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INDIAN NATIONAL BIOLOGY OLYMPIAD (INBO)

STAGE-II
PREPARATORY TEST -1
Total Marks : 100

Total Time : 2 Hr.

Roll No.:

Batch : __________________________

Instruction to candidates (as had been there in the past INPhO papers)
The question paper is divided into Section A and Section B.
All answers should be written in the answer sheet booklet only which will be collected at the end of the
examination.
The question paper need not be submitted to the examiner.

Section A
Section A consists of 34 questions carrying 1 Mark each.
All 34 questions are of multiple choice type, with only one correct answer for each question.
Mark the correct answer with on the answer sheet provided. The correct way of marking is
shown below. Use a pen to mark your answer.
Q. No.

Each wrong answer will have negative marking as indicated in the scoring key.
Section B

Section B consists of a total of 22 questions with a total of 66 Mark.

The points for the questions in Part B vary depending on the number of answers and the complexity
of the question. These points have been indicated along with the question.

Contradictory answers will not be considered for marking.

RESONANCE

INBO-1 - 1

SECTION- A : (1 To 34 Questions 1 Marks)


Section-A
1.

Which of the following primarily contribute to the cytomembrane system of a cell ?


I. Endoplasmic reticulum
II. Vesicles
III. Microtubules
IV. Mitochondria
V. Golgi apparatus
(a) I and V only
(b) I, II, IV and V
(c) I, II and V
(d) I, II, III, IV and V

2.

In a laboratory, stems and roots of different plants were cut. When putting them into a box the slides mixed.
Which of the following cross sections corresponds to a primary root of Magnoliopsida?

(a) Epidermis

Cortex

Bicollateral
Bundles

Pith

(b) Epidermis

Cortex

Pericycle

4 xylem strands
ulternate with 4
phoem strands

(c) Periderm

Secondary
Cambium Secondary xylem
Phloem

(d) Epidermis

20 xylem strands
Pericycle alternate with
phloem

Cortex

3.

Treatment with antibiotic drugs helps overcome many bacterial infections.


Why is penicillin toxic to many bacteria?
(a) It interferes with DNA replication
(b) It inhibits transcription
(c) It disrupts translation
(d) It inhibits cell wall formation

4.

According to the current concept of Central Dogma of molecular biology, information transfer from proteins to
nucleic acids does not occur.
Which of the following could be considered a violation of the Central Dogma ?
I. Synthetesis of DNA on an RNA template by reverse transcriptase.
II. Gene transcription being activated by a protein binding to regulatory sequences.
III. Editing of RNA transcripts by the insertion and deletion of ribonucleotides.
IV. A polynucleotide polymerase specifically synthesizing a gene encoding itself from free deoxyribonucleotides.
(a) I
(b). IV
(c) II and III
(d) None of the above

RESONANCE

INBO-1 - 2

5.

In crossing true-bred yellow and grey fruit flies Drosophila, the following results were obtained:

Parent
Grey female x yellow
male
Yellow female x grey
male

Progeny
All grey
All males yellow, all
females- grey

Which statement is correct?


(a) Alleles for grey and yellow body colour are codominant
(b) The allele for grey body colour is X-linked recessive
(c) The allele for yellow body colour is X-linked dominant
(d) The allele for grey body colour is X-linked dominant
In rabbits, two genes A and B are present on two different chromosomes. Products of both wild type A and B
genes are essential for normal hearing. Homozygous recessive mutants either for A, B or both results in
deafness.
If a double heterozygous male (AaBb) is crossed with a double heterozygous female, the ratio of phenotypically normal and deaf rabbits will be:
(a) 15:1
(b) 7:9
(c). 9:7
(d) 13:3

7.

A typical light response curve of photosynthesis i I own.,The limiting factor/s for photo synthesis at M and N
is/are:
M
Photosynthetic CO2 assiimilation

6.

N
0

Light Intensity

(a) Temperature and CO2 respectively.


(b) CO2 and light respectively.
(c) Only CO2.
(d) Light and CO2 respectively.
Soil formation is a slow and continuous process. Following graph indicates soil composition over time. In this
graph P, Q and R must be:
Percentage of soil mass

8.

