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Edited by :
A.K. Pandey
E-mail: editor@ijahs.com


IJTRA is the online/print publication with e-ISSN 2320-8163 and p-ISSN 2321-7332 which gives opportunity
to technical Authors to publish their paper (Research/Review/Case study etc). IJTRA give high indexing with
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Email: editor@ijtra.com
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(IJTRA is a high-quality scientific journal devoted to fields of Science, Technology & Engineering. It is
publish online/print format with the e-ISSN 2320-8163 & p-ISSN 2321-7332.)

Introduction: The Editorial Board is very committed to build the Journal as one of the
leading international journals in
The field of sciences in the next few years. With the support of our member of editorial board
and Team IJTRA, it is expected that a heavy resource to be channelled into the Journal to
establish its international reputation. The Journal's reputation will be enhanced from
arrangements with several organizers of international conferences in publishing selected best
papers of the conference proceedings.
Aims and Scope: International Journal of Technical Research and Applications (IJTRA) is a
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International Journal of Technical Research and Applications (IJTRA) aims to provide a
highly readable and valuable addition to the literature which will serve as an indispensable
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experimental findings in the fields of Science, Technology & Engineering or any closely
related fields. The journal also encourages the submission of critical review articles covering
advances in recent research of such fields as well as technical notes.
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Reference to a journal publication:
[1] Divya James Bhattachrya S K, Bhattacharya D, Sairam K, Ghosal S (2002) Effect of Withania somnifera
glycowithanolides on a rat model of tardive dyskinesia. Phytomedicine 9:167-170
[2] Chopra R N, Chopra I C, Handa KL, Kapur, LD (1958) Indigenous drugs of India UN Dhur and Sons,
Calcutta, pp. 436-437
[3] Dewir YH, Chakrabarty D, Lee SH, Hahn EJ, Paek KY (2010). Indirect regeneration of Withania somnifera
and comparative analysis of withanolides in in vitro and greenhouse grown plants. Biologia Plantarum

Reference to a chapter in an edited book:

[4] Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ,
editors. Introduction to the electronic age, New York: E-Publishing Inc; 1999, p. 281-304

Free Online Color: If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color and
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journal website electronic version.
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graphs). Footnotes to tables should be typed below the table.

It is my great pleasure to publish the Vol-2 ISSUE-5 of the International Journal of
Technical Research and Applications (IJTRA). IJTRA is a refereed, peer reviewed quarterly
international journal issued by the Team IJTRA. The journal covers a wide range of research
and development concerning science, engineering and technology. Through the publication,
we hope to establish and provide an international platform for information exchange in
different fields of science, engineering and technology.
International Journal of Technical Research and Applications (IJTRA) recently
achieves the Impact factor: 4.39 (sjif); and IC Value: 5.79 which is the great achievement
for us. We aims to provide a highly readable and valuable addition to the literature, which will
serve as an indispensable reference tool for years to come. We are also organizing International
conference on :
3-5 November , 2014 Kuala Lumpur
6-9 November, 2014 Singapore
Interested author may register themselves at www.grdsweb.org
The coverage of the journal includes all new theoretical and experimental findings in all aspects
of concerning science, engineering and technology or any closely related fields. The journal
also encourages the submission of critical review articles covering advances in recent research
of such fields as well as technical notes.
The Editorial Board is very committed to build the Journal as one of the leading international
journals in concerning science, engineering and technology in the next few years. it is expected
that a valuable resource to be channelled into the Journal to establish its international
We have received an excellent response to the previous issues of IJTRA from both
academics and practitioners. We are pleased by this response and proud to report that IJTRA
is achieving its mission of promoting research and applications in science, engineering and
IJTRA will bring you top quality research papers from an international body of contributors
and a team of distinguished editors from the world's leading institutions engaged in all aspects
of mechanical and industrial engineering. Now, the IJTRA invites contributions from the entire
international research community. The new journal will continue to deliver up to date research
to a wide range of science, engineering and technology professionals.
We would like to thank all members of the editorial board and the international advisory board
members for their continued support to IJTRA with their highly valuable advice. Additionally,
we would like to thank the manuscript reviewers for providing valuable comments and
suggestions to the authors that helped greatly in improving the quality of the papers. My sincere
appreciation goes to all authors and readers of IJTRA for their excellent support and timely
contribution to this journal.
We would be delighted if the IJTRA could deliver valuable and interesting information
to the worldwide community of science, engineering and technology. Your cooperation and
contribution would be highly appreciated. More information about the IJTRA guidelines for
preparing and submitting papers may be obtained from www.ijtra.com
Email: editor@ijtra.com
Follow us: www.facebook.com/ijtra

Members of Editorial Board

Dr P.K. Trivedi
CSIR Scientist(NBRI, Lucknow,India)
Post Doc University of Maryland, USA

Dr. Virendra Kumar

Scientist UP Remote Sensing Application Centre
Land Use and Land Cover Divisional Head

Prof (Dr.) Amarika Singh

Dean Institute Of Engineering & Technology, Lucknow
A Constituent College Of G.B. Technical University, Lucknow

Prof (Dr.) S. Qamar Abbas

Director And Professor; AIMT
Department of Computer Science Engineering

Silvia Riva
Department of Health Sciences
Interdisciplinary centre for Research and Intervention on Decision (IRIDe Centre).
Via Festa del Perdono,7
20122 Milan (Italy)

Prof (Dr.) M. I. Khan (IITK)

(IITK) Professor; Integral University,India
Previously; Assistant Professor University of Basrah, IRAQ
Professor Univ. of Garyounis, Libya

Prof(Dr.) Mohamed Hussein

Director/Professor; Jahangirabad Institute of Engineering & Technology
Department of Computer Science Engineering

Ali I.Al-Mosawi
Lecturer in Technical Institute-Babylon,Machines Depart, IRAQ
M.Sc. in Materials Engineering

Prof.(Dr.) Vikas Misra

Dean / Director / Principal
Allen House Institute of Technology
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Dr. Abdulrahman S. Alanazi

Consultant Clinical Pharmacist
Saudi Arabia

Dr. Neelam Pathak

Professor; Integral University,India Department Of Bio-Technology
Post-Doc University of Maryland, USA

Prof (Dr.) Vinodini Katiyar

Professor & Dean at Shri Ramswaroop Memorial Group of Professional Colleges
Department of Computer Science & Engineering

Dr. Taghreed Hashim Al-Noor

Professor; Chemistry Department,
Faculty of Science of Ibn-Al-Haitham Education College
University of Baghdad, Baghdad

Dr. K. M. Moeed
Associate Professor Integral University, India
Department of Mechanical Engineering

Dr. Sudhish Kumar Shukla

(IIT;BHU) Professor; Manav Rachna College of Engineering,Faridabad
Department of Applied Science
Post-Doc North West University, South Africa.

Dr Ravi Shankar Mishra

Professor,HOD;Sagar Institute Of Science & Technolgy Bhopal
Department of electronics and communication Engineering
Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India

Prof Yudhishthir Raut

Department of electronics and communication Engineering
Professor;Sagar Institute of Research & Technology Bhopal
Ph.D ;Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya Bhopal, India

Mr. Pyie Phyo Maung

Department of Biotechnology,
Technological University Kyaukse,
Kyaukse Township, Mandalay Division,
Mrs Ritu Gulati
Faculty of Architecture GBTU, Lucknow.
Specialization in Environment and Energy
CEPT University Ahemdabad, India *

Mr Faizan Sayed Ali

Asst. Manager Bureau of Research on Industry & Economic Fundamentals Specialization in
Department of CIM Engineering
Visvesvaraya Technological University, Karnataka

Dr. Maneesh Kumar Srivastav

Asst. Prof V. L. College of Pharmacy, Raichur- Karnataka
Department of Medicinal Chemistry


Page No.

Manuscript Title




(Anas Mohammed Elhafiz Dafa Alla, Ahmed Ibrahim Seedahmed)



(Osama Sarwar Khan, Farooq Ahmad, Adnan Skhawat Ali, Rana Muhammad Kamal,
Umar Ashraf)




(Madhu G.C, J. Jhansi)




(Madhu G.C, J. Jhansi)


(Vinod Chandavari, Mr. Sanjeev Palekar)






(Taghreed. H. Al-Noor, Amer. J. Jarad, Abaas Obaid Hussein)


(Syed Mohd Mehndi, Prof. Meraj Ahmad Khan & Prof. Sabih Ahmad)




(Sabica Ahmad, Shish Ahmad, Jameel Ahmad)





(Geetanjali Chauhan & Prof. U.K. Chauhan)


(Samata Srivastava, Dr. J. P. Singh, Dr. Om Prakash Srivastava)









(Milat Ismail Haje, Christopher Barrett, Kameel M Naoom)







(Arpit Srivastava, Dr. Pradeep Srivastava, Ms. Rupika Sinha, Sarada P. Mallick)




(Sudhanva.M.Desai, NCLN Charyulu, Satyanarayana V. Suggala)




(Mahesh Kumar Shetty, Ravishankar R, Ramaraju H K, Jagadish H Patil, Sunil H,
Mamatha B.Salimath)










(Shankarappa Kalgudi, K V Suresh)


(Rajnee Bala Minz, Rajesh Thinga, Supriya Tripathi)


(Abhishek Jain, Ashish Jain, Rohit Thete, Akshay Shelke, Harshada Mare, Prof. S.A.




(M.H. Muddebihal, P.Shekanna, Shabbir Ahmed)




(Pingale Namrata Namdev, Prof. Hate S.G)




(Prajakta Sontakke)




(Silvia Riva, Gabriella Pravettoni)



(Mohamed Magzoub Garieb Alla, Amel G. Elsharief)





(Sunil Kumar Gupta, Jyotsna Sengupta)









(Khwaja M. Anwar, Aggarwal Vanita)



(Rabia Sehgal, Maninder Singh)





(Sandeep Singh R, Feroz Morab, Sadiya Thazeen, Mohamed Najmus Saqhib)



(Deepti Sharda, Sonal Chawla)





(Amit Sharma, kshitij shinghal, Pushpendra Vikram Singh, Himansu Verma)







(Valentina S. Dyankovaa, Stoyan N. Kapralovb, Milko I. Yankovc and Yumit N.


International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163,

www.ijtra.com Volume 2, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 2014), PP. 01-03


Anas Mohammed Elhafiz Dafa Alla1, Ahmed Ibrahim Seedahmed2
1, 2

Department of Plastic Engineering, College of Engineering,

Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum P. O. Box: 72, Sudan
Abstract:- The main objective of this work is to reduce polymer
Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE)
disposal to landfill and hence reduce their negative impacts to
environment, and to produce useful products suitable for
demanded application using WEEE waste as raw materials and
to reduce virgin materials used in production of Electrical and
Electronic equipment by using WEEE through Identifications the
materials used in manufacturing of the EEE.
Four type of (EEE) (Keyboard, colored and Black printer and
Mouse) were chosen and the analytical result (Density, Melt Flow
Index and Infer Red) showed that the polymer type was used in
manufacturing of this samples was ABS material for three type
and the forth one Mouse is recycled material. This result
emphasizes and achieves the three goals of this paper that the
recycling processes can solve the problem of polymer waste.
Keywords: Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment, IR,

According to modern systems of waste management,
waste may be classified to different types including:
1. Municipal waste includes: households waste,
commercial waste, and demolition waste
2. Hazardous waste includes industrial waste
3. Bio-medical waste includes clinical waste
4. Special hazardous waste includes radioactive waste,
explosives waste, electrical and electronic waste.
Considering the fourth type, electric and electronic
equipment including personal computers, Compact Disks, TV
sets, refrigerators, washing machines, and many other dailylife items is one of the fastest growing areas of manufacturing
industry today. This rapidly advancing technology together
with the increasingly short product life cycles have led to huge
volumes of relatively new electronic goods being discarded.
This has resulted in a continuous increase of Waste of Electric
and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) with estimates of more
than 6 million tones annual production or up to 10 kg per
person per year in 2005. It has been estimated to be as high as
12 million tons in 2015.
Since 1980, the share of plastics in Electrical and Electronic
Equipment (EEE) has continuously increased from about 14%
to 18% in 1992, 22% in 2000 and estimated 23% in 2005. In
2008, the plastics share from European waste electrical and
electronic equipment (WEEE) over all categories was
estimated to amount to 20.6 %.

Figure1: Wasted Electronic Devices such as computer


Figure2: A collection of WEEE Waste

Despite of all advantages of Plastic in different uses, but
wastes represent a significant environmental impact
necessitate some measures to get rid of it.
Although, a variety of techniques have been developed for the
recycling of polymers in general and particularly for WEEE,
the high cost associated with these methods usually leads to a
disposal of plastics from WEEE to sanitary landfills. The main
drawback that obstructs material recovery from plastics
contained in WEEE is the variety of polymers that are being
used, resulting to a difficulty in sorting and recycling. Another
relevant drawback in dealing with treatment of WEEE is that
very often they contain brominated aromatic compounds, used
as fire retardants. So there are many procedures to recycle
polymer waste one of it is thermal treatment of such chemicals
is likely to produce extremely toxic halogenated
dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans. During last years some
work has been carried out on the development of different
methods to recycle or give added-value to WEEE.
A. WEEE materials
Four different samples of WEEE viz.: keyboard, mouse,
colored printing cartridge and black printing cartridge were
selected based on the rate of their consumption.

International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163,

www.ijtra.com Volume 2, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 2014), PP. 01-03
was measured. The pycnometer was emptied and filled it
with distilled water only. Filter paper was used to dry the
spare water again and weight
was measured. The
experiment was then repeated for all samples
3. MFI (Melt Flow Index):
Approximately (6 gm) of sample was loaded into the barrel of
the melt flow apparatuses, which has been heated to a
temperature 190 . A weight specific for the material was
applied to a plunger and the molten material was forced
through the die. Melt flow rat values were calculated in 8
mg/10 min using the following model:
Figure3: Selected WEEE samples
B. Preparations of samples
Selected samples were cleaned with soap and water, then
dismantled to separate polymer materials from the other
materials ,then crushed and grinded for a laboratory analysis
to determine and identify the type of the polymer and
additives used in the samples under question.

Figure4: Preparation of Samples

C. Testing and Identification Methods:
The type of polymers was determines using relevant chemical
and instruments.
1. IR Spectrophotometer
Finely crushed solid samples were and grinded with KBr, then
pressed to make a disc, the disc was used as background in the
IR spectrophotometer.
Then the device was operated as required for the intended test.

Figure 6: MFI apparatus

The results for both MFI and density were shown in table 2
and the results of the IR analysis where shown in figures 812:
Melt Flow Index

Figure 5: Shimatzu IR Spectrophotometer device

2. Density
Samples densities were tested using Pycnometer the empty
weight of the pycnometer was determined
. , then filled to
about 1/3 with sample and measure the weight
Water was then added to pycnometer as well as capillary hole
in the stopper was filled with water. Water that leaked through
the capillary hole was dried with a filter paper and total weight

Figure 7: MFI Keyport sample


International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163,

www.ijtra.com Volume 2, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 2014), PP. 01-03
(1.04). This means the material used is not one of these
materials because the density is lower than the range of all
materials used in manufacturing EEE.
According to literature the MFI of PE, PC and ABS is range
from (2 60), the Results show that the MFI of all samples in
the range of (16.908 -21.228) for all samples (Keyboard,
Colored and Black printer and Mouse) compared to (2 60) in
the literature. This means the material used in manufacturing
is not one of these materials because the cutting time for all
samples was confirmed with standard 15 second but Mouse
sample has cutting time 10 second even the MFI in the range.
Figure 8: MFI colored printer
Results show that the IR of all samples in the range of (459.7 3892.48) for three samples (Keyboard, Colored and Black
printer) and (555.52 3042) for Mouse, that means there was
some bands or groups not available in
material used in
manufacturing Mouse or it was cracking in re- process.

Figure 9: MFI kcalB printer sample

Figure 10: MFI Mouse sample

According to the current work results the density of all
samples in the range of (1.1 -1.05) for three samples
(Keyboard, Colored and Black printer) and 0.64 for Mouse.
Compared to literature which points the main polymer used to
manufacturing EEE is PE with density range (0.88 0.94), PC
with density range (1.2 1.22) and ABS with density of

The analytical results confirmed that the material used in
manufacturing three samples (Keyboard, Colored and Black
printer) have similar properties and the fourth one Mouse has
different properties; this results confirmed by re-analysis for
Mentioned results confirm that the material used in the
manufacture of the three samples was ABS material according
to similarity obtained between the properties of samples with
the properties of ABS material, but sample of Mouse showed a
difference results for all materials used in the manufacture of
EEE, suggesting that the material may be recycled material.
[1] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waste Definitions.
[2] Wger, P., Schluep M. and Mller, E. Substances in Mixed
Plastics from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment. Swiss
Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology
September 17, 2010.
[3] D.S. Achilias et al. / Journal of Hazardous Materials (2007).
[4] Electric And electronic waste, Received 3 September 2008;
accepted 2 March 2009 DOI 10.1002/app.30533 Published
online 2 June 2009.
[5] Dimitris S. Achilias et al.* Laboratory of Organic Chemical
Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of
Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki Greece.Recent Advances in the
Chemical Recycling of Polymers (PP, PS, LDPE, HDPE, PVC,
PC, Nylon, PMMA)
[6] Chemical recycling of plastic wastes made from polyethylene
(LDPE and HDPE) and polypropylene (PP) D.S. Achilias a,, C.
Roupakias a, P. Megalokonomosa, A.A. Lappas b,
E.V.Antonakou b Available online 29 June 2007.
[7] Facts and Figures on EWaste and Recycling February 21, 2012.
[8] Recycling of acrylonitrilebutadiene styrene from used
refrigerator material,Aminu, Omar ArokeAhmadu Bello
University, ZariaFebruary, 2012.
[9] Recycling and disposal of electronic waste Health hazards and
environmental impacts report 6417 march 2011.


International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163,

www.ijtra.com Volume 2, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 2014), PP. 04-08


Osama Sarwar Khan, *Farooq Ahmad, Adnan Skhawat Ali, Rana Muhammad Kamal and Umar Ashraf
Sustainable Development Study Centre,
GC University, Lahore, Pakistan.
ABSTRACT: The current research was conducted to quantify
the heavy metals accumulation in vegetables imported from India
and compared with same vegetables collected from vegetable
market in Pakistan. Green chili, capsicum, tomato and ginger
were selected to analyze their heavy metal contents by atomic
absorption spectrophotometer. Samples were prepared by dry
ash method and wet digestion method to find out the efficient
method for heavy metals analysis. Maximum concentration of
heavy metals detected by dry ash method in Indian vegetables
were of Cu (0.34ppm) in capsicum, Cd (0.0ppm) in capsicum, Cr
(0.22ppm) in Ginger, Pb (0.22ppm) in ginger and Ni (0.14ppm) in
Ginger while in Pakistani vegetables, it were of Cu (0.62ppm) in
Tomato, Cd (0.04ppm) in Capsicum, Cr (0.17ppm) in Tomato, Pb
(0.36ppm) in Ginger. Heavy metal contents determined by wet
digestion method were of Cu (0.57ppm) in Ginger, Cd (0.01ppm)
in capsicum, Cr (0.17ppm) in Ginger, Pb (0.27ppm) in capsicum
while in Pakistani vegetables these were of Cu (0.19ppm) in
Ginger, Cd (0.04ppm) in green chili, Cr (0.09ppm) in Tomato, Pb
(0.25ppm) in Ginger. It was found that the concentrations of
these heavy metals in vegetables of both the countries were within
WHO/FAO permissible limits so at present these are not
hazardous but long term use of these vegetables can magnify
heavy metals contents in human body. For statistical analysis two
factor ANOVA was run, which indicated that almost all the
vegetables had accumulated heavy metals but there was a
difference in the uptake of Indian and Pakistani vegetables.
Keywords: Heavy metals, Vegetables, Green chili, Capsicum,

In Pakistan industrial effluent and untreated sewage are being
discharged into surface water bodies. The water deficiency in
country, forces the farmers to use wastewater for irrigation of
their crops and vegetables fields. Sewage water disposal in big
cities of Pakistan and its hazardous effects are worsen with the
passage of time because untreated sewage water is used for
growing crops in the surroundings of urban areas [1]. Sewage
and industrial wastewater contains high level of organic matter
and nutrients along with heavy metals like Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb,
Cr, Ni, Cd and Co. Plants have high capacity for accumulation
of the heavy metal contents, some species accumulate specific
heavy metals while other accumulate all heavy metals, which
cause detrimental effects on human health. Leafy vegetables
accumulate more concentration of heavy metals when grown
in contaminated soil and water [2].It has been widely reported
that health problems occurred due to heavy metals
contamination of soil [3]. Metals such as iron, copper, zinc
and manganese are essential metals but they may produce
toxic effects when their levels exceed certain limits in
organisms. High level of copper may produce toxic effects
such as dermatitis and liver cirrhosis when consumed in
excessive amounts in foods [4]. The objectives of this study

were to estimate heavy metal concentration in vegetables

imported from India and to compare the heavy metal contents
of Indian vegetable with Pakistani vegetables collected from
vegetable and fruit market.
The present study was carried out to analyze the
contamination of the heavy metals concentration in vegetables
imported from India and compared with vegetables grown in
A. Collection of samples:
The samples of vegetables i.e. Tomatoes (lycopersicon
esculentum), Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Green chilli
(Capsicum frutescens), Capsicum (capsicum annum) that
imported from India to Pakistan were collected from trucks
which were shifting the vegetables from Wagha border to
vegetable market. Same Pakistani vegetable samples were
collected from Lari Adda Mandi and Iqbal Town market
Lahore. The samples were taken in winter season in the month
of December.
B. Pretreatment of vegetable samples:
The vegetables that collected from different sites coming from
Wagha border were individually washed by distilled water to
remove dust particles and non-edible parts were removed from
them. After washing and cutting, the vegetables were dried in
open air and then these vegetables were placed in an oven for
2-3 days at 80 C. The hard dried vegetables were broken into
small pieces by hammer and then these pieces were grinded
into a fine powder (80 mesh) using a commercial blender
(TSK-West point, France). The powdered material was stored
in polythene bags and placed aside until further procedure was
C. Heavy metal analysis:
Samples were prepared for the analysis of heavy metals by dry
ash method and wet digestion method to measure the process
D. Dry ash method:
Electronic balance was used to weigh 1g powered sample of
each vegetable in boron free silica crucibles then these
samples were placed in the muffle furnace at 450 0C for at
least two hours until ash was formed. Furnace was left for
some time to get cool. Samples were removed from furnace
and added 10ml of 0.7N H2SO4. Mixed the samples
thoroughly and left the samples for one hour. A conical flask
of 500ml was used to filter the samples with Whatmann filter
paper no.42 and washed two to three times by using 5.0ml of
0.7N H2SO4. Samples were filtered again in volumetric flasks
were used for heavy metal analysis.


International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163,

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Deposition of heavy metals are associated with a wide
range of sources such as brick kilns, small level industries
(metal smelting, metal products, battery production, cable
coating industries), suspended road dust, vehicular emission,
diesel generators and coal combustion. Indian coal has poor
quality and high concentration of heavy metals. These are all
important contributor of heavy metals present in vegetables.
Another source of heavy metal contamination in vegetables is
the wastewater produced from domestic and industrial areas
and used for irrigation purpose. This wastewater not only
contaminates soil but also contaminate crops and vegetables
grown in those fields containing contaminated soil. Other
sources include excessive use of pesticides, fertilizers and
sewage sludge. Industrial wastewater used for irrigation could
be the major reason of heavy metal accumulation in
vegetables. Cadmium can easily be taken up by the food crops
especially leafy vegetables. Different vegetable species
contain different heavy metals concentration depending on
environmental conditions such as plant availability, metal
species and type of irrigation practice. Heavy metal
concentrations of plants is directly associated with their
concentrations in soils, but their levels significantly differ with
plant species [5].
A. Comparison of Pakistan and Indian Vegetables by
Dry Ash Method:
1. Heavy metal concentration in Green chili
The heavy metal concentration of Cu and Pb obtained by dry
ash method in Indian vegetables was 0.29ppm and 0.11ppm
respectively and value of Cd, Cr and Ni were below detection
limit. The value of Cu and Pb obtained in Pakistani vegetables
by dry ash method was 0.07ppm and 0.18ppm and value of
Cd, Cr and Ni were below detection limit (Fig. 1). It have been
reported that local residents of an area near a smelter in
Nanning, China have been exposed to Cd and Pb through
consumption of vegetables but no risk was found for Cu and
Zn [6, 7].

Heavy metal concentration

Pak dry ash method

India dry ash method






Heavy metals in Green chilli

Fig. 1: Heavy metal concentration in Indian and Pakistani

Green chili by dry ash method.
2. Heavy metal concentration in Capsicum:
The heavy metal concentration of Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni
obtained by dry ash method in Indian vegetables was
0.34ppm, 0.01ppm, 0.09ppm, 0.12ppm and 0.13ppm
respectively and values of Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni obtained in
Pakistani vegetables by dry ash method were 0.08ppm,
0.04ppm, below detection limit, 0.07ppm and below detection
limit respectively (Fig. 2). It have been studied the heavy
metal contents in different vegetables grown in the lands
irrigated by wastewater and noted the concentration of Cr to
be within the safe limits [8].
Pak dry ash method
Heavy metal concentration

E. Wet digestion method:

In wet digestion method, 0.5g sample of each vegetable was
weighed by weighing balance and 5ml of concentrated HNO3
was added into digestion flasks. Same quantity of HNO3 was
also added into empty digestion flask to run the blank sample.
Kjeldahl digestion unit was used to digest samples at 80-90C
for two hours. Temperature increased to 150C (boiling point)
and 3 to 5ml of 30%H2O2 along with concentrated HNO3 were
added to start and continued the digestion until the clean
solution obtained. Samples were cooled at room temperature.
Solutions were filtered by Whatmann filter paper no. 42. Final
volume was made to 25ml by using distilled water. Samples of
both dry ash method and wet digestion method were put in an
analyzer for the analysis of heavy metals by Atomic
Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS, Shimadzu AA-7000F).
F. Statistical Analysis:
Concentrations of metals in various vegetables dry ash method
and wet digestion method were compared by SPSS version-19.

India dry ash method






Heavy metals in Capsicum

Fig. 2: Heavy metal concentration in Indian and Pakistani

Capsicum by dry ash method.
3. Heavy metal concentration in Tomato:
The heavy metal concentration of Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni
obtained by dry ash method in Indian vegetables was
1.27ppm, below detection limit, 0.18ppm, 0.13ppm and
0.05ppm respectively and values of Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni
obtained in Pakistani vegetables by dry ash method were
0.62ppm, below detection limit, 0.17ppm, 0.23ppm and below
detection limit respectively (Fig. 3). It have been analyzed
various vegetables (cucumber, tomato, green pepper, lettuce,
parsley, onion, bean, eggplant, pepper mint, pumpkin and
okra) and reported that the Zn concentration (3.564.592 mg
kg-1) was within the recommended international standards[9].


International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163,

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India dry ash method

Pak wet method

Heavy metal concentration

Heavy metal concentration

Pak dry ash method





Indian wet method







Heavy metals in Green chilli

Heavy metals in Tomato

Fig. 3: Heavy metal concentration in Indian and Pakistani

Tomato by dry ash method.

Fig. 5: Heavy metal concentration in Indian and Pakistani

Green chili by wet digestion method.

4. Heavy metal concentration in Ginger:

The heavy metal concentration of Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni
obtained by dry ash method in Indian vegetables was
1.13ppm, below detection limit, 0.22ppm, 0.22ppm and
0.14ppm respectively and values of Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni
obtained in Pakistani vegetables by dry ash method were
0.39ppm, below detection limit, 0.09ppm, and 0.36ppm and
below detection limit respectively (Fig. 4).

2. Heavy metal concentration in Capsicum:

The heavy metal concentration of Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni
obtained by wet digestion method in Indian vegetables was
0.43ppm, 0.01ppm, below detection limit, 0.27ppm and below
detection limit respectively and values of Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and
Ni obtained in Pakistani vegetables by wet digestion method
were 0.10ppm, 0.01ppm, 0.08ppm, 0.17ppm and below
detection limit respectively (Fig. 6).
Pak wet method

India dry ash method

Heavy metal concentration


Indian wet method







Heavy metals in Capsicum






Heavy metals in Ginger

Fig. 4: Heavy metal concentration in Indian and Pakistani

Ginger by dry ash method.
B. Comparison of Pakistan and Indian Vegetables by
wet digestion Method:
1. Heavy metal concentration in Green chili:
The heavy metal concentration of Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni
obtained by wet digestion method in Indian vegetables was
0.24ppm, below detection limit, below detection limit,
0.13ppm and below detection limit respectively and values of
Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni obtained in Pakistani vegetables by wet
digestion method were 0.06ppm, 0.02ppm, 0.07ppm, 0.20ppm
and below detection limit respectively (Fig. 5). The estimated
intake rates of Cu and Zn suggested that the contribution of
vegetables to the intake of these heavy metals is low and does
not pose potential health risk to consumers of vegetables [10].

Fig. 6: Heavy metal concentration in Indian and Pakistani

Capsicum by wet digestion method.
3. Heavy metal concentration in Tomato:
The heavy metal concentration of Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni
obtained by wet digestion method in Indian vegetables was
0.28ppm, below detection limit, 0.10ppm, 0.15ppm and below
detection limit respectively and value of Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni
obtained in Pakistani vegetables by wet digestion method were
0.14ppm, 0.01ppm, 0.09ppm, 0.25ppm and below detection
limit respectively (Fig. 7).
Pak wet method
Heavy metal concentration

Heavy metal concentration

Pak dry ash method

Indian wet method






Heavy metals in Tomato

Fig. 7: Heavy metal concentration in Indian and Pakistani

Tomato by wet digestion method.

Dry Ash Method

International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163,

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4. Heavy metal concentration in Ginger:
Table 2: Relationship of copper, cadmium, chromium, lead
The heavy metal concentration of Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni
and nickel uptake in various vegetables of India and
obtained by wet digestion method in Indian vegetables was
Pakistan by dry ash method.
0.57ppm, below detection limit, 0.08ppm, 0.15ppm and below
Concentration SS
df MS
F crit
detection limit respectively and values of Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and
of metals in
Ni obtained in Pakistani vegetables by wet digestion method
were 0.14ppm, 0.02ppm, 0.17ppm, 0.25ppm and below
0.901938 3
0.300646 8.489822 0.056199 9.276628
detection limit respectively (Fig. 8). Heavy metals determined
in different vegetables showed that the concentrations of Cu,
Zn and Cd have often exceeded the safe limits of both Indian
0.043338 3
0.014446 7.687361 0.063962 9.276628
and FAO/WHO standards [11- 13].
However the
concentration of Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni were lowered than
0.039438 3
0.013146 4.412587 0.127078 9.276628
given standard of WHO by both dry ash method and wet
digestion methods but consumption of contaminated
0.002233 1
vegetables may pose risk to human health.
Heavy metal concentration

Pak wet method

Indian wet method






Heavy metals in Ginger

Fig. 8: Heavy metal concentration in Indian and Pakistani

Capsicum by wet digestion method.
A. Statistical Analysis:
It was analyzed that the F value of Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni in
vegetables were less than F Crit hence there were no
difference in the uptake of Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni in different
vegetables which means that all the vegetables contained Cu,
Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni in it but the F value among the countries
was more than F Crit value so there was a significant
difference of concentration of Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni in
vegetables of India and Pakistan (Table 1& 2).

Wet Digestion Method

Table 1: Relationship of copper, cadmium, chromium, lead

and nickel uptake in various vegetables of India and
Pakistan by wet digestion method.
on of metals


d MS




3 0.01
3 1.25







3 0.00
3 0.00
3 0

This research was conducted to quantify the heavy metals
concentration in Pakistani and Indian vegetables. Samples
were collected from the market. Pakistani vegetables were
collected from vegetable market of Iqbal Town. Samples of
Indian vegetables were collected from lari adda mandi from
the trucks coming from Wagha Border. Samples of Indian and
Pakistani vegetables were analyzed by using dry ash and wet
digestion method. Heavy metals were analyzed both in
Pakistani and Indian vegetables by using atomic absorption
spectrophotometer. It was found that both Pakistani and Indian
vegetables were contaminated with heavy metals but the
concentration of these metals was not higher than WHO/FAO
standards limits. As the long term usage of these contaminated
vegetables may cause their accumulation in human body
which can cause hazardous effects later in their lives. It was
noted from the results that heavy metal contents were detected
to be similar with both dry ash and wet methods except few in
which concentration was detected to be more by dry ash
The authors acknowledge Government College University
Lahore for providing funding for the current study. The
complete research work was done in laboratories of Sustainable
Development Study Centre and Department of Chemistry, GC
University Lahore which were equipped with all the materials
necessary for this study. The authors also acknowledge
Muhammad Tariq, Scientific Officer of PCSIR laboratories
Lahore, Pakistan.
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irrigation on trace elements load in soil and uptake by
vegetables.Journal of Applied Science Environmental
Management 11(2): 169-172
[2] Farooq M, Anwar F, Rashid U (2008). Appraisal of heavy metal
contents in different vegetables grown in the vicinity of an
industrial area.Pakistan Journal of Botany40(5): 2099-2106
[3] Singh A, Sharma R K, Agrawal M, Marshall F M (2010). Risk
assessment of heavy metal toxicity through contaminated
Varanasi,India.Tropical Ecology51: 375-387
[4] Aktan N,Tekin-zan S (2012). Levels of some heavy metals in
water and tissues of chub mackerel (Scomberjaponicus)
compared with physico-chemical parameters, seasons and size


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www.ijtra.com Volume 2, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 2014), PP. 04-08









of the fish. The Journalof Animal & Plant Science 22(3): 605613
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(2010).Distribution of heavy metals in rice plant cultivated in
industrial effluent receiving soil. Environment Asia 3(2): 15-19


International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163,

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Madhu G.C1, J. Jhansi2

Assistant Professor, Dept.of EConE

Dept.of ECE
Sree Venkatesa Perumal College of Engineering and Technology,
Puttur, India
msnaidu417@gmail.com, Jhansij@gmail.com
Abstract The wireless sensor node can only be equipped with a
limited power source. In some application scenarios,
replenishment of power resources might be impossible. Sensor
node lifetime, therefore, shows a strong dependence on battery
lifetime. Hence, power conservation and power management take
on additional importance. The main task of a sensor node in a
sensor field is to detect events, perform quick local data
processing, and then transmit the data. Power consumption can
hence be divided into three domains: sensing, communication,
and data processing. One of the most commonly used Power
management techniques is to allow a node to follow sleep-wake
up-sample-compute-communicate cycle. Based on the amount of
the battery availability, by adopting the proper information
dissemenitation schemes, the network life time can be extended.
This process relies on hardware support for implementing sleep
states, permits the power consumption of a node to be reduced by
many orders of magnitude.
Dissemination Schemes, Mobile Sensor Node.

A wireless sensor network consists of thousands of sensor
nodes, deployed according to some predefined pattern, over a
region of interest. A sensor node has many stringent resource
constraints, such as limited battery power, signal processing,
computation and communication capabilities, and a less
amount of memory. Group of sensor nodes are collaborated
with each other to achieve a bigger task efficiently. A sensor
node is made up of four basic components: a sensing unit, a
processing unit, a transceiver unit and a power unit. Sensing
units are composed of two subunits: sensors and analog to
digital converters (ADCs). The analog signals produced by the
sensors are converted to digital signals by the ADC, and then
fed into the processing unit. A transceiver unit connects the
node to the network. One of the most important components of
a sensor node is the power unit. There are also other subunits,
which depends on the application. In many applications, the
sensor nodes are often difficult to access, the lifetime of a
sensor network depends on the life time of the power
resources of the nodes. However, designing energy efficient
and low duty cycle radio circuits is still technically
challenging task. The main task of a sensor node in a sensor
field is to detect events, perform quick local data processing,
and then transmit the data. The total power will be consumed
to perform the three important tasks: sensing, data processing
and communication.

Figure 1.0 The functional blocks of a Sensor Node

Sensing power varies with the nature of applications. The

complexity of event sensing also plays an important role in
determining energy expenditure. A sensor node consumes
maximum energy in data communication. This involves both
data transmission and reception. It can be shown that for shortrange communication with low radiation power, transmission
and reception energy consumption are nearly the same. A
sensor node consists of a short range radio which is used to
communicate with neighbouring nodes and the outside world.
Radios can operate under the Transmit, Receive, Idle and
Sleep modes. It is important to completely shut down the radio
rather than put it in the idle mode when it is not transmitting or
receiving because of the high power consumed in this mode. A
sensor node must have computational abilities and be capable
of interacting with its surroundings. The limitations of cost
and size lead us to choose complementary metal oxide
semiconductor (CMOS) technology for the micro-processor. A
CMOS transistor pair draws power every time it is switched.
This switching power is proportional to the switching
frequency, device capacitance. Reducing the supply voltage is
hence an effective means of lowering power consumption in
the active state. When a micro-processor handles time-varying
computational load, simply reducing the operating frequency
during periods of reduced activity results in a linear decrease
in power consumption. Communicating one bit over a wireless
medium at short ranges consumes more energy than
processing that bit. With the current technology, the energy
consumption for communication is several magnitudes higher
than the energy required for computation. One of the power
management strategies is to practice the energy aware
information dissemination.


