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Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources:
Anderson, Martin, and Annelise Graebner Anderson. Reagan's Secret War: The
Untold Story of His Fight to save the World from Nuclear Disaster. New York:
Crown Publishers, 2009.
Martin Anderson and Annelise Anderson, husband and wife, are Fellows at the
Hoover Institution. Martin Anderson, an M.I.T. Ph.D., worked in the Reagan
White House as an economic policy advisor and has recently sat on the Pentagon's
defense-policy board. Annelise Anderson, a Columbia Ph.D., was not only a
senior policy adviser to the Reagan Presidential Campaign, but was also an
associate director within Reagan's Office of Management and Budget. This source
will serve as a primary source that will be used in multiple sections throughout
our website.
Byrne, Malcolm, and Kornbluh, Peter. The Iran-Contra Scandal: The Declassified
History. New York: New Press :, 1993.
Peter Kornbluh, at the time of writing, was a senior analyst for the National
Security Archive and a professor of international/public affairs at Columbia
University, with a focus on Latin American-U.S. relations. Malcolm Byrne was
the director of analysis at the National Security Archive at the time of writing.
These two editors created this book, which is a collection of declassified
documents showing the progression of the Iran-Contra Affair. The book contains
both primary source documents, as well as explanations of certain events
occurring at the time. It will be used for multiple sections of our website,
specifically the timeline portion.
"Diary, Caspar W. Weinberger, December 7, 1985." Accessed September 27, 2015.
Caspar Weinberger, Secretary of Defense at the time, took notes on Reagans
meeting with several top advisors in the White House family quarters on
December 7, 1985. Weinberger captures the pure determination of Reagan to
follow through with the shipment to Iran. Weinberger served as the Secretary of
Defense from 1981-1987 during the Reagan Administration. This source will
count as a primary source in our groups research, and will be used primarily for
the exchange section.
Draper, Theodore. A Very Thin Line: The Iran-contra Affairs. New York: Simon &
Schuster, 1992.

Theodore Draper is a well-known historical and political author. Draper wrote 14

books surrounding various subjects such as the American Communist Party, the
Cuban Revolution, as well as the Iran-Contra Affair. This particular novel
contains Congressional testimonies and other primary sources. Furthermore, it is
recommended as a definitive text dealing with this important historical event. It
will be used to enhance our thinking of certain people involved with the affairs.
"Excerpts From Reagan's Testimony on the Iran-Contra Affair." The New York
Times. February 22, 1990. Accessed December 6, 2015.
This source contains excerpts from Reagans Testimony on the Iran-Contra Affair.
It will be used to enhance our websites credibility as well as to give us more of a
sense of how Reagan responded to the questions that prosecutors asked him. It
will serve as a primary source.
"Iran Contra Committee Key Findings." Iran Contra Committee Key Findings.
Accessed September 23, 2015.
These key findings from the Congressional Committee Investigating Iran Contra
majority report were published on November 18, 1987. In the report, the
Congressional Committee elaborates on the different parts of the Iran-Contra
Affair. The long, yet detailed report provides a terrific explanation of the events
that occurred and served as a primary source in our research. It was used in the
Explore section of our website.
Kornbluh, Peter, Malcolm Byrne, and Thomas Blanton. "The Iran-Contra Affair 20
Years On." The Iran-Contra Affair 20 Years On. Accessed September 30,
This page on the National Security Archive contains a large collection of primary
documents pertaining to the Iran Contra-Affair. For example, the collection of
documents contains a document pertaining to the presidential finding on covert
operations in Nicaragua. This large collection of primary sources provides our
group with valuable evidence into the authorizations, meetings, and other
important factors in the Iran-Contra scandal that other sources may not be able to
supply. It will serve as one of our groups archives, as many other sources have
come from this source.
Ledeen, Michael Arthur. Perilous Statecraft: An Insider's Account of the Iran-Contra
Affair. New York: Scribner, 1988.
Michael Ledeen graduated from the University of Wisconsin with a Ph.D. in
History and Philosophy. Ledeen was a consultant to the NSC and the State
Department when Iran started to become involved during the Iran-Contra Affair.