P
Q

1000 years

(a) P:
(b) P:
(c) P:
(d) P:

Biomass
Humus
Clay
Biomass

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Q: Clay
Q: Biomass
Q: Humus
Q: Humus

Time

10 years

R: Humus
R: Clay
R: Biomass
R: Clay

INBO-1 - 3

9.

What is the probability for exactly three children to have a dominant phenotype in a family with four
children of heterozygous parents (Aa x Aa)?
(a) 2%
(b) 56%
(c) 36%
(d) 44%

10.

In ecological pyramids, normally each higher trophic level is smaller.


Possible exceptions leading to inverted pyramids are:
I. A pyramid of numbers with one big producer.
II. A pyramid of mass when producers have a very short life cycle.
III. A pyramid of energy in extremely hot ecosystems.
Which combination is correct?
(a) Only I and II.
(b) Only II and III.
(c) Only I and III.
(d) I, II and III.

11.

Carnivorous plants trap insects. What do they obtain from the insects? What do they primarily use this
substance for?
(a) They obtain water, because they live in a dry environment
(b) They obtain nitrogen to make sugar
(c) They obtain phosphorus to make protein
(d) They obtain nitrogen to make protein

12.

The result of an experiment which uses guard cell protoplasts of Vicia faba is given below. Protoplasts were
incubated in a suspension medium with isotonic osmotic pressure. After 30 min under saturating red light
they were irradiated with blue light for 30 sec. During the experiment in which the protoplasts were cultured
the pH of the medium was monitored.

What would be the most plausible conclusion based on the above results?
(a) Blue light may help guard cells to take up protons from outside into the cell.
(b) Blue light may enhance the ability of guard cells to pump protons out of the cell.
(c) Blue light may be a very effective wavelength of light for the respiration of the guard cells.
(d) Blue light may activate all of the protoplasts to give away their energy.
13.

You carry out a cross between homozygous purple-eyed flies with vestigial wings, and wild-type flies. The
resulting F1 flies are all phenotypically wild-type. In the progeny of the testcross of F1 females you observe
the following phenotypes:
Phenotype
Progeny
Purple-eyed, vestigial wings
1193
Purple-eyed, normal wings
159
Red-eyed, vestigial wings
161
Red-eyed, normal wings
1129
What is the map distance between these two loci?
(a) 12.2 map units.
(b) 48.2 map units.
(c) 6.2 map units.
(d) 24.4 map units.

RESONANCE

INBO-1 - 4

14.

The graph shows the productivity of an aquatic ecosystem measured in terms of dissolved oxygen produced
and consumed by green plants and photosynthetic algae where PS = photosynthesis and R = respiration.

Study the graph and answer the following questions.


1 Which bar represents net primary productivity?
2 An algal bloom occurs until nutrient levels are exhausted. Then the algae die off and microbial decomposition
begins. What will happen during the algal bloom?
(a) PS will be increased, R will be decreased.
(b) PS will be decreased, R will be increased.
(c) PS and R will not change.
(d) PS + R will increase.
15.

The figure shown below is a diagram of an evolutionary tree. Which of the following statements about
evolution are true and deducible from the figure?

(1) All eucaryotic cells contain mitochondria.


(2) Symbiosis of the eucaryotic ancestor with autotrophic cells preceded the symbiosis with
the cell taking advantage of the oxidative metabolism.
(3) There is a common ancestor of eubacteria and eukaryota, archaebacteria are a group with unique and
independent origin.
(4) The ancestral eukaryote was anaerobic.
(5) None of the recent photosynthetic bacteria are related to the chloroplasts.
(6) Mitochondria and chloroplasts have similar genomes.
(7) Mitochondria are present in the cells of the plants, animals and fungi.
(8) Fungi lost chloroplasts during evolution.
(9) Bacteria are a highly homogenous group of organisms which showed rapid diversification of their genomes
and metabolisms during the last billion years.
(10) Chloroplasts and mitochondria are results of independent endosymbiotic events.
(a) 1, 2, 5
(b) 3, 4, 7
(c) 4, 7, 10
(d) 6, 8, 10

RESONANCE

INBO-1 - 5

16.

The optimum temperature for photosynthesis and the optimum temperature of respiration is somewhere in
the range of 5 - 35 C. Which of the following statements is correct?
(a) optimum temp for photosynthesis < optimum temp for dissimilation
(b) optimum temp for photosynthesis = optimum temp for dissimilation
(c) optimum temp for photosynthesis > optimum temp for dissimilation
(d) None

17.