International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163,

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base node should consist of the amount of the battery power
remained and the temperature value.
There are four established techniques for information
If the available battery power of static node is greater than
dissemination in WSNs:
50% but less than 75%, it transmits the averaged value of the
Continuous/periodic dissemination: The sensor node
sensed samples for every 2 seconds. During the processing
continuously reports data in a periodic manner. In this way,
time of the data, the transceiver of the base node and the
packets are pushed from the network even when the sensed
mobile node should be maintained in sleep state.
parameter has not significantly changed, hence containing
Event driven Data Dissemination:
little useful information since the previous transmission.
If the available battery power of the mobile node is
Query-driven dissemination: The user initiates data transfer
greater than 25% but less than 50%, the temperature sensor
by querying data from the network. Qualifying nodes reply to
continuously sense the temperature values and it will be stored
these queries with packets.
in the controller and the present sensed value will be compared
Event-driven dissemination: The sensor node decides for
with the previously stored value in the microcontroller. If there
itself what data are worth reporting to a sink node. In that way,
occurs a significant deviation in temperature, say 20 C then the
redundant transmissions can be minimized. In continuous
mobile node will transmit the information to the base node. If
reporting, the choice of period duration has a considerable
the present temperature is 280 C, let us suppose the present
effect on network performance. If a short period is chosen, a
sensed value is 290C, the transceiver of the mobile node will
large proportion of the packets are likely to be redundant
not transmit this information to the base node. It has to
containing little useful information, while still consuming
transmit only when the temperature is 300C or greater values.
energy. If a long period is chosen, the network is likely to
When the microcontroller recognized a deviation, an interrupt
suffer from the missing of events. While the missing of events
will be generated to awaken the transceiver of the mobile
can be avoided by locally aggregating the average sensed
node. During this time the transceiver of the mobile node is
values. In this paper we designed an experiment to implement
maintained in sleep state.
all the above strategies by using the two mobile sensor nodes
Query driven Strategy:
which are used to transmit the sensed information from the
If the available battery power of the mobile node is greater
region of interest to the base station. Recent progress in low
than 5% but less than 25%, a request will be sent from the
power embedded systems has led to the creation of mobile
base node directly to the mobile node to transmit the
sensor nodes. Autonomous node mobility brings with it its
temperature present at that time. Based on the request
own challenges, but also alleviates some of the traditional
generation only, the mobile node has to sense the temperature
problems associated with static sensor networks. Mobility is
and should be transmitted to the base node. Along with the
the ability of a sensor node to move intentionally, and without
request an interrupt awakens the transceiver and the
human assistance. Methods have been suggested to use mobile
microcontroller of the mobile node from sleep state to the
sensor nodes to physically transport energy in the network
active state. If the available battery power of the node is less
from areas where it is available in plenty to other regions
than 5%, the redundant mobile node has to move towards the
where energy availability is scarce.
present mobile node to sense the temperature from the region.
This mobile node continues the temperature sensing and can
also be operated in all the above specified strategies. Mean
A system is designed to sense a temperature in a region and
while the first mobile node battery can be recharged for the
will be transmitted to the base node by using a WSN having
further use.
two manually deployed mobile nodes and one base node. To
optimize the power consumption of a WSN, depending upon
the available amount of the battery, this system is free to be
operated in one of the three strategies.
Periodic data Dissemination:
If the available battery power of the mobile node is greater
Power IC


Mobilizer platform

If the available battery power of the mobile node is greater
than 75%, it will transmit the data to the base node in a
periodic manner. The information received by the base node
should consist of the level of the battery power and the
temperature value.


IR Sensor
Fig.2.0 Construction of a Mobile Sensor Node
than 75%, it will transmit the data to the base node in a
periodic manner. The temperature sensor connected to the
mobile node senses the temperature from a region and it will
be processed by using the microcontroller and will be
transmitted to the base node. The information received by the

Figure 3.0 Continuous transmissions of data from the

static node to the base node.
10 | P a g e

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If the battery power of mobile node is greater than 50% but
less than 75%, it transmits the averaged value of the sensed
[1] Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, and E. Cayirci,
samples for every 2 seconds.If the battery power of the mobile
A survey on sensor networks, IEEE Commun. Mag.,
node is greater than 25% but less than 50%, the sensor
vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 102114, Aug. 2002.
continuously sense the temperature and it will be stored in the
C. Y. Chong and S. Kumar, Sensor networks: Evolution,
controller. If there occurs a deviation of 20 C then the mobile
opportunities, and challenges, Proc. IEEE, vol. 91, no. 8,
node will transmit the information to the base node.
pp. 12471256, Aug. 2003.

Figure 3.2 Event driven data transmission strategy

If the available battery power of the mobile node is less than
5%, the redundant mobile node has to move towards the
sensing field and present node has to move away from the
field. The new mobile node can also be operated in a similar
manner as the previous node.

[3] Ren C.Luo, Ogst Chen,Mobile sensor node deployment

and asynchronous power management for wireless sensor
networks IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics,
Vol. 59, No. 5, May 2012.
[4] G. T. Sibley, M. H. Rahimi, and G. S. Sukhatme,
Robomote: A tiny mobile robot platform for large-scale
ad-hoc sensor networks, in Proc.IEEE Int. Conf. Robot.
Autom. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 11431148.
[5] K. Dantu, M. Rahimi, H. Shah, S. Babel, A. Dhariwal,
and G. S. Sukhatme, Robomote: Enabling mobility in
sensor networks, Center Robot. Embedded Syst., Viterbi
School Eng., Univ. Southern California, Los Angeles,
CA, Tech. Rep. CRES-04-006, 2004.
[6] Nojeong Heo and Pramod K. Varshney, EnergyEfficient Deployment of Intelligent Mobile Sensor
Networks IEEE Transactions on systems, man and
CybernaticsPart A: Systems and Humans, Vol. 35, No.
1, January 2005.

Figure 3.3 Switching of the data transmission task to the

second mobile node.

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Reena Boora#, Veepin Kumar*
M. Tech Scholar, CSE Deptt.
Om Institute of Technology &Management, Guru Jambheshwar University, Hisar (Haryana), India
H.O.D. In CSE Deptt.
Om Institute of Technology &Management, Guru Jambheshwar University, Hisar (Haryana), India

Abstract Video transmission over wireless network requires

link reliability. Videos are having more data to be transmitted
during communication. The criticality and load of the network
increases when some video data is communicated over the
network. Firstly, describes the characteristics of Mobile Ad hoc
Networks and their Routing protocol, and second a mobile ad
hoc network (MANET) which consists of set mobile wireless
nodes and one fixed wireless server are design using ns-2. In this
research we will simulate three MANET routing protocols such
as AODV against three different parameters i.e. delay, network
load, throughput and retransmission.
Keywords- Multi-media Communication, MANET, QOS,
MANET routing protocol (i.e. AODV), NS-2(Network

Wireless networks are getting popular due to their
convenience of use. Consumer or user is no more dependent
on wires where he or she is, easy to move and enjoy being
connected to the network. One of the great features of
wireless network that makes it fascinating and
distinguishable amongst the traditional wired network is its
mobility. This feature gives the ability to move freely, while
user being connected to the network. The Wireless networks
comparatively easy to install, on other hand wired network
dont. Video transmission over wireless networks to multiple
mobile users has remained a challenging problem due to
potential limitations on bandwidth and the time-varying
nature of wireless channels. Video transmission is one of the
part in multimedia communication system. As we know that
the multimedia has become an essential part of any
presentation. The evolution of internet has also increased the
demand for multimedia content. Multimedia is the media that
uses multiple forms of information content and information
processing (e.g. text, audio, video, graphics, animation,
interactivity) to inform or entertain the user.
Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) consist of multiple
wireless mobile nodes which dynamically exchange data
among themselves. MANETs nodes are distinguished by
their memory resources, processing as well as high degree of
Routing protocols in MANETs (Murty and Das, 2011) are a
challenging and attractive tasks, researchers are giving
tremendous amount of attention to this key area (Bouke,
MANETs routing protocols are categorized into three
different categories according to their functionality.
1. Reactive protocols (i.e. AODV,DSR and DYMO)


2. Proactive protocols (i.e. DSDV,OLSR,FSR)

3. Hybrid protocols (i.e. ZRP)
1. Reactive protocols - Reactive routing protocols are only
search for a route to a destination when they need to send
data to that host.
1(a). AODV - AODV is an on-demand routing protocol used
in ad hoc networks. This algorithm facilitates a smooth
adaptation to changes in the link conditions.
1(b). DSR - Dynamic Source Routing is a reactive routing
protocol for manet ad hoc wireless network. Its
characteristics has also on-demand like AODV but its not
table driven. It based on source routing. A node wishing to
send a packet specifies the route for that packet.
1(c). DYMO DYMO is a routing protocol that was created
for situations where clients are mobile and communications
will be transported through several different clients over a
wireless medium Mobile ad-hoc Network (MANET). When a
node initiates communication with another host a routing
path is found, on demand, and this will result in a
bidirectional unicast communication path, if a path is found
to the destination. DYMO was created to dynamically handle
changes in the network.
Extensive research work has been done in the field of
MANET routing protocols. Different routing protocols were
simulated in different kind of simulators. Here we will
discuss different research papers about MANET routing
protocols performance. In this we will simulate three
MANET routing protocols such as DSR, DYMOUM and
AODV against three different parameters i.e. delay, network
load, throughput and Retransmission.
Due to this characteristic (Keshtgary and Babaiyan, 2012),
there are some challenges that protocol designers and
network developers are faced with. These challenges include
routing, service and frequently topology changes. Therefore
routing discovery and maintenance are critical issues in these
networks. There are also limited battery power and low
bandwidth available in each node. In this paper, we evaluate
the performance of four MANET routing protocols using
simulations: AODV, OLSR, DSR and GRP.[2] Our
evaluation metrics are End-to-End delay, network load,
throughput and media access delay. Most of the papers
consider the first three parameters, but here we also consider
MAC delay.
Path routing and protocol selection are the primary strategies
to design any wireless network. In Mobile Ad hoc Network
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(MANET) the selected protocol should have best in terms of
third stage, the route optimization is done, by analyzing the
data delivery and data integrity (Mohapatra and Kanungo,
participation of each node in network communication. The
nodes having the heavy participation are ignored for
The throughput performance in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
communication whereas the nodes having the lesser
(Fazeli and Vaziri, 2011) and compares emulated tested
communication participation are considered to perform the
results with simulation results from OPNET (Optimized
communication over the network. The network design for the
Network Engineering Tool).
presented work is given here in figure 3.1.
This paper presents a performance analysis of two Mobile Ad
The presented work is about to provide the effective
Hoc Network (Hosek, 2011) routing protocols - Ad Hoc On
communication in case of congested network or the DOS
Demand Distance Vector (AODV)[8] and Optimized Link
infected network. The frame analysis provide the work to
State Routing (OLSR).
take the earlier decision so that the effective communication.
They address the on-demand routing protocols by focusing
The effective route generation provides the dynamic analysis
on dynamic source routing (DSR) protocol and ad hoc on
on network traffic to provide effective network
demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol in WMNs
(Guo and Peng, 2010).

Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Han L mentioned [3] that the wireless ad hoc networks were
first deployed in 1990s Mobile Ad-hoc networks have been
widely researched for many years. Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
are collection of two or more devices equipped with wireless
communications and networking capability. These devices
can communicate with other nodes that immediately within
their radio range or one that is outside their radio range.

An Analytical Model Of Tcp Performance

Debessay Fesehaye Kassa mentioned [4] that the
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the dominant
transport layer protocol for the end-to-end control of
information transfer. Accurate models of TCP performance
are a key and basic step for designing, dimensioning and
planning IP (Internet Protocol) networks.

TCP Performance Over Mobile Ad Hoc Network

B. Sikdar et. al. described [5] that TCP is a transport
protocol that guarantees reliable ordered delivery of data
packets over wired networks. Although it is well tuned for
wired networks, TCP performs poorly in mobile ad hoc
networks (MANETs). This is because TCPs implicit
assumption that any packet loss is due to congestion is
invalid in mobile ad hoc networks where wireless channel
errors, link contention, mobility and multi-path routing may
significantly corrupt or disorder packet delivery.

TCP Performance Over Multipath Routing In Mobile Ad

Hoc Networks
Haejung Lim Kaixin Xu, at all mentioned [6] that in mobile
ad hoc networks (MANET), TCP performance is not as
stable as in wired networks. TCP performance over a
multipath routing protocol is given. Multipath routing can
improve the path availability in mobile environment. Thus, it
has a great potential to improve TCP performance in ad hoc
networks under mobility.
The presented work is about to perform the effective video
communication over the mobile network by performing the
three stage work. The first stage of this work is to analyze the
video frames so that the frame type of route diversion will be
performed. The high quality frames will be transferred from
different route. In second stage, the contention window
decision is taken by analyzing the network parameters. In

Define Network with N Mobile Nodes

Initialize the video transmission with source and

destination node specification
Divide the video in smaller frames
Perform frame analysis to provide route diversion
based on frame analysis
Optimize the contention window size to optimize
the communication

Analyze the node participation vector to prioritize

the nodes

Perform multipath communication on low

participating nodes

Analyze the communication under different

Figure 3.1: Flow of Work
/*A Mobile Network is defined with N Number of Nodes*/
Define as Source Node Src and Destination Node Dst
Set curNode=Src
[Set Src as Current Node]
While curNode<>Dst
[Process All Nodes, till Destination Node not occur]
[Identify the Neighbor Node List for CurNode]
For i=1 to N NodeList.Length
[Process all Neighbor List]
[If the Neighbor Node is Communicating Node]

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[Perform the Communication Analysis on
[Find the Average Communication Analysis on
neighbor node list]
For i=1 to NNodeList.Length
[Process all Neighbor List]
set Participation(i)=1
}else if
set Participation(i)=2
Set Participation(i)=0
Disable All Nodes for Communication having
Participation Value 2
[Identify the Effective Neighbor having Partipation
value 1 and set it as Effective Neighbor]
Set curNode=nextHop
[Set Effective communication node as Next
communicating Hop]
The work mainly defines an effective video communication
routing in energy effective mobile network. The possible
outcomes are the simulation results obtained from NS2 which
shows the performance parameters such as transmission rate,
loss rate, end-to-end delay, packets send and packets received
for the both proposed solution and existing network with
attack. The simulation results also provide graphical
comparison of the networks.The parameters taken in this
work for network generation are given here under Table 4.1.
Table 4.1 : Simulation Parameters


Communication channel


Number of Nodes


Routing Protocol


MAC Protocol




Communication Delay
Energy Adaptive

50 MicroSec

Here figure 4(a) is showing the simulation scenario for

mobile network. The figure is showing the network with 10
nodes. The communication is here performed between a node
pair and the large circles here shows the communication
range of each mobile node.

Figure 4(a): Network Design

Here figure 4(b) shows the outcome of data packet
transmission in video file communication. Here X- axis
represents simulation time and Y-axis represents packet
transmission over the network. It shows, the presented work
has improved the network throughput.

Figure 4(b) : Packet Transmission Analysis (Existing

Versus Proposed Approach)
Here figure 4(c) is showing the packet loss analysis as the
video data is communicated. Here X-axis represents
simulation time and Y-axis represents number of packet lost
over the network.

Figure 4(c) : Packet Loss Analysis (Existing Versus

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Here figure 4(d) is showing the communication delay
The presented work is to provide the effective video
analysis as the video data is communicated. Here X-axis
communication over mobile network by using three stage
represents simulation time and Y-axis represents packet delay
analysis. The work can be improved under different aspects
over the network.
The presented work is about to optimize the network
communication by performing the dynamic analysis
over the network nodes. The work can be improved
by using some session based approach to save the
path so that the path identification work will be

The work is based on the statistical analysis. The

work can be improved by using some optimization


Figure 4(d): Communication Delay Analysis (Existing

Versus Proposed Approach)
Here figure 4(e) is showing the packet lossrate
analysis as the video data is communicated. Here X-axis
represents simulation time and Y-axis represents packet delay
over the network.







Figure 4(e) : Packet lossrate analysis (Existing Versus

Proposed Approach)
The presented work is about to provide the video
communication over the mobile network. The work is
divided in three main stages. In first stage, the video frame
analysis is done. In second stage, the optimized contention
window specification is performed. At third stage, the route
optimization is done by observing the node participation
dynamically. In this work a multipath communication is
defined to generate the effective route over the network. The
work is implemented in NS2 environment. The obtained
results show the effective route generation in congested video
communication over the mobile network. The results shows
that the work has reduce the communication loss and
improved the network communication. The results are here
shown using XGraph.


V. C. Frias, G. D. Delgado, and M. A. Igartua, Multipath
routing with layered coded video to provide qos for video
streaming over manets," in Proceedings - 2006 IEEE
International Conference on Networks, ICON 2006 Networking-Challenges and Frontiers 1, vol. 1, pp. 1-6,
September 2006.
Fahim Maan, Nauman Mazhar, Analysis of Performance of
widely used MANET routing protocols DSDV, AODV, OLSR
, DYMO and DSR with mobility models{978-1-45771177-0/11/2011 IEEE}
Asad Amir Pirzada, Ryan Wishart and Marius Portmann, an
Congestion-Aware Routing In Hybrid Wireless Mesh Network
{ 1-4244-1230-7/07/ 2007 IEEE}
Uyeng trang and Jin Xu,Fundamental approaches to multicast
routing {0163-6804/07/$20.00 2007 IEEE}.
Youiti Kado, Azman Osman Lim, and Bing Zhang, Analysis
Of Wireless Mesh Network Routing Protocol For Push-to-Talk
Traffic {1-4244-1251-X/07/2007 IEEE}.
Chen Lijuan, Research On Routing protocol Applied To
Wireless Mesh Network{ 978-0-7695-3989-8/10 2010
G. A. Pegueno and J. R. Rivera, Extension to MAC 802.11 for
performance Improvement in MANET, Karlstads University,
Sweden, December 2006.
C.Parkins, E.B.Royer, S.Das, A hoc On-Demand Distance
Vector (AODV) Routing. July 2003, [Online]. Available:
http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3561.html. [Accessed: April. 10,
C.M barushimana, A.Shahrabi, Comparative Study of
Reactive and Proactive Routing Protocols Performance in
Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks, Workshop on Advance
Information Networking and Application, Vol. 2, pp. 679-684,
May, 2003.

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Vinod Chandavari1, Mr. Sanjeev Palekar2
M.Tech (APT), Department of Aerospace Propulsion Technology
Visvesvaraya Technological University - CPGS
Bangalore, Karnataka, India
vinodchandavari@gmail.com, 2aero.sanjeev@gmail.com
Abstract Diffusers are extensively used in centrifugal
compressors, axial flow compressors, ram jets, combustion
chambers, inlet portions of jet engines and etc. A small change in
pressure recovery can increases the efficiency significantly.
Therefore diffusers are absolutely essential for good turbo
machinery performance. The geometric limitations in aircraft
applications where the diffusers need to be specially designed so
as to achieve maximum pressure recovery and avoiding flow
The study behind the investigation of flow separation in a planar
diffuser by varying the diffuser taper angle for axisymmetric
expansion. Numerical solution of 2D axisymmetric diffuser model
is validated for skin friction coefficient and pressure coefficient
along upper and bottom wall surfaces with the experimental
results of planar diffuser predicted by Vance Dippold and
Nicholas J. Georgiadis in NASA research center [2].
Further the diffuser taper angle is varied for other different
angles and results shows the effect of flow separation were it is
reduces i.e., for what angle and at which angle it is just avoided.
Keywords: Planar Diffuser, CFD, Taper angle, Flow Separation.



Diffusers are integral parts of jet engines and many other

devices that depend on fluid flow. Performance of a
propulsion system as a whole is dependent on the efficiency of
diffusers. Identification of separation within diffusers is
important because separation increases drag and causes inflow
distortion to engine fans and compressors. Diffuser flow
computations are a particularly challenging task for
Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations due to
adverse pressure gradients created by the decelerating flow,
frequently resulting in separation.
These separations are highly dependent on local turbulence
level, viscous wall effects, and diffuser pressure ratio, which
are functions of the velocity gradients and the physical
geometry. The diffuser is before the combustion chamber that
ensures that combustion flame sustenance and velocities are
small [2].
1.1 What is the meaning of Separation or Reverse Flow?
The designing of an efficient combustion system is easier
if the velocity of the air entering the combustion chamber is as
low as possible. The natural movement of the air in a diffusion
process is to break away from the walls of the diverging
passage, reverse its direction and flow back in the direction of
the pressure gradient, as shown in figure 1.1 air deceleration
causes loss by reducing the maximum pressure rise [4].

Fig: 1.1 Diffusing Flow

Buice, C.U. and Eaton, J.K [1], was carried out the
Experimental work using a larger aspect ratio experimental
apparatus, paying extra attention to the treatment of the
endwall boundary layers. They are titled as Experimental
Investigation of Flow through an Asymmetric Plane Diffuser,
The results of this experiment are compared to the results of
different calculations made for the same diffuser geometry and
Reynold number. One of the calculation is Large Eddy
Simulation (LES). The other is a Reynold Averaged Navier
Stokes (RANS) calculation using v2-f turbulence model. Both
calculations captured the major features of the flow including
separation and reattachment.
Vance Dippold and Nicholas J. Georgiadis[2], they have been
performed Computational Study of Separating Flow in a
Planar Subsonic Diffuser in National Aeronautics and Space
Administration is computed with the SST, k-, SpalartAllmaras and Explicit Algebraic Reynolds Stress turbulence
models are compared with experimentally measured velocity
profiles and skin friction along the upper and lower walls.
Olle Tornblom[3], repeated the experimental work of Buice,
C.U. and Eaton, J.K, Experimental study of the turbulent
flow in a plane asymmetric diffuser, the flow case has been
concentrated on in an uniquely composed wind-tunnel under
overall controlled conditions. A similar study is made where
the measured turbulence data are utilized to assess an explicit
algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence model (EARSM) and
coefficient of pressure is measured.
In this study diffuser gives an idea of choosing the turbulence
model and to avoid separation flow by varying the taper angle
(7, 8, 9 and 10).
The diffuser model and Fluent 14.5 are used, to study the
diffuser characteristics with the effect of various factors like
Pressure coefficient and Skin friction coefficient. Obtained
results are validated against the known experimental results
carried out by Vance Dippold and Nicholas J. Georgiadis [2].


Diffuser geometric configuration with the height of the inlet

channel H = 0.015 meters and the diffuser has a 10 expansion
taper angle and is 21H in length. At the end of the expansion,
the diffuser channel is 4.7H in height. Figure 2.1 shows the
schematic diagram of diffuser [1].
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study because the flow through the diffuser user is steady in
the mean. In this study, SST-K- turbulence models were used
with varying complexities and formulations. Understandably,
the increased complexity (i.e., increased number of equations)
requires more computational time. Thus, the selection of
turbulence models with varying complexities provides the
opportunity to observe a correlation between modeling
accuracy and computational time [4].
Identical boundary conditions were used for all turbulence
models. In particular, the inlet conditions were specified as a
constant velocity profile corresponding to the bulk inlet
velocity, Ub = 20 m/s.
Fig: 2.1 Shows the schematic diagram of Diffuser

Figure 2.2 shows the computational domain of 2D that mimics

the physical model. The diffuser apparatus can be divided into
three sections: an inflow channel, the asymmetric diffuser, and
an outflow channel. Figure 2.3 shows the 2D structured mesh
for computational domain. Mesh having 41511 nodes and
41000 elements.
Mesh Quality:
Orthogonal Quality is ranges from 0 to 1, where values close
to 0 correspond to low quality. Hence the
Minimum Orthogonal Quality = 0.945334629648056
Y plus value= 1.03

All turbulence models implemented a COUPLED scheme to

couple the pressure and velocity. Furthermore, the spatial
discretization was accomplished by a second-order accurate
upwind scheme for the momentum and a FLUENT standard
scheme for the pressure. Any additional closure equations for
the various turbulence models were spatially discretized by
second-order accurate upwind schemes. In all cases, the
corresponding calculation residuals were monitored to
convergence at 1*10-05. These residuals included continuity, xvelocity, and y-velocity for all turbulence models. Beyond
these generic residuals, any additional closure equations gave
additional terms to monitor. The fluid properties were
carefully chosen to ensure a matched Reynolds number with
the experimental data. Specifically, the fluid density was
chosen to be 1.225 kg/m3 and the dynamic viscosity was
selected to be 1.789*10-05 kg/m-s. The combination of these
values yields the appropriate Reynolds number based on inlet
channel height, ReH = 20,000.

Fig: 2.2 Computational domain


The suitability of solver selection, turbulence model,

numerical scheme, discretisation method and convergence
criteria used in the present study is validated by comparing the
skin friction coefficient and pressure coefficient along the X/H
with the experimental data of Vance Dippold and Nicholas J.
Georgiadis[2]. Among various turbulence models available in
the fluent code, SST-k- model are tested with different taper
angle (7, 8, 9 and 10).
The figures 4.1.1 and 4.1.3 shows skin friction coefficient is
0.006 of Bottom_wall and Top_wall respectively, figure 4.2.1
shows the Pressure coefficient and the figure 4.1.2, 4.1.4 and
4.2.2 shows computational results obtained are in better
agreement with the known experimental results as follows.
Table: 4.2 Comparison of Experimental Results with Computational

Fig: 2.3 Computational Domain with Mesh



This project implemented steady Reynolds Averaged NavierStokes equations (RANS) in the ANSYS FLUENT flow
simulation program. For all cases, a two-dimensional, doubleprecision flow solver was used. It was assumed that the
application of steady RANS equations was sufficient for this



Taper Angle


0.73 to 0.85





0.006 to 0.0063





Skin friction













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Table 4.2 demonstrates the correlation distinctive parameters
of experimental results with computational results. This table
demonstrates the how the taper angle decreases pressure
coefficient expands and skin friction coefficient diminishes
this implies the flow separation is bit by bit diminishes.

Fig: 4.1.4 Comparison of Computational Results with Experimental

Results of Top_wall skin friction along with the X/H using the SST model
at 10 taper angle

Fig: 4.1.1 Experimental results of Bottom_wall skin friction along with

the X/H using the SST model at 10 taper angle [2]

Fig: 4.2.1 Experimental results of pressure coefficient (Cp) at 10 taper

angle along with the X/H

Fig: 4.1.2 Comparison of Computational Results with Experimental

Results of Bottom_wall skin friction along with the X/H using the SST
model at 10 taper angle

Fig: 4.2.2 Computational Results of Pressure Coefficient, bottom and Top

wall at 10 taper angle


Fig: 4.1.3 Experimental results of Top_wall skin friction along with the
X/H using the SST model at 10 taper angle [2]


The results are obtained from the CFD by applying the

experimental condition to the computational model with
variation of taper angle 7, 8, 9, and 10, were measured for
different contours plots, figure 5.1.1, 5.1.2, 5.1.3, and 5.1.4
shows the contours of velocity, figure 5.2.1, 5.2.2, 5.2.3, and
5.2.4 shows the separation for streamline functions and figure
5.2.5, 5.2.6, 5.2.7, and 5.2.8 shows contours of separation

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Fig: 5.1.1 Contours of Velocity at 10 taper angle

Fig: 5.1.4 Contours of Velocity at 7 taper angle

Fig: 5.2.1 Separation for Streamline Function at 10 taper angle

Fig: 5.1.2 Contours of Velocity at 9 taper angle

Fig: 5.1.3 Contours of Velocity at 8 taper angle

Fig: 5.2.2 Separation for Streamline Function at 9 taper angle

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Fig: 5.2.3 Separation for Streamline Function at 8 taper angle

Fig: 5.2.6 Contours of Separation at 9 taper angle

Fig: 5.2.4 Separation for Streamline Function at 7 taper angle

Fig: 5.2.7 Contours of Separation at 8 taper angle

Fig: 5.2.8 Contours of Separation at 7 taper angle

Fig: 5.2.5 Contours of Separation at 10 taper angle

Identification of separation within diffusers is important

because separation increases drag and causes inflow distortion
to engine fans and compressors.
Figure 5.1.1, 5.1.2 and 5.1.3 shows the contours of velocity
10, 9 and 8 taper angle respectively, blue color shows the
negative value. Figure 5.1.4 taper angle at 7 contours of
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velocity doesnt shows negative value it means that the
separation flow is avoided at 7 taper angle.


From the present study it is evident that when the taper angle
is decreased, the skin friction coefficient drops & pressure
coefficient rises, as result the flow separation follows a
diminishing trend
The optimum taper angle is 7 below which there is no flow
separation at all but going beyond it gives rise to flow


The proposed next work for the present configuration is,

simulating for 3D structured mesh configuration to these taper
angle varieties and as in the present work the contrast in 2D
taper angle we can figure it for variety taper angle, and 3D
configuration simulation is possible for the impact of
expectation taper angle.
[1] Buice, C.U. and Eaton, J.K., Experimental Investigation of
Flow Through an Asymmetric Plane Diffuser, 1997
[2] Vance Dippold and Nicholas J. Georgiadis., Computational
Study of Separating Flow in a Planar Subsonic Diffuser,
NASA, October 2005
[3] Olle Tornblom., Experimental study of the turbulent flow in a
plane asymmetric diffuser, 2003
[4] Reid A. Berdanier., Turbulent flow through an asymmetric
plane diffuser, Purdue University, April-2011
[5] Arthur H Lefebvre and Dilip R. Ballal., Gas Turbine
Combustion-Alternative Fuels and Emissions, CRC Press
Taylor & Francis Group, Third Edition pp.79 112 2010
[6] Gianluca Iaccarino., Predictions of a Turbulent Separated Flow
Using Commercial CFD Codes, 2001
[7] Obi, S., Aoki, K., and Masuda, S., Experimental and
Computational Study of Turbulent Separating Flow in an
Asymmetric Plane Diffuser, Ninth Symposium on Turbulent
Shear Flows, Kyoto, Japan, August-1993.
[8] Dheeraj Sagar, Akshoy Ranjan Paul Et al., Computational
fluid dynamics investigation of turbulent separated flows in
axisymmetric diffusers, 2011
[9] E.M. Sparrow and J.P. Abraham., Et al. Flow separation in a
diverging conical duct: Effect of Reynolds number and
Divergence angle, 2009.

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Taghreed. H. Al-Noor, Amer. J. Jarad, *Abaas Obaid Hussein
Department of Chemistry.
Ibn -Al-Haithem College of Education Baghdad University
drtaghreed2@gmail.com, *Abaasobaid41@yahoo.com
Abstract A new Schiff base 4-chlorophenyl)methanimine
ClN3O4S) has been synthesized from -lactam antibiotic
(cephalexin mono hydrate(CephH)=(C16H19N3O5S.H2O) and 4chlorobenzaldehyde . Figure(1) Metal mixed ligand complexes
of the Schiff base were prepared from chloride salt of
Fe(II),Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II),Zn(II) and Cd (II), in 50% (v/v)
ethanol water medium (SacH ) .in aqueous ethanol(1:1)
containing and Saccharin(C7H5NO3S) = sodium hydroxide.
Several physical tools in particular; IR, CHN, 1H NMR, 13C
NMR for ligand and melting point molar conductance, magnetic
moment. and determination the percentage of the metal in the
complexes by flame(AAS). The ligands and there metal
complexes were screened for their antimicrobial activity against
four bacteria (gram + ve) and (gram -ve) {Escherichia coli,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus}.
The proposed structure of the complexes using program, Chem
office 3D(2006). The general formula have been given for the
prepared mixed ligand complexes Na2[M(Sac)3(L)], M(II) = Fe
(II), Co(II) , Ni(II), Cu (II), Zn(II) , and Cd(II).
HL= C29H24 ClN3O4S, L= C29H23 ClN3O4S -.
Key words (Cephalexin antibiotics, Saccharin, Schiff base,
Spectral studies drugs mixed ligand complexes, and antibacterial

containing hetero atoms like O,N ,S and P are found to work as

very effective corrosion inhibitors [2-3]
Schiff bases have been studied extensively because of their
high potential chemical permutation. Magnetic susceptibility,
absorption spectra, elemental analysis, molecular weight
determination, conductivity, thermal analysis of many Schiff
bases and their complexes have been reported.[45]Several
workers also studied their biological properties, such as
antibacterial, antifungal, activities.[67]
Saccharin (C7H5NO3S), also called o-sulfobenzoimide, is
widely used as an artificial sweetening agent. Saccharin is a
weak acid [8].
The structures of Co(II) [7], Ni(II) [8], Cu(II) [9] and Cd(II)
[10] imidazole saccharinates were reported.
In this paper we present the synthesis and study of
Fe(II),Co(II),Ni(II), Cu(II),
Zn(II),and Cd(II) complexes with tridentate Schiff base
derives from -lactam antibiotic { (cephalexin mono hydrate)4-chlorobenzaldehyde } as a primary ligand and Saccharin as
secondary ligand. Their structures were confirmed by Uv-Vis .
IR and NMR spectral analysis. Further, their antibacterial
activity towards some clinically important bacteria was

Figure(1):structural of the HL (3D)

A. Chemicals
All chemical reagents and solvents used were of analytical
grade and were used without further purification and were used
FeCl2.9H2O.MnCl2.2H2O, CoCl2.6H2O,NiCl2 .6H2O, NaOH
(supplied by either Merck or Fluka) ethanol, methanol
dimethylforamaide, and KBr, acetone , benzene, 4chlorobenzaldehyde, and chloroform from (B.D.H).Cephalexin
powder DSM (Spain).

Metal complexes of the Schiff bases are generally prepared
by treating metal salts with Schiff base ligands under suitable
experimental conditions. However, for some catalytic
application the Schiff base metal complexes are prepared in situ
in the reaction system. [1].Generally the organic compounds

B. Instrumentals
Elemental micro analysis for the ligands was performed on
a (C.H.N.) Euro EA 3000. In Ibn Al-Haitham College of
Education, University of Baghdad, Iraq.
1H NMR spectra were recorded using Brucker DRX system
500 (500 MHz) and 13 C-1H hetero nuclear 2D correlation
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spectroscopy (COSY), HETCOR), in the Department of
complexes precipitated were filtered and washed with distilled
Chemistry Sharif University, Tehran, Iran.
water, then with methanol and recrystallized using acetone
solvent. Na2 [M (L)(Sac)3] (Scheme 2) . Yields: 82-90%.
UV-Vis spectra were recorded on a (Shimadzu UV- 160A)
Ultra Violet-Visible Spectrophotometer. IR- spectra were taken
NNa + MCl
on a (Shimadzu, FTI R- 8400S) Fourier Transform Infrared
+ 3
Spectrophotometer (4000- 400) cm-1 with samples prepared as
KBr discs. Metal contents of the complexes were determined
by atomic absorption (A.A) technique using a Shimadzu AA
620G atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The Chloride
contents of complexes were determined by potentiometric
titration method using (686-Titro processor-665. Dosimat
Metrohn Swiss). Conductivities were measured for 10-3M of
complexes in DMSO
at 25C using (conductivity meter,
Jewnwary, model 4070). Magnetic measurements were

Faradys method. In addition melting points were obtained

using (Stuart Melting Point Apparatus). The proposed
molecular structure of the complexes were drawing by using
chem. office prog 3DX (2006).
The Schiff base ligand was prepared by condensation of
(2.92 gm,8mmol) of Cephalexin mono hydrate in (15ml)
methanol and of (1.12 g m , 8mmol) of 4-chlorobenzaldehyde
in (15ml) methanol was refluxed on water bath for 3-4 hours in
presence of few drops of glacial acetic acid. The yellow
coloured solid mass formed during refluxing was cooled to
room temperature, filtered and washed thoroughly
methanol, washed with hot acetone and recrystallized from
acetone to get a pure sample. Yield: 83%, m p: 205-210o C.
M.W= 469. 94, (C23H20N3 ClO4 S). see scheme (2-1) .
% Calculated: 58. 78 , H: 4.92, N: 8;94
% Found: C: 57.55, H: 5.093, N: 8.627.