He served as an early, and rare, middleman with Israeli and Iranian contacts that
immensely helped the United States. Nowadays, Michael Ledeen serves as an
American historian, philosopher, political analyst, and outstanding writer.
Although he was not involved in the diversion of funds to the Contras, Ledeen
gives his account of what happened in this particular journal.
"President Ronald Reagan's Legacy." YouTube. Accessed December 6, 2015.
This source is from a CBS documentary on Reagan and his legacy that would live
on forever. It contains some primary interviews with people such as Kenneth
Duberstein (Chief of Staff to Reagan). This source will be used to enhance our
Legacy section of our website.
Reagan, Ronald. An American Life. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990.
Ronald Reagan, the former President of the United States of America and former
Governor of California, is the author of this book. Reagan enrolled in Eureka
College in Illinois where he majored in economics and sociology. Although this
autobiography speaks to Reagan's entire life, he does dedicate a large portion of
the autobiography to the Iran-Contra Affair. Reagan was in presidency for a total
of eight years and many political figures nowadays consider him to be a positive
change for our country. This source will be primary for our group, as it is an
Reagan, R., & Linden, J. (1982). January 27, 1987. In State of the Union Address.
This iBook is a primary source that contains all of Ronald Reagans State of the
Union Addresses over his tenure as president. In his address on January 27, 1987,
Reagan addresses the United States involvement in Iran as well as the Sandinista
Regime in Nicaragua. In Reagans State of the Union Addresses, he briefs the
nation on the Reagan Administrations involvement in the Iran Contra-Affair. It
will be a terrific source to use for our groups website, specifically for use of
quotes in the website.
Rizzo, John Anthony. Company Man: 30 Years of Controversy and Crisis in the CIA.
New York, New York: Scribner, 2014.
John Rizzo started working for the CIA in 1975, and rose within the organization
until he became the point person answering for the Iran-Contra Scandal. He has
been a part of many of the CIAs controversial operations since he entered the
organization, and he is a key source into the CIAs role in the Iran-Contra scandal.
This source will be used in the Exchange portion of our website.

"Tower Commission Report Excerpts." Tower Commission Report Excerpts.

Accessed October 5, 2015. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/PS157/assignment
files public/TOWER EXCERPTS.htm#PartII.
This primary source contains primary excerpts from the Tower Commission
Report, which was published on February 26, 1987 in response to the Iran-Contra
Scandal. The Tower Commission was made up of John Tower, Edmund Muskie,
and Brent Scowcroft. President Ronald Reagan formed it November 26, 1986.
Later on, the Congressional Committees Investigating the Iran-Contra Affair
continued the investigation of the scandal. This report should serve as a primary
source and provide vital information for the Explore part of our website.
"Understanding the Iran-Contra Affairs." Understanding the Iran-Contra Affairs.
Accessed October 31, 2015.
This source will serve as one of our archives. It was made as a project, which
evolved from an applied ethics and public policy course at Brown University
called Good Government. This particular course examines several concepts
that have been promoted in the name of good government, including integrity,
accountability, and transparency. The course also examines Watergate and
subsequent political scandals. This website was built to serve as an effective
teaching, as well as learning, tool. Each of the topics will raise questions about
lying to Congress, the role of the special prosecutors, and executive power. The
source includes a variety of primary sources and will be extremely valuable to our
Walsh, Lawrence E. Firewall: The Iran-Contra Conspiracy and Cover-up. New York:
Norton, 1997.
Lawrence E. Walsh, a lawyer and former Deputy Attorney General who was
appointed Independent Counsel in December 1986 to investigate the Iran-Contra
Affair, wrote Firewall: The Iran-Contra Conspiracy and Cover-up. In this novel,
Lawrence E. Walsh serves a primary source on the Iran-Contra Affair. He
investigated high-ranking officials within the Reagan Administration. This will
enhance our Explore section of the website.
Weinraub, Bernard. Iran Payment Found Diverted To Contras; Reagan Security
Adviser And Aide Are Out, November 16, 1986. Accessed September 30, 2015.
Bernard Weinraub was an American journalist who worked for the New York
Times from 1991 to 2004 covering a wide variety of events. He penned this
special to the New York Times in 1986 after the scandal was discovered and
reported upon. This article includes several quotes from President Reagan
regarding the Iran-Contra affair and offers insight into the revealing of the entire