If in another population the frequency of the A1A1 genotype is 0.25 and the frequency of the A1A2 genotype
is 0.45, in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the frequency of matings between the A2A2 and A2A2 genotypes
would be:
(a) 0.063.
(b) 0.300.
(c) 0.090.
(d) 0.112

18.

Values of the total surface area of the gills (expressed in arbitrary units) per unit gram body weight of two
types of fish are given below.
Fish I : 442
Fish II : 1725
Which of the following can be predicted from the data?
(a) Fish I is marine while II is a fresh water fish.
(b) Fish I is a bottom dwelling fish and II is a surface dwelling fish.
(c) Fish I is bony fish and II is a cartilagenous fish.
(d) Fish I is with small body mass and fish II is with large body mass.

19.

Male child brought up in an orphanage was claimed by an old couple: This old couple had lost their daughter
and son-in-law in an accident, when they were on a tour with the child, who was one year old. Another young
couple also claimed that the child belonged to them, however, the wife got divorced after the child went
missing and married another person.
Which test will be most appropriate to solve the parentage problem?
(a) Blood group matching of the child, the old couple and wife among the young couple.
(b) Matching of Genomic DNA fingerprints of all the members with that of the child.
(c) Mitochondria DNA fingerprint matching of the old and young women with that of the child.
(d) Matching of the Y-chromosome of the old man with the child.

20.

Hemoglobin molecule binds to oxygen and transports it across various tissues in animals. It shows a characteristic binding pattern at various partial pressures of oxygen The three graphs P, Q and R in the figure
represent binding patterns in:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

P : individual adapted to sea level


Q : anemic individual
R : individual adapted to high altitudes
P : maternal hemoglobin
Q : fetal hemoglobin
R : anemic individual
P : individual adapted to high altitudes
Q : individual adapted to sea level
R : anemic individual
P : anemic individual
Q : maternal hemoglobin
R : fetal hemoglobin

RESONANCE

INBO-1 - 6

21.

Consider three different types of mammalian skeletal muscles:


(i) Ocular muscle
(ii) Soleus muscle (involved in continuous support of body against gravity)
(iii) Gastrocnemius muscle (involved in velocity of limb movements)
Muscle contraction properties of these muscles are depicted in the graph.

The muscles represented-by X, Y and Z are:


(a) X:(i) Y:(ii)
Z:(iii)
(b) X:(ii) Y:(i)
Z:(iii)
(c) X:(iii)Y:(ii)
Z:(i)
(d) X:(i) Y:(iii) Z:(ii)

22.

The circulatory system shown below represents:


(a) a bird.
(b) an amphibian.
(c) a mammal.
(d) a fish.

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23.

Consider three animals bat, bird and human for the following body structures:
Wing structure (W)
Feathers (F)
Hair (H)
Mammary glands (M)
Choose the cladogram that classifies these animals most parsimoniously and put a tick mark () in the
appropriate box.

Human

Bat

Bird

a.

Human

Bat

b.

W M

Bat

Bat
Bird

Human

Humam

Bird
F

c.

d.

H
H

a.

c.

d.

A seal is allowed to dive and remain in water for 10 mins and is brought to the surface. Levels of various
constituents in the blood are recorded during this activity. The lines P, Q and R respectively indicate

Ml per 100 ml blood

24.

b.

40

Q
R

20
Underwater
10min

Drive

Time in min

a. CO2, O2 and lactic acid concentrations


b. O2, CO2 and lactic acid concentrations
c. O2, lactic acid concentrations and CO2
d. CO2, O2 and H2CO3 concentrations
Choose from the options and put a tick mark (v) in the appropriate box.
a.

b.

c.

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d.

INBO-1 - 8

25.

The three characteristic features of human circulatory system are tabulated below. P, Q and R respectively
represent

Aorta

P
100

Capillaries

40-10

100-40

Arteries
Arterioles

40

100

50

40-30

250

Venules
Veins

30-12

Less than 0.1

12-10

Less than 0.3

10-5

2200

Vena cava

0.3-5
5-20

(a) blood pressure, blood volume, blood velocity (b) blood volume, blood pressure, blood velocity
(c) blood volume, blood velocity, blood pressure (d) blood velocity, blood pressure, blood volume
Carbonic anhydrase enzyme catalyses the following bidirectional reaction
CO2+H2O
H2CO3
If the activity of this enzyme is compared between three animals - elephant, sheep and mouse, the likely
trend would be
(a) Mouse > sheep > elephant
(b) elephant > mouse > sheep
(c) sheep > mouse > elephant
(d) elephant > sheep > mouse

37.