H2O +



drop acetic acid






(6R,7R)-7-(2-((Z )-4-chlorobenzylideneamino)-2-phenylacetamido)-3-methyl-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid

Scheme (1): The synthesis route of ligand (HL)

D. General preparing of the mixed ligands metal
The complexes were prepared by a similar method of
synthesis using the reagents in molar ratio of 1:3:1. Of M: L:
A methanolic solution (15 mL, 1m mol) of the appropriate
FeCl2.6H2O. (0.180gm, 1mmol), CoCl2.6H2O (0.237gm,
1mmol), NiCl2.6H2O (0.238gm, 1mmol), CuCl2.2H2O
(0.176gm, 1mmol), ZnCl2(0.136gm, 1mmol),CdCl2 (0.183gm,
1mmol); was added to a methanolic solution (15ml) of the
Schiff base, primary ligand [HL] (1m mol) and methanolic
solution (0. 549g, 3mmol) ) of the secondary ligand sodium
saccharinate was added to the previous solution and the
reaction mixture was refluxed for about 2-3 h on a water bath
and then aqueous alcoholic solution of Na OH (V: V) was
added to the mixture to adjust the pH 6 to 8 and further
refluxed for about an hour with constant stirring . The










M(II) = Fe (II),Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II), Zn(II), and Cd (II)

Scheme (2): The synthesis route of Metal(II) -(Schiff base

HL Sac) Mixed Ligand Complexes
The data obtained from analytical and physico-chemical
studies have been correlated in a logical way to explain the
properties, bonding and structures of the compounds.
A. Characterization of the ligand,
Generally, the complexes were prepared by reacting the
respective metal salts with the ligands using 1:1:3 mole
ratios.[M: L3 :3(Sac)], i.e. one mole of metal salt : one mole of
Schiff base(HL) and three moles of sodium Saccharinate The
synthesis of mixed ligand metal complexes may be represented
as follows
3SacH +3NaOH 3 Sac Na + 3H2O
3 SacNa + HL+ MCL2 .n H2O [M(Sac)3(L)]+ n H2O +
(where HL is Schiff base derives from selected -lactam
4chlorobenzophenone, and Sac H is Saccharin).
M (II) = Fe (II), Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II), Zn(II), and Cd (II)
B. Physical properties
The formula weights and melting points, are given in table
(1).Based on the physicochemical characteristics, it was found
that all the complexes were non- hygroscopic, All complexes
are insoluble in most organic solvent, but soluble in ethanol,
DMF and DMSO. The complexes were dissolved in DMSO
and the molar conductivity values of 10-3 M solution at 25 o C
of the complexes are in the range 63.55-77.36 ohm1mol-1
cm2. It is obvious from these data that complexes are
electrolytes types 1: 2 [11]. The test for halide ion with AgNO3
solution was negative indicating that halide ion is inside the
coordination sphere of the central metal [12]. The ligand, HL
was yellow in color with a melting point of 162oC. The
analytical data showed closed agreement with the suggested
formula of C23H20 ClN3O4S. It was further characterized by
1H NMR,13C NMR and FT-IR
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C. spectral data
all the metal complexes indicates that, these groups are not
involved in coordination. Some new bands of weak intensity
The (FT-IR) spectrum for the starting material saccharin
observed in the regions around (526-474)cm-1 and (418-486)
(Sac H) Table(3). In saccharin the bands for stretching
cm-1 may be ascribed to M-N and M-O vibrations, respectively
vibration of N-H and (CNS) are found at 3402 and 966 cm-1
[14-15].It may be noted that, these vibrational bands are absent
respectively. The absorption band for stretching vibration of
in the spectra of the ligands.[15-16]
(C = O) appeared at 1705 cm-1 .The absorption bands in the
(U.V-Vis) Spectral data for the Schiff bases mixed ligands
region 1333 to 1553 cm-1 is for C = C in the aromatic ring,
complexes [Fe(L)(Sac)3], [Co (L)(Sac)3], [Ni (L)(Sac)3], [Cu
1292 cm-1 for C-N single bond, and at 1692 cm-1 for C-O
(L)(Sac)3 , [Zn (L)(Sac)3] and [Cd (L)(Sac)3].
single bond. The two SO 2 stretching vibrations appear at
The UV-Vis spectrum of the ligand (saccharin) shows
similar frequencies(1292 and 1178 cm-1 for asmy(SO2) asym
peaks at 275 nm (36363 cm-1)(max=142 molar-1.cm-1), 340
and smy (SO2) sym, respectively. [13-14] The (FT-IR)
nm (21422 cm-1) (max=168 molar-1.cm-1) assigned to (*)
spectrum for the ligand (HL), displays bands at (3211, 3045)
and (n*) electronic transitions. [17]
cm-1 due to (NH) secondary amine stretching vibration, and
The UV-Vis spectrum of the ligand (HL) shows peaks at
disappeared the band for the (NH) primary amine stretching
nm (33333 cm-1) (max=880 molar-1.cm-1), assigned to
(n*) electronic transitions within the organic ligand, [17- 18]
The spectrum displays a new band at (1689) cm-1 is due
The absorption data for complexes are given in Table (5).
(HC=N-) group of the azomethine stretching vibrations of the
ligand [125] .Where The band at (1759) cm-1 is due to Stretch
The magnetic moment
table (3-27) of the Fe (II) d6
grouping (C=O) for (COOH) and strong _ (OH) stretching at
complex is 4.72 B.M.
3423cm-1 corresponding to carboxylic group.
The (U.V- Vis) Fe (II) spectrum, exhibits four peaks. The
The band at (1689) cm-1 stretching vibration is due to
of the electronic spectral bands, their positions, and
(C=O) for -Lactam group overlapping with (-HC=N-); The
parameters for Fe (I1) which is in agreement with
bands at (1593) and (1398) cm-1 were assigned to stretching
by several research workers [24,7], the first high
vibration (COOH) asymmetric and symmetric stretching
intense peak at (273 nm)( 36630 cm-1)(max =1189 molarvibration, respectively. , = [ asym (COO-) - sym (COO-)]
1.cm-1) is due to the (L.F), while the second peak at (299nm)(
is (195 cm-1) .These values are quite agreeable with the values
334442 cm-1)(max =1208 molar-1.cm-1) and third peak at
reported earlier [124-125].
(345 nm)( 28985 cm-1)(max =1208 molar-1.cm-1) are due to
The bands at (1502), (3045), (1163), and (2813) were
the (C-T) .The fourth peak at (757 nm)( 13210 cm-1) (max
assigned to (C=C) aromatic, (CH) aromatic,( (CC)
aliphatic., and (CC) aromatic ) stretching vibration
=42 molar-1.cm-1) is due to the 5T2g5Eg transition.
respectively. The band at (1315) cm-1 is due to (CN) cm-1
[5,18].These results reveal the distorted octahedral geometry
stretching vibration. The band at (1282) cm-1 was assigned to
for these complex.[17]
(CO) stretching vibration [123]. The band at (582) cm-1 was
assigned to (CS) stretching vibration [13-14].
The electronic absorption spectrum of Co (II) d7 complex
The assignment of the characteristic bands (FT-IR) spectra
showed five absorption bands as shown in table (5). The
for the free ligand (HL), are summarized in Table (2) and (3)
assignment of the electronic spectral bands, their positions, and
the spectral parameters for Co (I1) which is in agreement with
FT-IR of Na2 [Fe( L)(Sac)3] (1), Na2[Co ( L)(Sac)3] (2),
data reported by several research workers [124,127], the first
Na2[Ni ( L)(Sac)3](3), Na2[Cu( L)(Sac)3] (4) ,Na2[Zn(
high intense peak at (273 nm)( 36630 cm-1)(max =1340
L)(Sac)3] (5) and Na2[Cd ( L)(Sac)3] (6) complexes:
molar-1.cm-1) is due to the (L.F) , while the second peak at
The FT-IR spectra for complexes (1) , (2) , (3) , (4) , (5),
(299 nm)( 334442 cm-1) (max =1379 molar-1.cm-1) and
and (6), are summarized in table (4) . The spectrum of the (HL)
third peak at (345 nm)( 28985 cm-1)(max =1383 molardisplays a new band at (1689) cm-1 is due to (HC=N-) group
1.cm-1) are due to the (C-T). The fourth peak at(862nm)(
of the azomethine stretching vibrations of the ligand [125,128].
11600 cm-1)(max =28 molar-1.cm-1) and fifth peak at (981
on complexation these band has been shifted to lower
nm)( 10193 cm- 1)(max =145 molar-1.cm-1) are due to
frequencies (1620), (1629, (1629), (1585), (1629) and (1585)
the4T1g4T1g (P) (3) and 4T1g 4A2g (2)
cm-1for complexes (1), (2), (3), (4), (5) and (6).This bands
respectively. The magnetic moment table (3-26) of the Co (II)
gets shifted to lower frequency in the complexes,
complex is 3.51B.M suggesting octahedral geometry for the Co
indicating the coordination through azomethine nitrogen to
(II) complexes. [5,17]
metal atom. [5, 14, 15].
The bands at (1593), and (1398) cm-1 were assigned to
The electronic absorption spectrum of Ni (II) d8 complex
stretching vibration (COOH) asymmetric and symmetric
five absorption bands as shown in table (5).The
stretching vibration, respectively. on complexation these bands
of the electronic spectral bands, their positions, and
have been shifted to lower frequencies [(1581), (1587),
parameters for Ni (I1) which is in agreement with
(1527), (1527), (1587) and (1558) cm-1 for (-COO)asy], and
by several research workers[124,127],the first
[(1336), (1334), (1394), (1380), (1334), and (1358) cm-1,for
at (272 nm)( 36764 cm-1)(max =1188
(-COO) sy] for the compounds (1) , (2) , (3) , (4) ,(5) and (6),
to the (L.F) , while the second peak at
that the coordination with metal was occurred through the
=2073 molar-1.cm-1) and third
oxygen atom of carboxylate ion. Moreover, (as (COO)peak
(max =1383 molar-1.cm-1)
s(COO) values of complexes below 200 cm1 would be
at(885 nm)( 11299 cmexpected for bridging or chelating carboxylates but greater than
peak at (980 nm)(
200 cm1 for the monodentate bonding carboxylate anions
are due to the 3A2g
[6,13]. The un altered position of a band due to ring (C-S) in
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(C6; C7; C8; -lactam);135 .65; 131. 63; 130.18).The
(F) 3T1g (P) (3) and 3A2g(F) 3T1g(F)
four resonance at (=140.87, = 140.42, = 140.12, = 139.92
(2)respectively . The magnetic moment table (3-2276) of
ppm) assigned to carbon atoms of aromatic ring (C1, C2, C4,
the Ni (II) complex is 2.77 B.M
suggesting octahedral
C3) respectively. (HC=N); 146.14.
geometry for the Ni (II) complexes.[ 17 , 19].
Na2[Cu (L)(Sac)3]
F. The proposed molecular structure forNa2[M
The electronic absorption of Cu(II) d8 complex showed
three absorption bands as shown in table (5). The first high
Studying complexes on bases of the above analysis, the
intense peak at (271 nm)( 36900 cm-1)(max =1039 molarexistence of Hexa coordinated [M( L) (Sac) 3] were, M=
1.cm-1) is due to the (L.F) , while the second peak at (348
Fe(II),Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II),Zn(II),and Cd(II).proposed models
nm) (28735 cm-1)(max =485 molar-1.cm-1) and third peak is
of the species were built with chem.3D shows in figure(2 )
observed multiple absorption band at 11682 cm-1 16500 cm1 but they are overlapped. Because, octahedral complexes of
Cu(II) are observable distorted by Jahn-Teller effect and the
structure of complex is to name pseudo-octahedral. It was to
taken notice of top of the peak as absorption band and dd
transition at about 11682 cm-1 (2Eg2T2g) for Cu(II)
complex. The complex has a room temperature magnetic
moment of 1.71 B.M. which corresponds to distorted
octahedral structure for the Cu (II) ion,[ 19-.20].
Na2[Zn (L)(Sac)3] and Na2[C d (L)(Sac)3]
The electronic spectra of d10[Zn(II) and C d(II)]complexes
do show the charge transfer . The magnetic susceptibility
shows that two complexes have diamagnetic moments.,
because d-d transitions are not possible hence electronic spectra
did not give any fruitful information. in fact this result is a good
Figure (2): 3D molecular modeling proposed complexes
agreement with previous work of octahedral geometry
M= Fe(II),Co(II),Ni(II),Cu(II),Zn(II) and Cd(II)
D. Magnetic susceptibility
The observed magnetic moment values of the prepared
complexes are summarized in table (6).Examination of these
data reveals that magnet moment of 0.0 B.M for Cd (II) and Zn
confirms that the complexes
are essentially
diamagnetic. The magnetic moment found for Fe(II),Co (II),
Ni (II), Cu (II), 4.72, 3.51, 2.77, 1.71 B.M respectively these
values suggest octahedral geometry which is in good agreement
with data of electronic transition . The electronic spectra and
the magnetic moments support the stereochemistry of the
complexes [12-120]
E. NMR Spectral studies
The integral intensities of each signal in the 1HNMR
spectrum of ligand was found to agree with the number of
different types of protons present. In the 1H NMR spectrum of
the ligand, the formation of Schiff base is supported by the
presence of a singlet at ( 8.21)ppm corresponding to the
azomethine proton (N=CH).The signal obtained in range (
7.77-7.92) ppm was assigned for doublet due one proton of
aromatic ring of phenyl. Three groups of double peaks given by
(COCH) and (NCH) on the beta-Lactam ring and (NH sec.)
amide appeared at ( 4.48), ( 5.06) and ( 8.08) ppm,
respectively. This confirms the formations of imine ligand.
This observation was also supported by the FTIR data of the
ligand discussed earlier. One group of four resonance signals
attributed to (S-CH) on the dihydrothiazine ring was observed
in the ( 2.92-3.27) ppm. and 9.53 ppm (1H, s, NHCO); This
observation was also supported by the FTIR data of the ligand
discussed earlier. [23, 24].The NMR spectral data of HL was
compared with the spectral data for the similar ligands reported
in literatures [23, 24].
The 13C NMR spectrum of the ligand [HL] in DMSO-d6
solvent shown

Antibacterial Activities studies: [25-26]

The effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent in sensitivity is
based on the zones of inhibition. The synthesized metal
complexes were screened for their antimicrobial activity by
well plate method in nutrient agar . The invitro antibacterial
activity was carried against 4 hold cultures of pathogenic
bacteria like gram (+) and gram (-) at 37o C. In order to ensure
that solvent had no effect on bacteria, a control test was
performed with DMSO and found inactive in culture medium.
Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by measuring the
diameter of the inhibition zone (IZ) around the hole. Most of
the tested compounds showed remarkable biological activity
against different types of gram positive and gram negative
bacteria. The diameter of the susceptibility zones were
measured in mm and the results are presented in Table (7) [2627]Compounds were considered as active when the (IZ) was
greater than 6 mm. The zone of inhibition of the complexes
against the growth of bacteria were given In table (6), figure(3 )
*The antibacterial activity results revealed that the ligand (HL)
and its complexes shown weak to good activity.
Complexes Na2[M (L)(Sac)3], M =Co(II) ,Ni(II) ,Cu(II)
and Zn(II) show negative against all bacteria.
*The complex Na2[Fe (L)(Sac)3] show very good
antibacterial activity agains towards 3- organisms except
*The complex Na2[Cd(L)(Sac)3] show good antibacterial
activity against towards 4- organisms. The inhibition
antibacterial property of complexes can be explained as
follows. The positive charge of the metal ion is shared
antibacterial between the donor atoms of the ligand. There is
the possibility of delocalization of the electron density of
aromatic ring also. These two factors positively contribute to
increase the lipophilic character. Upon complexation , polarity
of metal ion get reduced due to the overlap of ligand orbital and
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[14] Silverstein R. M., Spectrophotometric Identification of Organic
the sharing of positive charge of the metal ions with donor
Compounds, 2009.John Wiley, New York, NY, USA.
groups. [5,16]
[1] Cozzi. P.G, Chemical Society Reviews, 33 (2004) 410-421.
[2] Blanc C., Gastaud S., J. Electrochem.Soc. 150, 396, 2003.
[3] Ebenso E. E,. Okafo P. C r, U. J. Eppe,Anti Corr. Meth. and
Mat, 50,414,2003.
[4] Taghreed H. Al-Noor, Sajed. M. Lateef and Mazin H. Rhayma,
J.Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research,( 2012), 4(9):41414148
[5] Taghreed H. Al-Noor, Ahmed. T. AL- Jeboori , Manhel Reemon
, J. Chemistry and Materials Research ,( 2013), Vol.3 No.3, 114124
[6] Taghreed H.Al-Noor,Ahmed T.AL- eboori , Manhel Reemon,(
2013 ) J. Advances in Physics Theories and Applications
Vol.18, 1-10.
[7] Zhang,. J. Li, Y. Lin, W. Liu, S., J. Huang, Polyhedron, (1992),
11, 419.
[8] Zhang, J. Li Y., Lin, W. Liu, J. S. Huang, J. Cryst. Spec. Res.
(1992)., 22, 433
[9] Liu, J. Huang, J. Li, W. ., Lin, J. Acta Crystall ogr. (1991), C47,
[10] Ke, J. Li, Y. Wang, Q. Wu X., J. Cryst. Res. Technol. (1997),
32, 481.
[11] Geary, W. J. Coord. Chem. Rev. 1971, 7, 81-122.
[12] Vogel A. (1978).Text Book of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis
(Longman, London). 3Ed th 694.
[13] Nakamoto; K. (1996).Infrared spectra of Inorganic and
coordination compounds 4Ed th ; J. Wiely and Sons, Newyork.

[15] Sharma, R.C Giri P.P, Devendra Kumar and Neelam, J. Chem.
Pharm. Res(.2012), 4(4): 1969-1973.
[16] Fayad N.K., Taghreed H. Al-Noor and Ghanim F.H, Journal of
Advances in Physics Theories and Applications, (2012) , Vol. (
9), 1-12.
[17] Lever A.B.P., Inorganic Electronic spectroscopy,2rd Ed
Elsevier, New York. (1984).
[18] Taghreed H. Al-Noor, Manhel Reemon Aziz and Ahmed T. ALJeboori, Journal of Chemistry and Materials Research, 2013
Vol.3 No.3, 114-124.
[19] Taghreed H. Al-Noor, Ahmed. T. AL- Jeboori, Manhel
Reemon, Journal Advances in Physics Theories and
Applications ( 2013) Vol.18, 1-10.
[20] Dutta. R. L and Syamal A., Elements of Magnatochemistry , 2nd
Ed., East west press, New Delhi, (1996).
[21] Manchand W. ConardFernelius W., Journal of Chemical
Education (1961). 38 (4) 192-201,
[22] Fouziarafat M. Y. Siddiqi and Siddiqi., k. S. J. Serb. Chem.
Soc.(2004), 69 (89) 6416649
[23] Chohan, ZH.Daniel L.M. Aguiak DE, Rosane A.S. San GIL,
Leandro B. Borre, Monica R.C. Marques, Andre L. Gemal , J.
Appl Organomet Chem, (2011) 20: 112- 118.
[24] Reddy V., Patil N. and. Angadi S.D, E-J. Chem., (2008), 5(3),
[25] Seely H.W ,and Van Demark P J, Microbes in Action,
Laboratory of Microbiology, 3rd Ed., W H Freeman and Co.
U.S.A, 1981, 38
[26] Awetz J., Melnick, And Delbrgs A,( 2007), Medical
Microbiology 4th ed McGraw Hil-USA.

Table (1): The physical properties of the Schiff base mixed ligand Na2 [M(L)(Sac)3]complexes
M. wt = Molecular Weight, Lm = Molar Conductivity, dec. = decomposition

Table(2):Data from the Infrared Spectrum for the Free Ligand Ceph (cm-1) and Schiff base HL

Table (3): Infrared spectral data (wave number ) cm-1 for the Saccharin (Sac H)
Sym: symmetric, asy: asymmetric, am: amide, v.s: very strong, s: strong, m: medium,
w: week, sh: shoulder , arom. = aromatic, aliph = aliphatic

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Table (4): Infrared spectral data (wave number ) cm-1 for the ligand HL, and their complexes

Table (5): Electronic Spectral data, magnetic moment, of the mixed ligands complexes

Table (6): The magnetic measurements data of the prepared complexes

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Table (7): The antibacterial activity (Zone of inhibition) (mm) data of Schiff base (HL) and its complexes Na2

Figure(3) :Chart of biological effects of the Na2[M( L)(Sac)3]

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Syed Mohd Mehndi
Prof. Meraj Ahmad Khan & Prof. Sabih Ahmad (Guide)
Dept. of Civil Engineering
Integral University
Lucknow, India
er.syedmohdmehndi@gmail.com, merajrafi@rediffmail.com, sabihahmed10@gmail.com
Abstract-This research work focused on checking the cause
and evaluation of cracks at every stage in R.C.C structures. This
paper will describe how to find out cracks size and cause of
cracks. Cracks generally occur both in plastic and elastic state of
concrete. I have selected this topic because less work is being
done in this area in India. The repair materials and repair
technique are different depending upon forms of cracks
according to their positions in structure. Good crack repair
methods depends on knowing the cause of cracks and selecting
appropriate repair method that take these causes into account
otherwise the repair would not last long. This report serves as a
tool in process of cracks evaluation and causes of cracks in
concrete structures. So we can say if crack repair is assumed to
be building of structure than this report can be assumed as
foundation of it.
Keywords Thermal expansion, alkali-silica reactions, alkalicarbonate reactions, corrosion; cracking; drying shrinkage, heat
of hydration, mass concrete, plastic & precast concrete, prestressed concrete, reinforced concrete, shrinkage.


It arise when the rate of evaporation of water from top layer of
freshly laid concrete is greater than bleed water provided by
underlying concrete due to this surface concrete contracts. Due
to the restraint shown by the concrete below the drying surface
concrete layer the tensile stresses are develop in the weak and
stiffening plastic concrete. Due to this shallow crack of
variable depth are formed at different locations whose shape
can be random, polygonal pattern, or be essentially parallel to
one another. These cracks may be fairly wide and can be
observed the surface. The size of these cracks would vary from
few inches to feet in length. Plastic shrinkage cracks begin as
narrow cracks, but can become full-depth cracks later on.

Concrete encompasses certain type of cracks in prehardening stage and develops some other types of cracks in
post hardening stage in life of structure due to various reasons,
even with our extreme care in prevention of cracks. When
concrete becomes older cracks become causes of leakages and
seepages and give entree to the moisture, oxygen, chloride,
carbon dioxide etc. and other aggressive chemicals and gases
into the concrete causing serious degradation of the structure
and causing corrosion of steel and damage in the concrete and
at a same time causing structural failure of the member.
Cracking are early indications of failure of structure.
Lightweight concrete shrinks more. It is vital to note that
concrete does crack and this is usual. What is not normal is too
much of cracks.
Cracks can be treated as cancer in R.C.C structure, as
cancer which in its primary stage is curable to a certain
extent but becomes danger to life in later stage; same
happens with cracks
Depending on types and importance cracks can be of two


Structural cracks are of more important

and have to be dealt more carefully
because neglect to this leads to un-safe
Non-structural cracks are not of so
much significance as far as safety is
considered but it deals more with
aesthetic point of view.

Fig.1 Above Presenting Typical View of Plastic Shrinkage

Plastic shrinkage cracking occur due to:
When temperature of air above concrete is high.
When there is low relative humidity
When wind velocity above concrete is high.
Preventive measures of plastic shrinkage include use of:
to saturate the air above concrete
Fog nozzles
Plastic sheeting to cover concrete
to decrease the wind velocity
to decrease the surface temperature
Concrete has general tendency to settle down after initial
placing of concrete and when this settlement are blocked by
reinforcement, framework etc. then settlement cracks will
develop. Due to restraints; cracks develops in structure which
are adjacent to restraining element.
Settlement cracking increase with increase in bar size,
inadequate vibration and increase in slump and decreases with
increase in size of cover and addition of fibers in concrete.

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concrete can be due to water filled inside water retaining
structure, foundation that came in contact with soil or due to air
pollutant which react with concrete. Concrete get cracked when
concrete react with aggregate containing active-silica and
alkalis resulting from cement hydration. When the alkalis in
cement react with aggregate particles a reaction film of alkalisilica gel is produced around the aggregate. If this gel is
exposed to moisture it will expands causing an increase in the
volume of the concrete mass which finally results in cracking.
Remedial measures include use of aggregates which do not take
part in reaction.
Certain carbonates rocks take part in reactions with alkalis
produce expansion and cracking. Sulfates from soil when react
with cement paste Calcium Sulfoaluminate is formed, which
may be root cause in increase in volume of concrete. This
increased in volume of concrete causes development of closely
spaced cracks and ultimately deterioration of the concrete.
Sulfate- resistant cements are very beneficial in reducing this
problem. Using concrete with a low w/c ratio is important to
have adequate protection against severe sulfate attack.
Weathering is wear and tear of structures caused by
freezing, drying and wetting of concrete. Concrete can be easily
get damaged by freezing of water both in elastic stage and
plastic stage. Freeze water inside concrete result in increase in
volume of concrete. The increased volume of concrete results
in cracking of concrete.
Concrete can be protected against weathering by use of the
Fig above Presenting Typical View of Settlement Crack
low w/c ratio, tough aggregate and adequate curing of concrete.
Corrosion to reinforcement is signs rather than reason for
concrete damage. Corrosion occurs due to electrochemical
Concrete has greater volume when it is in dried form and it
oxidation of reinforcement bars in existence of moisture and
volume decreases on drying; decrease in volume is due to loss
electron flow inside metal. After corrosion the volumes of
of water. When decrease in volume of concrete is restrained by
reinforced bars get increased. Due to increase in volume of
reinforcement bars then cracks is established called Plastic
reinforced bars a bursting radial stresses are produced around
shrinkage cracks. Tensile stresses are developed within structure
bars which result in local radial cracks around bars.
due to combination of shrinkage and restraint provided by
Remedial technique comprises of epoxy coating of bars, use
another part of the structure. As we know that concrete are
of richer grade of concrete and by use of corrosion inhibitors.
weak in tension so when tensile stress which is developed
during restraint exceeds tensile strength of concrete then cracks
When construction is not done correctly cracks started to
started to develop. These cracks are detected at the surface
in structure called cracks due to wrong construction
which go deep later on as time passes. Factors which affect
In this the most common is additional of water to
drying shrinkage are type of aggregate and W/C ratio. Stiff
Addition of water plays an important role
aggregate offer more resistance to shrinkage. Contraction
strength, increasing concrete settlement
joints and correct detailing of the reinforcement reduces
of concrete. Another problem
shrinkage cracking.
curing is done or curing is
eliminated early stages.
Thermal stresses are produced when there is normal
expansion and contraction of concrete due to surrounding
Concrete gets damaged due to structural overload which are
change in air temperature. It was observed that concrete length
easy to detect. Precast member like beam and are
variations is about 0.5 inch per 1000 linear feet at an
subjected to this type of load. Most unfortunate
atmospheric temperature of about 80 F. When there is no
cracks is due to structural overload are that cracks
provision of thermal expansion concrete will crack. This type
early stages.
of cracks forms as a source of seepage in water retaining
of cracks can be prevented if designer limit the
structures. Cracks developed from tensile stresses get
accelerated by consumption of Portland cement.
Method to reduce thermal induced cracking involve
Errors in detailing & designing result in cracking of concrete.
practice of jute bags to cover concrete and keep watering it at
These problems are mostly seen in re-entrant corners near door
least three times a day in hot countries like India.
and windows opening in building. Problems which also came in
consideration include incorrect detailing of reinforcement steel
Chemical reactions which occur due to reaction of concrete
bars and others problems like restraint of members, lack of
in its firm state with materials used to make concrete or by
materials that came in contact with it. Chemical reaction inside
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adequate contraction joints and incorrect design of foundations
the surface. A hollow sound specifies one or more cracks below
and parallel to the surface being hammered. Infrared imaging
equipment although expensive but found effective in
recognizing regions in which concrete has cracks. The presence
of reinforcement bars can be determined using a pachometer
(Fig. 3.2.1).
In this method first we note thickness of crack on a
sketched of structure. Then grid are marked on the surface of
the structure and crack widths are measured by this instrument
to an accuracy of about 0.025 mm .This instrument comprises
of a small hand-held microscope with a scale on the lens closest
to the surface being viewed as shown in (Fig. 3.1.1) below.
However it is generally more convenient to estimate crack
thicknesses using a clear card which have lines of specified
thickness marked on it, as shown in (Fig. 3.1.2) below.

Fig. 3.1.1Comparator for measuring crack thicknesses

Fig. 3.1.2Card used to measure crack thickness

Any movement of the surface across the crack should also
be documented. Observations such as reinforcement which
exposed to environment, surface wear and tear and rust mark
on reinforcement bars should be noted down on the sketch.
Internal conditions of the crack at definite locations can be
observed with the use of flexible shaft fiber- scopes or rigid bore
Nondestructive tests can be performed to estimate the presence
of internal cracks and voids and the depth of penetration of
cracks detectable at the surface. Tapping the surface with a
hammer is simple method to recognize laminar cracking near

Fig. 3.2.1Pachometer reinforcing bar indicator

Pachometers show the presence of steel bars and allow the
experienced user to determine depth and the size of reinforcing
steel. In some cases however it required to remove the concrete
cover to pinpoint the bar sizes or to measure cover especially
in areas of congested reinforcement. Results of Pachometers
are observed by use computer algorithms and magnetic fields
to provide a visual picture of the reinforcing bars layout in the
scanned area. This device is very useful in detecting
reinforcement bars, measure concrete cover, and estimate the
position and reinforcement size.
If cracking is due to Corrosion then concrete above bars are
removed and bars are saw directly. Corrosion potential of steel
bars is measured by half-cell. Generally copper-copper sulfate
half-cell is used to measure extent of corrosion in reinforcing
By use of ultrasonic non-destructive test equipment it is
possible to detect cracks. A mechanical wave is transmitted to
one face of the concrete member and received at the
opposite face as shown in (Fig. 3.2.2). The time taken by
wave to travel through the member is measured electronically.
Pulse velocity can be evaluated if the distance between the
transmitting and receiving transducers is known.
When it is not possible to place transducers on opposite face then it
can be placed on the same face (Fig. 3.2.2(a)). In this technique
analysis of results is not so easy. If more time is taken by wave
to travel from transducer to receiver then section is said to be
cracked one. Higher the wave velocity shows the good quality
of the concrete. The interpretation of result can be improved to
great extent by use of an oscilloscope that provides a visual
representation of the received signal (Fig. 3.2.2(b)).In fully
flooded crack section interpretation of result is difficult hence
this instrument is of no use.
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concrete can be find out from compressive strength tests but cores
containing cracks should not be used to conclude concrete
Photographic test result of cracked concrete can tell us
about material that causes cracking, w/c ratio relative paste
volume and distribution of concrete components, age of cracks,
secondary deposits on fracture surfaces.
Construction drawing and detailing of reinforcement bars
should be studied to confirm that the concrete thickness and
quality. Serviceability requirement check is also necessary so
that non-structural cracks are evaded in structure. The actual
loads which are coming on structure should be checked
against designed load. If actual loads coming on structure
exceeds design load then we have to either re-design section or
look in the direction of restoration of structure.

Fig. 3.2.2Ultrasonic testing: through-transmission

Concrete cores give necessary information about cracks
which are taken at different positions. It also gives correct
information about thickness and depth of cracks. Strength of

The first step involves visual observation of cracks. In

second step we find location and pattern of cracks. In third we
find out root cause of cracks. Fourth steps involves cracks
measurements for which different instruments are used such as
Ultrasonic Pulse VelocityTo identify Void and measure
Cracks depth, Cracks Microscope and Digital Crack Measuring
GaugeTo locate and find width of cracks, Crack Monitor,
Concrete Endoscope and Fiber ScopeTo monitors the
changes in cracks, PetrographyEvaluate crack due to fire
damage, and Thermal imaging cameraTo detect leakage and
voids inside concrete. In all the technique mentioned above
Cracks Compactor is most efficient in measuring small cracks.
Ultrasonic testing is more costly than Crack Compactor and
used for measuring all types of cracks.

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The paper is divided into three parts. First Part contains
different causes of cracks, Second part contains evaluation of
cracks and the Last part contains my inference drawn on
cracks. This paper on a whole focuses on possible causes and
evaluation of cracks in R.C.C structures. Evaluation of cracks
can be done by different technique like Crack Compactor and
by ultrasonic Testing. In all these mentioned technique Crack
Compactor technique is most efficient technique for measuring
small cracks, Ultrasonic Testing device is more costly than
Crack Compactor and should be used for slightly big
evaluation of cracks. Pachomerer is used in determining
concrete cover, size and location of reinforcement. In
evaluating material causes of cracking Photographic
examination is used.



[1] Concrete Technology by M. S. Shety, Publication of S.

Chand & Company Ltd, Delhi, 2005

[2] IS 456:2000, Indian Standard of Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Code of Practice.
[3] ACI 224.1R-07, Causes, Evaluation, and Repair of Cracks in
Concrete Structures
[4] Pattanaik Suresh Chandra, Repair of Active Cracks of Concrete
Structures with a Flexible Polyurethane Sealant for Controlled
Movement (2011), Proceed of the National Conference on


Advances in Materials and Structures, AMAS - 2011,

Hand book HB 84-2006: Guide to Concrete Repair and
Protection, A joint publication of ACRA, CSIRO and Standards
ASTM C881 Standard Specification for Epoxy-Resin-Base
Bonding Systems for Concrete
ACI 224.3R-95: Joints in Concrete Construction (Reapproved
ACI 224.2R-92: Cracking of Concrete Members in Direct
Tension (Reapproved 2004)
ACI 231R-10 Report on Early-Age Cracking: Causes,
Measurement and Mitigation
Causes, Mechanism, And Control Of Cracking In Concrete, ACI
Cracking, Deflection, and Ultimate Load of Concrete Slab
Systems (ACI Publication SP-30)
Guide to concrete repair U.S Department of the Interior Bureau
of Reclamation Technical service center.
Appendix E Avoiding Coating Failures Due to Cracking of
Concrete Coating Manual

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Sabica Ahmad1, Shish Ahmad2, Jameel Ahmad3
Dept. CSE & IT
Integral University
Lucknow, U.P.
sabicaahmad@gmail.com, 2shish_parv@rediffmail.com, 3jameel_integral@rediffmail.com
Abstract- The main aspire of this research work is, to develop
proficient methodology to find privacy preserving association
rule mining in centralized environment without infringement of
any privacy constraints. The issue of privacy constraints for
centralized database environment is entirely different from
distributed database environment. The goal of attaining privacy
in centralized database environment is, to obtain a distorted
database which hides the sensitive item sets. When mining task is
performed on distorted database all the sensitive rules should be
hidden without any side effects. Based on heuristic approach, a
new me-thodology is proposed by incorporating suggested
Criteria1 and Criteria2 to identify the victim item and selecting
suitable supporting transactions efficiently for sanitization
purpose to hide the sensitive item sets.
Index Terms preserving private data, frequent item sets,
privacy preserving association rule mining.

Data mining has been view edasa risk to privacy because of
the widespread propagation of electronic data maintained by
organizations. This has initiated augmented concerns about the
privacy of the under-lying data .The matter of privacy plays a
crucial role when several genuine people share their resources
in order to obtain mutual profit but no one is interested to
reveal their private data .In the process of data mining, how to
determine the problem of privacy preserving has become a hot
research topic in the field of data mining. Hence, privacy
preserving data mining research area is evolved.
The privacy preservation data mining algorithms are
generally classified into three categories namely reconstruction
based, heuristic based and cryptog-raphy based
We consider a method for finding privacy pre-serving
association rule mining based on heuris-tic approach in
centralized environment for dis-covering solution for hiding
sensitive rules by fulfilling association rule hiding goals
accurately or approximately.
A new method is proposed in this paper re-lated to
heuristic approach to hide sensitive association rules
specified by users with min-imum side effects.
The Criteria1 specifies the competent selection of victim
item and Criteria2 helps to find the appropriate supporting
transactions for victim item in the sanitization process to
minimize side effects.
Criteria 1:
Victim item can be selected based on the follow-ing

If number of times <Ai> appears in non sensitive frequent

item set is greater than number of times <Aj> appears in non
sensitive frequent item sets then Aj be the victim item. If
number of times <Ai> appears in non sensitive frequent item
set is less than number of times <Aj> appears in non sensitive
frequent item sets then Ai be the victim item.
Criteria 2:
The minimum number of transactions required to hide item
set is based on the value of <Ai,Aj>.supp MinTrans +1.. For
each support-ing transactions for item set <Ai,Aj>, weight is
computed by using the following:
W(Tg) = No. of dependant items with victim item number of infrequent item sets associated with victim item.
In this paper a procedure is suggested in which all the
sensitive item sets whose length is greater than two are
considered to find the pairs of sub patterns. From this pair only
significant pair-sub patterns are considered as sensitive to hide
sensitive patterns. This procedure is very significant in a way
that it avoids the difficulty of forward inference attack. In order
to avoid forward inference attack problem, at least one such sub
pattern with length of two of the patterns should be hidden.
The split pattern procedure helps to accelerate up the hiding

DBASE = {t1,t2,..tN}

nA original database consisting of N
number of transactions

I ={i1,i2,iM}


An item set of length k


The n

S ={ s1, s2, sr}

Set of sensitive item sets



User specified Minimum support

Number of transactions supporting
item set J





L3, Lk}





An item set of length M


transaction of m item

Based on MinS, number of

transactions required to support
an item set to be frequent
User specified Minimum confidence
Size of original database, DBASE

L2, A set consists of all frequent item sets

Association rule between item sets A
and B
The set consisting of sensitive item sets
The Set consisting of non sensitive
frequent item sets

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consisting of pairs
Consider the victim item (Ai or Aj) based on the Criteria1
by the procedure split
Step 8 Find the intersection of supporting transactions for AiAj
and AjAk as follows:



The set



The sensitive item set pair





Set of supporting transactions for

item set
Distorted database which hides all
sensitive item sets.


Victim item

An item which is selected from the sensitive

item pair which produces least side effects
or no side effects when modification is done
over it.


Victim transactions

Selected transactions to modify the

victim item value.