scandal. It also represents what the public opinion on the ordeal may have been at
the time. It will serve as one of our primary sources within our project showing
how the public reacted to the affairs.
Secondary Sources:
"American Experience: TV's Most-watched History Series." PBS. Accessed
September 25, 2015.
The Public Broadcasting Service, or PBS for short, is an American broadcasting
and television program distributor. The website for PBS is very educational and
publishes various general articles on events such as the Iran-Contra Affair. This
corporation is private and nonprofit. The particular source will serve as a
secondary source containing brief information on the Iran-Contra Affair.
Corn, David. "Iran/contra: 20 Years Later and What It Means." The Nation.
November 28, 2006. Accessed October 8, 2015.
This article, written by David Corn, contains many of the investigative aspects as
well as the aftermath effects of the Iran-Contra scandal. David Corn is an
American political journalist as well as editor for The Nation. In 2013, Corn
was awarded the George Polk Award in journalism. Additionally, Corn can be
seen appearing several times on Fox News and other major news networks.
Earle, Geoff. "Released Gitmo Prisoners Return to Evil Ways: Report." Accessed
October 18, 2015. http://nypost.com/2015/03/06/released-gitmo-prisonersreturn-to-evil-ways-report/.
Geoff Earle is a contributor for the New York Post. He wrote this article, and
many others about foreign policy, the government, etc. Given that he writes for
the New York Post, he is fairly reliable. This contains brief information, but will
give our group a general understanding of the affairs and their effects/context
leading up to affairs.
"Iran-Contra Affair." Accessed December 6, 2015.

This source is a secondary source produced by Gale Group. It will help contribute
to our groups general understanding of the events of the affairs. It also provides
some good dates for previous events leading up to the affairs, which we used in
our Context section of the website.
Koroma, Salima. "25 Years Later: The Iran-Contra Scandal." Time. Accessed
November 2, 2015. http://time.com/2954148/iran-contra/.
Salima Koroma is a video producer for Time. Time is a New York-based
publishing company that is normally reliable. Koroma produced this brief video
clip to show Oliver Norths actions in the Iran-Contra Affairs and how different
people perceive his actions. Time covers various topics ranging from government
to celebrities. This source will be secondary for our group, but it will also give us
a great overview of Oliver North.
Lawson, Don, and Barbara Silberdick Feinberg. America Held Hostage: The Iran
Hostage Crisis and the Iran-contra Affair. New York: F. Watts., 1991.
Don Lawson was the editor of Comptons Educators Encyclopedia. He was an
acclaimed author of history for teens. This book is part of the series, Twentieth
Century American History, which contains brief informational histories of
Watergate, The Manhattan Project, and other 20th century critical events. The
other author, Barbara Feinberg, was a consulting editor for the series. She is an
author of nonfiction for young adults, and also has obtained a Ph.D. in political
science from Yale University.
Mayer, Jane, and Doyle McManus. Landslide: The Unmaking of the President, 19841988. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1988.
Landslide, by the respective authors of Jane Mayer and Doyle McManus, is an
incredibly detailed book surrounding the second term of President Ronald Reagan
and his eventual unmaking. Jane Mayer is a graduate of Yale University who has
written about the 1984 presidential campaign, investigated the bombing of the
Marine barracks in Beirut, and reported on the entertainment business. On the
other hand, Doyle McManus hails from Stanford University, specializing in the
Iran-Contra Affair. He has been a foreign correspondent in Lebanon, Iran, and
Central America. Both authors have reported for well-known industries including
the Wall Street Journal (Mayer) and the Los Angeles Times (McManus). This
source will count as a secondary source.
Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Ronald Reagan: Impact and
Legacy. Accessed October 8, 2015. http://millercenter.org/president/biography/reagan-impact-and-legacy.
The Miller Center is a non-partisan affiliate of the University of Virginia that
specializes in presidential scholarship, public policy, and political history and

