, it effectively
exemplifies how the cultural exchange between the two countries forced East Germany to
accommodate to western lifestyles even in personal and family affairs.
MA:

Granieri, Ronald J. The Fall of the Berlin Wall, the Power of Individuals, and the
Unpredictability of History. Foreign Policy Research Institute. N.p., Mar. 2013. Web. 19
Sept. 2015.
Ronald J. Granieri, member of the American Historical Association and historian for the
Foreign Policy Research Institute, shares his insights in this Scholarly Journal Article.
The basic premise of his argument is how unpredicted the fall of the Berlin wall really
was, and that despite Kohls questionable action and negative impacts, he had to take the
initiative and reunify Germany while he had the chance. Granieri describes how many
believed the wall would prevail for many years, and how individuals of this era thought
that the Soviet Union would become too stable under Gorbachevs government for the
USSR to allow the wall to fall. He also explains how reunification was a similarly foreign
concept and even if East and West Germany were to reunify, no one imagined one side
would disappear as East Germany did. This made the fall of the wall a surprise for most,
and many were not prepared to deal with the effects. Additionally, the article explains
how before the wall fell, East Germans were distasteful towards their government and
their way of life, and protested with the declaration of We are the people! This
dissatisfaction is essentially what allowed Kohls efforts for reunification to be
successful, as the East Germans accepted his 10 points for reunification with hopes that
they could reach a Third Way economic system between communism and capitalism.
Granieri argues, however, that Kohls success was necessary, and that issues arose from
the rapid rate of change that Kohl enforced after reunification, such as the imposition of
the Deutschmark as the national German currency, and not from the push for
reunification itself. Though Granieris view slightly favors Helmut Kohl and West
Germany, it provides insight on why the reunification was disorganized, and on certain
factors that influenced reunification and its negative effects.
MA:
"Germany." German Economy: Facts, Population, GDP, Inflation, Unemployment, Business.
Web. 04 Oct. 2015.
This source, run by The Heritage Foundation, provides detailed and specific facts on the
modern, prospering German economy, as well as statistics that prove Germanys
successful economic situation. The source provides a background on the German
government and economy, describing their situation under East German and woman
Chancellor Angela Merkel. It goes on to thoroughly describe Germanys principles of
Rule of Law, Limited Government involvement, Regulatory Efficiency in which there is
innovative business formation and operation, and Open Markets where there is free
trade not only within the country, but with outside nations. By providing these
descriptions on the different economic aspects, there is a clear understanding instilled
about the organization and the efficient manner in which the German economy functions.
In addition to these descriptions, the source provides factual evidence that prove that
these systems are effective. For example, Germany has an unemployment rate of only
5%, a mere 1.6% rate of inflation, as well as a high GDP of $40,007 per capita.
Additionally, the economic freedom score is ranked at 73.8. This number means that
Germany is considered the sixteenth most free country in the entire world, and the

seventh most free country in Europe. This source is very useful to our argument because
it shows Germanys success as a nation. All East Germans are a member of this
prospering economy, an economy that is led by one of their own, regardless of slight
inequality between East and West Germans. This proves that East Germans are better off
under the capitalist economy that thrives today due to the undeniable fact that they are
under one of the strongest economies in the world.
OM:
Grant, R. G. The Berlin Wall. Austin, TX: Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 1999. Print.
By providing an overview of the entire history of the Berlin Wall, this Broad Context
book was an extremely helpful secondary source. Beginning with the division and
occupation of Germany, this book outlines what led to the Berlin Wall being constructed,
daily life with the wall under a divided Berlin, what led to the reopening of the border,
and what life was like after the wall fell. This was vital to providing solid background
information to fully understand why the fall of the Berlin Wall was so significant. This
source also contained many primary quotes from a wide variety of people from the time
period that encompassed the Berlin Wall that provide necessary insight into what living
with and without the wall was like for ordinary people as well as how world leaders were
discussing and responding to the many events surrounding the wall. Overall, this source
provided a clear and useful understanding of the Berlin Wall as a whole.
OM:
Larman, Alexander. "The Berlin Wall by Frederick Taylor." The Guardian. N.p., 14 Nov. 2009.
Web. 11 Oct. 2015.
In this book review of The Berlin Wall by Frederick Taylor, written by Alexander
Larman, Larman writes of how well-researched and intelligently structured The Berlin
Wall is. Larman writes about how Taylor always manages to engage with the simple
human question of whatever possessed modern man, emerging from the bloodiest half
century that had ever occurred, to forge such an iconic symbol of division and
dispossession. This is important because it shows how The Berlin Wall by Frederick
Taylor is a credible book source that provides new and unseen insights into the events
surrounding the Berlin Wall.
MA:
Roth, Terence. "After Fall of Berlin Wall, German Reunification Came With a Big Price Tag."
The Wall Street Journal. N.p., 7 Nov. 2014. Web. 24 Sept. 2015.
This article from the Wall Street Journal discusses the repercussions of the days that
followed the wall, after the excitement faded, and reality set in. It describes how the mere
100 Deutsche marks that the East Germans were given was essentially nothing, and most
spent it all within the first few days. Their currencies were too different for the East to
afford much else with their own money, which caused them to want the Western deutsche
mark. However, uniting the currencies was a step that would accelerate unification,
whether the East wanted that or not. However, the source also provides insight into the