A set consisting of suitable number

transactions, which are to be modified
to hide the sensitive item set
Count gives number of times the
victim item value has to be
modified to hide sensitive item set



Weight for transaction Tg

Table 3.1: Symbols Used in Proposed Model

The algorithm for the proposed model is as fol-lows:
Step 1 For a given database DBASE and set of sen-sitive item
sets Fs, generate frequent item sets and store with their support
values in FDBASE.
Step 2 Let the sensitive item sets are stored in Fs then the non
sensitive frequent item sets are obtained by subtracting FS from
i.e., FNS = FDBASE - FS.
Step 3 If any item sets in FS are having more than length of
two, call the procedure split pat-tern to identify the prominent
pairs which are to be hidden in order to hide all the item sets
whose length is greater than two.
Step 4 After step 3 a vector F2S is prepared which consists of
all two pair sensitive items.
Step 5 The generated all pairs sensitive fre-quent item sets with
their support values along with their supporting transactions
IDs are stored in a Table TS.
Step 6 All the non sensitive frequent item sets that is F- F2S
are stored along with their support values in a Table TNS.
Step 7 For each item set in F2S
If any non overlapping item set exists go to step 12.
Else the patterns <Ai,Aj><Aj,Ak> are chosen

Step 9 Obtain the value for Count1 and Count2 as follows:

Count1 for AiAj = <Ai,Aj>.Supp - MinTrans + 1
Count2 for AjAk = <Aj,Ak>.Supp - MinTrans + 1
Step 10 Find minimum number of supporting transactions to
be modified by applying Crite-ria2. Select smaller one from
both Count1 and Count2 and many transactions are chosen
from MinT and the victim item (Aj) values are re-placed with 0
values. By this, item set lower count value will be hidden. To
hide the item set, which is having higher count value, Count1
Count2 no of transactions which are not yet processed will
be chosen from MinT for the process of sanitization. To protect
this item set, the victim item set can be chosen based on their
dependencies with the item sets in non sensitive item set FNS.
Accordingly the victim item value will be replaced with zero in
the selected trans-actions. After performing this, the item set
which is having higher count value is also hidden.
Step 11 Modify F2S by removing the pairs <Ai, Aj> and
<AjAk> from it. Go to step18.
Step 12 For the sensitive item set pair <Ai, Aj> in F2S find
victim item by using criteria 1.
Step 13 After identifying the victim item, find the supporting
transactions for <Ai, Aj>.
Step14 Obtain the value for Count1 and Count2 as follows:
Count1 for AiAj = <Ai, Aj>.Supp - MinTrans + 1
Step15 Select Count1 no of transactions to be modified from
a set MinT obtained by the Crite-ria2.
Step 16 The value of victim item in the selected transactions is
replaced with value zero.
Step 17 Update F2S by removing <Ai, Aj> from it.
Step 18 Repeat the above steps from step 7 until no more pair
in the F2S to hide.
Step 19 Finally distorted database, DBASE is obtained in
which all sensitive item sets in F2S are hidden.
Step 20 Stop the process.
This study has been carried out to develop method-ology in
centralized as well as in distributed envi-ronment to find
privacy preserving association rule mining without revealing
any private data or infor-mation.
This methodology is proposed in this thesis work to hide the
sensitive item sets in centralized database environment. My
methodology is related to heuris-tic based approach which
utilizes suggested criteria to efficiently find the victim item and
its supporting transactions. The proposed methodology
efficiently performs sanitization process.
[1] Usama Fayyad, Gregory Piatetsky-Shapiro, and Padhraic Smyth,
From Data Mining to Knowledge Discovery in Databases,
American Association for Artificial Intelligence, pp. 37-54,1996.
[2] J. Han and M.Kamber, Data Mining Con-cepts and Techniques,
Elsevier 2001.
[3] R. Agrawal and R. Srikant, Mining Sequential patterns,
Proc.1995 International Conference on Data Engineering
(ICDE95), pp 3-14, Taipei, Taiwan, March 1995.
[4] Verykios, V.S., Bertino, E., Nai Fovino, I., Parasiliti, L.,
Saygin, Y., and Theodoridis, Y. State-of-the-art in privacy

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mining. SIGMOD Record, 33(1):50
Ahmed HajYasien, Preserving Privacy In Association Rule
Mining, Ph D.,thesis, Griffith University, June 2007.
Ming-Syan Chen, Jiawei Han,Yu, P.S., Data mining: an
overview from a database per-spective, IEEE Transactions on
Knowledge an Data Engineering, Vol. 8 No. 6, pp 866
Yongjian Fu, Data mining: Tasks, tech-niques and
Applications, Department of Computer Science, University of
Missouri- Rolla,1997
Michael Goebel, Le Gruenwald, A Survey Of Data Mining And
Knowledge Discovery Software Tools, SIGKDD Explorations,
ACM SIGKDD, Vol: 1, Issue 1, pp 20- 33, June 1999.
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Data Mining, Proceedings of the International MultiConference
of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2009, Vol I,IMECS-2009,
Hong Kong, 2009.
Yongjian Fu, Distributed data mining: Overview, University of
Missouri- Rolla, 2001.

[11] R Agarwal, T Imielinski and A Swamy, Mining Association

Rules between Sets of Items in Large Databases, Proceedings
of the 1993 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on
Management of Data, page 207-210, 1993.
[12] R. Agrawal and R. Srikant. Fast, algo-rithms for mining
association rules in large data-bases, Proceedings of the 20th
VLDB Conference Santiago, Chile, pp 487-499, 1994.
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Rules, Proc. 21st VLDB Conference, Zurich, Swizerland.,
[14] Mohammed J. Zaki, Parallel and Distrib-uted Data Mining: An
Introduction, Large-Scale Parallel Data Mining Lecture Notes
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(PD) algorithm for finding all frequent patterns in large
datasets, International Conference on Data Mining, ICDM
2001, Proceedings IEEE, 673 674, 2001

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Geetanjali Chauhan1* & Prof. U.K. Chauhan2
Department of Environmental biology,
A.P.S. University Rewa-486003,
Madhya Pradesh, India
Abstract The study examined the concentration of heavy metals
in water, soil and vegetables growing wildly on cement-polluted
soil of Rewa city, India. Accumulation of HMs in vegetables
occurs by various sources but soil is considered the major one. In
this study, soil to vegetable transfer factor (TF) for various HMs
were also calculated and data showed that TF values differed
significantly between soil and vegetable, the difference in TF
values among different vegetables may be attributed to
differences in element uptake by different vegetables. However
TF values obtained for all vegetables were below (1) at all sites.
TF were computed to quantify relative differences in
bioavailability of metals to vegetables to identify the efficiency of
a vegetables species to accumulate a HM(s). These factors were
based on roots uptake of metals and discount the foliar
absorption of atmospheric metal deposits. However TF does not
present the risk associated with the metal in any form.

The clean and safe environment is the basic requirement of
human existence. Rapid urbanization and industrialization
releases enormous volumes of wastewater, which is
increasingly utilized as avaluable resource for irrigation in
urban and peri-urban agriculture. It drives significant
economic activity, supports countless livelihoods particularly
those of poor farmers, and substantially changes the water
quality of natural water bodies (Marshall et al., 2007).
Wastewater from industries may contain various heavy metals
including Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Mn, Ni, Cr, Cd, depending upon
the type of activities it is associated with. Continuous
irrigation of agricultural land with industrial wastewater may
cause heavy metal accumulation in the soil and vegetables
(Chaney et al., 2000; Sharma et al., 2007; Marshall et al.,
2007). Soil to plant transfer of heavy metals is the major path
way of human exposure to metal contamination. Food is the
major intake source of toxic metals by human beings.
Vegetables take up heavy metals and accumulate them in their
edible and non-edible parts at quantities high enough to cause
clinical problems to both animals and human beings.

main source of human exposure. A convenient way for

quantifying the relative differences of bioavailability of metals to
plants is the transfer coeficient. The higher transfer coefficient
of heavy metal indicates the stronger accumulation of the
respective metal by that vegetable. Transfer coeficient of 0.1
indicates that plant is excluding the element from its tissues
(Thornton and Farago, 1997). The greater the transfer
coefficient value than 0.50, the greater the chances of
vegetables for metal contamination by anthropogenic activities
will be and so the need for environmental monitoring of the
area will be required (Sponza and Karaoglu, 2002). Thus
accumulation of heavy metals in consumable vegetables has
been well linked with soil heavy metal and irrigation water
from long back; atmospheric deposition has now been
identified as one of the principal source of heavy metals
entering into plants and soil especially around urban-industrial
areas (Pandey et al., 2009). Atmospheric heavy metals may
deposit by rain and dust, and contributed to elevated metal
concentrations in surface layer of soil (Sharma et al., 2008).
Atmospheric metals may be absorbed directly on leafy surface,
or entered through stomatal openings and accumulated within
plant tissue. Metal accumulation in different plant parts
depends on chemical form of metals, their translocation
potential, and individual species with their stage of maturity
(Salt et al., 1995). Heavy metal contamination in agricultural
soil and vegetables through industrial wastewater and
atmospheric source are of great concern because of metal
translocation in soil-plant system and ultimately to the food
chain (Khan et al., 2008; Rattan et al., 2005). Thus
accumulation of heavy metals in the edible parts of vegetables
represents a direct pathway for their incorporation into the
human food chain (Florijin et al., 1993); and therefore has
drawn the attention of researchers to health risk assessment of
population exposed to contaminated foodstuffs. The aim of
this research work was to determine the level of some heavy
metals from soil that is transferred to the plants collected from
waste water as well as clean water irrigated area of Rewa
(M.P.), India and to correlate potential health effect of the
people those who consumes those vegetables.

Transfer of Heavy Metals from Soil to Vegetables

Transfer factor expressed the bioavailability of a metal at a
particular position on a species of plants (vegetables). This is
however, dependant on different factors such as the soil pH and
the nature of plant itself. As the vegetables are the source of
human consumption so the soil-to-plant transfer quotient is the


A. Experimental Sites
Rewa is a city in the northern-eastern parts of the state of
Madhya Pradesh, India. It is the administrative centre of Rewa
District and Rewa Division. The cities lie about 420 km. (261
mi) north east of the state capital Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh and

Key words Heavy metal, soil contamination, Transfer Factor

(TF), Health Risk (Hazardous), Waste Water.

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130 km. (81 mi) south of the city of Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh.
It is situated at 24.530 North latitude and 81.30 East longitudes
and covers an area of 6,240 km2 (2,410 sq mi). It has an
elevation of 304 m. (997 ft) above mean sea level. The average
rainfall is 980 mm (39 inches) per year. The average
temperature is around 250C (770 F) and the humidity is quite
high. Experimental sites of different irrigation sources J.P.
Cement Plants Bela, Naubasta (waste water irrigated sites) &,
Bhiti village (clean water irrigated site) were selected.
Cultivated land of these two industrial areas (Bela &
Naubasta) received waste water discharge from industries,
manufacturing cement while third site of rural area (Bhiti)
received clean (ground) water from deep bore well. Thus all
sites of different irrigation sources were selected and the
sampling of water, soils and vegetables of the surrounding
areas were carried out in May month, to estimate heavy metals
contamination from soil to vegetables (TF).
Sampling and laboratory analyses
B. Collection and digestion of water samples
At each site, both waste water and clean water samples
collected randomly from different location. As soon as the
samples were brought to the laboratory, they were acidified
with HNO3 (Merck), filtered and stored in dark at ambient
temperature (40C) before analysis. Both waste water and clean
water samples were digested according to APHA, (2005); the
irrigation water sample, 50 ml. was transferred into beaker and
10 ml. of concentrated nitric acid (HNO3) was added. The
beaker with the content was placed on a hot plate and
evaporated down to about 20 ml at 800C .The beaker was cool
and another 5 ml. concentrated HNO3 was also added. The
beaker was covered with watch class and returned to the hot
plate. The heating was continued, and then small portion of
HNO3 was added until the solution appeared transparent. The
beaker wall and watch glass were washed with distilled water
and the solution was filtered through whatman NO. 42 filter
paper and the total volume were maintained to 50 mL with
distilled water.
C. Collection and digestion of soil samples
Waste Water Irrigated soil samples were collected from the
cultivated fields near the J.P. Cement Plant (Bela and
Naubasta) along a distance of 100m from the Plants. Soil
samples taken from each sites were separately labelled and
transferred into air tight polythene bags and brought into
laboratory. Before its transported to the research laboratory,
care was taken, to the extent possible, to ensure that there were
no other sources of contamination at the site of investigation
such as motor vehicle emission, dumpsite garbage, sewage
water, grey water, domestic waste, slurry, or compost to mask
the effect of waste water irrigation. Soils were sieved through
a 2 mm sieve to remove coarse particles and stored at ambient
temperature prior to analysis. Soil samples were digested
according to Allen et al., (1986). To 5g of each of the air dried
and sieved soil samples was thoroughly grinded, 1.0g of each
of the ground soil samples were placed in 100 ml beaker. 15
ml of HNO, H2SO4 and HCl mixture (5:1:1) of tri-acid were
added and the content heated gently at low heat on hot plate
for 2 hrs at 800C until a transparent solution was obtained.
After cooling, the digested sample was filtered using whatman
NO. 42 filter paper. It was then transferred to a 50 mL
volumetric flask by adding distilled water.

D. Collection and digestion of vegetable samples

Vegetable samples were taken in the agricultural fields
around the commune where they were known to be affected by
waste water and where they were not (control). Samples of
seven different kinds of vegetables; leafy vegetables included

Table 1. Description of vegetable samples analyzed



Scientific Name

Edible Parts


Betavulgaris L. CV.













Brassica oleracea L.
Var. Capatuta
Brassica oleracea L.
Var. botrytis
esculentus L.
Solanum melongena
esculentum L.
Raphanus sativus L.



Spinach (SP) (Betavulgaris L. CV. All green), and Cabbage

(CA) (Brassica oleracea L. Var. Capatuta). Inflorescence
vegetable included Cauliflower (CF)(Brassica oleracea L. Var.
botrytis), Fruit vegetables included Ladys Finger (LF)
(Abelmoschus esculentus L.), Brinjal (BR)(Solanum melongena
L.), Tomato (TO) (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and Root
vegetable included Radish (RA) (Raphanus sativus L.) were
taken from the same experimental sites where waters and soils
samples were taken . The detailed of the vegetable samples
collected from the experimental sites are given in Table 1.
Vegetable sample were collected randomly by hand using vinyl
gloves carefully packed into polyethylene bags and the whole
plant body was brought to the laboratory from each
experimental site in order to estimate heavy metals. Cleaning
(soil removal) of vegetable plant samples was performed by
shaking and also by means of a dry pre-cleaned vinyl brush.
Only edible parts of different vegetables were randomly taken
from each experimental site. Freshly collected mature
vegetable samples from each experimental site were brought to
the laboratory and washed primarily with running tap water,
then in distilled water and finally rinsed carefully in demonized
water to remove any attached dust pollen particles (Burton and
Patterson, 1979). Vegetable samples were also digested
according to Allen et al., (1986) as described above.
E. Analysis of samples
Concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Mn and Cr in the
filtrate of digested soil, water and different kind of vegetables
samples were estimated by using an Atomic Absorption
Spectrophotometer (AAS, Perkin Elmer analyst 400). The
instrument was fitted with specific lamp of particular metal.
The instrument was calibrated using manually prepared
standard solution of respective heavy metals as well as drift
blanks. Standard stock solutions of 1000 ppm for all the metals
were obtained from Sisco Research Laboratories Pvt. Ltd.,
India. These solutions were diluted for desired concentrations
to calibrate the instrument. Acetylene gas was used as the fuel
and air as the support. An oxidising flame was used in all
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F. Quality Control Analysis
Quality control measures were taken to assess
contamination and reliability of data. For this Blank samples
(zero metal concentration) were analyzed after seven samples.
Concentrations were calculated on a dry weight basis. All
analysis was replicated three times. The accuracy and
precision of metal analysis were checked against NIST
(National institute of standard and Technology)-SRM
(Standard Reference Material) 1570 for every heavy metal.
A. Transfer Factor (TF)
Metal concentrations in the extract of soils and vegetables
were calculated on the basis of dry weight (mg/kg). TF was
calculated as follows (Cui et al., 2004):

C (Vegetable) represent the heavy metal concentration (mg/kg) in
extract of edible parts of vegetables & C (Soil) represent the
heavy metal concentration (mg/kg) in soils from where the
vegetable was grown.
B. Statistical analysis
Statistical analysis of data was done by SPSS 17. For water,
soil, vegetable and site, two-way ANOVA was used. Pearsons
Correlations between the vegetable and the soil were also
worked out. Statistical significance of means was computed
using Pair Samples t-test, with a significance level of P <
0.001 (Steel and Torrie, 1980).

while lowest was in Cd in Cauliflower (0.015) at CWI-Bhiti

village. The higher value of TF suggests poor retention of
metals in soil and/or more translocation in vegetables. Because
metal with high TF are easily transferred from soil to the
edible parts of vegetables than ones with low TF. The higher
uptake of heavy metals in leafy vegetables may be due to
higher transpiration rate to maintain the growth and moisture
content of these plants (Gildon and Tinker (1981). The present
result agrees with the investigation made by (Zhuang et al.
2009) in the food crops in the vicinity of Dabaoshan mine,
South China where the Bioaccumulation factors for heavy
metals were significantly higher for leafy than non-leafy
vegetables. Similarly high transfer factor value for Cu in
Spinach from WWI site of Beijing, China, reported by YongGuan et al., (2004). Due to the high conc. of exchangeable Cu
in vegetable soils, the Cu in edible parts of Spinach probably
came from the root uptake from soils. The lowest values of the
Cu in Cauliflower may be the absence of Cd concentration in
soil of CWI-site. Thus a major pathway for Cd to enter the
above- ground edible parts of Cauliflower, from vegetable
soils, may be through application of fertilisers by farmers.


A. Level of heavy metals in water, soil & vegetables
The present study had generated data on heavy metals (Fe,
Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Mn and Cr) in water, soil and different kind of
vegetables (edible parts) from waste water irrigated sites of
Rewa, India and associated risk assessment for consumers
exposure to heavy metals. Pb, Cd, Mn and Cr concentration in
waste waters; Cd concentration in waste water irrigated soils
and Pb, Cd and Cr concentration in all tested vegetables (from
WWI sites) were above the national and international
permissible limits. These accumulated heavy metals from
Waste Water Irrigated area of Rewa (J.P.Cement Plant of Bela
&Naubasta) had affected soil and water for a long time. People
living in the contaminated area are at greater risk for health
issues than individuals in the reference area. Children are at
somewhat higher risk than adults. Heavy metal concentrations
were several fold higher in all the collected samples from
waste water irrigated sites compared to clean water irrigated
B. Transfer Factor of heavy metals from soil to
In all sites of WWI &, CWI, TF of the heavy metals from
soil to vegetables are presented in Fig 1, 2 & 3. These factors
were based on roots uptake of the metals and discount the
foliar absorption of atmospheric metal deposits (Lokeshwari
and chandrappa 2006; Awode et al., 2008). The TF values
between waste and clean water irrigated soils were not
significantly different. The values of TF obtained from each
sites were below (1). The TF values of Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Mn
and Cr for various vegetables varied greatly between plant
species and location. From the results, the highest TF value
was observed for Cu in Spinach (0.634) at WWI-Bela site

Fig.1. Transfer Factor of heavy metals for vegetables of

WWI site of Bela

Fig.2. Transfer Factor of heavy metals for vegetables of

WWI site of Naubasta

Fig.2. Transfer Factor of heavy metals for vegetables of

CWI site of Bhiti
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C. Pearsons Correlation Coefficient for Transfer
The Pearsons correlation coefficient of heavy metals in soils
and different kind of vegetables are summarised in table 2.

























-0.011 NS













-0.226 *










-0.0522 NS











0.002 NS
























































-0.061 NS








-0. 689


-0. 214




-0. 888




0. 683



-0. 991



study area had received minimum rainfall in the recent years.

This may also have contributed to the higher concentration of
metals in the soil. It may be expected that during the summer
season the relatively high decomposition rate of organic matter
is likely to release have metals in soil solution for possible
uptake by vegetables. Soil to vegetable transfer is one of the
key components of human exposure to metals through food
chain. In this study, the soil to vegetable transfer factor (TF)
for various heavy metals and for most common vegetables
consumed by human being were calculated and data showed
that the TF values differed significantly between soil and
vegetable concentrations the difference in TF values among
different vegetables may be attributed to differences in
element uptake by different vegetables.**Present studies on
uptake of heavy metals through vegetables and the correlation
between the heavy metals content in soil and vegetables are
necessary to further understand the problem and to plan
remedial measures with public participation.
The author would like to place on record their sincere
thanks to prof. U.K.Chuahan (Prof. & Head) Dept. of
Environmental Biology, A.P.S. University Rewa (M.P.), for so
much advice & guidance to complete this research.
















































-0.044 NS

0.046 NS






-0. 999

0. 923

0. 844

0. 283

0. 989








Computation of Pearsons correlation coefficient of heavy

metals between soils and vegetables showed that for some
vegetables; there were positive but not significantly correlation
found while for other vegetables it was positively and
significantly correlated. Positive correlation suggested that the
metal in different kind of vegetables were translocated
efficiently from the soil through root system (Agbenin et al.,
2009). However most vegetables showed negatively and
significantly while other showed negative but not significantly
correlation (Table 2). Negative correlation indicated that
higher concentration of heavy metals present in soils but in
comparison much lower concentration were found to be in
vegetables of that soils. This was due to poor retention
capabilities of different edible parts of vegetables. TF values
decreases with increasing respective metal concentration in
soils, indicating an inverse relationship between transfer factor
and metal concentration such inverse relationship were also
reported by Wang et al., (2006).
This study indicated that long term and indiscriminate
application of waste water or letting of waste water directly to
agricultural field without prior treatment which contain heavy
metals in association with sludge particles may cause
accumulation of toxic metals in surface and sub surface soils.
And build up of heavy metals in soil profile may prove not
only to plants and animals but also to consumers of harvested
crops and vegetables. The vegetable samples were taken in the
month of May when the temperature was high and also, the


Agbenin, J.O., Danko, M. and Welp, G. 2009. Soil and

vegetable compositional translocation relationships of eight
potentially toxic metals in urban agricultural fields from
northern Nigeria. J. Sci. Food Agri. 89(1): 49-54.
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analysis. In: Moore, P.D., Chapman, S.B. (Eds.), Methods in
Plant Ecology. Blackwell, Scientific Publication, Oxford,
London, pp. 285344.
[3] APHA (American Public Health Association) (1985). Standard
methods for the examination of water and wastewater.
Washington DC: American Public Health Association.
[4] Cai S, Yue L, Hu ZN, Zhong XZ, Ye ZL, Xu HD, et al.
Cadmium exposure and health effects among residents in an
irrigation area with ore dressing waste water. Science of the
Total Environment 1990; 90:6773.
[5] Burton, M A S; Patterson, P.J. (1979). Mineral accumulation by
aquatic bryophytes from polluted mine stream. Environ. Pollut.
19: 39-45.
[6] Chaney, R.L., Ryan,J.A.,Li, Y.M and Angel, J.S (2000).Tranfer
of cadmium through plants to the food chain In: Environmental
cadmium in the Food Chain : Source, pathways and Risks.
Syers, J.K and Goochfeld, M (Eds), pp 76 82. Belgian
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[7] Cui, Y.J., Zhu, Y.G., Zhai, R.H., Chen, D.Y., Huang, Y.Z., Qui,
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of plants. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc., 77, 648 649.
[10] IRIS., 2003. Integrated Risk Information System- database, US
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[11] Khan, S., Cao, Q. Y. Z., Huang, Y. Z., & Zhu, Y. G. (2008).
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[12] Pandey, J., & Pandey, U. (2009). Accumulation of heavy metals
in dietary vegetables and cultivated soil horizon in organic
farming system in relation to atmospheric deposition in a
seasonally dry tropical region of India. Environmental

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doi:10.1007/s10661- 007-0139-8 PMID:18202901.
Pandey, J., Pandey, R., & Shubhashish, K. (2009). Air-borne
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A.K., 2005. Long-term impact of irrigation with sewage
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Samata Srivastava1, Dr. J. P. Singh2, Dr. Om Prakash Srivastava1

Department of psychology, P. G College Gazipur

Uttar Pradesh (India)
Department of Psychology, Rashtriya P.G. College,
Jamuhai (Jaunpur)
Abstract This study aimed to assess the nature of stress, and
coping styles among rural and urban adolescents. Methods: 200
students in 10+2 and graduation first year of both genders in the
age range of 16-19 years were assessed with the Adolescent Stress
Scale, and a self-report coping scale. Results: The Result of
present study reveals that in both environmental settings male
reported more stress than their counterparts girls, however, to
utilize coping strategies female adolescents are in higher in
number than male adolescents. Conclusions: It is important for
research to examine how adolescents suffering from typical
stressors such as school examination, family conflict and poor
peer relations. Social support is likely one of the most important
resources in their coping process.
Key words Adolescents; Stress; Coping; Environmental

Adolescence is conceptualized as a transitional period,
which begins with the onset of puberty and ends with the
acceptance of adult roles and responsibilities. Of all life-stages,
except childhood, adolescence is the one most marked by rapid
and potentially tumultuous transition (Williams, Holmbeck, &
Greenly, 2002). This is to be seen in the domain of biological
development where the changes are physically externally
manifest as well as in the progression of both cognitive and
psychosocial maturity from that of childhood to that of the fully
functioning adult (Byrne, Davenport, & Mazanov, 2007).
While the transition through adolescence is inevitable the speed
and magnitude of these changes overtax the capacity of many
young people to cope and the resulting phenomenon of
adolescent stress is now well recognized (Byrne, et al., 2007).
The adolescent period involves a number of different intensities
biological, cognitive, and psychosocial changes (Susman &
Dorn, 2009). The biological changes involve physical changes
in an Individuals body with extraordinary growth and change
in physical appearance and biological functioning. The pubertal
changes also affect the adolescents psychologically, in different
ways, and with and timing. The cognitive processes are one of
the most striking changes to take place during adolescence and
involve the development of far more sophisticated thinking
abilities and reasoning ability. The rapid development of
psychosocial processes during adolescence involve changes in
emotions, personality, relationships with others, and social
contexts (McElhaney, Allen, Stephenson, & Hare, 2009). A
critical task of adolescence is the establishment of a stable
sense of identity as a part of achieving autonomy. Adolescents
must learn to deal with an expanding social universe and must
develop the social skills to find friendship, romance,
employment, and social standing within multiple social spheres
(Cote, 2009). Adolescents must therefore develop a range of
mechanisms, which allow them to function effectively in the
face of the stress, which comes about from the transition of
adolescence (Byrne et al., 2007).

A. Stress and adolescence period

Stress has traditionally been conceptualized in three ways;
as a stimulus (an event or accumulation of events); as a
response (a psychophysiological reaction); or as a transactional
process, in which a person and the environment interact to
produce an appraisal of threat or loss (Caltabiano, Sarafino, &
Byrne, 2008). Stress is used to describe the subjective
experience of pressure, implying an evaluation of the outcome
of a process. This is in line with the transactional view of stress
as a relationship between environmental events or conditions,
and the individuals cognitive appraisals of the degree and type
of challenge, threat, harm or loss (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984).
The most widely accepted definition of stress is the
transactional definition offered by Lazarus and Folkman
(1984): Psychological stress involves a particular relationship
between the person and the environment that is appraised by
the person as taxing or exceeding his or her resources and
endangering his or her well-being (p. 19). According to this
definition, stress is subjective by nature, since it involves an
appraisal of individual experiences. Many adolescents today
experience numerous potential stressors throughout the process
of growth and Development (Compas & Reeslund, 2009).
Stressors of both an acute and chronic nature are important in
the course of normal as well as disrupted development during
adolescence. The types of stressors experienced in adolescence
can broadly be divided into three categories. These categories
are normative events, non-normative events and daily hassles
(Suldo, Shaunessy, & Hardesty, 2008). Normative events refer
to events that are experienced by most adolescents, but usually
within a relatively predictable timescale. Examples of these
includes internal and external changes related to pubertal
development, psychosocial changes related to school, family,
peers and academically demands. One important aspect here is
that these are events, which all young people have to confront,
but usually within a relatively predictable timescale (Coleman
& Hendry, 1999; Suldo et al., 2008). Non-normative events are
different in the way that they are events affecting one
adolescent or only a smaller group of adolescents, and can
occur at less predictable points in the life course (Grant et al.,
2003). Such events can include for example, divorce, illness,
injury or natural disasters. The last category is daily hassles.
Daily hassles differ from major events in life that they are
defined as minor, irritating, and frustrating events that are
typical of daily interactions between individuals and their
B. Coping style and adolescence period
Coping has been defined as the constantly changing
cognitive and behavioral effect to manage specific external and
/or internal demand that has been evaluated as taking up or
exceeding the resources of the person (Lazarus & folkman,
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Materials: - In the present investigation, two tools have been
1984). Research recognizes two functions of coping: regulating
used to measure two dependent variable. The detailed
stressful emotions and altering the person-environment relation
description of these has given below.
causing the distress (Folkman, Lazarus, Dunket-schetter,
Delongis & Gruen, 1986).
I.Psychological stress scale (Prof. A. K. Srivastava)The questionnaire was designed to assess the extended of
Coping is thus expending conscious effort to solve personal
individuals feelings of basic components of psychological
and interpersonal problems and seeking to master, minimize or
stress (such as pressure tension anxiety, conflict, frustration,
tolerate the stress of conflict. Psychological coping
etc.) resulted from perceived stress situations (such as
mechanisms are commonly termed coping strategies or coping
adversities, hardships, threats, affliction, failures, constraints
skill. The tern coping generally refers to adaptive or
excessive demands, conflicting roles etc.) in various spheres of
constructive coping strategies, i.e., the strategies reduce stress
his social life. The Questionnaire altogether consisted of 40
levels. However; some coping strategies can be considered
items representing following seven categories of the social
maladaptive, i.e. stress levels increase. Coping response are
situation of stress.
partly controlled by personality trait, but also by the social
contexts of person, particularly the nature of the stressful
S.No. Psycho social stressors
environment. Coping is also an important mediator of
experience that shapes personality development and influences
Tense or strained interpersonal 5
adaptability and resilience in difficult situations (Garmezy,
1987). Conceptualization of childrens/adolescents coping was
Extra 8
derived from the adult coping work. However, growing
economic burden
evidence indicates that coping abilities of children/adolescents
Excessive/ demanding responsibilities 5
may differ from those of adults in some very important ways
and Liabilities and expectations of
(Arnold, 1990; Compas, Banez, Malcarne, & Worsham, 1991;
Elias, Gara, & Ubriaco, 1985; Omizo, Omizo, & Suzuki, 1988).
Marriage related problem (of own or/ 4
Adolescents/Children may be limited in their coping repertoire
and of family members)
by cognitive, affective, expressive, or social facets of
Health related problems (of own or/ 3
development and by lack of experience. The adolescents
and family member or near relations
environments are quite different from adults environments,
Social situation; legal or property 10
particularly because children have less control over
related disputes or problems.
circumstances. Adolescents/Children are limited by realistic
Perceived or imagined threats to social 5
constraints, such as restricted freedom to actively avoid
and economic status or prestige
stressors (though restricted freedom also limits their exposure
to some stressors), and a state of personal and financial
II.Coping Strategies scale (Prof. A.k. Srivastava)dependence on parents. Thus, aspects of development and the
The present measure of coping strategies comprises so items, to
environment may limit the coping responses, adolescents are
be rated on five point scale, 0 to 4 describing varieties of
capable of making, and the coping strategies promoting
coping behavior underlying following five major categories of
adjustment in adolescents may differ from those promoting
coping strategies based on the combinations of operation and
adjustment in adults. Teenagers are also at the stage of
Orientation of Coping.
developing their personal styles of coping. The coping
strategies can be reviewed, modified if needed and crystallized
COPING (Problem- Focused
from one experience of using certain mechanisms of coping
with another, during adolescent years. Miller and Kirsch (1987)
they found that many studies report differences in how women
Approach Coping Strategies
and men cope with stress, with men tending to deal with stress
by problem-focused coping, while women tend to use strategies
Approach Coping Strategies
that modify their emotional response, although these tendencies
can change in certain circumstances. Several authors (i.e.,
Almeida & Kessler, 1998; Barnett et al., 1987) have suggested
that the impact of gender on the stress process could be
(Emotion Focused coping)
conditioned by traditional socialization patterns. The traditional
female gender role prescribes dependence, affiliation,
Avoidance coping Strategies
emotional expressiveness, a lack of assertiveness, and the
subordination of ones own needs to those of others. On the
Avoidance coping strategies
other hand, the traditional male role prescribes attributes such
as autonomy, self-confidence, assertiveness, instrumentality
Procedure: For purpose of the study two groups of subjects
and being goal-oriented. . As a summary, we can conclude that
were undertaken, one belonging to extreme rural and the other
there are some gender differences as well as similarities in
from extreme urban environment. To meet the requirement, it
adolescents' coping.
was decided to adopt schools situated in two entirely different
environments giving education to two category of students, one
Sample: - The sample consisted of 200 adolescents from rural
belonging to very-very poor family background and were less
and urban population residing in the eastern district of U.P 100
privileged from the view point of socio-economic status, while
adolescents were from rural background (50 male and 50
the other school chosen were from well-developed?
female) and 100 were from urban backgrounds (50 male and 50
environment where the student from one of the richest families
female). The age ranges of the subjects were 16 to 19 years.
were taking education. After selection of the institutions
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researcher contacted to the principle of all institutions for
*p <.05
permission to collect the data from their institution. After
seeking permission from principle of respective institution
main procedure has started, in the process all the participants
Environmental setting Gender Mean SD
were contacted personally and provided a consolidated
55.92 20.57
questionnaire have psychological stress scale and coping
Female 80.95 20.93
strategies scale. The data were collected individually. The
72.12 27.47
subjects were interviewed to make the observations more
Female 90.99 20.39
precise and accurate. The filled questionnaires were reTable.2.3.Mean and S.D of coping strategies as a function of
examined and the scoring was done as per manual instructions
environmental setting and gender.
for each questionnaire. Scored data were analyzed by using
statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 20.0
of Df Mean
for windows.
The results of the present study are presented in two
sections. The statistical procedure used is descriptive and twoway analysis of variance. The first section reports the mean
value and S.D. Of dependent variables as a function of
environmental setting (Rural and urban) and Gender, the
second section report the main effect and interaction effect of
the environment setting (urban and rural) gender.

17213.440 1
17213.440 33.879**
48180.250 1
48180.250 94.827**
Table.2.4.summary of two-way Anova for the score of
coping strategies.
*p <.05

Descriptive statistics for stress and coping strategies in rural
and urban subjects.
Dependent Variable Rural
Mean SD
Mean SD

Result of present study reveals that in both environmental

settings male reported more stress than their counterparts girls,
however utilization of coping strategies in numbers are higher
in female adolescents than male.






Coping strategies
76.17 32.97 81.80 24.70
Table-1.1 Mean and S.D. of stress and coping strategies in
rural and urban setting.
Dependent Variable








Coping Strategies
61.27 26.20 96.70 19.89
Table-1.2 Mean and S.D. of stress and coping strategies in
Male and female adolescents.
Two-way analysis of variance between stress and coping as
function of environmental setting (Urban and Rural) and
Environmental setting Gender Mean SD
57.60 25.69
Female 45.64 16.22
96.02 16.90
Female 51.93 23.21
Table-2.1 Mean and S.D of stress as a function of
environmental setting and Gender.




78540.063 1
78540.063 179.685**
25808.423 1
25808.423 59.045**
Table.2.2. summary of two-way Anova for the score of

The objective of the present investigation is explored rural and
urban differences in the level of, and relation between stress
and coping in adolescents. The findings indicated that male
reported more stress than females in both settings (rural-urban)
This result was similar with the result of Vijayalakshmi and
Lavanya (2006), Kumar and Jejurkar (2005), Carlson and Grant
(2008), Pastey and Aminbhavi (2006) which indicated that
boys tend to have significantly higher stress. Next finding of
present study reveals that girls are more likely to utilize coping
strategies their counterparts boys. Our finding is consistent with
Barusch and Spaids (1989) research which revealed that
women caregivers tend to use a greater variety of coping styles
overall than men. Other findings of the present investigation,
explore that urban adolescents reported more stress than their
counterparts rural adolescents. The results were similar to the
results of Vijayalakshmi and Lavanya (2006) which revealed
that urban students experienced more stress as compared to
rural students, but contrary to the results of Elgar et al. (2003).
In the context of coping strategies, urban adolescents use more
coping strategies than rural adolescents. Reason behind this is
may be the urban adolescents have many options to solve the
problem or cope with stress, but rural adolescents have little
amount of option to cope with stress. Rural adolescents are
deprived in many aspects of their lives e.g. They have not
enough money to buy things in comparison to urban
adolescents.in rural India adolescents affected by lots of
environmental problems such as lack of electricity, lack of
drinking water, lack of healthy academic atmosphere and so
many things, these are the factors that directly or indirectly
affects the personality of the adolescents.