Oxygen dissociation curves of toadfish blood at two different conditions (P & Q) are shown.
% saturation of hemoglobin

26.

100

20

20
100
O2 pressure (mm of Mercury)

P and Q respectively indicate


(a) high and low temperature.
(b) low and high blood pH
(c) low and high CO2 concentration
(d) high and low metabolic activity
28.

A baby born to a diabetic mother sometimes shows signs of hypoglycemia for some period just after birth.
This is due to:
(a) continued maternal insulin activity.
(b) utilization of sugar from baby's blood for its activities after birth.
(c) increased fetal insulin level to counter excess sugar from mother.
(d) reduced production of maternal insulin as a result of diabetes.

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INBO-1 - 9

29.

Transverse section of a mature female Ascaris lumbricoides is shown. The labeled structures P, Q and R
respectively represent

P
R

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

blood vessel, pseudocoel and dorsal nerve


uterus, coelom and dorsal nerve
blood vessel, coelom and germinal epithelium
uterus, pseudocoelom and ventral nerve

30.

Some vitamins need to be supplied regularly in our daily diets while others may be supplied intermittently.
Examples of these two types, respectively, are:
(a) Vit C and Vit D
(b) Vit A and Vit B6
(c) Vit D and Vit E
(d) Vit B6 and Vit B12

31.

Oxytocin shows following four consequences in the human body:


i) Hypertension
ii) Uterine contraction
iii) Milk ejection
These results are due to effect on:
(a) smooth muscle and membrane permeability.
(b) striated muscle and membrane depolarization.
(c) smooth and striated muscles.
(d) voluntary and involuntary muscles.

32.

iv) Anti-diuresis

Relative rates of red blood cell production in the bone marrow of different bones at different ages are shown
in the graph. P, Q and R are likely to be, respectively :

(a) vertebra, rib and tibia.


(b) femur, carpal and rib.
(c) tibia, fibula and femur.
(d) radius, sternum and carpal.

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33.

Characteristic features of different blood vessels in the body are shown. P, Q and R represent:

(a) P: Total area

Q: Velocity

R: Blood pressure

(b) P: Blood pressure Q: Velocity R Total area


(c) P: Velocity Q: Total area R: Blood pressure
(d) P: Total area
34.

Q: Blood pressure R: Velocity

Which of the following structures are homologous from the evolutionary point of view?
(a) Petals of rose and the anther of an apple blossom.
(b) Wings of a bird and wings of a butterfly.
(c) Spines of a cactus and spines of a porcupine.
(d) Flagellum of Euglena and the cilium of paramecium.

SECTION B : (35 - 56 Questions 3 Marks)


NOTE :

35.

Write all answers in the ANSWERSHEET ONLY.


Only the answer sheets will be collected at the end of the examination.

The C3, C4 and CAM pathways are the major CO2 fixing pathways present in plants.
The following are a few statements relating to one or more of the pathways. Assign all the possible pathway/
s to each statement.
Options:
A. C3 pathway
B. C4 pathway
C. CAM pathway
Note: Only an entirely correct answer in each blank will get 0.5 point.
Statements:(1) The Calvin cycle operates in the chloroplast: __________
(2) The primary carboxylation is catalysed by rubisco:__________
(3) The atmospheric CO2 is first fixed during the day:__________
(4) The whole process of CO2 uptake and it's fixation takes place in a single cell:________

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36.

Evolutionary tree of land plants is shown in the diagram. The correct description of P, Q & R is:

(A)

P : Protist ancestor
Q: Primitive tracheophyte
R: Spermatophytes

(B)

P : Green algal ancestor


Q: Primitive tracheophyte
R: Bryophytes

(C)

P : Protist ancestor
Q: Green algae
R: Primitive vascular plant

(D)

P : Primitive tracheophyte
Q: Origin of seeds
R: Bryophytes

Choose from the options and put a tick mark () in the appropriate box.
a.

37.

b.

c.

d.

v.

vi.

A student made a pictorial representation of a eukaryotic cell membrane and labeled the components as
follows.