strives to apply the lessons of history to the nations most pressing contemporary
governance challenges. It is based upon the University of Virginia, and values
academic excellence within its work. The source will be primarily used for the
Legacy portion of the website.
Patterson, James T. Restless Giant: The United States from Watergate to Bush v. Gore.
New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
This source is a terrific secondary source that we used to research Reagans
leadership style. It gave some terrific background information on the Cold War
and how Reagans Anti-Communism attitude translated into the Iran-Contra
Affair. It was used throughout all aspects of the website.
Quarterly, Inc. The Iran-Contra Puzzle. Washington, D.C.: Congressional
Quarterly, 1987.
Congressional Quarterly is an organization that is primarily dedicated to the
government and legislative processes. This corporation is a reliable inside source
to the happenings of the government. Congressional Quarterly also is the only
media company that connects policy professionals and opinion leaders with the
information and tools they need to understand and influence Congress. Over the
years, this organization has earned a reputation for delivering comprehensive,
accurate and objective congressional reporting.
Torr, James D. The 1980s. San Diego, Calif.: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
James D. Torr is a published author and an editor of children's books and young
adult books. Some of the published credits of James D. Torr include "Genetic
Engineering (Current Controversies)" and "At Issue Series - How Does Religion
Influence Politics?" It will give us an overview of how the publics perception of
Reagan changed/remained the same as a result of the affairs.
"Walsh Iran / Contra Report - Chapter 8 The Enterprise and Its Finances." Walsh
Iran / Contra Report - Chapter 8 The Enterprise and Its Finances. Accessed
December 10, 2015. https://fas.org/irp/offdocs/walsh/chap_08.htm.
This source contains Lawrence Walshs Investigation into the Iran-Contra Affair.
It is clearly a primary source with all sorts of valuable information. We used this
mainly to contribute to our The Enterprise page.
Wilentz, Sean. The Age of Reagan: A History, 1974-2008. New York, NY: Harper,
Professor Sean Wilentz is an author who has written many novels about American
history and government such as The Rise of American Democracy, which won the
Bancroft Prize and was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize. Wilentz teaches American

history at Princeton University in New Jersey, where he has taught since 1979.
This secondary source will give our group a general synopsis of The Iran-Contra
Affair. It is fairly detailed, and important though.
Journal Articles:
Brody, Richard A., and Catherine R. Shapiro. "Policy Failure and Public Support:
The Iran-Contra Affair and Public Assessment of President Reagan."
Political Behavior Polit Behav: 353-69. Accessed October 7, 2015.
This journal article written by Richard A. Brody and Catherine R. Shapiro will be
extremely useful to our research project. Containing 11 references in the journal,
Brody and Shapiro provide valuable information regarding the contras, political
ideology, and the Iran situation. Although it is a bit long in size, the information
should help our group formulate some different thoughts on the Iran-Contra
Busby, Robert. "Reagan and the Iran-Contra Affair." Vol. 29, No. 4 (Dec., 1999): Pg.
The author of this journal, Robert Busby, is a British scholar of American studies.
Busby focuses on historical events, and many political events involving certain
presidents of the United States. Busby is most interested by how the president's
handle certain events. He wrote this journal, focusing mainly on the United States
and Ronald Reagan's side of the affair. This journal will add to our surplus of
journal sources and give our project more credibility.
Kornbluh, Peter. "The Iran-Contra Scandal: A Postmortem." World Policy Journal
5, no. 1 (Winter, 1987/1988), 129-50.
Peter Kornbluh is a leading historian on the Iran-Contra Affair who wrote
multiple other sources we are using. He works at the National Security Archive, a
reliable archive on the topic. He wrote this piece for World Policy Journal, a
leading scholarly publication vetted by peers, for the Winter 1987-88 edition.
Kornbluhs source should give us some details on the effects of the affairs.
Parry, Robert, and Peter Kornbluh. "Iran-Contra's Untold Story." Foreign Policy
No. 72, no. Autumn (1988): 3-30.
Peter Kornbluh is one of our leading historian covering the Iran-Contra Affair.
Kornbluh works at the National Security Archive. Also, he is the author of The
Iran Contra Scandal: The declassified history. This particular journal article in the
Foreign Policy Journal talks about the unseen, and unpublicized, side of the IranContra scandal-the propaganda and fear tactics used by the Reagan administration
to control public opinion. Robert Parry worked at Newsweek at the time of