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[1] Almeida, D. M., & Kessler, R. C. Everyday stressors and gender
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[6] Carlson, G.A. and Grant, K.E. The roles of stress and coping in
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[7] Coleman, J.C., Hendry, L.B. The Nature of Adolescence. (3rd
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Cole, D.A. Modelling relations between hassles and
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[10] Cote, J.E. Identity formation and self-development in
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Sons, Inc,2009, pp.266-304.
[11] Elgar, F.J., Arlett, C., & Groves, R . Stress, coping, and
behavioural problems among rural and urban adolescents.
Journal of Adolescence,2003, 26, 574-585.
[12] Elias, M. J.. Gara, M., & Ubriaco, M. Sources of stress and
support in childrens transition to middle school: An empirical
analysis. Journal of CZinical Child Psychology,1985,14, 112-l
[13] Folkman, S., Lazarus, R. S., Dunkel-Schetter, C., Delongis, A.,
& Gruen, R. J. Dynamics of a stressful encounter: Cognitive
appraisal, coping, and encounter outcomes. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 1986, 50, 9921003.
[14] Grant, K.E., Compas, B.E., Stuhlmacher, A., Thurm, A.E.,
McMahon, S., & Halpert, J.Stressors and child/ adolescent
psychopathology: Moving from markers to mechanisms of risk.
Psychological Bulletin, 2003,129, 447-466.
[15] Gwmezy, N. Stress, competence; and development: (continuities
in the study of schizophrenic adults, children vulnerable to
psychopathology, and the search for stress-resistant children.
Orthopsychology,1987, 57.159-174.
[16] Kumar, S. and Jejukar, K. Study of stress level in occupational
therapy students during their academic curriculum. The Indian J.
Occup. Therapy, 2005, 3,1,11-14.
[17] Lazarus, R.S., & Folkman, S. Stress, appraisal and coping. New
York: Springer Publication, 1984.
[18] McElhaney, K.B., Allen, J.P., Stephenson, J.C., & Hare, A.L.
Attachment and autonomy during adolescence. In: R.M. Lerner
& L. Steinberg (Eds). Handbook of adolescent psychology, 3rd
ed, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009,pp.358-403.
[19] Miller, S. M., & Kirsch, N. Sex differences in cognitive coping
with stress. In R. C. Barnett, L. Biener, & G. K. Baruch (Eds.),
Gender & Stress New York: The Free Press,1987,pp. 278307.
[20] Omizo, M. M., Omizo, S. A., 8c Suzuki, I.. A. Children and
stress: An exploratory study of stressors and symptoms. The
School Counselor; March,1988, 267-274.

[21] Pastey, G.S. and Aminbhavi, V.A. Impact of emotional maturity

on stress and self-confidence of adolescents. J. Indian Acad.
Appl. Psychol.,2006, 32(1): 66-70.
[22] Suldo, S.M., Shaunessy, E., & Hardesty, R. Relationships
among stress, coping and mental health in high-achieving high
school students. Psychology in the Schools, 2008, 45, 273-290.
[23] Susman, E.J., & Dorn, L.D. Puberty: Its role in development. In:
R.M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds). Handbook of adolescent
psychology,3rd ed, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc,2009,
[24] Vijaylakshmi, G. and Lavanya, P. Relationship between stress
and mathematic achievement among intermediate students.
Edutracks, 2006.7,7, 34-37.
[25] Williams, P.G., Holmbeck, G.N., & Greenley, R.N. Adolescent
health psychology. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
Psychology,2002, 70, 828-842.

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Milat Ismail Haje1, Christopher Barrett2, Kameel M Naoom3

Postgraduate student in College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil/Iraq

Professor in Embryology, Dundee University/U.K
Professor in Embryology, College of medicine, Hawler Medical University, Erbil/Iraq

Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate any

influence of maternal and/or paternal age, three sperm
parameters (sperm count/ml, motility and morphology) on
pregnancy outcomes in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
cycles. In all, 785 ICSI cases were analyzed retrospectively.
Pregnancy outcome were influenced by the age of the maternal ,
paternal partners and sperm count x10. The clinical pregnancy
rate with respect to the age of female partner and male partner
was revealed a significant inverse correlation between them with
(P = <0.001) for each partner. The relationship between clinical
pregnancy rate and sperm count x10/ml was revealed a
significant difference between the groups (P= 0.046). On the other
hand no basic semen parameters (motility and normal
morphology) influence on ICSI pregnancy outcome was found in
the subgroup of patients. We conclude that the influence on
pregnancy outcome after ICSI is related mostly to maternal and
paternal age.
Keywords: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, maternal age,
paternal age, semen parameters, pregnancy outcome.

The outcome of assisted reproductive technology (ART)
procedures is known to be influenced by multiple factors,
including the etiology of infertility, patient age, semen
parameter quality, the type of ovarian stimulation, and the
level of follicular phase estradiol (E2). The subsequent number
and quality of oocytes and the number of embryo transferred
are affected by the different regimens of ovarian stimulation.
The negative impacts of advancing female age are well
known. A classic study of the Hutterites observed a rise in
sterility first noted at 35 years of age, with a sharp increase
after the age of 39 years, reaching an almost complete inability
after the age of 44 years (Tietze, 1957), the same trend has
been noted in women undergoing ART. In women aged >35
years, success rates after ART start to decline. By the age of
40 years a marked decline is noted (Navot et al, 1991and AlShawaf et al 1992). On the other hand, male reproductive
function does not cease abruptly as in women, but become
fundamentally changed with age (Sartorelli et al, 2001). Some
investigators have associated a decline in pregnancy rates
after ART with advancing paternal age in couples in which the
women is younger (Klonoff-Cohen and Natarajan, 2004), on
the other hand, Spandorfer et al( 1998) suggested that the
pregnancy is not affected by male age.
Sperm morphology is consistently the most significant
parameter that relates to fertilization. In this context Coetzee
and colleagues (1998) have performed a metaanalysis of the

data that confirmed the importance of sperm morphology for

IVF success. Similar results were found by Liu et al 1994 and
Nikolettos et al 1999. Other studies revealed little or no
relationship between semen quality and fertilization with ICSI
((Nagy et al, 1995; Mercan et al, 1998). However, in extreme
cases of defective spermatozoa fertilization and pregnancy rate
reduced (Nagy et al, 1995). Chen et al (2009) conceded that
the percentage of normal forms was no different in pregnant
and non-pregnant groups. Mercan et al, 1998 and Karpuz et al,
2007 found that there was no significant difference for the
ICSI outcome indicating pregnancy rate. In this study the main
objectives were therefore to analyze the pregnancy rates
retrospectively in 785 cycles, in relation to the age of both
partners and to the three conventional sperm parameters
(sperm count/ml, motility and morphology).
This study was performed retrospectively in Fertility and
IVF center in Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil City-Iraq
between (January 2011-December 2012). Out of 1055 infertile
couples 785 underwent ICSI cycles. The average age of
infertile men was (33.17.3) years. Seminal fluid analysis was
done for each patient; analyses were done in the Andrology
room according to WHO criteria (1992). Before sample
collection patient were informed about the relevance of
abstinence time (3-6) days and about importance of collecting
the complete ejaculate and not using any soap during
A. Ovarian stimulation, oocyte collection, and oocyte
preparation for microinjection:
Controlled ovarian stimulation was done using downregulation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH
(Zoladex or decapeptyle 0.1mg) ) agonist protocol with
urinary FSH (Gonal F) or recombinant (Merional) or GnRH
antagonist protocol with urinary or recombinant FSH. When at
least two follicle reached a mean diameter of 18 mm, using
transvaginal ultrasonography, 1000 IU HCG (Ovitrelle,
pregnyl) was administered and oocyte retrieval was done by
vaginal ultrasound- guided puncture of ovarian follicles, 36
hour after HCG administration. At the end of oocyte retrieval,
the cumulus-corona cell complexes were removed
enzymatically; immediately before micromanipulation; by
incubating the oocyte in HEPES- buffered intracytoplasmic
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sperm injection (ICSI) medium(Hyalourindase IVC) for up to
twice in HTF-IVC, then incubated at 37c in a 50 l drop of
2 min, enzymatic removal was enhanced mechanically by
G1.2 medium under mineral oil in a CO incubator (Galaxy
aspirating the oocyte in and out of hand-drawn the pipettes.
CO ).
The denuded oocytes were examined to assess integrity and
maturity. Inspected under the inverted microscope (olympus)
E. Luteal phase support after Intra uterine insemination ( IUI)
at 20 x magnification and classified as mature metaphase 2
and ICSI:
(MII), mature metaphase 1 (MI) and immature prophase (GV).
Luteal phase support was started with progesterone vaginal
Only MII oocytes with extruded first polar body were
pessaries (cyclogest 400 mg bd) on the day after retrieval and
was continued till 12wk of gestation if pregnancy positive.
B. Semen preparation for ICSI:
For ICSI semen preparations were performed according to
WHO (1992) using freshly ejaculated spermatozoa. The semen
specimens were collected by masturbation, Semen was diluted
1-2(volume/volume) with (HTF, HEPES, IVC). After
centrifugation at 250 xg for 10 min, and the pellets were
resuspended and combined in 3 ml of the medium. The sperm
suspension was centrifuged for 10 min; the pellet was
resuspended in 0.7 ml of the medium and placed in incubator
for 30-50 min. in this study, approximately 10 ul was used to
determine the concentration and motility of the sperm. The
remaining sample was used for ICSI.
C. Testicular sperm extraction (TESE):
TESE was performed under general anesthesia. The scrotal
skin and tunica vaginalis were opened, a 0.5 cm incision was
made in the tunica albuginea and one or two pieces of the
extruding testicular tissue were excised using a pair of curved
scissors. The specimen was then transferred into a Petri dish
filled with ~ 2 ml modified HEPES-buffered Earles medium
and heparin 0.4% ( HTF-HEPES-IVC).
D. Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI):
The 3-5 l sperm- polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-IVC) droplet
was placed in the center of a Petri dish (Falcon type 1006) and
was surrounded by eight 5l droplets of HEPES-buffered IVC
medium. These droplets were covered by ~ 3.5 ml of
lightweight paraffin oil. The ICSI procedures were carried out
on the CRI-UK micromanipulation system attached to inverted
microscope Olympus Ixs1 (Olympus company). Injection of
oocytes was performed in microdroplets of HEPES-buffered
ICSI medium covered with lightweight paraffin oil (IVC). A
single spermatozoon with apparently normal morphology was
immobilized by cutting across its tail with the injection
pipette. After securing the oocyte onto the holding pipette,
with the polar body at the 6 or 12 oclock position, the
injection pipette was pushed through the zona pellucida and
the oolemma into the ooplasm at the 3 oclock position. When
penetration of the oolemma was verified by aspirating some
cytoplasm, the spermatozoon was slowly ejected. The
injection pipette was withdrawn gently and the oocyte released
from the holding pipette. After injection oocytes were washed

F. Definition of pregnancy:
Serum -human chorionic gonadotropin was measured after
12 days after embryo transfer. After 10 days clinical
pregnancy was indicated by doing transvaginal sonography for
detection of fetal sac.
G. Statistics:
All statistics were performed using the Statistical Package
for the Social Science (SPSS- version 19). Difference in the
pregnancy rate between the groups was tested using the chi
square test.
Out of 1055 infertile couples, 785 underwent ICSI cycles
revealed an overall clinical pregnancy rate of 34.8%.
Table 1 shows the evaluation of the clinical pregnancy rate
with respect to the age of female partner. The results revealed
a significant inverse correlation between them with (P =
<0.001). The highest group was for women age <25 years, the
clinical pregnancy rate ( PR) was 46.6%, and lowest rate was
the group +40 years which was 12.3%.
Evaluation of the clinical pregnancy rate with respect to the
age of men partner revealed a significant inverse correlation
between them with (P = <0.001), for men age <25 years the
clinical PR was 41.2%, for the group 25-29 years were 56.6%
( Table 2).
Semen parameters (count, motility and morphology)
obtained on the day of the aspiration procedure was evaluated
to determine if semen quality has an impact on ICSI outcome.
The relationship between clinical pregnancy rate and sperm
count x10/ml is shown in Table 3. There was significant
difference between the groups (P= 0.046), higher rate was with
count x10/ml (1.9-9) x10 group which PR was 50%.
The relationship between clinical pregnancy rate and sperm
total motility % is illustrated in Table 4. There was no
significant difference between the groups (P= 0.107).
The relationship between clinical pregnancy rate and sperm
normal morphology % is shown in Table 5. Also the results
showed no significant difference between the groups (P=

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women age

Pregnancy negative

Pregnancy positive












































Pearson Chi-Square P< 0.001

Table (1): The correlation of clinical pregnancy rates after ICSI with respect to the women age

Men age

Pregnancy negative

Pregnancy positive


< 25









































Pearson Chi-Square P< 0.001

Table (2): The correlation of clinical pregnancy rates after ICSI with respect to the men age

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Pregnancy positive


















































Pearson Chi-Square P=.0.46

Table (3): Sperm count x10/ml according to pregnancy outcome following ICSI
Total motility%


Pregnancy positive








































Pearson Chi-Square P=.01.7

Table (4): Sperm total motility percentage according to pregnancy outcome following ICSI
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Normal morphology%

Pregnancy negative

Pregnancy positive





































Chi-Square P=.0185
Table (5): Sperm normal morphologic percentage according to pregnancy outcome following ICSI
As the study of Hutterites has demonstrated normal fertility
is highly dependent on female ageing (Tietze, 1957). It is also
well established that the outcome of couples treated by IVF is
significantly influenced by advancing female age. It is
therefore, a logical assumption that the ICSI would be
similarly affected by female age. In current study, the rate of
pregnancy after ICSI inversely with women age , and this
correlation was significant with (P<0.001) (Table 1). This
result is in consistent with results of (Devroey et al, 1996 and
Spandorfer et al 1998). Some investigators have associated a
decline in pregnancy rates with advancing paternal age in
couples in which the women is younger (Klonoff- Cohen and
Natarajan, 2004), Some studies have suggested a negative
trend in fertility with advanced male age (De La
Rochebrochard et al, 2006; Ferreira et al 2010; Tsai et al,
2013).). On the other hand, Gallardo et al.,1996 and
Spandorfer et al., 1998 suggested that the age of male partner
didnt affect fertilization, embryo development or
implantation. In this study there was a significant inverse
correlation between pregnancy rate after ICSI and age of male
partner with (P = <0.001). The combination of sperm
morphology, progressive motility percent and sperm count has
been demonstrated to be the best parameter to evaluate the
fertility capacity of sperm in IVF (Lundin et al., 1997). In this
study the effect of semen parameters on PR after ICSI were
examined. The results showed that there was significant
difference between the groups (P= 0.046), higher rate was with
count x10/ml (1.9-9) x10 (Table 3). It means that pregnancy
rate (PR) after ICSI was better when sperm count was low
(Table 3).
The relationship between clinical pregnancy rate and sperm
total motility % are shown in Table (4). The results showed
no significant difference between the groups (P= 0.107),
higher rate was with sperm total motility % (1-9.9%) group.
Moreover, in the current study, the relationship between

clinical pregnancy rate and sperm normal morphology % is

shown in Table (5). There was no significant difference
between the groups (P= 0.185), higher rate was with sperm
normal morphology %(<1%) group. It means that PR after
ICSI didnt depend on total sperm motility and normal
morphology This result is in agreement with (Nagy, 1995;
Karpuz et al., 2007) and Mansour et al, (1995) found no
significant difference in the incidence of fertilization between
patients with <5% normal forms and patient with >5% normal
forms, . Chen et al (2009) conceded that the percentage of
normal forms was no different in pregnant and non-pregnant
groups. ICSI is also independent on sperm motility (Verheyen
et al, 1999; Mercan et al, 1998) but fertilization rate was
significantly higher in patients with more adequate sperm
parameters. The only ultimate criterion for successful ICSI is
the presence of at least one living spermatozoa per oocyte in
the semen preparation used for microinjection. Nikolettos et al
(1999) have concluded that the chance of a successful
pregnancy is low with sever anomalies of the sperm head
So according to previous reports and this study in ICSI,
fertilization may be achieved, even in the presence of a few
motile sperm, because natural selection steps are skipped in
the presence of abnormal sperms (Van Steirteghem et al.,
[1] Al-Shawaf T., Nolan A., Guirgis R. et al. (1992). The influence
of ovarian response on gamete intra-fallopian transfer outcome
in older women. Hum Reprod: 7; 1106-111o.
[2] Chen X., Zhang W., Luo Y., Long X., and Sun X. (2009).
Predictive value of semen parameters in in vitro fertilization
pregnancy outcome. Andrologia: 41 (2); 111-117.
[3] Coetzee K., Kruger TF, and Lombard CJ. (1998). Predictive
value of normal morphology: a structural review. Hum Reprod
Update: 4; 73-82.

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[4] De la Rochebrochard E., de Mouzon J., Thepot F., and
Thonneau P. (2006). Fathers over 40 and increased failure to
conceive: the lessons of in vitro fertilization in France.
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[5] Devroey P., Godoy H., Smitz J., et al. (1996). Female age
predicts embryonic implantation after ICSI: a case controlled
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[6] Ferreira RC., de Ferreira Braga DP., de Souza Bonetti TC.,
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patients.FertilSteril: 93 (6); 1870-1874.
[7] Gallardo E., Simon C., Levy M. et al. (1996). Effect of age on
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[8] Karpuz V., Gokturk A., and Koyuturk M. (2007). The effects of
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[9] Kidd SA., Eskenazi B., and Wyrobek AJ. (2001). Effects of
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[10] Klonoff-Cohen HS., and Natarajan L. (2004). The effect of
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[11] Liu J., Nagy ZP., Joris H., Tournaye H., Devroey P., and Van
Steirteghem AC. (1994). Intracytoplasmic sperm injection does
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[12] Lundin K., Soderlund B., and Hamberger L. (1997). The
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AM. (1995). The effect of sperm parameters on the outcome of
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M., Derde MC., Devroey P., and Van Steirteghem AC. (1995).
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[21] Tsai YR., Lan KC., Kung FT., Liin PY., Chaing HJ., Lin YJ.,
and Haung FJ. (2013). The effect of advanced paternal age on
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Arpit Srivastava1, 2, Dr. Pradeep Srivastava2, Ms. Rupika Sinha2, Sarada P. Mallick2

Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh,

Lucknow Campus, Lucknow (U.P.)
India 226010
Technology Business Incubator, Malaviya Centre for Innovation, Incubation & Entrepreneurship
Indian Institute of Technology
Banaras Hindu University
Varanasi (U.P.) India 221005
Abstract On Earth water has too many forms and variety which
are necessary specifically for particular geographical as well as
environmental surroundings. Below 1% of the world's fresh
water (0.007% of all water on earth) is reachable for direct
human uses. Water pollutions now become a part of concern and
disquiet in country like India. Large parts of water which are life
supportive get contaminated because of illegal activities of human
beings. Water effluence is a major problem globally. It is the
leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it
accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily. In
addition to the acute problems of different problems in
developing countries, industrialized countries continue to
struggle with water pollution problems as well. There are many
inorganic metals which are contaminating water bodies which
serve life to large part of India, Arsenic (As) is one of the biggest
threats for water bodies. High toxicity of Arsenic poses a serious
risk not only to ecological systems but also for human health.
There is availability of sophisticated techniques for arsenic
removal from contaminated water, development of new
laboratory based techniques along with cost reduction and
enhancement of conventional techniques are essential for the
benefit of common people. This paper is based on the future
aspects, for removal of Arsenic from drinking water or the water
of different rivers like Ganga, Gomti and Yamuna etc which
humans are consuming for domestic purpose. Demograph
estimate that around 52 millions peoples are drinking ground
water with arsenic concentrations above the guidelines of World
Health Organization. WHO proposed a parameter or MIC for
Arsenic i.e. of 10 parts per billion (ppb) or 0.010 Mg/L, it is found
that level of Arsenic has been increased vigorously in many
rivers. Objective is to apply Bioremediation technique with the
help of batch culture that needs Bioremediators to detoxify
contaminated water and helps in maintaining the original quality
of water.
Key words Arsenic, MIC, Bioremediation, Batch culture,

A. Water
Our Earth is called a blue planet as it contains a large
and enormous percentage of water than land. On earth water
has too many forms and variety which are necessary
specifically for particular geographical as well as
environmental conditions. It was found that only < 1% of
water is available for drinking or domestic use and rest of the
part is saline. Human being, plants & animals i.e. living being
needs water for their survival. < 1% of the world's fresh water
(~0.007% of all water on earth) is accessible for direct human
uses. Rivers, lakes, ponds, estuaries, waterfalls, sea, oceans,
deltas these are the different types of varieties of water bodies
and have different percentage of water in such forms as it

covers 71% of the Earth's surface. It is vital for all known

forms of existence. On Earth, 96.5% of the total water is found
in seas and oceans, 1.7% in groundwater, 1.7% in glaciers
and the ice caps of Antarctica also small fraction in other large
water bodies and 0.001% in form of haze, (water cycle),
and rainfall. Domestic water (fresh water) constitutes only
2.5% of the Earth's water and from that 98.8% of water is in
the form of ice and ground water. [1] Less than 0.3% of all
freshwater is in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere, and smaller
amount of the Earth's freshwater (0.003%) is contained within
biological bodies and manufactured products. Its a fact that
origin of life takes place in water on earth Oparin- Haldane
theory. Long voyage from Unicellular to Multicellular
organisms water is necessary either for their survival or for
their basic needs. As unicellular get developed into
multicellular organisms, this development took place in water
itself, different chemical as well as biological reactions took
place this accident had occur millions of years ago this also
defines origin of life due to water and just because of that all
living being needs water for their survival[2]. For the
subsistence of life on Earth the existence of liquid form of
water and some extent its gaseous and solid forms are vital.
Our Earth has geographical relationship with water so it is
necessary to know the features of water on earth. The Earth is
located in the zonal habitat of the solar system, if it were
slightly closer to or farther from the Sun (about 5%, or about 8
million km.), the conditions which allow the forms of water to
be present simultaneously would be far less likely to exist.
Gravity exists on earth that allows it to hold an atmosphere.
Carbon dioxide and Water vapour in the atmosphere provide a
temperature buffer (greenhouse effects) which helps to
maintain a relatively steady surface temperature. If Earth were
smaller, temperature extremes would allow by a thinner
atmosphere, thus the accumulation of water except in ice caps
of polar region get prevented [3]. Water is necessary in many
geological processes. In most of the rocks Groundwater is
present, and the pressure of this groundwater affects Faulting
patterns. Water present in the mantle play a very major role as
it is responsible for the melt that produces volcanoes
at subduction zones. On the surface of the Earth, water is
obligatory in both physical and chemical weathering
processes. For a large amount of sediment transport that
occurs on the surface of the earths water, and to a lesser but
still significant extent, ice, are also responsible. Many types
of sedimentary rocks are formed by deposition of transported
sediment which makes up the geological record of earths
history [4]. Water scarcity is the major concern in most part of
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the world, and its availability is a major social and economic
The Ganges River contains the utmost freight of silt than any
issue. Currently, about a billion people around the world
other river in the world and the deposition of this material in
consume contaminated as well as unhealthy water. Up to 2015
the delta region resulting in the largest river delta in the world
the number of people worldwide who do not have access to
(400 km from north to south and 320 km from east to west).
safe water and sanitation, many countries accepted the goal of
The affluent mangrove forests of the Gangetic delta called as
halving the rate during the 2003 G8 Evian summit [5]. [6]
Sunderban delta contain very incredible and valuable species
Water, however, cannot be a finite resource, but rather it will
of plants and animals which are consummate among many
be re-circulated as potable water in precipitation in quantities,
forest ecosystems existing on the earth [10]. The expansion of
many degrees of magnitude higher than consumption by
groundwater in different parts of the country has not been
human beings. If this difficult goal is met then also it will still
uniform. Highly exhaustive development of ground water in
leave more than an estimated half a billion people without
certain areas in the country had resulted in over exploitation
access to adequate sanitation and over a billion without access
leading to decline in the levels of ground water and sea water
to safe drinking water. Bad or poor water quality and bad
instruction in coastal areas. There is unremitting growth in
sanitation are deadly; some five- six million deaths a year are
dark and overexploited areas in the country [11].
caused by polluted or contaminated drinking water.
Developing world scenario said that, 90% of all waste
water still goes into local rivers and streams without proper
treatment. The strain not only affects surface freshwater bodies
like rivers and lakes, but it also degrades groundwater
resources. Demograph of Some 50 countries show that
roughly a third of the world's population also suffer from
medium or high water scarcity stress, and 17 of these extract
more water annually than is recharged through their natural
water cycles this is the statically proved data. Due to water
pollution there are different types of diseases occurring and are
also getting increase day by day like Diarrhea, Cholera,
Jaundice and other Gastro problems are the major issue now
these days. Not only this, there are also harmful chemicals
which are polluting water; these pollutants are release as nonbiodegradable waste product which is easily thrown to the
river. There are many heavy metals who show their presence
in our rivers which are boon to life and prove that these are
also contributing in contamination of water. Improper sewage,
The Ganges has to suffer from extreme pollution conditions, a
industrial waste, illegal human activities all are responsible for
demographic study said that this affects near about 400 million
water pollution [8].
people who exists close to the river. Suspended Particulate
B. India and Water
matter is also responsible for contamination of water quality of
Indian scenario is also not good as we all had got highest
the rivers. This major problem is exacerbated due the fact that
rank amongst the top polluted water countries because we did
many people who live their life to poverty line and their life
not know how to make water safe, because we dont know
dependently rely on the river on a daily basis for different
how to conserve water, because we are not concern about
domestic purpose like bathing, cooking and washing [12].
sustainable development and for our mistake the upcoming
The world economy representative WORLD BANK
generation has to pay for it. Condition of Major River like
estimates that three percent of India's GDP is equal to that the
Ganga Yamuna and their substitutes are not good, taking the
health costs of pollution of water in India It has been
example of river Yamuna, in New Delhi the river is actually
proposed statically that 80% of all illnesses in India and onedead because of 0.0 B.O.D the water which is now serving the
third of deaths can be contributed to water-borne diseases.
capital of India is just a flow of sewage which is a mix up of
Rapid deforestation in the last few decades, increment in silt
sewage and industrial waste and that water is consumed by the
deposits occur due to topsoil erosion in the lose area which
citizens of New Delhi thats why the water scarcity problem in
lead to the raise the river bed and also lead to devastating
New Delhi is the biggest issue, think that when the condition
floods in the rainy season and stagnant flow in the dry season
of capital of India is worst what is the condition of rest of the
[13]. Along the main river course there are 25 towns with a
population of more than 100,000 and about another 23 towns
with populations above 50,000. In addition there are 50
River Ganga is a national river of India serving maximum
smaller towns with populations above 20,000. There are also
Northern Plains of India in many ways like for domestic
about 100 identified major industries located directly on the
purpose, for ethical purpose, for industries, for irrigation, for
river, of which 68 are considered as grossly polluting. Fiftyhydroelectricity that is in the form of energy resource but can
five of these industrial units have complied with the
anybody ask that Ganga is clean river or not, river Ganga
regulations and installed effluent treatment plants (ETPs) and
exists on earth since from that era when there was no life on
legal proceedings are in progress for the remaining units. The
earth in form of human beings. River Ganga originates from
natural assimilative capacity of the river is severely stressed
Gangotri glaciers over Himalayas and ends her passage to Bay
[14]. Cultural, Historical, Educational capital of India
of Bengal it covers about 2,525 km distance overall, but before
Varanasi , a city of more than one million people that many
that this river has taken so many turns as well as burden in
pilgrims explore this holy place to take a "holy dip" in Ganga,
form of waste, toxic products and buried parts of human body.
statics shows around 200 million litres of untreated human
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sewage flows into the river each day, which leads to large
concentrations of coliform bacteria. According to official
principles, it is estimated that water is only safe for bathing
should not contain more than 500 faecal coliforms per
100ml, and upstream of ghats of Varanasi, the water of Ganga
river already contains 120 times as much, sixty thousands
faecal coliform bacteria per 100 ml which is now comes in
major concern by many non- governmental organizations.
The basin of Ganges is significally influential to the
agricultural economies of India and Bangladesh just because
of this India is called for Agriculture Based Country. River
Ganga and its tributaries provide for irrigation, a perennial
source by covering a large area. Chief crops cultivated in the
area include rice, wheat and potatoes [15]. There are also
many fishing opportunities to many small scale industries
along the river, though it remains highly polluted. The major
In November 2008, the Ganges, alone among India's rivers,
industrial towns like Varanasi, Kanpur etc situated on the
was declared a "National River", facilitating the formation of
banks of the river with the preponderance of tanning industries
a National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) that
add to the pollution [16]. A rich growing area for crops such as
would have greater powers to measures aimed at protecting the
legumes, chillies, mustard, sesame, sugarcane, and jute along
river as well as set plan, implementation is also necessary and
the banks of the river because of the presence of swamp and
finally a monitoring cell has to form which look after all the
lakes provided naturally. A plan is made seeing the worst
central issues [18]. The incidence of water borne
condition of Ganga i.e. The Ganga Action Plan, which was
and enteric diseases such as intestinal diseases, different types
taken on priority and with much enthusiasm but unfortunately
of infections like typhoid, cholera etc significally among
it was delayed for two years. The result was not very
people who are using the water of river Ganga for bathing,
appreciable after the expenditure was almost doubled. The
washing dishes and brushing teeth is high and other domestic
concerning governments and the agencies which got the
purpose, demographically 66% per year. Recent studies
responsibility for the plan were not very prompt to make it a
by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) proved that
success. Social Audit was not taken into consideration which
the river is now full of pollutants which are highly toxic that
can help to reduce the time in surveying. The releasing of
those are living along its banks in Uttar Pradesh, Bengal and
industrial and urban wastes in the river was not controlled
Bihar [19]. Bacteriophages are also found in river ganga
fully. The flowing of dirty water through drains and sewers
designated as super bugs, helpful in phage therapy against
were not adequately diverted as they are diverted to directly
patients of Diarrhea, phages play a medicinal role in formation
into the river. The continuing customs of throwing carcasses,
of phage therapy which will be very helpful for the treatment
burning dead bodies, washing of dirty clothes by washer men,
of patients of Diarrhea [20]. It has now be proven that as The
immersion of idols cattle, wallowing etc were not checked
Ganges came to northern plains region of India it start
properly. Ignorance and avoidance to all these points all these
accumulating itself with lots of unpredictable stats and results
made the Action Plan a failure, has also been variously
in form of toxic contamination but as the fact says that Ganga
attributed to "environmental issue without proper
flow with very high speed so all the contaminated also flow to
understanding of the interaction or relationship between
the deeper regions and West Bengal as Indian state suffers a
human and environment the failure of the Ganga Action Plan
lot by this. Bangladesh a sub continental country a very close
occur. Customs, tradition, culture ethical issues, beliefs,
to West Bengal also suffers the devastating features of river
corruption and a lack of technical acquaintance and lack of
Ganga in Bangladesh called as JAMUNA. Ministry of
support from religious authorities. These are some highlighted
Health and ruling authorities for Ganga proved that
points which are now leading to destroy the quality of water of
accumulation of heavy metals in the water of river Ganga
river Ganga. In 2009 December the World Bank agreed to pass
made it toxic in lower regions of India [21]. The figure shown
loan for India of US$1 billion over the next five years, for
above proved that not only the river but nearby places are also
achieving the objective of cleaning The Ganges. According to
contaminated due to Arsenic poisoning. If we scrutinize the
Budget 2010 Planning Commission estimates, an investment
figure it proves that the eastern part is highly contaminated
of almost Rs. 70 billion ( approximately US$1.5 billion) is
than Northern part but both the regions are toxic but eastern
needed to clean up the river[17].
part is showing maximum toxicity rate because at northern
plains of India Ganga flow with a continuous speed that means
water of river Ganga is not in rest form but in Maximum part
of India as well as in Bangladesh water of river Ganga is in
state form basically in Sunderban delta region thats why the
accumulation of contaminated water is higher in eastern region
rather than Northern Plains of India, Biochemical Oxygen
Demand start decreasing as we start moving from higher to
eastern part eventually proves that Ganga is contaminated in
Eastern India [22].