Mark against each statement as true (T) or false (F) with respect to error/s or correction/s required in the
representation.
a. Protein A should be labeled as trans-membrane protein only and not as integral protein. ________
b. The polarity of the protein A should be reversed because the cytosolic phase always shows
reducing environment. __________
c. Position of cholesterol molecule should be close to polar region as it contains a polar group.
____________
d. Protein B should be labeled as integral membrane protein and not as peripheral glycoprotein. __________

RESONANCE

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38.

The following curves show the growth of two different species of bacteria G and H. They were cultured in Petri
plates of two different sizes (7cm diameter and 10 cm diameter) with 20 ml of a similar nutrient media. (The
lighter colour indicates the population in the smaller Petri plate.)

Which of the following would be true for the above experiment?


I. Species G has reached its carrying capacity.
II. Species H has reached its carrying capacity.
III. Species G is limited in its population by space
IV. Species H is limited in its population by space
(a) I, II and Ill only
(b) I and II only
(c) III and IV only
(d) I, II, Ill and IV
39.

Phenylketonuria (PKU) results due to absence of phenylalanine hydroxylase and Alkaptoneuria (AKU) results due to the absence of homogenistic acid oxidase. The following pathway shows where these enzymes
function.

If a person is homozygous for recessive alleles of both PKU and AKU, he will show symptoms of:
(a). Only PKU.
(b) Only AKU.
(c) PKU and AKU simultaneously.
(d) PKU initially and later AKU.

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40.

The figure below shows the nitrogen cycle. Complete the table below according to the information provided.

Bacteria

RESONANCE

(A)

Able to form nodules with


plants

(B)

Able to dentrify

(C )

Able to nitrify

(D)

Able to use ammonium as


energy source

(E)

Able to fix nitrogen

Answer a
through

INBO-1 - 14

41.

The diagram represents an eukaryotic cell cycle divided into 5 phases. Match phases A-E of the diagram
with the cell cycle stages shown in the Table and match the processes F-J with the appropriate cell cycle
stage shown in the Table.

42.

Considering the roles of membrane lipids and proteins, and the functions of the following membranes, match
the protein/lipid ratios given below to the following membranes.
A. Schwann cell membrane (myelin sheath)
B. Erythrocyte (red blood cell) membrane
C. Inner mitochondrial membrane

RESONANCE

INBO-1 - 15

43.

Algae were supplied with a radioactive isotope of Carbon, 14 C, and allowed to photosynthesise. After a
period of time, the light was switched off and the algae were left in the dark. The graph shows the relative
amount of some radioactive labelled compounds over the period of the experiment.

Which line represents the amount of glycerate 3-phosphate (3GP), ribulose biphosphate (RuBP) and sucrose
formed? Fill out the correct letter of the line in the correct box.
Compound
(1) 3GP
(2) RuBP
(3) Sucrose

44.

Ecological pyramids depict the inter-relationships between the various trophic levels. Four pyramids are
shown below. Match them against the correct description
C3
D

(I)

C3

C2
C1

(II)

C2
C1

C3
C2

(III)

C2

C1

(IV)
P

C1
P

(A) Pyramid of biomass in a tree ecosystem: _______


(B) Number pyramid of grassland ecosystem: _________
(C) Pyramid of biomass in a pond: __________

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45.

A mutation in the haemoglobin gene (HbS) causes sickle cell disease that produces a cascade of symptoms
such as:
1. Anaemia.
2. Sickle shaped red blood cells.
3. Breakdown of red blood cells.
4. Clumping of cells and clogging of small blood vessels.
5. Heart failure.
6. Kidney failure.
7. Brain damage.
8. Damage to other organ.
9. Paralysis.
In the following diagram, the symptom in the box on top of the arrow causes the symptom in the box below
the arrow.
Match A, B, C and D with the correct number.

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46.

Analyse the following schematic figures depicting basic architecture of body plan for multicellular animals
and answer questions A C.

(A) A true coelom is represented in :


(a) A and B only
(b) A only
(c) B and C only
(d) A, C and D only
Choose from the options and put a tick mark ( ) in the appropriate box.
a.

b.

c.

d.

(B) The most likely evolutionary sequence of body plans acquired by multicellular animals is represented
by :
(a) E F G C A
(b) E G D C A
(c) F E G D C B A
(d). F E G C A
Choose from the options and put a tick mark (?) in the appropriate box.
a.