struggles for the West, as they felt they had to salvage the bankrupt state and collapsing
economy of the East. During this time, the East was struggling immensely, so much so
that even workmans clothing was hard to come by - in a workers state. In addition,
the East did not have the support of the Soviet Union, which made their renovation much
more difficult. However, the West managed to orchestrate the first democratic
government in a United Germany in March of 1990 for the first time since 1932. Despite
these changes that the West in a sense imposed on the Easy in order to try to help their
economy, this article describes that with with unemployment still higher in the east and
productivity still lagging western levels, reunification remains a work in progress. The
significance in this article lies within the understanding it provides on the difficulties of
reunification. It also provides insight into how it was economically straining for both the
East and the West, but the East Berliners took most of the fall.
GR:
Schneider, Peter. Berlin Now: The City After the Wall. New York, New York: Farrar, Straus and
Giroux, 2014. Print.
This book, Berlin Now: The City After the Wall, by German novelist, Peter Schneider,
discusses Berlin today and delves into why the city is so attracting and successful. The
way he idealizes the city and the examples he provides support the idea that Berlin, and
Germany as a whole, is better off today because of the fall. Schneider writes about the
young, hip nightlife and thriving art scene in East Berlin that stands in stark contrast to
the culture of East Berlin before the fall. However, the reason East Berlin attracts this
young, artistic crowd, Schneider reasons, is due to its low cost of living which dives into
another layer of our argument: that the East remains slightly unequal to the West in terms
of economy and standard of living today. In his novel, Schneider additionally examines
the fall of the wall and the impact it has had on the city and the success of Berlin present
day. At one point in the book, he addresses what happened to the wall after the fall, and
discusses how a great deal of the concrete was grounded into sand and used to build
highways in East Germany. He describes how those who drive over the new smooth-asglass highways are oblivious to the fact that the ashes of the erstwhile monstrosity lie
beneath the asphalt. This detail provides an example of the massive renovations made to
East Germany, while more importantly, portraying a symbolic meaning. The very wall
that had separated East Germany from the Western style of living is used to pave the
roads to created a refurbished East. By recognizing how East Germany has benefitted
from the fall and the unexplainable allure of Berlin, Scheider displays how reunification
was a necessary step in forging Germanys success as a nation today.
GR:
Stang, Nicholas. "Book Review: 'Berlin Now' by Peter Schneider." Rev. of 'Berlin Now' by Peter
Schneider. The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, Inc., 15 Aug.
2014. Web.
This detailed book review on Berlin Now: The City After the Wall reiterates some of the
key points Scheider made in his book, while also giving credibility to Schneiders
assertions. The review was published by renowned The Wall Street Journal, and was

written by University of Toronto professor Nicholas Stang, proving the reliability of the
source. Stang compliments Schneiders work and the way he avoids the easy answers
in addressing why Berlin is so successful and attractive to a diverse array of people. He
appreciates the way Schneider approaches the questions he answers and rewards him for
his wide scope of knowledge on seemingly unimportant aspects of German culture. These
insights have enriched our knowledge of Schneiders book and pointed us to some critical
moments throughout the piece that are useful in broadening the scope of our argument.
For example, Stang recognizes the effective way in which Schneider explains why Berlin
is such an alluring place to so many people. Stang writes that Schneider shows how
Berlin reflects the idea of making something out of nothing and reasons that is why it is
so attractive. As discussed in the book, this idea of building from the ground up can be
seen in Berlins history and the renovations following the fall of the wall, and shows how
Germany has improved since then, supporting an impactful part of our argument.
OM:
Taylor, Fred. The Berlin Wall: A World Divided, 1961-1989. New York: HarperCollins, 2006.
Print.
In this book, The Berlin Wall, the author, historian Fred Taylor puts together an official
history of the Berlin Wall from start to finish. Fred Taylor utilized official history,
archival materials, and personal accounts in order the explore the Berlin Wall in its
entirety from all points of view. Taylor begins with the post war political tensions that
lead to the creation of the Berlin Wall in a divided Germany and continues to provide an
in depth history all the way through exploring both the internal and external pressures
that ended with the walls demise. Taylor also explored the impact that the wall had on
ordinary lives and the fear that Germans lived in everyday. This is important because it
provides many helpful insights into what life was like for individuals on both sides as
well as the cultural exchanges that came along afterwards. This book clearly showed the
difference between the two sides of Berlin as well, the Wests prosperity and the Easts
limitations, while showing how the East was kept in the dark about the Wests success.
This allowed the East to remain content with their socialist lifestyle, despite its drawback,
providing insight into what it was really like to live in both the East and the West.
MA:
"The Fall of the Berlin Wall: 1989." Global Events: Milestone Events Throughout History. Ed.
Jennifer Stock. Vol. 4: Europe. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2014. World History in
Context. Web. 13 Sept. 2015.
This Broad Context Source begins by providing a general overview of what was
occurring in the rest of the world at the time of the fall and of reunification. It is followed
by a background section that generalizes the relationship of East Germany and West
Germany directly after World War II in terms of the Easts relations with the Soviet
Union, and the Wests with the Western Allies. It also explains how East Germans
fleeing to the West embarrassed the Soviet Union and exhausted West Germany, and how
this led to the push towards building the wall. As the Soviet Union under the rule of
Mikhail Gorbachev, loosened their extreme policies on the countries in their sphere of
control, and how this then led to the celebrated and rejoiced fall of the wall. The source is