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Arsenic is formed which is a poor conductor of electricity.
One stable isotope of natural occurring Arsenic is 75As, this is
said to be monoisotopic element but many radio isotopes have
also been synthesized and their atomic mass ranges from 60 to
92. Out of this the most stable form is known as 73As has half
life of 65.30hrs. , 72As has half life of 26.00hrs. , 77As has a
half life of 38.83hrs. Isotopes which are lighter than the stable
[31]. 75As tend to decay by + decay, and those that are
heavier and tend to decay by - decay with some expectations.
Least ten nuclear isomers have been described, ranging in
atomic mass from 66 to 84. The most stable form of Arsenic
One more report by the government of India shows that Royal
isomer is 68mArsenic with a half life of 111 seconds. These
Bengal Tigers of Sunderban delta are also anguish from
values define atomic properties as many times these metals or
different diseases or genetic disorder because their body is
metalloid are exist in different forms not in their native state so
consuming that Arsenic as heavy metal and they are also
atomic properties helps to determine that these forms are new
getting dead in that toxic environment [23]. Loss of Dissolved
elements or they are the isotopes of any known element [32]
Oxygen, Loss of Biochemical Oxygen Demand etc also leads
[33]. Arsenic in form of sulphur compounds is also found.
to a threatening for aquatic life, for example Gangatic
Realgar (As4S4) and Orpiment (As2S3) are abundantly found in
Dolphins are very famous all over world but not as single
nature and formerly used as in paint industry. In As 4S10,
authority is considering that a great loss to the Dolphins going
arsenic has exclusive oxidation state of +2 in As4S4 which
to occur which are living in river Ganga. The dolphins of river
descript bond between the As atoms so that the valancy of As
Ganga, which used to exist in near to urban centres in the river
is fixed as 3 [34]. Industries waste management program has
Ganga, is now seriously in danger of extinction by pollution
to be made so to control and check the level of waste which is
and dam constructions. Their population have now dwindled
toxic in nature and provide a specific area so that these toxic
to a quarter of their numbers of fifteen years before, and now
resources are thrown into that place [35]. These toxic
they have become extinct from the main streams of river
compounds which are used to make highly toxic materials like
Ganga [24]. A recent survey by the WWF reported only 3,000
in pesticides poison etc. The proton acceptation steps between
dolphins left in the water catchment of Ganga river system.
the Arsenate and Arsenic acid are similar to the
Indirectly or directly these contaminated water is responsible
Phosphate and Phosphoric acid as somewhat structures are
for many losses, it is now found that the rice or wheat products
also same. Unlike phosphorous acid, Arsenous acid is
which is growing by the farmers contains parts of heavy
genuinely basic in nature, with the formula As(OH) 3. The total
metals included and when it serves to us then our body
volume of Arsenic makes up about 1.5 ppm (0.00015%) of
consumes those poisonous food which is really toxic and can
the total Earths crust and just because of 53rd most abundant
destroy us [25].
element in Earth. Soil contains 110 ppm of arsenic which is
an inactivated or normal range for Arsenic also recognized by
Arsenic (As) is a chemical element with atomic number 33. It
WHO. Statistics said that water in form of oceans and sea has
occurs in many minerals and in a pure form of existing
only 1.6 ppb Arsenic (As). Many lower Arsenic containing
elemental crystal. Albertus Magnus was the first person to
minerals are known. An organic form of Arsenic also occurs in
documented Arsenic in the year 1250 [26]. Actually Arsenic is
the environment [36]. Arsenic is obtained mainly as a
a metalloid and can be found in the form of different
peripheral product from the Copper purification. Furthermore
allotropes. There are many fundamental uses of Arsenic like it
purification from chalcogens and sulfur which is achieved
is used in underpinning alloys of copper [27]. In the field of
by Sublimation process in vacuum or in a hydrogenic
semi conductors Arsenic is an N- type dopant. In doping
atmosphere or simply by distillation from Lead-Arsenic
techniques Arsenic is used like Gallium arsenide is a
mixture present in molten form. Dust from gold, copper,
common semiconductors used after doped silicon. In
and lead smelters Arsenic is just a part of that smelter only
formation of herbicides, pesticides Arsenic are used but now a
days its use are banned in many fields. Arsenic is a poison for
multicellular life existing on the earth, its a fact that some
species of bacteria can able to use arsenic compounds as
primary metabolites or authoritarian metabolites. The trioxide
form of Arsenic is used in the pesticides industry, industry of
insecticides as well as herbicides [27]. Arsenic being a heavy
metal it is a metalloid and poisonous to living being this came
to know by understanding the analysis of physio-chemical
properties because sometime objective is hiding in these
properties only and without understanding the physiochemical properties it is not possible to cure it [28]. It is stable
in nature; [29] Yellow arsenic is tetraphosphorus (P 4) is very
soft as well as waxy as both have 4 atoms precise in a
tetrahedral type in which each atom is bound to each of the
other 3 atoms by a single bond. An unstable allotrope, being
Arsenic in inorganic form is considered the most potential
molecular, is the most volatile, low density as well as high
form of human carcinogen, and humans are exposed to it from
toxicity. One more form Black Arsenic very similar to red
water, soil, air and food. In the system of arsenic metabolism,
phosphorus [30]. By cooling vapour state at 100-2200C Black
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inorganic arsenic is get methylated to monomethylarsonic acid
A research study on rats in the field of immunology has done
(MMA) and finally to dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), which get
in which rats are daily dosed with arsenic in their water every
excreted through urine. Thus, DNA hypomethylation may
month the level of arsenic get increases by the researches, it is
cause due to arsenic exposure resulting continuous methyl
found that arsenic is not effecting the rats and rats are curved
depletion, initiating aberrant gene expression that results in
towards the garlic, this experiment is done in levels equivalent
carcinogenesis. Further, though arsenic is non mutagenic, it
to those found in groundwater in West Bengal in India and
interacts significally with gene based toxic agents in the
Bangladesh and the consequences were found to respond
assembly of different types of mutation, and also different
towards garlic extracts. It was found that rats which are tested
chromosomal disorders which get induces and proliferation of
for arsenic are recover with 40 percent less arsenic in their
cell also occur. In the arsenic endemic regions of West Bengal
blood and liver, and 47 percent more arsenic get passed from
(India) due to arsenic contamination this region is declared as
their urine. The conclusion is conforming that sulphurepidemic and epidemiological research have established that
containing substances in garlic, eradicate arsenic from blood
inorganic arsenicals have the capability to cause lung and skin
and tissues. The whole observation concludes that people who
cancers in human being. Research on the genetic
are living in areas at risk of arsenic contamination in any kind
polymorphism like SNP in the arsenic methyltransferases
of water supply should eat one to three peels of garlic per day
enzyme with the population exposed to arsenic, and
which will really help out human to be safe, garlic is also
quantification in the arsenic-induced mutational spectrum may
helpful for the patients of blood pressure.
be necessary for the development of molecular markers and
Removal Methods
therapeutics and for simplifying the knowledge and features of
Natural as well as feasible methods are necessary to remediate
it on a large scale keeping in view that those removal methods
contamination is understood to be of geo-genic origin that
may not be disadvantageous for humans as well as different
means released from soil under conditions inductive to
living beings. Water pollution and its remediation are now a
dissolution of Arsenic from solid phase on grains of soil to
part of major concern and cost effective techniques could help
liquid phase in water and fertilizer percolation of residues
it out [43].
must played a modifying and significant role in imminent
Chelation Processing
exaggeration. There are large number of hypotheses and
Chemical and synthetic- Artificial methods are used to treat
predictions about the source of Arsenic and sufficient reasons
arsenic poisoning or Arsenicosis. Chelating agents such as
of occurrence in groundwater [40]. Symptoms of arsenic
Dimercaprol and Dimercaptosuccinic
acid are help
poisoning begin with headaches, confusion and drowsiness. As
removing the arsenic away from blood proteins in the human
the poisoning develops, convulsions and changes in fingernail
body and are also used in treatment of acute arsenic poisoning.
pigmentation may occur. When the poisoning becomes acute,
But it has too many side-effects also; most important side
symptoms may include diarrhea, vomiting, blood in the urine,
effect is Hypertension. Hypertension may lead to death of
cramping muscles, hair loss, stomach pain, and more
human being also so its use is not in medical field.
convulsions. Inorganic arsenic show the mechanism of action
Dimercaprol is considerably more toxic than succinic acid but
of leading to cancer remains a mystery. There is no proved
DMSA monoesters e.g. MiADMSA are helpful antidotes for
report which can justify that inorganic arsenic species can
arsenic poisoning. It is found that over dose of such drugs may
react covalently with DNA just like organic carcinogens. But,
lead to serious infection in human body. Synthetic materials
to act as carcinogens (which cause cancer) it has to be act in
are not always suitable for human body.
some way to alter or restrict the regulation of cell replication.
In the study with human keratinocyte cultures, increase in cell
IV. Bioremediation
proliferation arsenite was shown the formation of
It is a technique of waste management which involves the
keratinocyte-derived growth factors [41]. This significant
significant use of different types of organisms to remove
activation process of Arsenic and its substitute salt appeared to
neutralizes and eradicates pollutants from the site of
generate Oxidative Stress which initiate cardiac problem as the
contamination and toxification. According to official as well
free radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine inhibit the activation
as governmental authorities bioremediation is a biological
of the kinases. Directly or indirectly Arsenic also plays an
treatment that utilize naturally occurring organisms or microimportant role in increasing oxidative stress by lowering the
organisms to break down hazardous as well as catastrophic
Nitric Oxide in human body [42].
substances into less toxic or non-toxic as well as reaches to
inactive state; substances. Bioremediation technologies can
be generally classified into two categories as 1st In situ
bioremediation and 2nd ex situ bioremediation. In
situ bioremediation means involving treatment of the
contaminated material at the site itself, whereas ex situ means
involves the removal of the contaminated material to be
treated somewhere else. There are many examples of
bioremediation related techniques are phytoremediation,
biostimulation, rizofertilizers, biopesticides etc [44]. Current
advancements and development have also proved successful
by the addition of similar microbial strains having such genes
which can deliberately help in removing toxicity from
environment to the medium and to enhance the population of
microbe which has ability to break down contaminants and
toxic properties. Microorganisms which are used for the
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inhibition of repair polymerization and hence is a genotoxicas Bioremediators [44]. However, all contaminants are not
enhancing process. It is thus likely that arsenic-mediated
able to treat through bioremediation by using microorganisms.
DNAprotein interactions may play a major role in arsenic
For example, different heavy metals such as lead and
carcinogenesis and the induced protein associated DNA-strand
cadmium are not readily absorbed or disrupt by
breaks could provide an explanation for chromosome
microorganisms. A dynamic question arises as the primary
aberration [47]. Studies on the basis of Molecular biology,
detoxification process regarding the determination of
methylation, since some of the mammals are deficient in the
biotechnological, bio-informatical and structure biological are
primary enzyme of this metabolic process. In case of human
going on but yet the consequences and conclusions are not
beings who have been exposed to a high levels of arsenic in
verified up to that clinical extent [48]. There are so many
drinking water due to many unsolved reasons, during
techniques already implemented for remediation of arsenic but
treatment with sodium 2,3- dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate
all cannot as useful for removal of such toxic metal in mass. It
DMPS urinary MMA levels were found to increase several
is very necessary to find such micro-organisms which are
turns, a chelating agent is also used to treat metal intoxication
helpful in removing arsenic but their estimation in different
from natural resources [45]. It is uncommon that over
river is not yet proved though it is found that bacteria which
accumulation of arsenic exposure had predisposed abruptly the
have the property of methylation can methyl arsenic in
methylation of MMA to DMA which is very important to
detoxify form. It is mandatory to found such bacteria that will
know, though it is also a fact that the actual physiological and
not able to spread disease [49][50]. It is a contradiction or may
metabiological cause of reduced rate of methylation due to
be exceptional case that such detoxifying bacteria are found
arsenic exposure is yet unclear. Arsenite also have a high
only those places which are arsenic affected. But their
affinity as well as compatibility for Thiol groups in many
populations are very low at that place and are not able to
proteins which can form various complexes with vicinal
detoxify on a mass level. National Institute of Technology
implicative thiols and directly inhibit more than 200 enzymes
Rourkela has isolated some unknown strains of bacteria which
at a time. So, inhibition or restriction of methyltransferase by
are helpful in removing Arsenic from water especially in this
arsenite could affect arsenic metabolism positively [46].
report we have to focus on those remediators which provide a
Second aspect, genetic polymorphism in the arsenite MMA
least cost effective approach [52][53].
(monomethylarsonic acid) methyltransferases might contribute
There are many microorganisms found on earth since from
to the observed disruption in arsenic metabolism and sharp
very long time. The fact provided against arsenic is that not a
variations in degree of susceptibility and accountability of
single vision is applied to bioremediate it from water.
exposure to arsenic within a population or of different
Metabolic pathway of Arsenic is based on the two enzymes
geographic regions. So, research in the genetic polymorphism,
arsenic reductase and methyltransferase. It is found via KEGG
using different amino acid sequences or the coding gene of
genome that Arsenic inhibits most of the enzyme regulation but
arsenite methyltransferases can be taken as a probe in the
being nontoxic form it can be excrete through Urine. It is found
arsenic-endemic large population of West Bengal should
that the pentavalent metabolites MMA V and DMA V are less
provide just round the corner knowledge into the genetic study
toxic than arsenite or arsenate Excretion of Arsenic in the urine
of arsenic metabolism [47].
primarily through the kidneys occurs. Humans excrete a
mixture of inorganic, monomethylated, and dimethylated but
not the trimethylated forms of arsenic as it is very toxic and this
form cause disease [54]. Identification of such microorganisms
is necessary so to compare the metabolic pathway of such
organism as well as metabolic pathway of Arsenic in Human
body as we are searching towards the basic aspects which can
prove that this bacterium will help in bioremediating heavy and
toxic metals from water. It also to find that this bacteria is
found in water or not and if it is not found in water then what
are the specialization to associate both of them at a very low
cost. It is also necessary to find different techniques which can
prove that in human body the detoxification would occur in
As shown in figure that arsenic reductase is working in
similar manner.
conversion of Arsenate V to Arsenite III similarly Arsenic
oxidase is responsible for the conversion from arsenite III to
arsenate V. Arsenic is also defined as pro-oxidant and thus
may cause lipid peroxidation, protein and enzyme oxidation
and GSH depletion, DNA oxidation and DNA adducts.
Further, arsenic generates reactive oxygen species like nitric
oxide; reactive oxygen species are known to induce poly ADPribosylation which is implicated in DNA repair, signal
transduction and apoptosis. As a result, arsenite may induce
DNA strand-breaks and NAD depletion.
Hence the genotoxic effects of arsenic compounds may
be connected with an inhibition of DNA repair or the
induction of oxidative stress. In fact, metabolic methylation of
inorganic arsenic to DMA is involved in induction of DNA
damage and DNA single-strand breaks resulting from the

Bio-remediation of heavy metals from drinking water by

the help of micro-organisms with the use of bioreactor
Brief Study-- World Health Organization. WHO proposed
a parameter or MIC for Arsenic i.e. of 10 parts per billion (ppb)
or 0.010 Mg/L, it is found that level of Arsenic has been
increased vigorously in many rivers. Objective is to apply
Bioremediation technique with the help of batch culture that
needs Bioremediators to detoxify contaminated water and helps
in maintaining the original quality of water. Aim is to identify
that will this strain of E.coli K12 sub strain MG-1655 can be
act suitable for detoxification process of water which is
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contaminated due to arsenic. This strain theoretically proved
M. On a colony counter it is found that in 1 section 6 colonies
for detoxification process against arsenic but yet regarding
are formed.
practical analysis has not been proven so for justification it is
N. One more method can be applied as it is a gram negative
necessary to follow some new procedure to analyze that it is
bacterium therefore Gram- staining technique has been
confirmed or not. Bioreactor can be further used for mass
applied to identify the bacteria which have been done after
production of such micro-organisms which would surely help
centrifugation process. Centrifuge the culture with 3ml water
in improving treatment plant so that our rivers get also purified
discard the supernatant and dry the pellet then stain the pellet
with Grams stain and identify how many colonies are there
from such harmful effects.
present the pink colored one will tell no. of colonies present in
the serial dilution.
O. Arsenic quantification test has been done also to get the
exact value of level of Arsenic in water with the help of
Arsenic quantification system in ppb.
P. Further this bacterial strain is now taken into consideration
as work is going on to continuation; different reactors can be
used to grow this strain on a large scale.
Petri plates, L.B. media, Agar, conical flask, DO probe
detector, sterile condition, Incubator, Inoculation loop, Test
tubes, cotton, paper, sprit lamp.
A. Collection of water sample of river Ganga from different
cities like Varanasi, Gazipur, Allahabad and Kanpur.
B. Sample received from MTCC- IMTECH was provided in a
glass tube sealed from all side. It is packed in a very
sophisticated manner in such way that it cannot be broke by
C. Sealed sample is crushed safely under sterile condition; this
sterile condition will help to protect culture safe free from
D. Now it was the time to analyze the culture,
E. Formation of L.B. media of Broth nature and inoculate this
bacterial strain into the media and incubate it for 24hrs at
F. After incubation up to 24hrs it is found that this strain of
E.coli gives a translucent formation in conical flask containing
L.B. media; Preparation of different aliquots of enriched
culture. Stored at 15-20C so that its properties remain
G. Now preparation of water sample with Arsenic trioxide that
means 0.001gm of Arsenic trioxide has been taken in 100ml of
H. Measurement of Dissolved Oxygen in different water
sample collected from different ghats of Varanasi and from
other cities like Gazipur, Allahabad and Kanpur.
I. Preparation of solidified L.B. media and this solidified
media pour on different Petri plates this method is applied for
screening test of strain producing or following which pathway.
J. With the help of micropipette at same concentration of
water sample has been taken and enriched culture has been
spread over four solidified LB media plate and two controls
are also formed out of that one contains the untreated water
sample and other contains enriched culture.
K. To find the original concentration it is necessary to find the
CFU, which means how many colonies are necessary to
convert toxic into detoxification.
L. for that ready all apparatus for Serial dilution technique,
take 9ml water which is distilled and take 1ml enriched sample
serially dilute it for 10-12 times and finally spread 1ml of that
to new solidified plate.


1. It is observed that this strain of E.coli is giving Arsenic
oxidase as an enzyme.
2. Arsenic oxidase gives yellowish color in the process of
3. Arsenic oxidase or arsenite oxidase convert Arsenite into
Arsenate which is further methylated into less toxic forms with
the help of enzyme Arsenite methyltransferase.
4. It is also confirm that there are approx. 6 colonies are
responsible for this particular conversion.
5. There are 4 samples and 2 controls have been observed
result shown that no color is observed in both the controls;
controls are of water containing arsenic trioxide and other
contains enriched sample.
6. It has been proven that appearance of color is like 1st < 2nd
<3rd <4th that is 4th sample on plate of concentration 100l
untreated water and 40l of enriched sample showing biggest
change on the plate which is finally screened out.

7. Consequences said that arsenic in river Ganga is very low

in Stretch of Varanasi and Allahabad but then also there are
some places where B.O.D is very low as shown in table 2, this
is because of other reasons but Assam, West Bengal and
Bangladesh as shown in figure 3 is highly affected from such
heavy metals.
8. Other medicinal properties of river Ganga nearby West
Bengal has been lost and West Bengal royalty by Royal
Bengal Tigers are also getting died just because they are
consuming this toxic water.
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9. As now it is confirmed that E.coli K12 sub strain MG 1655
Arsenic detoxification from water and from human body
is responsible for Arsenic detoxification therefore it is
from different metabolic pathways.
necessary to increase the production of such microorganism is
so that they can act as bioremediator in large purification or
water treatment plants.
The detail characterization of the material synthesized
10. Different In silico study can also help in getting that how
before & after the experiment.
drugs can be design or can be improved in a better way if we
Studies of various Mass production models.
find the molecular data of such enzymes.
Effect of competitive anion present in the removal
11. The results which proved that keeping the concentration of
efficiency of arsenic
untreated water same and varying the volume of enriched
Practical applicability of the material
culture of bacterial strain proves that as we are moving in
Calculation for the cost of the implementation of this
increasing order from lower to higher concentration the plates
are observed to be give a yellow color appearance as shown in
figure 11 .
12. Finally it has been practically proved that E.coli K12 sub
[1] Gleick, P.H., ed. (1993). Water in Crisis: A Guide to the
strain MG 1655 is responsible for detoxification of water from
World's Freshwater Resources.
arsenic and can be awarded as good bioremediation agent or
[2] Water Vapor in the Climate System, Special Report, December
Bioremediator. Hence it has been proved that two important
[3] Gleick, P.H., ed. (1993). Water in Crisis: A Guide to the
World's Freshwater Resources.
Methyltransferase are going to provide a significant marker in
[4] Water Vapor in the Climate System Special Report, December
Arsenic detoxification from water and from human body from
different metabolic pathways.

Large parts of water which are life supportive get
contaminated because of illegal activities of human beings.
Water pollution is a major problem globally. It is the
leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it
accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily.
On earth water has too many forms and variety which are
necessary specifically for particular geographical as well as
environmental conditions. Less than 1% of the world's fresh
water is accessible for direct human uses. Water pollutions
now become a part of concern in country like India. In
addition to the acute problems of different problems in
developing countries, industrialized countries continue to
struggle with water pollution problems as well. There are
many inorganic metals which are contaminating water
bodies which serve life to large part of India, Arsenic (As)
is one of the biggest intimidations for water bodies. High
toxicity of Arsenic poses a serious risk not only to
ecological systems but also for human vigor. There is
availability of sophisticated techniques for arsenic removal
from contaminated water, enlargement of new laboratory
based techniques along with cost reduction and
augmentation of conventional techniques are indispensable
for the benefit of common people. Demograph estimate that
around 52 millions peoples are drinking ground water with
arsenic concentrations above the guidelines of World
Health Organization. WHO proposed a parameter or MIC
for Arsenic i.e. of 10 parts per billion (ppb) or 0.010 Mg/L,
it is found that level of Arsenic has been increased
vigorously in many rivers. This paper is based on the future
aspects, for removal of Arsenic from drinking water or the
water of different rivers like Ganga, Gomti and Yamuna etc
which humans are consuming for domestic purpose.
Objective is to apply Bioremediation technique with the
assist of batch culture that needs Bioremediators to detoxify
contaminated water and helps in maintaining the original
quality of water. Hence it has been proved that two
important enzymes namelyArsenite Oxidase and Arsenite
Methyltransferase are going to be a significant marker in








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[54] Caldwell et al. 2008, National Health and Nutrition
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Sudhanva.M.Desai1, NCLN Charyulu2, Satyanarayana V. Suggala3*

Chemical Engineering Department, Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bangalore, India.

Chemical Engineering Department, C.B.I.T. Hyderabad, India.
Chemical Engineering Department, J.N.T.U.A.C.E.Anantapuramu, India.

Abstract This study aims to employ low-cost agro waste

biosorbent tamarind (Tamarindus indica) pod shells and
activated carbon prepared by complete and partial pyrolysis of
tamarind pod shell for the removal of hexavalent chromium
ions from aqueous solution. The effect of parameters namely,
initial metal ion concentration, pH, temperature, biomass
loading on chromium removal efficiency were studied. More
than 96.9% removal of Chromium was achieved using crude
tamarind pod shells as biosorbent. The experimental data
obtained were fitted with Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and
experimental data fits well to Langmuir, Freundlich and
Temkin isotherms with regression coefficient R2 more than 0.9.
For Redlich-Peterson adsorption isotherm the experimental
data does not fit so well. The crude tamarind had maximum
monolayer adsorption capacity of 40 mg/g and a separation
factor of 0.0416 indicating it as best adsorbent among the three
tested adsorbent. Further, an attempt is made to fit sorption
kinetics with pseudo first order and pseudo second order
reactions. Pseudo second order kinetics model fits well to the
experimental data for all three adsorbents.
Key words Chromium, Tamarind pod shell, pyrolysis,
isotherms, kinetics.
* Corresponding author. Email: svsatya7@gmail.com

Industrialization has led to increased disposal of
Chromium [Hexavalent Chromium] into the environment and
hence effluent treatment is one of the most important targets
for industry to remove chromium from waste water.
Chromium found in wastewater is harmful to environment
and their effects on biological systems are very severe. Unlike
organic pollutants, the majority of which are susceptible to
biological degradation, Chromium ions do not degrade into
harmless end products [1]. Chromium have been extensively
studied and their effects on human health are regularly
reviewed by international bodies such as the WHO.
Chromium may enter the human body through food,
water, air, or absorption through the skin when they come in
contact with humans in manufacturing, industrial, or
residential settings. Industrial exposure accounts for a
common route of exposure for adults [2]. Chromium is found
naturally in the soil in trace amounts, which pose few
problems. Exposure may occur from natural or industrial
sources of chromium. Chromium (III) is much less toxic than
chromium (VI). The average daily intake from air, water,
and food is estimated to be less than 0.2 to 0.4 g, 2.0 g, and
60 g, respectively [3].
Chromium is a heavy metal that is commonly found at
low levels in drinking water. It can occur naturally but can
also enter drinking water sources by historic leaks from
industrial plants hazardous waste sites. Various other sources
also contribute to the amount of chromium in ground water.
Chromium is known to be a potent carcinogen when inhaled
[4]. It is very difficult for anyone to avoid exposure to

chromium that is so prevalent in our environment. Hence

there is a strong need to reconsider our consumption patterns
especially the concentration level and the way we use our
water resources.
Chemical approaches are available for chromium
remediation, but are often expensive to apply and lack the
specificity required to treat target metals against a background
of competing ions. In addition, such approaches are not
applicable to a cost-effective remediation of large-scale
subsurface contamination in situ. In view of this biological
methods are becoming more popular [5].
Different alternatives for treating effluents are described
in literature, including chemical precipitation, ion exchange
and membrane separation process. These processes are either
expensive or produce sludge [6]. Therefore the search for
new technologies to remove chromium from wastewater has
directed attention to biosorption especially using agro waste
biomass, which is based on metal binding to various
biological materials. Biosorption is a fast and reversible
reaction of the chromium with biomass.
Many biosorbents were tried for chromium removal as
seen in literature. Microorganisms including algae, fungi and
bacteria were used and studied as biosorbents [7-8]. Among
the agro waste used are Bengal gram husk (Cicerarientinum)
[9], treated sawdust (acacia Arabica) [10], activated tamarind
seed [11], walnut, hazelnut and almond shell [12], pods of
Gulmohar (delonixregia) and activated carbon from
Gulmohar pods [13] corn cob and coconut husks [14] and
animal waste like crab shells [15]. Agro waste as biosorbent is
promising because of low cost, abundance in availability and
reasonably high efficiency.
In this study tamarind pod shell and activated carbon
prepared from tamarind shell were used for chromium
removal because of its proven efficiency for other metals and
also abundance availability in India. Apart from this tamarind
pod shell tamarind pod shell cheap low grade fuel, it is not
used for any other useful work
The objective of the present work is to study the effect of
pH, initial chromium concentration, adsorbent dosage and
temperature were studied on chromium removal efficiency by
conducting batch adsorption experiments. Further,
experimental results were tested using Langmuir, Freundlich,
Temkin and Redlich-Peterson adsorption isotherm models. In
addition the experimental data were fitted to Pseudo-first
order equation or Lagergren's kinetics equation and Pseudosecond order equation.


A. Preparation of Biosorbent [16 -18]

i. Collection of tamarind pod shells
Natural agro waste biosorbent Tamarindusindica pod
shells collected from Kolar area Karnataka were used for
batch and kinetic studies for removal of chromium. Natural
biosorbent along with two types of pyrolysis was employed
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E. Adsorption kinetics.
for comparative metal removal efficiency.
Adsorption experiments are conducted by taking 100 ml
of known concentration of adsorbent and fixed amount of
ii. Crude (Untreated) tamarind pod shells (T)
adsorbate doses in 250 conical flasks. As many as conical
Tamarind pod shells were sun dried, powdered, sieved
flasks are taken. All these flasks are maintained at fixed pH
using 60/80 mesh BSS Standard sieve to get uniform sized
and the bottles were kept in the temperature controlled
particles. Powder so obtained washed thoroughly with
mechanical shaker at a constant temperature. Samples are
distilled water and dried in the hot air oven for 2 hours at 80
collected for every 10 min until equilibrium is reached.
iii. Preparation of Activated carbon by pyrolysis.
The activated carbons used in this study were
prepared by Complete Pyrolysis and Partial Pyrolysis using
Crude Tamarind pod shell in a muffle furnace. The complete
pyrolysis tamarind (TCP) adsorbent is obtained by just
keeping the crucible in the muffle furnace whereas partial
pyrolysed tamarind (TPP) is obtained by keeping the lid on
the crucible.
B. Adsorbate
i. Preparation of chromium stock solution
Synthetic chromium solution was prepared by
dissolving potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) in double distilled
water. 1000 ppm of stock chromium solution was prepared by
dissolving 2.83 mg of potassium dichromate in one litre of
double distilled water. Other required concentrations were
prepared by diluting the stock solution. The pH of the solution
was adjusted to the required value.
ii. Preparation of diphenylcarbazide (DPC) solution
Diphenylcarbazide (DPC) solution was prepared by
dissolving 250mg of DPC in 50ml of acetone in a 100 ml
volumetric flask.



A. Effect of pH
The solution pH has significant influence for the
removal of chromium ions. Experiments were conducted over
a range of pH values (1-7) keeping other conditions constant
and the obtained values are shown in Figure 1 As seen from
the figure 1 that biosorption capacity of chromium is
maximum at around pH 1 for all the adsorbents.
Paptri.Rao.et.al. [16] reported similar results for the
biosorption of chromium using tamarind pod shell. Some
functional groups, such as NH, are positively charged when
protonated and may electrostatically bind with negatively
charged metal complexes. At lower pH, the biosorbent is
positively charged due to protonation and dichromate ion
exists as anion leading to an electrostatic attraction between
them [20]. As pH increases, deprotonation starts and thereby
results in decrease of adsorption capacity. Maximum
chromium removal of 99.86% was found for crude tamarind
pod shell [20]. As pH increases, deprotonation starts and
thereby results in decrease of adsorption capacity. Maximum
chromium removal of 99.86% was found for crude tamarind
pod shell

C. Analysis of chromium [19]

0.25ml of phosphoric acid was added to 1ml of
standard sample containing known concentration of
chromium, pH was adjusted to 1.00.3 using 0.2N sulphuric
acid. The solution was mixed well and then diluted to 100 ml
in a volumetric flask using double distilled water. Further 2ml
of DPC solution was added and mixed well. After full colour
development for 10 min, 4ml of this solution was used in an
absorption cell and the concentrations were measured
spectrometrically at 540nm in UV-double beam
spectrophotometer [Shimadzu- UV Visible 1700]. The
calibration curve is prepared by measuring the absorbance of
different known concentrations of chromium solutions and
plotting a graph between concentrations versus absorbance. A
straight line is obtained with R2 of 0.994.
D. Batch Experiments-Adsorption isotherms
Batch adsorption studies were performed by Shaking
100 ml of solutions in 250 ml conical flasks fitted with cork
lid kept in constant temperature shaker. Experiments are
conducted by varying one of the parameter and keeping other
parameters at constant values. All experiments were
performed in triplicate and the results were averaged. The
adsorption of chromium ions were calculated from the change
in metal concentration in the aqueous solution before and
after equilibrium sorption by using the following equation.
qe= [V(CoCe)] /W
where qe is adsorbed metal (mg/g adsorbent), V is the
solution volume (l), W is the amount of sorbent (g), and Co
and Ce (mg/l) are the initial and equilibrium chromium
concentrations of the solution, respectively.
The chromium percent removal (%) was calculated using
the following equation:
Chromium Removal (%) = [(Co-Ce)/ Co] *100



Initial conc.-82mg/l
Biomass-7.8 g/100ml


pH of

Figure 1: Effect of pH on removal of chromium

B. Effect of initial concentration of chromium ions.
The equilibrium time required for the biosorption of
chromium with three forms of tamarind pod shell was studied
varying initial concentrations from 50-250 mg/l keeping other
conditions at constant values. Figure 2. shows the effect of
initial concentration on % chromium removal. As expected,
adsorption capacity decreases with increase in initial
concentration. It can be inferred from the figure that
maximum removal is achieved at the initial concentration of
50 to 100 ppm. This is due to the fact that at lower initial
concentration sufficient adsorption sites are available for
adsorption of chromium ions and at higher concentrations the
chromium ions will be more than the available adsorption
sites [10]. It is observed that 99.9% of chromium removal is
achieved at 50 ppm for crude tamarind pod shell. All the
adsorbents showed the similar type of behaviour

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biomass-7.8 g/100ml

Temperature-46 C

Figure 2: Effect of initial concentration of chromium on

% removal
C. Effect of adsorbent dosage
To study the effect of adsorbent dosage on removal of
chromium, adsorbent dosage is varied from 1 g/100ml to
10 g/100 ml keeping other conditions at constant values. The
obtained results are shown in Figure 3.. There is an increase
in removal of chromium ion with increase of adsorbent
dosage as exhibited by all the adsorbent. It is apparent that
the chromium ion removal increases with increase in
adsorbent dosage due to the greater availability of the
exchangeable active sites or the surface area for adsorption.
Moreover the percentage of metal ion adsorption on
adsorbent is determined by adsorption capacity of the
adsorbent [10]. The maximum removal of 99.89% is
observed at the dosage of 10 g/100ml for T among all three

Biomass-7.8 g/100ml
Temperature-46 C

Figure 3: Effect of adsorbent dosage on removal of

D. Effect of Temperature
Temperature effect on biosorption of chromium was
studied by varying the temperature between 30oC to 45oC for
all the three adsorbents. It is observed from Figure 4 that
there is a slight increase in adsorption from 30oC to 35oC
and there is a decrease in percentage removal of chromium
with increase in temperature. This behavior may be due to
the slight exothermic behavior of adsorption process.

Initial conc-82 mg/l

biomass-7.8 g/100ml

Figure 4: Effect of Temperature on removal of

E. Adsorption Isotherms.
physicochemical data for evaluating the applicability of
sorption process as a unit operation. Sorption equilibrium is
usually described by an isotherm equation whose parameter
expresses the surface properties and affinity of the sorbent at
fixed temperature, pH and initial metal concentration.
Adsorption isotherms are mathematical models that describe
the distribution of the adsorbate species among liquid and
solid phases, based on a set of assumptions that are related to
the heterogeneity or homogeneity of the solid surface, the
type of coverage, and the possibility of interaction between
the adsorbate species. In this study, equilibrium data were
analyzed using the Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin and
Redlich-Peterson isotherms expression.
i. The Langmuir isotherm [21]
The Langmuir model suggests, as a hypothesis, that
uptake occurs on a homogeneous surface by monolayer
adsorption without interaction between sorbed molecules.
This model is described by the equation
Where qeq (mg/g) and Ceq (mg/l) in the above equation are
the amount of adsorbed metal per unit weight of biosorbent
and un adsorbed
metal concentration in solution at
equilibrium respectively. Q0 (mg/g) is the maximum amount
of metal per unit weight of biomass to form a complete
monolayer on the surface bound, b(l/mg) is the Langmuir
constant related to the energy of adsorption. The equation
(3) may be written as
As per eq. (4) a plot of qeq-1 and Ceq-1 provides Q0 and b
are constants which are related to the affinity of the sites.
The Langmuir constants obtained are presented in Table 1.
They indicate that Langmuir isotherm model fits best for all
the adsorbents as seen by high R2 value. T exhibits highest
maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 40 mg/g which
is in agreement with work done by others in literature [20]
In addition, the effect of isotherm shape can also be
used to predict whether an adsorption system is favourable
or unfavourable. According to Hall K.Ret.al.,[22], the
essential features of the Langmuir isotherm can be expressed
in terms of a dimensionless constant separation factor or
equilibrium parameter KR, which is defined by the following
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adsorption of all the molecules in layer decreases linearly
with coverage due to adsorbent-adsorbate interactions, and
that the adsorption is characterized by a uniform distribution
Where KR is a dimensionless separation factor, C0 is
of the bonding energies [25]. The Temkin isotherm is
initial ion concentration (mg/l), and b is the Langmuir
represented by the following equation in the linear form as
constant (l/mg). The calculated KR values are also reported
in the Table 1 and the value of KR is in the range of 0 <KR <
Where Ce is the equilibrium concentration of the adsorbate
1 for all the adsorbents. Further, the value of KR also
in mg/l, qe is the amount of adsorbate adsorbed at
indicates the shape of the isotherm. According to Table 2 the
equilibrium (mg/g), A (mg/g) = RT/b lna and B (l/mg) =
adsorption of chromium is favorable for all three adsorbents.
RT/b where T is the temperature (K), R is the ideal gas
constant, A and B are constants. A plot of qe against lnCe
Table 1.Langmluir Isotherm Constants
enables the determination of constants A and B. The
constant B is related to the heat of adsorption and A is the
on factor
equilibrium binding constant corresponding to the maximum
binding energy. From Table 4 it is evident that the
Q0(mg/g) b(l/mg)
adsorption also follows Temkin model as regression
coefficient (R2) is high and it is highest for TPP at 0.99. It
has been reported [26] that the typical range of bonding
energy (value of A) for ion-exchange mechanism is 8-16
kJ/mol. The low values in this study indicate a weak
Table 2.Isotherm Separation Factor [22]
interaction between sorbate and sorbent
Values of KR
Type of isotherm
KR > 1
Table 4.Temkin isotherm constants
KR = 1
Temkin constants
0 <KR < 1
A (mg/g),
B (l/mg)
KR = 0
ii. The Freundlich isotherm [23]
The Freundlich model proposes a monolayer
adsorption with a heterogeneous energetic distribution of
active sites, and with interactions between sorbed molecules,
as described by the equation (5)
Where Ceq (mg/l) is the equilibrium concentration and qeq
(mg/g) is the amount of adsorbed metal ion per unit mass of
the adsorbent. The constant n is the Freundlich equation
exponent that represents the parameter characterizing quasiGaussian energetic heterogeneity of the adsorption surface
[24]. Freundlich constants KF and n are the indicators of
adsorption capacity and adsorption intensity, respectively.
Equation (5) can be linearized in logarithmic form which is
presented in eq (6)
A plot is made between ln qeq and ln Ceq provides the
Freundlich isotherm constants and calculated values are
presented in Table 3. The high R2 value indicates that
Freundlich isotherm model also fits well with all the three
adsorbents. The high value of KF of 0.882 and n of 0.855 for
crude tamarind shell indicates it is best adsorbent among the
all three adsorbents.
Table 3. Freundlich Isotherm Constants
Freundlich constants

iv. RedlichPeterson model.

RedlichPeterson model is used as a compromise
between Langmuir and Freundlich models, which can be
written as [27].
Equation 9. can be expressed in its linear form as:
Where KR (l/g), R (l/m.mol) and are Redlich-Peterson
constants. The value of lies between 0 and 1. The Redlich
Peterson isotherm constants can be predicted from the plot
between Ce/qe versus Ce. However, this is not possible as
the linear form of RedlichPeterson isotherm equation
contains three unknown parameters R, KR and . Therefore,
a minimization procedure is adopted to maximize the
coefficient of determination R2, between the isotherm
equation and the experimental data. The RedlichPeterson
isotherm constants for the chromium ions are presented in
Table 5. It is seen from the Table 5 that R2 value are low
indicating this model does not fit the as accurately as other
Table 5: Redlich-Peterson isotherm constants





















iii. Temkin Isotherm Equation.

The Temkin isotherm equation assumes that the heat of
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F. Adsorption kinetics.
Equilibrium study is important in determining the
This on integration for boundary conditions when t=0 to >0
efficacy of adsorption. It is also necessary to identify the
and q=0 to>0 and further simplifications of equation 13
adsorption mechanism for a given system. Kinetic models
have been exploited to test the experimental data and to find
the mechanism of adsorption and its potential ratecontrolling step that include mass transport and chemical
Or the equation 14 can be written as
reaction. In addition, information on the kinetics of metal
uptake is required to select the optimum conditions for full
scale batch or continuous metal removal processes
Where h = k2qe2 and is known as initial sorption rate. Where
In order to analyze the rate of adsorption and possible
k2 is the rate constant of second order adsorption
adsorption mechanism of chromium onto biomass, the
(g/mg/min). Values of K2 and qe were calculated from the
pseudo first order and pseudo second order kinetic models
linear plots of t/qt versus t. The obtained rate constant value
were applied to adsorption data.
K2, qe and R2 values are also reported in the Table 6.
Pseudo-first order equation or Lagergren's kinetics equation
It is seen from Table 6 that the adsorption of chromium
[28] is widely used for the adsorption of an adsorbate from
with all the adsorbent is following pseudo second order
an aqueous solution.
kinetics (high R2). This indicates adsorption may be
After integration and applying boundary conditions to above
equation, t = 0 to t = t and qt = 0 to qt = qt, the integrated
form of above equation 11.becomes
Where qt is the amount of metal adsorbed per unit of
adsorbent (mg/g) at time t, kp1 is the pseudo-first order rate
constant (l/min), and t is the contact time (min). The
adsorption rate constant (kp1) was calculated from the plot of
ln (qe - qt) against t. The obtained rate constant value K1, qe
and R2 values are reported in the Table 6. The low values of
R2 indicating that the adsorption data does not follow Pseudo
first order kinetics.
Pseudo- second order model [29] presented the pseudosecond order kinetic. The pseudo-second- order kinetic
model which is based on the assumption that chemisorption
is the rate-determining step we have the equation as follows

The agro waste biomass, tamarind and carbon from
tamarind demonstrated a good capacity of chromium
biosorption, highlighting its potential for effluent treatment
processes. High chromium removal is possible at low pH, high
adsorbent dosage and low initial concentrations. Further,
highest chromium removal was possible at moderate
temperature of 35oC. Among all the adsorbents crude form of
tamarind pod shell is the best with a highest removal capacity.
Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were in
good agreement with experimental results. The biosorption of
chromium obeyed the pseudo second-order biosorption kinetic
model as it fitted the experimental data with a high correlation
coefficient, R2 of 0.995

Table 6: Parameters of the kinetic models for the adsorption of Chromium on different adsorbents

T-tamarind crude.
TCP-tamarind crude completely pyrolysed.
TPP- tamarind crude partially pyrolysed.