writing and won the George Polk prize for his reporting of the CIA contra
manuals. This source will contribute to our list of journal articles surrounding the
Iran-Contra Affair, and will be vital in showing the true story of the affairs.
(Ronald Reagan portrait)
(Ronald Reagan with first lady Nancy Reagan)
(Ronald Reagan portrait)
(The Cold War, specifically Soviet troops)
(Hostages taken in Lebanon)
(Ronald Reagan talks to reporters)
(Ronald Reagan with American flag in background)
(Ronald Reagan in The Gipper)
(Ronald Reagan as a young child)

(Ronald Reagan speaking to public)
(Ronald Reagan takes oath of office)
(Portrait of John Hinckley Jr.)
(Gorbachev and Reagan end Cold War)
(Ronald Reagan gives speech to accept presidency into second-term)
(Ronald Reagan dies because of Alzheimers disease)
(Ronald Reagan pictured with his son, Ronald Reagan Jr.)
(Reagan and Jimmy Carter in a debate)
(U.S. Embassy protestors held 52 hostages)

(Contra fighters in Nicaragua)

(Edward Boland portrait)
(Photography of Sandinista fighters)
(Ronald Reagan during State of Union Address)
(Oliver North during his testimony)
(William Casey photograph)
(Robert McFarlane)
(Protestors in the United States want U.S. to support Contras)
(Symbolic representation of the affairs)
(Congress passing Boland Amendment)

(Hostages are taken)

(Harold Hughes photograph)
(Edward Boland photograph)
(Boland Amendment)
(Ronald Reagan photograph)
(Contra fighters in Nicaragua)
(Contra fighters in Nicaragua)
(President Reagan with Tower Commission Report)
(Reagan giving State of Union Address)
(Eugene Hasenfus photograph)
(Missiles sent to Iran)

(Hostages taken in Lebanon)
(Edward Boland photograph)
(Ronald Reagan photograph)
(Ronald Reagan speaks to the public)
(Ronald Reagan for President Button)
(President Reagan with Tower Commission Board)
(John Tower photograph)
(Edmund Muskie photograph
(Brent Scowcroft photograph)
(Flag of Sandinistas)

(Mind map showing how the Iran-Contra Affair worked)

(Map showing the control in Nicaragua in 1987)
(Ronald Reagans Cabinet)
(Margaret Thatcher with President Reagan)
(Robert McFarlane photograph)
(John Poindexter photograph)
(Oliver North photograph)
(Caspar Weinberger photograph)
(Thomas Clines photograph)
(Albert Hakim photograph)
(Richard Secord photograph)
(Adolfo Calero photograph)

(Rafael Quintero photograph)
(Swiss bank accounts)
(Reagan with Contra leaders)
(United States propaganda)
(Primary documents: Top Secret)
(Notes on Downed Plane)
(Continuation of notes on Downed Plane)