concluded by describing the global effects of the fall, including the end of the communist
era. The cause and effect in this source is very clear, and will prove to be an asset in
providing general knowledge of why the wall was constructed, and why it fell.
GR:
"Twenty-five years on; The Berlin Wall." The Economist. 8 Nov. 2014: 54(US). World History
in Context. Gale Databases. Web. 19 Sept. 2015.
This article published by The Economist addresses the impacts of reunification on the
nature of life in different parts of Germany, and discusses whether or not the two sides
grew together in a way that was beneficial to both western and eastern Germans. It
explains how the creating of a unified Germany was a complete clash of civilizations,
and inevitably resulted in major differences in culture across different areas in Germany.
Though many Western leaders like Kohl had visualized reunification leading to
blooming landscapes in the East, Eastern Germans had to adapt to the changes in their
everyday life before they could focus on blooming. Despite the fact that over the years
eastern Germans have gained more stability in terms of political and economic
infrastructure, according to polls, eastern Germans are still less content than
westerners. The article stresses how even years after reunification, the western areas of
Germany remain superior to the East in many facets. For example, in 2014,
unemployment in eastern Germany areas was 9.7% compared to western Germanys
5.9%. Statistics such as this will be helpful in supporting our assertions regarding the
negative impacts of the exchange between two entirely different political and economic
ideologies.
MA:
Wallace, Lois. "Review by Publisher's Weekly Review." Rev. of The Fall of the Berlin Wall by
William F. Buckley Jr. (n.d.): n. pag. 26 Mar. 2004. Web. 11 Oct. 2015.
This book review validates the insights and information presented by highly regarded
conservative author William F. Buckley Jr. in his book The Fall of the Berlin Wall. Lois
Wallace, the reviewer of the book in this piece, is considered by the New York times to
be a respected agent of prominent authors. She proves to be just that as she describes
Buckleys wit and discerning commentary on the events that occurred in Germany
between 1961 and 1990, between the day the wall came up and the day it came
crumbling down. Wallace also celebrates the fact that Buckley did not let his well
known conservative views and opposition to communism create a distinct bias in his
work. Though he excludes certain information, the knowledge that he does present is
very factual. Wallace concludes with the assertion that Buckley is at times funny, at
times genuinely horrified by the Communist regime, and at times exultant over its fall.
His lucid account celebrates the tenacity of the human spirit and the will to achieve
freedom. This shows the relevance of Buckleys work as he provides insightful
commentary on the subject matter, and describes at the fall in a positive light. This
further enhances the idea in our thesis that the East German hardships were necessary to
escape communism, and reach freedom as they have today.

OM:
Westerhof, Gerben J., and Corey L. M. Keyes. After the Fall of the Berlin Wall: Perceptions and
Consequences of Stability and Change Among Middle-Aged and Older East and West
Germans. Oxford Journals, 13 Feb. 2006. Web. 19 Sept. 2015.
In this study, professors Gerben Westerhof and Keyes Corey studied the stability and life
satisfaction in older East Germans in comparison to older West Germans. As East
Germans underwent more change and had to adjust to a completely different lifestyle, it
is logical that six years after reunification, East Germans indeed rated their material
situation worse, and reported less life satisfaction, than West Germans. This stems from
the East Germans having to readjust to a new way of life, and from their inability to
escape their inferiority to West Germans. For example, after the wall fell, unemployment
rates rose 16.7% for East Germany. This is because jobs were guaranteed and provided
for them while they were under the GDRs socialist regime, yet after Germany reunified,
the East Germans were expected to adapt to a free market economy. When these
guaranteed jobs were taken away, East Germans had to adjust and figure out how to
obtain jobs for themselves. These sudden changes clearly affected East Germans more
than West Germans, as West Germans reported more stability and less change than East
Germans. These differences in stability and in life satisfaction show how East Germans
presently are not completely satisfied with the results of reunification, creating their
resentment towards West Germany.