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Mahesh Kumar Shetty1, Ravishankar R2, Ramaraju H K3,

Department Chemical Engineering, 3Department of Civil Engineering,

Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering
Bangalore, Karnataka, India

1maheshshetty20@gmail.com, 2ravishankar70@gmail.com, 3hkramaraju@gmail.com

Jagadish H Patil4

Assistant professor, Department of Chemical Engineering,

R.V. College of Engineering
Bangalore, Karnataka, India

Sunil H5, Mamatha B.Salimath6


Department of Chemical Engineering, 6Department of Microbiology,

Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering
Bangalore, Karnataka, India
5coolsun33@gmail.com, 6mamatha.mallik@gmail.com

Abstract Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), mainly Kitchen Waste

(K) with Cow Dung (C) and Fungi Culture (F) can be used to
generate energy which could save on the fossil fuels conventionally
used as source of energy. In this study, the possibility was
explored to mix Cow Dung with Fungi Culture for anaerobic
digestion, so that energy can be generated as biogas and at the
same time digested sludge can be used as fertilizer for agricultural
applications. Pre-treatment of Kitchen Waste was done by alkali
method. Anaerobic digestion (AD) was carried out in mesophilic
temperature range of 30C to 37C with different fermentation
slurries of 8 % total solids. Digestion was carried for a retention
period of 60 days. The gas produced was collected by the
downward displacement of water and was subsequently measured
and analyzed. The overall results showed that blending of Kitchen
waste with cow dung and fungi culture (Aspergillus flavus) had
significant improvement on the biogas yield.
Keywords Anaerobic Digestion, Cumulative Biogas Production,
Kitchen waste, Fungal Culture, Cow dung, Inoculums, Aspergillus

The countrys economy mainly depends on the energy
resources available and utilized. Energy has been exploited
since the prehistoric times. With the advent of industrial
revolution use of fossil fuels began growing and increasing till
date. The dependence on fossil fuel as primary energy source
has led to global climate change, environment degradation and
human health problems [1]. With increasing prices of oil and
gas the world looks towards alternative and green energy
resources. Anaerobic digestion (AD) offers a very attractive
route to utilize certain categories of biomass for meeting partial
energy needs. AD is a microbial decomposition of organic
matter into methane, carbon dioxide, inorganic nutrients and
compost in oxygen depleted environment and presence of the
hydrogen gas. This process is also known as biomethanogenesis. Anaerobic digestion has the advantage of
biogas production and can lead to efficient resource recovery

and contribution to the conservation of non-renewable energy

sources. AD can successfully treat the organic fraction of
biomass [2]. AD is the controlled degradation of biodegradable
waste in absence of oxygen and presence of different consortia
of bacteria that catalyze series of complex microbial reactions
[3]. The process is one of the most promising for biomass
wastes as it provides a source of energy while simultaneously
resolving ecological and agrochemical issues [4].
Fungi culture (Aspergillus flavus): A. flavus as well as some
other fungi, proved to have capacity of maturing in 3 days in an
anaerobic jar [5]. Fungi are found to be the major decomposers
of cellulose and lignin [6]. The production of cellulose enzyme
is a major factor in the hydrolysis of cellulosic materials [7].
Aspergillus flavus is capable of producing endoglucanase even
from sawdust and corncob. Aspergillus flavus also possess the
capacity to degrade the non- starch polysaccharide in the
substrate to soluble sugar [8]. Most of the cellulolytic
microorganisms belong to eubacteria and fungi can degrade
cellulose. Cellulolytic microorganisms can establish synergistic
relationships with non cellulolytic species in cellulosic wastes.
The interactions between both populations lead to complete
degradation of cellulose, releasing carbon dioxide and water
under aerobic conditions and carbon dioxide, methane and
water under anaerobic condition[9] The Strain Aspergillus
flavus can be recommended for bioremediation programmes to
clear cellulosic wastes [10].
Sample Collection
Kitchen waste (K) was obtained from the canteen of
Dayananda Sagar College of Engineering, Bangalore. Fresh
cow dung was collected from a local cow yard in Yarab Nagar,
Bangalore. Fungal culture Aspergillus flavus was procured
from Department of Microbiology Culture Collection,
Bangalore University, Bangalore.

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Materials / Instruments
The materials/instruments used for the purpose of this
research are as follows: Weighing balance (Systronics), Gas
Chromatography (CHEMITO), pH meter (Systronics),
thermometer (range 0C to 100C), Borosilicate desiccators,
silica glass crucibles, oven, grinding mill, temperature
controlled water bath, water troughs, graduated transparent
glass gas collectors and biogas burner fabricated locally for
checking gas flammability. AR grade sodium hydroxide and
acetic acid manufactured by Ranbaxy laboratories were used as
procured without further purification.

Analytical Methods
The following parameters of Kitchen Waste and cow dung
were analyzed:
pH analysis: A glass electrode pH meter (Systronics) was
used to monitor the pH of the sample.
Total Solids (TS) and total volatile solids (VS) analysis: TS
were determined at 103C to constant weight and VS were
measured by the loss on ignition of the dried sample at 550C.
Biogas analysis: Gas Chromatograph (Chemito 1000)
equipped with a thermal conductivity detector was used to
analyze the biogas sample. Hydrogen was used as a carrier gas
(25 ml/min) with porapak Q column. Standard calibration gas
mixture was used for calibration. The oven temperature of
40C, detection temperature of 80C and the detector current of
180 mA were used.

Biomethanation Unit
A schematic diagram of biomethanation unit is shown in
Fig. 1 and water bath in Fig. 2. It consists of a temperature
controlled thermo bath which is maintained at 35C [11] and
has a bio digester. Each bio digester is connected to a means of
connecting tube. A stand holds all the gas collectors. Biogas
evolved is collected by downward water displacement.

Fig. 1 Schematic picture of biomethanation unit

Fig. 2 Schematic picture of water bath

Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of water bath


Solid Analysis
Total solid (TS) and Volatile solid (VS) were analyzed for
Kitchen Waste and Cow Dung according to standard methods
[12]. Table.1 gives the solid analysis and pH data of Kitchen
Waste and Fungi Culture.
% TS
% VS
Kitchen Waste (K)
Cow Dung (C)

Fermentation Slurry Preparation

Fresh Kitchen Waste was initially collected and it was
grounded to paste in the mixer. Material balance was made and
different slurries with 8 % total solids were prepared by
varying the amount of paste (grounded kitchen waste) and
Water (W) [14]. The contents of each digester are shown in
Table 2. Each digester was checked for neutral pH (i.e., 7.0),
since the optimal pH for methanogenesis was found to be
around 7.0 [15] When measured, each digester was found to
have acidic pH (i.e., < 7.0), hence the contents were treated
with 1 % NaOH (by volume) solution to bring them to neutral
Water (g)
waste (g)










A. The Influence of Inoculums to Cumulative Biogas
Anaerobic digestion of Kitchen Waste / Canteen Waste: The
quantity of cumulative biogas production with time for all the
digesters is given in Table 3. As shown in Fig. 3, Digesters DK,
DKF, DKC and DKCF commenced biogas production from 5th
day and evolved flammable biogas from 9th day. While digester
Kitchen Waste Blank which serves as blank for Kitchen waste
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commenced biogas production after 10 days and evolved
The gas chromatogram obtained is shown in Fig. 4. The
flammable biogas on 20th day. The highest biogas yield was for amounts of CH4, CO2 and CO in the biogas were found to be
digester DKCF (0.28 l/gVS). This performance could be 59.3 %, 40.6 % and 0.1 % respectively. The biogas
because of optimum balance between the anaerobic bacteria compositions from the other digesters were also found to be in
consortium and amount of VS (23.76 g). This indicates the same range.
digestion of Kitchen Waste and cow dung with fungi culture
improves biogas yield significantly.
(l/g VS)
(l/g VS)
(l/g VS)
(l/g VS)

Fig. 4 Gas chromatogram for the digester DKCF

Fig. 3 Daily biogas production

B. Analysis of Biogas
With Biogas analysis was done for chief components CH4
and CO2 for biogas evolved from the digester DKCF. Biogas
was sampled in a rubber bladder carefully. Gas chromatograph
(Chemito 1000) equipped with a thermal conductivity detector
was used to analyze the biogas sample. Hydrogen was used as
carrier gas (25 ml/min) with Porapak Q column. Standard gas
mixture was used for calibration. A fixed 500 l volume was
taken each time using a gastight syringe. The sample was then
injected to gas chromatograph to analyze for methane and
carbon dioxide. Following are the characteristics of the GC gas
composition method:
Column : Porapak Q
: Hydrogen with flow rate of 25 ml/min
: 40C
Detector : TCD at 80C and 180 mA
The concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide were
calculated using

Kitchen Waste is a very good biogas producer, needs
minimal pre-treatment (soaking in NaOH solution and
grinding) to enhance the biogas yield. The use of Cow dung
with Fungi culture (Aspergillus flavus) for biogas generation
therefore, will be a good energy source. The result of the study
has shown that anaerobic digestion of ground Kitchen waste
with cow dung and Aspergillus flavus improved biogas yield.
This performance confirms the earlier reports by other
researchers that combining cow dung with fungi culture
catalyzes the biogas production with consequent increased
yield [16].
We thankfully acknowledge the help from Prof. Karthik K.V,
Prof. D.C Sikdar, Prof. G.K Mahadevaraju, Prof. B.S.
Thirumalesh, Prof. Pradeep H.N, Prof. S.C Maidargi, Prof.
S.M. Desai, Department of Chemical Engineering, DSCE,
Bangalore and the entire staff of the Department of Chemical
Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore and authorities of Dayananda
Sagar College of Engineering, Bangalore.
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[8] Hamyln, P.F Fungal biotechnology. Br.Mycol.Soc Newslett 30:
[9] Leschine, S.B Cellulose degradation in anaerobic environments
Annu. Rev Microbiol 49: 399-426
[10] Betty Anitha B, Thatheyus A.J and Ramya D [2013]
Biodegradation of Caroboxymethyl Cellulose using Aspergillus
flavus. Science international DOI 10.5567/sciintl.85.91, 8591,1995.
[11] Chae, K.J., Jang, A., Yim, S.K., Kim, I.S., The effects of
digestion temperature and temperature shock on the biogas yields
from the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of swine manure.
Bioresour. Technol. 99, 16. 2008
[12] APHA, AWWA and WPCF Standard methods for the
examination of water and waste water, Washington D.C, 19,1995
[13] Jagadish. Patil. H, Antony Raj MAL and Gavimath CStudy on
effect of pretreatment methods on biomethanation of water
hyacinth. International Journal of Advanced Biotechnology and
Research, 2(1), 143-147,2011.
[14] Jagadish Patil H, Antony Raj MAL, Shankar BB, Mahesh Kumar
Shetty, and Pradeep Kumar B P. Anaerobic Co-Digestion of
Water Hyacinth and Sheep Waste. International Conference on
Alternative Energy in Developing Countries and Emerging
Economies. 216-220,2013
[15] Yang, S.T, Okos, M.R Kinetic study and mathematical modeling
of methanogenesis of acetate using pure cultures of methanogens.
Biotechnol Bioeng. 30, 661667,1987
[16] Huber, H., Thomm, M., Konig, H., Thies, G., Stetter, K.O
Methanococeus thermolithotrophicus, a novel thermophilic
lithotrophic methanogen. Arch. Microbiol. 132, 4750, 1982

First Author Mahesh Kumar Shetty, B.E, M.Sc, (M.Sc
(Engg)), DSCE, Bangalore and maheshshetty20@gmail.com.
Second Author Ravishankar R, Ph.D., DSCE, Bangalore and
Third Author Ramaraju H K, Ph.D., DSCE, Bangalore and
Fourth Author Jagadish H Patil, Ph.D., RVCE, Bangalore
and patil_rvcechemical@rediffmail.com
Fifth Author Sunil H, M.Tech, DSCE, Bangalore and
Sixth Author Mamatha B.Salimath, M.Sc, M.Ed, M.Phil,
(Ph.D) DSCE, Bangalore and mamatha.mallik@gmail.com

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Shankarappa Kalgudi, K V Suresh
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
Alvas Institute of Engineering & Technology
Moodbidri, Karnataka, India
s_kalgudi72@rediffmail.com, kvs_a@yahoo.com
AbstractDue to increase demand of energy, increasing price
of petroleum fuels, depletion of petroleum fuels, and
environmental pollution by these fuel emissions, it is very
necessary to find the alternative fuels. This work focused on use
of hybrid blends of Karanja and Cottonseed oil Biodiesels. In this
work 20% and 25% blends are used and the performance and
emission tests were conducted on single cylinder, 4-stroke, water
cooled CI engine by running the engine at a speed of 1500rpm, at
a compression ratio of 16.5:1 and at an injection pressure of
205bar and performance parameters like BP, BSFC, BTE and
the emissions like CO, HC and NOx are compared. It was found
that the blends gave comparatively good results in respect of
performance and emissions.
Index TermsPetroleum fuel, Alternate fuels, Biodiesel, CI


Biodiesel, the most promising alternative diesel fuel, has

been received considerable attention in recent years due to its
following merits: biodegradable, renewable, non-toxic, less
emission of gaseous and particulate pollutants with higher
cetane number than normal diesel. In addition, it meets the
currently increasing demands of world energy that, in a large
degree, is dependent on petroleum based fuel resources, which
will be depleted in the foreseeable future if the present pattern
of energy consumption continues.
Biodiesel is derived from vegetable oils or animal fats
through transesterification. Transesterification is also called
alcoholysis, which uses alcohols in the presence of catalyst
(e.g., base, acid or enzyme depending on the free fatty acid
content of the raw material) that chemically breaks the
molecules of triglycerides into alkyl esters as biodiesel fuels
and glycerol as a by-product. The commonly used alcohols for
the transesterification include methanol, ethanol, Methanol
particularly due to its low cost.
Commonly used feed stocks (vegetable oil) for
transesterification include pea nut oil, jatropha oil, soybean oil,
rapeseed oil, cotton seed oil, honge oil etc. In recent years,
there exist active researches on biodiesel production from
cottonseed oil, of which the conversion between 72% and 94%
was obtained by methanol catalyzed transesterification when
the refined cottonseed oil reacted with short-chain primary and
secondary alcohols. The results showed that the yield of
methyl ester by alkali based transesterification was above 90%
after 4 hours of reaction leaving a small amount of glycerine.
No matter what kind of catalysts or approaches were applied,
all those studies aimed to produce high yield of biodiesel by
optimized reaction conditions based on optimized parameters
in terms of alcohol/oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration,

reaction temperature, and time. However, nearly in all studied

cases, there existed complex interactions among the variables
that remarkably affected the biodiesel yield. In this study the
methanol process gave high yield of bio diesel as more than
90% i.e. for 1 litre of cotton seed oil we got more than 900 ml
of biodiesel.
Washed cotton seed oil has purchased from Farmers Cooperative Society, Binkadakatte, Gadag. Honge oil has
purchased from the Bio-diesel Plant, Tontadarya College of
Engineering, Gadag. The chemicals like methanol (CH3OH),
sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sulphuric acid (H2SO4),
phenolphthalein indicator and batch reactor for producing
biodiesel in 1 liter batch and also the required chemical
laboratory has been taken from TCE Gadag.
Basically all vegetable oil are triglycerides having
saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. These triglycerides break
into glycerin and the corresponding alcoholic esters. The
chemical reaction for the transesterification is given as shown
in the figure1.

Figure1: Chemical reaction of transesterification

The vegetable oil reacts with methanol or ethanol in
presence of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as a catalyst it gives
the bio-diesel with formation of glycerine as byproduct.
Before the transesterification process, one has to know the
FFA (free fatty acid) content in the raw oil. Depending on the
FFA value the transesterification process involves into two
viz. alkali base catalyst process or acid base and alkali based
catalyst process. FFA will be determined by simple chemical
titration and by using the following simple formula,
If the FFA is less than 4% alkali based process is carried.
And if FFA is more than 4% then acid + alkali based process
is carried
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Table1: Properties of biodiesels and their blends.
Fuel type

Transesterification is carried in a 3-neck flask with
reflex condenser, take 1litre of cottonseed oil into a 3-neck
flask. Heat the oil to 60C with magnetic stirrer and reflex
condenser fixed. Take 300 ml of methanol and required
quantity of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and mix these properly.
This solution is called methoxide mixture. When the
temperature of the oil reaches 630 C add the methoxide
mixture to the 3-neck flask. Allow the mixture to heat and stir
to 2 hours to mix properly.

Figure2: batch reactor

(3-neck flask)

Figure3: separating

Then transfer the mixture into a separating funnel and

allow to settle for 2-3 hours so that the glycerin is settled at the
bottom and is drained off carefully. Again allow the same for
hour and observe if any glycerin settles. These processes are
shown in figure2 and figure3.
Once the glycerine is removed, the biodiesel is to be
washed i.e. transfer the prepared bio-diesel into washing
funnel, spray 300-500 ml of warm water slowly into bio-diesel
and allow to settle for diesel 10-15 minutes so that soap water
starts to form, drain the soap water slowly and again spray
warm water and remove soap content, repeat the procedure 4-5
times. The last step is drying of bio-diesel i.e. transfer the
washed bio-diesel to a beaker and heat the beaker to 1000 C
with magnetic stirrer. Allow the bio-diesel to cool gradually.
Store it in a clean and dry container.
Some of the properties needed for using the bio-diesel
as vehicular fuel like flash point, viscosity, density, specific
gravity and calorific value are determined as follows. The
flash & fire point were determined by closed cup apparatus,
the kinematic viscosity was determined by cannon-fenske
viscometer with tube number 100, and the calorific value was
determined by bomb calorimeter. We determined the density
at 25C and the kinematic viscosity at 40C
Bio-diesel can be used in diesel engines either as a
standalone or blended with diesel. H100 stands for neat honge
biodiesel, C100 for neat cotton seed oil bio diesel. We used
two blends in the proportion of 5H+15C+80D and
5H+20C+75D. After finding the properties of each fuel they
are tabulated as shown in the Table1.


















The engine tests were conducted on a computerized
single cylinder four-stroke, water-cooled diesel engine test
Rig. It was directly coupled to an eddy current dynamometer
that permitted engine motoring either fully or partially. The
engine and the dynamometer were interfaced to a control
panel, which is connected to a digital computer, used for
recording the test parameters such as fuel flow rate,
temperatures, air-flow rate, load etc and for calculating the
engine performance characteristics such as brake thermal
efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, volumetric
efficiency etc. computerized CI engine is used. The calorific
value and the density of the particular fuel is fed to the
software for calculating the above said performance
parameters. The photographic view of the engine used is
shown in figure4 and the engine specifications are given in
The components of the experimental setup of the
present work as detailed below. A four stroke, single cylinder,
water cooled diesel engine is used for the experiment and the
engine specifications are provided below. The engine speed
runs up to 1500 rpm. The engine is attached at one end to the
eddy current type dynamometer with a drive shaft coupling
flange for loading. A throttle is used to control and increase
the speed of the engine as the control variable. The
dynamometer and engine is cooled by continuous supply of
water to dissipate the generated heat. The other end of the
dynamometer is hooked up to the digital readout system which
contains the digital RPM meter, flow meter, oil sump
temperature and so that experimental readings can be obtained.

Figure4: Single cylinder 4-stroke CI engine with

computerized control panel
The engine was started by hand cranking with diesel
fuel supply, and it is allowed to get its steady state (for about
10 minutes). Water to engine cooling jacket is maintained
about 80lph and water flow pressure to Eddy current
dynamometer is maintained between 1 to 1.5 bar throughout
the experiments, this water flow pressure is maintained by
means of HP external water pump.
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Figure6: Comparison of BSFC of blends with Diesel

Table 2: Engine specifications

The software is run and operated in ONLINE mode
with a specific filename. To record the data online, software is
logged every time and data will be stored in the computer hard
disk, which can be retrieved as and when required. The set of
experiments were conducted at the designed speed of 1500
RPM and compression ratios of 16.5:1. The experiments were
conducted at no-load, 10% of full load, 30% of full load, 50%
of full load and 70% of full load, with neat diesel and blends
of Methyl ester of Cotton seed oil and honge oil with Diesel as
fuel. Data such as fuel flow, cylinder pressure, indicated
power, brake power, air flow, exhaust temperature, specific
fuel consumption, break thermal efficiency, volumetric
efficiency, PV-diagram, pressure v/s crank angle diagrams
were recorded at this condition.

Figure7: Comparison of BTE of blends with Diesel


The results from the experiments performed on the four
stroke, single cylinder, diesel engine at an engine speed of
1500 rpm and compression ratio of 16.5:1 for various load
operating conditions (likewise no load, 10%, 30%, 50%, and
70% and 100%). Initially the experiments are performed for
diesel, H100, and C100 fuels. Then for different blends like
5H+15C+80D, and 5H+20C+75D was carried. The engine
performance, like brake power, indicated power, brake
specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency,
volumetric efficiency are obtained and then compared the
performance of blends with those of D100, H100 and C100.
The comparison graphs are shown in figure from figure5 to

Figure8: Comparison of CO emission of blends with Diesel

Figure9: Comparison of HC emission of blends with Diesel

From this study it is found that the performance
characteristics like break power (BP), break specific
consumption (BSFC), break thermal efficiency (BTE) and
emissions characteristics for the hybrid blends are better than
the D100. Hence these two blend blends of Karanja oil
biodiesel and Cotton seed oil biodiesels can be used as a
vehicular fuel in CI engines.

Figure5: Comparison of BP of blends with Diesel

I express my gratitude to Prof. Dayanand Goudar, Head of
the Department of Mechanical Engg. Tontadarya College of
Engg. Gadag. for providing the facility and support during the
development of this project.

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[1] A Shivkumar, D Maheshwar, K Vijaya Kumar Reddy (2009)
Comparison of Diesel engine performance And emissions from
neat and transesterified cotton seed oil, JJMIE, Vol. 3, Sept
2009, pp. 190-197.
[2] A Haiter Lenin, K Thyagarajan (2012) Performance evaluation
of disel engine fuelled with methyl ester of pongamia oil,
International Journal of Energy and Environment, Vol. 3, issue
6, 2012, pp.939-948
[3] Hanumanth Mulimani, Dr.O D Hebbal, M C Navindgi,(2012)
Extraction of biodiesel from vegetable oils and their
comparisonsIntarnational Journal of Advanced Scientific
Research and Technology. Vol.2. Issue 2. April 2012.
[4] Xiahu Fan, Xi Wang, Feng Chen, Daniel P Geller, Peter J
Wan.(2008) Engine Performance Test of Cottonseed Oil
BiodieselThe Open Energy and Fuels Journals. Vol 1, pp.40-45
[5] Lohith.N, Dr .R Suresh , Yathish K V (2012) Experimental
Investigation of CI Engine using Karanja oil Methyl Ester as
Alternative Fuel. IJERA, Vol.2 Issue 4, August 2012, pp.
[6] S Kirankumar, Prof. K Apparao, Prof. R Nagendra Babu.
Experimental Investigation on Performance, Combustion
Characteristics of Diesel Engine by using Fish Oil IJERA,
Vol.2, December 2012, pp. 1258-1263

[7] Sanjay Patil, Theoretical Analysis of CI Engine Performance

Fuelled with Honge Oil and its Blends with Ethanol. IJMET,
vol.4, August 2013, pp. 366-372
[8] Jinlin Xue, Tony E grift, Alan C Hansen (2011). Effect of
Biodiesel on Engine Performance and Emissions. Renewable
and Sustainable Energy Reviews, ELSEVIER, vol.15, pp. 10981116.
[9] J M Marchetti, V U Miguel, A F Errazu,(2007). Possible
Methods for Biodiesel Production Science Direct, vol.11,
[10] S P Singh, Dipti Singh.(2010) Biodiesel Production through
the use of different sources and characterization of oils and their
esters as the substitute of diesel ELSEVIER (rser), vol.14,
[11] T Elango, T Shenthilkumar (2011), "Performance and Emission
Characteristics of CI Engine Fuelled with Non Edible vegetable
oil and Diesel blends". JEST, vol. 6, No.2,(2011), pp.240-250.
[12] Lokesh Adhappa Chandrashekar, N S Mahesh, Balakrishna
Gowda, Willium Hall, (2012). "Life Cycle assessment of bio
diesel production from pongamia oil in rural Karnataka". CIGR
Journal, vol.13 No.3 pp 67.
[13] S V A R Sastry, Ch.V Ramachandra Murthy (2012).
"Prospectus of biodiesel for future energy security".
Elexir,Chemical Engg., 53 (2012) 12029-12034.

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www.ijtra.com Volume 2, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 2014), PP. 75-77


Rajnee Bala Minz1, Rajesh Thinga2, Supriya Tripathi3
PG Scholar/Deptt. of EE
Samrat Ashok Technological Institute
er.rajneebala@gmail.com, 2raj.rgtu@gmail.com, 3tsupriya20@gmail.com
Abstract- The modelling of adaptive fuzzy based speed controller
for PMSM is presented in this paper. This detailed modelled
system is derived in Simulink, which includes the tuning of the
controller for the improvement of performance of the PMSM
drive and the avoiding of the load disturbances. This adaptive
fuzzy based speed controller is efficient not only in controlling
linear plants but also in non-linear plants.
Keywords- Adaptive fuzzy controller, PMSM drive, PID
Abbreviations used: PMSM- Permanent Magnet Synchronous
Motor, PID- Proportional Integral Derivative, AFLC- Adaptive
Fuzzy Logic Controller.

The PMSM like other drive system needs its speed to be
controlled. There are various control techniques for controlling
the parameters of the motor including the speed. In this paper
adaptive fuzzy control is used for controlling the speed of
The field- winding of synchronous machine is energised
from a dc source and its armature winding is connected to an
ac source therefore poly-phase-synchronous machines are
known as doubly excited ac machine.
When synchronous machine is used as a motor it takes in
active power from an ac source and when it works as a
generator, it delivers or exports ac power from a dc source.
Since a synchronous generator delivers ac output, it is also
known as an alternator.


The control of a permanent-magnet synchronous motor
(PMSM) in AC drives is an important issue, because of its
nonlinearity in the dynamics and time-varying parameters. This
paper introduces the application of a new adaptive logic fuzzy
controller (AFLC) for the speed control of field oriented
PMSM. A model-referenced adaptive scheme is proposed in
which the adaptation mechanism is executed by fuzzy logic
based PID controller on the error and changes of error
measured between the motor speed and the output of a
reference model. To reduce the dependency of controller on the
quality of the expert knowledge, the fuzzy logic based speed
controller is augmented by the model following error driven
fuzzy adaptive mechanism so as to obtain fast and robust
control for various operating conditions.
The fuzzy logic controller is used for controlling the speed
of this type of motor. The dynamic response with the Fuzzy
based controller is more accurate as compared to the
conventional controllers. The proposed controller is used in
order to overcome the nonlinearity problem of PMSM and also
to achieve faster settling response time.

The Simulink model consists of various blocks from the
Simulink library so as to the desired designed speed controller.
The various blocks in the controller performs according to the
need in the controller.

A proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID controller) is
a feedback control loop mechanism which is widely used in
control systems in industries. A PID controller calculates the
difference between a measured process variable and a desired
set-point which is considered as an error. By manipulating the
variables the error can be reduced by the controller.
The controller can provide control action designed for
specific process required by tuning the three parameters in the
PID controller. Some of the applications may require using
only one or two actions to provide the appropriate system
control. This is achieved by keeping the other parameters to
zero. A PID controller will be called as PI, PD, P or I controller
in the absence of the respective control actions. PI controllers
are quite common, since the derivative action is sensitive to
measurement of noise, whereas the absence of an integral term
may prevent the system from reaching its desired value due to
the control action.
The speed control of PMSM drive can be done by various
methods. But here adaptive fuzzy technique is used in the
speed controller which uses the PID type controller. The
control techniques are based on the fuzzy rules. The fuzzy
rules can be formed by hit and trial error method. These rules
so created for the speed controller depend on the nature of the

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The above figure shows the membership functions of the input.

The membership function of either input or output defines the
range of values of the input or output in which they lie.
The rule viewer of the fuzzy controller:





For the implementation of closed loop speed control the
PID controller is used with different gain values for the
respective controllers. The fuzzy controller calculates the error
between the reference value and the value from the output as a
feedback. The advantage of the AFLC over controllers is that it
eliminates the error in the system instead of reducing it.

Rule in fuzzy controller is done using the AND and OR

operation between the inputs and the output. There are mainly
two techniques for forming these rules i.e. either by
Generalised Modus Pones(GMP) or Generalised Modus

The rules so formed

By the implementation of AFLC the stating current, starting is
reduced and controlled and we obtain symmetrical waveforms
of the motor parameters.
Phase current in the motor:

Rotor speed of the motor:

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Output of Electromagnetic Torque (Te):




O.Kraa, A Aboubou and A.A .Taleb. Courrier du Savoir

N15, Mars 2013, pp.97-104.
Adaptive Fuzzy Logic Based Speed Control of Permanent
Magnet Synchronous Motor by
R.Venkatesh kumar,
MNRE Sponsored National Conference
AITHRE 2013 March 21st -22nd,2013.
A New Adaptive Fuzzy Vector Control for Permanent Magnet
Synchronous Motor Drive by K. Hakiki, A. Meroufel, V.
Cocquempot, M. Chenafa, 18th Mediterranean Conference on
Control & Automation Congress Palace Hotel, Marrakech,
Morocco June 23-25, 2010.
Efficiency optimization of an open loop controlled permanent
magnet synchronous motor drive using adaptive neural networks
by Munaf S. N. Al-Din, PhD, Assistant Prof and Majid A. AlTaee, PhD, Prof, January 2014 edition vol.10, No.3 ISSN: 1857
7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431.
Modelling and simulation of PMSM drives using fuzzy logic
controller by Praveen kumar and Anurag Singh Tomer, vol.3
issue 4,july-aug 2013 pp-2492-2497,ISSN 2249-6645.
Fuzzy Adaptive Controllers for speed control of PMSM drive by
N.J.Patil, Dr. R.H.Chile and Dr. L.M. Waghmarre, vol. 1, no. 11
Design, Development & Simulation of fuzzy logic controller to
control the speed of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
Drive System. By Davendra Yadav, Sunil Bansal and Munendra
Kumar, vol.1 issue 5,pp 101-106 aug 2012.

By the implementation of this adaptive fuzzy control the speed
of the PMSM drive is controlled and the output waveforms of
the speed and torque produced in the motor is shown and they
can be studied accordingly. As we can see in simulation output
speed of the PMSM drive is not only controlled but also the
starting current is reduced effectively.
[I] Hybrid fuzzy logic and vector control of permanent magnet
synchronous motor drive for electric vehicle by H.Ghodbane ,

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Abhishek Jain, Ashish Jain, Rohit Thete, Akshay Shelke, Harshada Mare
BE, Department of Computer Science,
MIT Academy of Engineering,
Pune, India
abhi.jain2210@gmail.com, ashishomatic@gmail.com, rt90thete@gmail.com, shelkeakshay@gmail.com,

Prof. S.A. Jain

Asst. Professor, Department of Computer Science, MIT Academy of Engineering,
Pune, India
AbstractBroadcasting is a fundamental and effective
broadcasting technique in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET).
Simple flooding technique is used in conventional ad hoc
protocols for route discovery in which the mobile node blindly
rebroadcast the packets until route to destination is established.
But this causes redundant transmission of control packets leading
to collision and contention in network. This problem is referred
as broadcasting storm problem. To overcome this problem,
neighbor coverage based probabilistic rebroadcasting protocol is
used which combines the merits of neighbor coverage knowledge
and probabilistic method. In order to effectively exploit the
neighbor coverage knowledge, rebroadcast delay is used to
determine the forwarding order and then we calculate
rebroadcast probability by combining additional coverage ratio
and connectivity factor. This approach can significantly reduce
the end-to-end delay by reducing the routing overhead and
increasing packet delivery ratio to improve routing performance
of the network.
Index TermsMANET, Rebroadcast Probability, Control
Packets, Neighbor Coverage Knowledge, Broadcasting, Routing

MANET is a self-configuring, infrastructure-less network
of mobile nodes which are connected without wires. But due to
high mobility of nodes, link breakages may occur which will
lead to frequent path failures and route discoveries. This
increases the overhead of routing protocols, effectively
increasing end-to-end delay and reduces the packet delivery
ratio [1]. So reducing the routing overhead in MANET is
essential problem.
In conventional ad hoc on-demand distance vector routing
protocol (AODV) [2] method, simple flooding is used for route
discovery where nodes blindly rebroadcast received route
request (RREQ) packet until route to the destination is
established. While this method has many advantages, but due
to redundant retransmission causes broadcast storm problem
[3]. Some methods have been proposed to optimize broadcast
problem and Williams and Camp [4] has categorized
broadcasting protocol into four classes: simple flooding,
probability-based methods, area based methods and neighbor
knowledge methods.
Since limiting the number of rebroadcast can effectively
optimize the broadcasting [3]; and the neighbor knowledge
methods perform better than the area-based method and the
probability based method [6]. Combining merit of neighbor
knowledge and probabilistic based method we propose
neighbor coverage based probabilistic rebroadcast (NCPR)
protocol. So, (1) In order to effectively exploit the neighbor

coverage knowledge, rebroadcast delay is used to determine

the forwarding order, (2) with the help of uncovered neighbor
(UCN) set, additional coverage ratio and connectivity factor is
calculated the determine the rebroadcast probability.
Additional coverage ratio is a ratio of the covered node by
single broadcast to the total number of neighbor and
connectivity factor is relationship of network connectivity and
number of neighbor of given node.
The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Section 2
describes the proposed system and implementation Detail.
Section 3 is Simulation Results. In Section 4 we have
concluded with our observations.
In this section, first calculate rebroadcast delay to determine
it forwarding order and set the timer according to the delay.
Second, calculate rebroadcast probability with the help of
neighbor knowledge method by multiplying additional
coverage ratio and connectivity factor, which requires that each
node needs its 1-hop neighborhood information.
A. Uncovered Neighbor Set and Rebroadcast Delay
When source node S send RREQ packet to the node ni, it
attaches its neighbor list along with RREQ packet. Node ni uses
the neighbor list in the RREQ packet to estimate the number of
neighbor nodes that are not covered by RREQ packet of node
S. The uncovered neighbor set U(ni) of node ni is given as:
U (ni ) N (ni ) [ N (ni ) N (S )] {S}
Where N(ni) and N(S) are neighbor set of node S and ni. S is the
node which send the RREQ packet to node ni.
But due to broadcasting characteristics, node may receive
duplicate RREQ from its neighbor. So when node receives
RREQ packet, a rebroadcast delay is set according to the
neighbor list in RREQ packet and its own neighbor list. The
rebroadcast delay T(ni) is defined as follows:

Tr (ni ) 1

N ( S ) N ( ni )
N (ni )

T (ni ) MaxDelay * Tr (ni )


Where Tr (ni) is delay ratio of node ni and MaxDelay is a small

constant delay in the network.|.| is the number of elements in a
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The rebroadcast is used to determine the forwarding order.
During the actual implementation of NCPR, every node
The node which has mode common node with the sender,
will receive different RREQ and on reception of RREQ, they
according to Eq. 2, will have lower delay. Therefore, this
will calculate their UCN set and set the timer.
rebroadcast delay enables the information that the nodes have
1. If receives the RREQs for the first time from s then
transmitted the packet, spread to neighbors more quickly. This
2. Find the initial UCN set U(s, Rs.id) for RREQs
is performed by using the Neighbor Knowledge Probabilistic
3. Calculate rebroadcast delay T(ni)
Rebroadcast (NCPR) protocol based on the neighbor
4. According to delay T(ni), set the Timer (ni, Rs.id)
knowledge method. After determining the rebroadcast delay,
5. End if
the node can set its own timer.
6. While ni receives duplicate RREQj from before
B. Neighbor Knowledge and Rebroadcast Probability
Timer(ni, Rs.id) expires do
Adjust UCN set U(S, Rs.id)
The node which has larger rebroadcast delay may receive
8. Discard RREQj
RREQ packets from nodes which have lower delay. Suppose, if
9. End while
ni receives duplicate RREQ request from its neighbor node nj, it
10. When timer is expires, we get the final UCN set
will check how many neighbors had been covered by RREQ of
11. Calculate additional coverage ratio Ra(ni)
node nj. Thus ni could further adjust the UCN set according to
12. Calculate connectivity factor Fc (ni)
neighbor list in the RREQ of the node nj, i.e. U(nj), and is
13. Compute Rebroadcast probability P (ni)
adjusted as follows:
14. Check if (Random(0,1) <= P (ni))
15. Broadcast RREQs
U (ni ) U (ni ) [U (ni ) N (nj )]
16. Else
After adjusting U(ni) , the RREQ packet received from node nj
17. Discard RREQs
is discarded.
18. End if
When the timer of rebroadcast delay expires, the node ni
obtains final UCN set, which is used to calculate the additional
coverage ratio Ra(ni) for node ni:
A. Protocol Implementation
The NCPR protocol is implement NS-2.34 using AODV as
U (ni )
Ra (ni )
base protocol. The NCPR uses Hello protocol to get
N (ni )
neighborhood information and then carry the neighbor list
along with RREQ packet. To reduce overhead the Hello packet
This metric indicate the number of nodes that are
do not use periodical Hello mechanism but checks if the last
additionally covered by the node ni. The higher value of Ra
broadcasting time of control packets is greater than
indicates that more nodes will be covered by this rebroadcast
HelloInterval, the node will send the Hello packet. The control
and hence more nodes should receive and process the RREQ
packets such as RREQ and route error (RERR) can also act as
packet. Thus, the value of rebroadcast probability will be
Hello packet.
higher. But, Ra does not consider the node density and the
An additional field nb_count is added to the RREQ packet
overall network connectivity.
to maintain the count of neighbor in the received RREQ
Xue and Kumar [10] has derived that if each node connects
Since the node are mobile so there are three
to more than 5.1774logn of its nearest neighbors, then the
probability of the network being connected is approaching 1 as
Node ni may receive duplicate RREQ packet (checked
n increases, where n is the number of nodes in the network. So,
by comparing sequence number of RREQs) or new
5.1774logn can be used as the connectivity metric of the
RREQ packet may be received so that node is to be
network. The connectivity factor Fc (ni) for the node ni is :
added to neighbor list

Some node may move out of coverage area of node ni

so that node is removed from neighbor list
Fc(ni )
N (ni )
No node is added or removed from the neighbor list of
node ni.
Where Nc = 5.1774logn, and n is the number of nodes in the
is set with a positive integer when the node is
is equal to the number of new node added
Multiplying the additional coverage ratio and connectivity
when node are removed, nb_count is
factor, we obtain rebroadcast probability P (ni) for node ni:
a negative integer and is equal to number of nodes deleted
neighbors but if no node is added or removed is nb_count is set
P(ni) Fc(ni ) * Ra(ni )
zero. Thus according to the value of nb_count the node updates
If P (ni) is greater than 1, then we set it to 1.
the neighbor cache of node ni.
C. Algorithm of NCPR
Let RREQs is the route request packet received from node
s, Rs.id is unique identifier of RREQs ,N(u) be the neighbor set
of node u, U(u, x) is UCN set and Timer(u, x) is timer of node
u for RREQ whose id is x.