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b.

c.

d.

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47.

There are basic differences in the physiology and life histories such as mode of fertilization, bearing and
rearing the young, etc in different groups of animals. These can account for the differences in parental
care as well as mating systems in these groups.
For each of the following life history characteristics, assign the most probable mating system and parental
care type. Choose from the options given below and fill in the table with the appropriate alphabets and
numbers.

Options for Parental Care Type :


a. Male parental care
b. Female parental care
c. Biparental care
d. No parental care
Options for Mating System :
I. Monogamy
II. Polyandry
III. Polygyny
IV. Promiscuity
48.

Effect of some compounds (present in partially digested food) on pancreatic secretion is depicted in the bar
graph. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 represent :

(a) 1. Acid 2. Fat 3. Salt


(b) 1. Salt 2. Peptone 3. Fat
(c) 1. Acid 2. Fat 3. Peptone
(d) 1. Pepsin 2. Acid 3. Fat

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49.

Following is a pedigree for a family for Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTRs) A1 to A6 and a genetic
disorder (shaded symbols).

What is the percent recombination frequency between the VNTR and disease loci? Write your answer only
upto two decimal places.
Answer: _______ %
50.

Vision is generated by photoreceptors in the retina. The information leaves the eye by way of the optic nerve.
The visual pathway from eye to cortex region is depicted in the diagram. A lesion in the optic nerve fibre can
lead to partial or complete loss of vision depending on the site of the lesion. Lesions in four different sites are
indicated by black lines. Match them against the corresponding visual field defect and fill in the number in the
appropriate box in the table.

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51.

The following figure shows the interaction between the hypothalamus, the anterior hypolhysis and the male
gonads. The full arrow () indicate excitatory effects and the dotted arrows (----) indicate inhibing effects.
Hypothalamus

GnRH

LH

Anterior Hypophysis or
anterior pituitary

Testis

Match the letters A up to E with the following aspects :(1) Sertoli cells
(2) Testosteron
(3) FSH
(4) Leydig cell
(5) In hibin
52.

The following table indicates some properties of human cells. Indicate with () mark if the given property is
shown by a cell type or a (X) sign if the cell does not show the property.
No.

Cell type

RBCs

Neurons

Sperms

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Carry out
oxidative
Phosphorylation

Contain
genetic
material

Can grow in Can undergo


size
cell division

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53.

A cladogram of various animal groups is shown below. The boxes in the cladogram indicate the development of specific structures in the course of evolution. Fill these boxes with numbers indicating the correct
structures. Choose from the options given.

Options :
1. Paired appendages
3. Jaws
5. Clawed digits
7. Four-chambered heart

Arbitrary units

Arbitrary units

When a person drinks excess quantity of water, it affects various parameters. The effects are depicted in four
graphs (A D). Assign the correct parameter to each graph by choosing from the options below.

(A)

3hr

(B)

3hr

Drinking of
excess water

Drinking of
excess water
Arbitrary units

Arbitrary units

54.

2. Bony endoskeleton
4. Three-chambered heart
6. Cartilaginous endoskeleton
8. Operculum

(C)

3hr
Drinking of
excess water

(D)

3hr
Drinking of
excess water

Options:
I. Plasma osmolarity
II. Osmolarity of urine
III. Urine flow rate
IV. Plasma anti-diuretic hormone level
Answers :
Graph A : ____
Graph B : ____
Graph C : ____
Graph D : ____

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55.

A few types of locomotory actions are listed in column A. Choose from the options and fill in the table with the
number of the appropriate animal.
Table
Options :
I. Earthworm
II. Nereis
III. Crab
IV. Planarian
V. Amoeba
VI. Leech

56.

In some organisms, the cells are in direct contact with the surroundings. However in several multicellular
organisms, cells are not in direct contact with surroundings and hence require some medium for the exchange of nutrients, metabolic waste and respiratory gases. A few animals are listed below. Choose the
appropriate medium of circulation and transport and fill the number against each animal.
a. Sponge
b. Hydra
c. Octopus
d. Planarian
e. Round worm
f. Bony fish
g. Prawn
h. Earthworm
Options :
1. Water surrounding the body
2. Body fluids without respiratory pigments
3. Haemolymph
4. Blood

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