B. Simulation Environment
The performance of the protocols is evaluated using
following parameters:
a. Average End-to-end delay: The average delay
experienced by constant bit rate (CBR) packets to
reach from source to destination successfully.

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www.ijtra.com Volume 2, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 2014), PP. 78-81
b. Packet Delivery Ratio: It is the ratio of total
number of packets reaching the destination to the
total packet sent by the source.
c. Normalized Routing Overhead: It is the ratio of
total packet size of control packets to the total
packet size of data packets delivered to
The performance of three protocols AODV, Load
Balancing Single Path Routing (LBR) and NCPR is compared
in this paper. LBR and NCPR are the protocols modified using
the source code of AODV. For the simulation, we have
considered CBR data traffic and the selection of sourcedestination is done randomly. The simulation field will be 1000
Fig. 1. Normalized Routing Overhead Vs Number of Nodes (nodes are
m 1000m and transmission range of every node is 250. Every
source will send four CBR packets whose size is 512 byte/sec
Fig 1 shows the graph of normalized routing overhead
in the multi-hop fashion. The net performance is evaluated by
the number of nodes; it can be seen that NCPR has
varying the number of nodes and the mobility of the nodes. The
among all.
MaxDelay for rebroadcast delay is set to 0.01 sec.
The simulation parameter and scenarios for evaluating
performance of protocols is given in the table below.

NS 2.34

MAC Type


Channel Type

Wireless Channel

Transmission Range

250 m



Routing Protocol


Antenna Model


Number of Nodes

5, 10, 20, 50, 100

Simulation Area

1000 m

Traffic Type


Data Payload

512 Bytes/Packet

Network Loads

4 Packet/Sec

Simulation Time

100 sec


0, 5, 10, 25, 50 m/s



Interface Queue length

5, 10, 20, 50, 100

Fig. 2. Packet Delivery Ratio Vs Number of Nodes(nodes are static)

1000 m

C. Simulation Result
1) Performance in Static Environment
Static environment is scenario in which mobility of the
nodes of zero, i.e. the node are static.
The performance of the protocol is analyzed for the traffic
load between the nodes is varied as 1, 3, 5 and 10 connection.
For each connection, the interface queue length (ifqlen) by
varied as 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100. And for each queue length, we
find the value by for 10, 20, 50 and 100 nodes.
The Fig.1, Fig.2 and Fig.3 below shows the normalized
routing overhead, packet delivery ratio and end-to-end
respectively for ifqlen = 5 and connection = 3.

Fig 2 shows the graph of packet delivery ratio against the

number of nodes; as the number of node increases, the packet
delivery ratio highest in NCPR, lower in LBR and least in case
of AODV.

Fig. 3. End to End Delay Vs Number of Nodes (nodes are static)

Fig 3 shows the graph of end to end against the number of

nodes; as the NCPR has smaller delay as the rebroadcast of
RREQs is limited unlike AODV. Though LBR has delay close
to the delay of NCPR.
2) Performance in Dynamic Environment
Unlike static, in dynamic environment the nodes are
mobile. The nodes have mobility of 5, 10, 25 and 50 m/sec.
The simulation scenarios for dynamic environment are similar
to the static environment.
The below figure represent the normalized routing
overhead, packet delivery ratio and end-to-end delay of the
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network in dynamic environment where ifqlen = 20 and
connection = 3 and the mobility of nodes is 10 m/sec:
The conventional on-demand routing protocol suffers from
broadcasting storm problem. So to overcome this problem, we
propose NCPR protocol which combines the merits of neighbor
coverage knowledge and probabilistic method. The NCPR will
first calculate the rebroadcast delay to determine the
forwarding order and then we calculate the rebroadcast
probability by combing. Thus the overhead in the network has
also reduced which the additional coverage ratio and
connectivity factor. The simulation result shows the proposed
system reduces the end-to-end delay effectively since we have
limited the rebroadcast of RREQs to only those nodes who
receives RREQ it for the first time will eventually increase the
packet delivery ratio. The simulation result also shows that
since the control packets are reduced, the NCPR has good
Fig. 4. Normalized Routing Overhead Vs Number of Nodes(nodes are
performance as the number of node increase.
Fig 4 shows the graph of normalized routing overhead
against the number of nodes; as the node are mobile the
overhead will increase as the number of node increases but in
comparison to AODV and LBR, NCPR has the lowest
overhead due to reduced number of controls packets unlike
conventional which suffers from broadcast storm problem.

We would like to express our sincere gratitude to Prof. S.A
Jain, Department of Computer Engineering, MIT Academy of
Engineering for his valuable guidance that he provided us at
various stages throughout the project work. He has been source
of motivation enabling us to give our best efforts in this project.

Fig. 5. Packet Delivery Ratio Vs Number of Nodes(nodes are dynamic)

Fig 5 shows the graph of packet delivery ratio against the

number of nodes; LBR performs well for the lower number of
node but as the number of nodes increases, the merits of NCPR
are quiet visible from the graph.
Fig 6 which shows the graph of end to end against the
number of nodes also shows the same observation as in the
static environment and in the case also the end to end is lowest
in the NCPR compared to conventional AODV.

Fig. 6. End to End Vs Number of Nodes(nodes are dynamic)

[1] X. Wu, H.R. Sadjadpour, and J.J. Garcia-Luna-Aceves,

Routing Overhead as a Function of Node Mobility: Modeling
Framework and Implications on Proactive Routing, Proc. IEEE
Intl Conf. Mobile Ad Hoc and Sensor Systems (MASS 07), pp.
1-9, 2007.
[2] C. Perkins, E. Belding-Royer, and S. Das, Ad Hoc On-Demand
Distance Vector (AODV) Routing, IETF RFC 3561, 2003.
[3] S.Y. Ni, Y.C. Tseng, Y.S. Chen, and J.P. Sheu, The Broadcast
Storm Problem in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network, Proc. CM/IEEE
MobiCom, pp. 151-162, 1999.
[4] B. Williams and T. Camp, Comparison of Broadcasting
Techniques for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Proc. ACM
MobiHoc, pp. 194-205, 2002.
[5] J.D. Abdulai, M. Ould-Khaoua, L.M. Mackenzie, and A.
Mohammed, Neighbour Coverage: A Dynamic Probabilistic
Route Discovery for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Proc. Intl
Symp. Performance Evaluation of Computer and Telecomm.
Systems (SPECTS 08), pp. 165-172, 2008.
[6] J. Kim, Q. Zhang, and D.P. Agrawal, Probabilistic
Broadcasting Based on Coverage Area and Neighbor
Confirmation in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Proc. IEEE
GlobeCom, 2004.
[7] C. E. Perkins and P. Bhagwat, Highly dynamic destinationsequenced distance vector routing (DSDV) for mobile
computers, Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM94, pp. 234-244,
[8] W. Lou and J. Wu, On reducing broadcast redundancy in a hoc
wireless networks, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing,
vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 111123, Apr.-June 2002.
[9] Y. Sasson, D. Cavin, A. Schiper, Probabilistic broadcast for
flooding in wireless mobile ad hoc networks, EPFL Technical
Report IC/2002/54, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
[10] A. Mohammed, M. Ould-Khaoua, L.M. Mackenzie, C. Perkins,
and J.D. Abdulai, Probabilistic Counter-Based Route Discovery
for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, Proc. Intl Conf. Wireless
Comm. AndMobile Computing: Connecting the World
Wirelessly (IWCMC 09), pp. 1335-1339, 2009.
[11] F. Xue and P.R. Kumar, The Number of Neighbors Needed for
Connectivity of Wireless Networks, Wireless Networks, vol.
10, no. 2, pp. 169-181, 2004.

81 | P a g e

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www.ijtra.com Volume 2, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 2014), PP. 82-86


M.H. Muddebihal 1, P.Shekanna2, Shabbir Ahmed3
Department of Mathematics,
Gulbarga University,
mhmuddebihal@yahoo.co.in, 2shaikshavali71@gmail.com, 3glbhyb09@rediffmail.com
Abstract: A dominating set
set in

is a split dominating

. If the induced subgraph


isolated vertices. The cototal domination number


is denoted by

, is the minimum cardinality of

is the minimum cardinality of a cototal dominating set. See

The following figure illustrate the formation of

a split dominating set in

. In this paper, some results on

of a graph

disconnected in

The split domination number of

were obtained in terms of vertices, blocks, and other

different parameters of
but not members of
Further, we develop its relationship with other different
domination parameters of
Key words: Block graph, Subdivision block graph, split
domination number.

All graphs considered here are simple, finite, nontrivial,
undirected and connected. As usual
denote the
number of vertices, edges and blocks of a graph
respectively. In this paper, for any undefined term or notation
can be found in F. Harary [3] and G .Chartrand and PingZhang
[2]. The study of domination in graphs was begin by O.Ore [5]
and C.Berge [1].
As usual, The minimum degree and maximum degree of a
are denoted by
respectively. A
vertex cover of a graph
edges of

is a minimum

cardinality of a vertex cover in The vertex independence

is the maximum cardinality of an independent
set of vertices. A edge cover of

is adjacent to some vertex in



if the induced subgraph


Theorem A [4]: A split dominating set

each vertex


is minimal for

one of the following condition holds.





is an isolated vertex in
is connected.
Theorem B [4]: For any graph

is the minimum cardinality of

Now we consider the upper bound on

a dominating set in .
A dominating set


is a set of edges that covers

all the vertices. The edge covering number

minimum cardinality of a edge cover. The edge independence
of a graph is the minimum cardinality of an
independent set of edges.
A set of vertices
is a dominating set. If every
Domination number

We need the following Theorems for our further results:

is a set of vertices that covers all the

The vertex covering number

vertex in

The domination of split subdivision block graph is denoted

. In this paper, some results on
obtained in terms of vertices, blocks and other parameters of

of a graph

is a split dominating set

in terms of

blocks in

is disconnected. The split

domination number
of a graph
is the minimum
cardinality of a split dominating set .This concept was
introduced by
A dominating set of is a cototal
dominating set if the induced subgraph







has no
82 | P a g e

Proof: For any graph

International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163,

www.ijtra.com Volume 2, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 2014), PP. 82-86
Case2: Suppose each block of
is a complete graph
, a split domination


does not exists. Hence we required

blocks. Let

be the number of blocks of


be the vertices in




Subcase2.1: Assume







is a dominating set
is disconnected graph.




is an isolates. Hence

be a set of cut vertices. Again consider a



. Again we consider the sub cases of

be the set of vertices in


case 2.




Sub case 2.2: Assume every block of

) is




which gives
In the following Theorem, we obtain an upper bound for
in terms of vertices added to


Theorem 2.2: For any connected

blocks, then

is the number of vertices

added to
Proof: For any nontrivial connected graph . If the graph
Then by the definition, split domination set





graph with





be the blocks of

which gives
We establish an upper bound involving the Maximum degree
and the vertices of
for split block sub division
domination in graphs.


Theorem 2.3: For any graph



be the vertices in
which corresponds to the blocks of .Now we consider the
following cases.





. Let












be the vertices in
be a

Again there exists a subset

adjacent to




vertex of

By Theorem 1,


. Let


is a split

Since by

with the

atleast one


By Theorem A, each vertex

there exist a vertex

are adjacent to end vertices of


be the vertices in

is a set of

cut vertices in

consider the graphs with

be the blocks of


Proof: For split domination, We




is a

The following lower bound relationship is between split
domination in
and vertex covering number in

83 | P a g e

Theorem 2.4: For any graph

, where

International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163,

www.ijtra.com Volume 2, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 2014), PP. 82-86
A relationship between the split domination in


is a vertex covering

number of
Proof: We consider only those graphs which are not

be the blocks of
be the vertices in B(G). Let






such that

independence number of a graph

following theorem.
Theorem2.6: For any connected graph




to the


set of vertices in

be the

e have the following cases.







. Hence

which gives


be the blocks of
vertices of the set

is adjacent to atleast one vertex in



be the vertices in

and each edge in


Proof: By the definition of split domination,




independence number of .

such that
. Hence

is established in the






The following result gives a upper bound for

in terms

of domination and end blocks in

with the property

Theorem 2.5: For any connected graph






is a set of all end vertices

. Again

where every

is an

Proof: Suppose graph

is a block .Then by definition, the

split domination does not exists. Now assume

with at least two blocks. Let


be the vertices in

which corresponds to the blocks of .

be the vertices

. Suppose D is a


whose vertex set is


vertex of


. More over, any component of





the number of isolates in



see that for

. One


as in case , We have

which gives

is of

which gives

Sub case 2.2: Assume

has atleast two blocks.Then as in

subcase 2.1,we have




Suppose there exists a vertex

such that every vertex of

to at least

which gives

one vertex

The next result gives a lower bound on

in terms of

the diameter of

is adjacent to at least one vertex of

is not adjacent



. Note that

atleast two. Thus






at least one

is not a tree. Again we consider sub

is a graph

be the set of blocks in


Case 2: Suppose
cases of case 2

Theorem 2.7: For any graph




84 | P a g e

Proof :

International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163,

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be the


blocks of ,Then

be the
in B(G). Suppose
be the set of edges which

constitutes the diameteral path in




are non end blocks

which gives cut vertices in

be the vertices in


Next, the following upper bound for split domination in

is interms of edge covering number of .






is the edge covering number.

such that
vertices in

are cut

is a

. Clearly

is cyclic then there exists atleast one block
which contains a block diametrical path of length atleast two.
the block
as a singleton and if
atmost two elements of

diameter of



is acyclic then each edge of

, where


is a block of


domination set does not exists. Hence


be the vertices in
such that

We have the following cases.

Case 1: Suppose each block is an edge in

is the set of end

If every cut vertex of





then there exist

atleast one cut vertices in




Proof: Suppose the graph

is adjacent with an end



The following result is a relationship between


be the blocks of
be the vertices in


domination and vertices of


then by definition of split domination, the split

Since they are non end blocks in

. Then


Proof: For any non trivial connected graph


which are non cut vertices in




is a split dominating set.

has one block, then split



has more than one component.

domination does not exists. Hence


which gives

be the blocks of








be the set of vertices in .

Case2: Suppose

has atleast one block which is not an edge.



be the set of cut vertices such that



is adjacent to atleast one vertex of


the set of vertices



such that

which corresponds to the elements of

forms a minimal dominating set of

Since each element of


be the set of cut

such that



are non end blocks in .

Then we have


. Again


is disconnected

, which gives

As in case 1 ,

will increase. Hence

which gives

is a cut vertex, then

85 | P a g e

International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163,

www.ijtra.com Volume 2, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 2014), PP. 82-86
The following lower bound for split domination in
are cut vertices in
interms of edge independence number in

is adjacent to at least one vertex in







gives disconnected graph. Thus


Proof: By the definition of Split domination, we need

We have the following cases.
Case 1: Suppose each block in

Case 2: Suppose each block in


is an edge. Let

be a set of alternative edges in








is disconnected.

which gives

be the vertices in
, again

be the cut

vertices which are adjacent to at least one vertex of

disconnected. Then


Case2: Suppose there exists at least one block which is not an

edge. Let
be the set of edges in
edges in

Finally, the following result gives an lower bound on

in terms of





Proof: We consider only those


which gives


be the vertices of


is a set of cut vertices

is a set of non cut vertices. Now we consider


which are


vertices in

has more than one component.




which gives




vertices in

split domination,


is the cut

Proof: Suppose graph

. Let






be the set of

all vertices of


the property

is a set of all

end vertices in
gives minimum split domination in

In the following theorem, we expressed the lower bound for

in terms of cut vertices of




be a subset



graphs which are not

is the set of alternative

which gives







are the non cut vertices in

be the set of edges in


is not an edge. Let

is a block. Then by the definition, of

consider the following cases.

Case 1: Suppose each block of

is an edge. Then we


be the cut vertices in

. Clearly


[I] C Berge, Theory of graphs and its applications, Methuen,
London, (1962).
[II] G. Chartrand and Ping Zhang, Introduction to graph Theory,
Newyork (2006).
[III] F.Harary, Graph Theory, Adison Wesley, Reading Mass (1972).
[IV] V.R.Kulli, Theory of domination in Graphs, Vishwa international
Publications, Gulbarga, India. (2010).
[V] O.Ore, Theory of graphs, Amer. Math. soc., Colloq. Publ., 38
Providence, (1962).

be the vertices in
86 | P a g e

International Journal of Technical Research and Applications e-ISSN: 2320-8163,

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Pingale Namrata Namdev1, Prof. Hate S.G2

ME(VLSI & Embedded System), G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering, Ahmednagar, India
Electronics and Telecommunication Department, G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering & Technology, Pune, India

Pingalenamrata90@gmail.com, sudhir.hate@raisoni.net
Abstract This paper introduce a system that used ARM
basedmicrocontroller and wireless sensors to control the various
devices and to monitor the information regarding the CNC machines
parameter using WI-FI technology .If there is any error in machine it
cant be recognized by the person sitting in the office.The existing
system is difficult to maintain. This consumes lot of time on
communication between technical persons. To overcome this problem
we are trying to develop the system. This system will give a
informatioto the respective technical person according to the error
Keyword: ARM (Advanced RISC Machines); WI-FI(wireless fidelity)
CNC machine is having three sections Hydraulic Section
Mechanical Section and electrical section. So while working with
so much of machines this EMI section gets problem. When any of
the machines stop working because of any internal problem, it
gives an alarm so that worker should know that there is some
problem with that machine. But if worker cant recognise the
problem then he should inform this to concerned technical person.
But worker will inform this to all technical person from
mechanical section, Hydraulic section and also to electrical
section. This consume a lot of time. Vibration is one of the most
concentrated problems in CNC machine tools, which can
significantaly reduce the machining precision [1].This lead to
decrease in production because of difficulty in tracing the error by
technical person. To reduce this time delay we are implementing
one system. This system help will technical person instantly as
error will be introduced through the text message. This text
message will include machine number and actual error occurred in
that machine. And this text message will be send to only the
section related that technical person. While message is sending to
that respective person machine will be switched off..mesh clients,
mesh routers and gateways often consist by Wireless mesh
networks [3]. A WMN is offers redundancy[3].
CNC was invented by John T. Parsons while making
helicopter blades for the military. His numerical control used a
rudimentary computer to move the cutting spindle along the x and
y axes.
The CNC machine first appeared when John Runyon managed
to produce punch tapes under computer control. This showed
dramatic results in terms of time, reducing the normal production
duration of 8 hours to 15 minutes. the Air Force accepted the
proposal to produce a generalized programming language for
NC In June 1956..
Eventually, the Air Material Command at the WrightPatterson Air Force Base and the Aircraft Industries Association
(AIA) collaborated with MIT in 1957 to generate a fully computer
controlled NC system. The CNC machines invenstion paved the
way for automated tools that meant cost efficient production for

The computer automation of manufacturing now uses very

sophisticated programs, including the original x and y grid to cut
parts on several axes. CNC mills can now cut at various angles,
and even have moving tables that turn the part to access areas
previously impossible to reach.


Fig. 1:System Block diagram

We have used a ARM7 based LPC2148 microcontroller.
LPC2148 is a 16bit/32bit microcontroller with a high speed flash
memory ranging from 32kbit to 512kbit. Serial communications
interfaces ranging from a USB 2.0 Full-speed device, multiple
UARTs, SPI, SSP to I2C-bus and on-chip SRAM of 8 kB up to 40
kB, make these devices very well suited for communication
gateways and protocol converters, soft modems, voice recognition
and low end imaging, providing both large buffer size and high
processing power.PIC 18f458 is used outside the CNC machine
PIC 18f458 is used to monitor the lcdand indicator and wi-fi
module.PIC 18f458 is having 10 bit 8 channel ADC.PIC 18f458 is
also used at the slav side to monitor the wi-fi module and the
pc.we can see the data of CNC with the help of labview software.
A. Hall Effect Sensor:
HALL EFECT SENSOR is a device which converts magnetic
or magnetically encoded information into electrical signals is
called. A Hall Effect device/sensor is a solid state device that is
becoming more and more popular because of its many uses in
different types of applications this devices are immune to
vibration, dust and water.TheBasic Principle of Hall Effectis the
activation by an external magnetic field. As we are familiar that
there are two important characteristics of a magnetic field.Viz.Flux
density, (B) and polarity (North & South Poles).the
HallVoltage,VH produces When the magnetic flux density around
the sensor exceeds a certain preset threshold, the sensor detects it
and generates an output voltage [6]

87 | P a g e

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Certified product can use any brand of access point with any other
brand of client hardware that is also "Wi-Fi Certified". Products
that pass this certification are required to carry an identifying seal
on their packaging that states "Wi-Fi Certified" and indicates the
radio frequency band used (2.5GHz for 802.11b, 802.11g, or
802.11n, and 5GHz for 802.11a).[3]

Fig2: Working of Hall Effect

B. Limit switch
An electromechanical device that consists of an actuator
mechanically linked to a set of contacts is called as limit switch
.When an object comes into contact with the actuator, the device
operates the contacts to make or break an electrical connection.It
can determine the presence or absence of an object. It was first
used to define the limit of travel of an object; hence the name
"Limit Switch."
Actuator: The portion of the switch that comes in contact with the
object being sensed.
Head: It is the mechanism that translates actuator movement into
contact movement. When the actuator is moved as intended, the
mechanism operates the switch contacts.
Contact Block: It is the electrical contact elements of the switch.
It typically contains either two or four contact pairs.
Terminal Block: It contains the screw terminations. This is where
the electrical (wire) connection between the switch and the rest of
the control circuit is made.
Switch Body: The switch body is the contact block in a plug-in
switch. It and terminal block in the nonplug-in switch.
Base: The base is the terminal block in a plug-in switch do not
have a separate base[5]

D. Liquid Crystal Display:

LCD is used in a project to visualize the output of the
application. We have used 16x2 lcd which indicates 16 columns
and 2 rows. So, we can write 16 characters in each line. So, total
32 characters we can display on 16x2 lcd.
LCD can also used in a project to check the output of
different modules interfaced with the microcontroller. Thus lcd
plays a vital role in a project to see the output and to debug the
system module wise in case of system failure in order to rectify the
E. PC:
PC is used to analysis the various parameters of CNC
machine using a labview software developed window. Using pc
we can analysis the intensity of errors happened and the necessary
solution can be started well on time.

In this paper, we can use this system in various industries.

This system will definitely help us to remove errors as early as
possible. So, because of this system production rate of the industry
will increase. As human communication errors are removed,
communication between worker and technical person will be very
fine. This system will also keep record of errors and technical
person dealing with that error. So, this will be helpful for company
while analysis.
A work of such a great significance is not possible without
the help of my guide Prof. Hate S. G and ME Coordinator Prof.
Bhope V.P for the valuable suggestions, co-operation and
continuous guidance.. Its my pleasure to thank to my principal
who is always a constant source of inspiration and always
provided joyful atmosphere.

Fig3: limit switch
Wi-Fi module:
Wi-Fi provide wireless high-speed Internet and network
connections this is the popular wireless networking technology
that uses radio waves. Wi-Fi is supported by many applications
including video game consoles, home networks, PDAs, mobile
phones, major operating systems, and other types of consumer
electronics. Any products that are tested and approved as "Wi-Fi
Certified" (a registered trademark) by the Wi-Fi Alliance are
certified as interoperable with each other, even if they are from
different manufacturers. For example, a user with a Wi-Fi





Ming Zhao1, Jing Lin1,2*,Xiufeng Wang1,2, Yuhe
Liao1,2Dynamic Transmission Error Analysis for A CNC
Machine Tool Based on Built-In Encoders 2011IEEE
Zhai Wen-zheng1,2, HU Yue-li1,21. Key Laboratory of
Advanced DisplayDesign and Implementation of CNC
Machine Remote Monitoring and Controlling System Based on
Embedded Internet 978-0-7695-4212-6/10 $26.00 2010
IEEE DOI 10.1109/ISDEA.2010.283 506
wi-fitechnologyNational telecom regulatory authority.2003.
SONG Wen, WANG Fei, DAI Jianbo A Emergency
Communication System Based on WMN in Underground Mine
978-1-4244-7237-6/10/$26.00 .2010 IEEE

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www.ijtra.com Volume 2, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 2014), PP. 89-90


Prajakta Sontakke
Dist-Thane, Mumbai, India.
Abstract- Originally, plastic is made from petroleum or natural
gas in a chemical process that combines smaller molecules into
a large chainlike molecule, often with other substances added
to give it particular qualities. Processes like gasification of
granulated plastic and catalytic pyrolysis can be used to
convert plastic, the long hydro-carbon chain back into smaller
hydra-carbon chains of naphtha, diesel, heavy diesel, kerosene
etc. These fuels can then be used anywhere from boiler fuel in
power generation to use in automobiles. This paper aims to
provide the best possible review of this much needed
conversion with the hope of visiting lowered fuel prices in the
near future by improvements in the design.
Keywords: Waste-energy, diesel, gasification, pyrolysis, ecofriendly, fuels.

According to the United Nations Environment
Programme, global plastic consumption has gone from 5.5
million tons in the 1950s to 110 million tons in 2009. Due to
the technical limitations or inconvenience of recycling, only
a fraction of that material resurfaces in new plastic products.
This leads to extra-ordinary amounts being dumped in
landfills for thousands of years. The Pacific Ocean is home
of the world's biggest landfill: the Great Pacific Garbage
Patch. The Plastics Division of the American Chemical
Council asked the Earth Institutes Earth Engineering
Centerto explore ways of recovering the energy inherent in
non-recycled plastics. The resulting report, released in
August 2011, determined that the amount of energy
contained in the millions of tons of plastic in U.S. landfills is
equivalent to 36.7 million tons of coal, 139 million barrels
of oil, or 783 billion cubic feet of natural gas. If all this
plastic were converted into liquid fuel, it could power all the
cars in Los Angeles for a year. And the fact is there are now
technologies that can put all this waste plastic to good use.
As stated earlier, plastic is a long chain hydro-carbon made
from smaller chained hydro-carbons like oil, diesel,
kerosene etc. Following are the processes in detail which
yield the maximum efficiency in this conversion:
A. Gasification of granulated waste plastic
Industrial makers of plastic parts generate a lot of
plastic wastes, which sometimes is granulated before being
dumped into a landfill so companies are not paying to dump
airspace. This process involves complete gasification; there
is no melting or slagging. The burner takes the granulated
plastic, sized in diameter between 2 and 10 millimetres,
from a solid to a liquid to a gas immediately in the
combustion chamber. That gas is actually producing the heat
we need to transfer into the boiler system. During the
gasification of the granulated waste plastic, temperatures are
very high-1,850 degrees Fahrenheit. The studies indicate
emissions profiles cleaner than that of natural gas. Stack
tests conforming to U.S. EPA standards were conducted on
the burner unit by an independent testing company. The
emissions testing evaluated the burner fueled with pelleted
No. 4 low-density polyethylene (LDPE) from Korea;
granulated No. 2 high-density polyethylene from discarded
plastic barrels; and granulated, dirty No. 4 LDPE mulch-

film. Three main categories of pollutants were tested:

particulate matter; gases (sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide
and carbon monoxide); and dioxins/furans. Test results
proved that this is an extremely clean-burning system.

Fig1. Stages of plastic particles undergoing gasification

B. Catalytic Pyrolysis of waste plastic
While interest in combusting and gasifying plastic
appears to be growing, there is another route to making
practical use of all the waste plastics modern society
produces. Through catalytic pyrolysis, a system was devised
to convert waste plastics into liquid hydrocarbons, coke and
gas, which can then be used as boiler fuel for power
generation. The technology uses lower temperatures than
gasification-significantly lower, so it's more energy efficient
to produce. Through "random depolymerisation," or
selective breaking of carbon-to-carbon bonds, in addition to
feeding in proprietary catalytic additives, the reactor melts
and vaporizes waste plastic in one step at temperatures
between 840 and 1,020 degrees F. On average, 78 percent of
every pound of plastic fed into the system is converted to
liquid hydrocarbons, coke and gas. The resultant coke can
be further processed to produce additional fuel oil. This
catalytic pyrolysis system processes polyolefins like
polyethylene and polypropylene with up to 5 percent other
plastic materials, plus up to 25 percent additional nonplastic
waste, such as paper, glass, sand and water-making it ideal
for processing municipal wastes. The output oil contains no
chlorine, sulphur, nitrogen or heavy metal.

Fig2. Process of pyrolysis of waste plastic

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This conversion as we have already seen is nothing but
A series of plants adopting either one of the above
beneficial. The gas emissions and ash produced during the
mentioned processes have been set up across many countries
process also falls under the permitted conditions against
by a range of leading companies. Their fuel production
pollution. A huge lot of terra-firma is also saved with such
capacity ranges from a mere 4 litres of fuel to lakhs of
undertakings. In addition, the following table shows the
tonnes, they are obviously related to the size of waste plastic
fuels so obtained are better than normal boiler fuels too. The
feeder and the time taken for 1 cycle of the process to
fuel quality from our P2O process is notably better than the
complete. Following are some of the already set up and fully
typical boiler fuel purchased by large industrial users, as
shown below.
functional plant datas:





UK: Cynar produces a synthetic fuel suitable for all

internal combustion engines.20 tonnes per day per
Washington, DC: Boosts easy installation, high
efficiency, no second-time pollution.Plant converts
6,000 tons of plastic into nearly a million barrels
Circle Pines, MN and International: They have a
modular unit that produces 775 litres of fuel for every
ton of plastic waste processed. System capacity is rated
at 185 tons per month.
New York/Canada: JBI, Inc. 20-ton processor, 4,000
lbs. of plastic feedstock per machine per hour.
Philippines: www.polygreen.com.ph 5,000 kilos of fuel
per day.
Hong Kong: Ecotech Recycling Social Enterprise
Prototype machine can process three tons of plastic
waste into 1,000 litres of fuel oil per day.
Pune, India: Rudra Environmental Solutions, the yield
is claimed to be 50 to 55% of the plastic disintegrated.
Annamalai University, Tamilnadu, India: Produces 50
litres of the petroleum products in two hours.

The fuel obtained is ultra-low sulphur fuel. Ultra-low

sulphur diesel is a type of diesel fuel that contains 15 parts
per million (ppm) or lower sulphur content. This diesel fuel
is often referred to as clean diesel because the sulphur
content has been reduced by more than 95%. In 2010,
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) mandated
that 100% of highway diesel imported into or refined in the
U.S. must meet this low sulphur standard. The reduction of
sulphur in diesel enables and preserves the operation of
advanced emissions control systems on light- and heavyduty diesel vehicles. The use of advanced emissions controls
leads to an environmental benefit where oxides of nitrogen
and other pollutant particulates are drastically diminished.
[I] Feedstock refining and pyrolysis of waste plastics by John
Scheirs and Walter Kaminsky.
[II] http://biomassmagazine.com/articles/2067/power-and-fuelfrom-plastic-wastes.
[III] http://www.inspirationgreen.com/plastic-waste-as-fuel.html.
[IV] Articles from Times Of India.

Fig3. A plastic to fuel conversion plant at JBI, Inc., NY.

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www.ijtra.com Volume 2, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 2014), PP. 91-93


Silvia Riva1, Gabriella Pravettoni1-2

Department of Health Sciences,

University of Milan (Italy)
Psycho-Oncology Unit, European Institute of Oncology (IEO), Milan, Italy
Introduction: Many people rely on non-prescription drugs
therapy to treat common medical conditions. Health technology
can be a valid support to help people in selecting and choosing
an appropriate treatment.
Aim: This study examined how common people make their
decisions to select a non-prescription drug, evaluating
comprehensibility and satisfaction of a virtual tool that could
propose and sell different types of non-prescription drugs
Methods: Fifty voluntary participants were enrolled to conduct
both the experiment with the virtual tool and a short structured
interview which included comprehensibility and satisfaction
questions, about the task performed.
Results: All participants performed the task quickly and easily.
Most of them focused their attention only on specific cues (91%)
of the drugs, namely side effect (61%) and doctors advice
(39%). Moreover participants evaluated the tool as
comprehensible and satisficing.
Conclusion: The use of non-prescription drugs therapy shift
different responsibilities onto the individuals. A dedicated
virtual tool can represent a valid support to help people in these
type of decisions. These findings have implications both for the
cognitive psychology that studies the cognitive process behind
the choice and the selection of a drug and for technology and
computer science that studies how to create concrete support for
improve peoples quality of life.
KEYWORDS: Decision making, health outcomes, health
technology, virtual task, cognitive psychology, psychology
Nonprescription drug therapy is an increasingly
important element of everyday-life contexts and it is
becoming tightly woven into the self-care system for several
common health problems [1-6]. Clearly, it is important for
both patients and healthcare providers to discuss how
nonprescription drug therapy are chosen and used because
there is evidence that patients can be often uncertain about
these type of treatment that are being consumed [3; 5-6].
Furthermore, in line with this, it is important to
understand how the process of choice works and which
strategies plays a role in this process.
Nowadays, there are several modalities to study people
preferences and to evaluate habits and choice styles [7]; one
of these is offered by technology, especially by virtual
technology [8-9] which is becoming more and more popular
in psychological sciences [10]


Computer-generated virtual environments have reached a
high level of usability in several area of psychology. In recent
times, the creation of virtual environment simulations (VES)
has reached a sophisticated level in terms of graphic display
and interaction with the user [8-9]. In psychology VES may

be used to create realistic scenarios which simulate the real

situations in the real world. Moreover, these virtual situations
may be designed to reflect natural situations.
What do we mean by VES? One definition is that it is a
state of affairs, a depiction of objects or a space which has no
physical basis. In this environment people can interact or
even touch these objects [10-11]. The ontology of a VES
includes its actors or players, an environment or geometry in
which the actors behave and a set of rules of behavioural
dynamics attached to the actors [11]. In essence a VES
requires three differentiable components: the motion input or
interactive control devices, the simulated environment itself
and the rendering of the environment.
There are a number of ways in which using a VES may
be beneficial. Using a VES gives one the opportunity to
eliminate or control for unwanted cues while preserving the
attention on the study-stimulus [11]. VES also allows one to
look at the dynamics and behavioural aspects of learning and
encoding. Another benefit of VES is the ability to create
specific environment for specific application.
There are however a number of barriers to using VES
[9]. Many researchers are skeptical regarding the validity of
obtained results under such artificial conditions. One remedy
for this appears to be bringing experiments in which the
performance of subjects in a particular task in compared in
both VES and equivalent ecological task. Another remedy is
to clarify and deep the results that can be obtained in a VES
task with other measures like questionnaires or interview or
observational methodologies.
In a previous published study [5], we have evaluated the role
of VES in supporting peoples choice for selecting different
type of nonprescription drug therapy. Using the previous
architecture [5], we proposed a new virtual task in a new
community of people with the intent to evaluate the level of
comprehensibility and satisfaction of the task through a short
semi-structured interview.
A. Participants
The analysis was based on semi-structured tests devised
in Java language with 50 participants. Tests were conducted
by a cognitive researcher trained into this research (SR, first
author). Participant signed an Informed Consent to declare
their participation to this experiment.
The research was conducted in Milan (Northern Italy)
with the collaboration of the University of Milan and at the
Catholic University of Sacred Heart of Milan from January
2014 to April 2014. Participants were not remunerated. They
voluntarily participated in the tasks and showed great
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enthusiasm, viewing their participation as a contribution to
the quality of their medical assistance.
Characteristics of participants are given in Table 1. The
B. The VES Task
sample included 31 (62%) female and 19 (38%) female, the
The data treated here consist of test results which track
mean age was 25 (range 21-32; SD=1,5).
information lookups and decisions in a hypothetical situation
To investigate the level comprehensibility and
in which participants were asked to pretend to assume a
satisfaction, we considered three factors: the ability to
nonprescription drug therapy. The interviewer read the
perform the task choice, the type of information that people
instructions to each participant and also explained the aim of
considered before choosing the treatment and the results from
the test. Each experimental session lasted approximately 15
the short structured interview.
About the first point, all the participants (100%) were
Each subject was placed in front of the touch-screen and
able to use the tool and perform the VES task from the
trained on how to manage each single task. A personal
beginning to the end with the selection of one or more
computer ran a Java Virtual Machine which recorded all the
appropriate nonprescription drugs.
data. Tests were conducted on a touch-screen-based interface
About the type of information, the 91% (46 out of 50
programmed in Java language in order to facilitate the
participants) of participants looked at only specific pieces of
interaction with dynamic information provided by the
information revealing a clear preference for smaller
information sets to act upon. Participants probably focused on
Each subject was placed in front of the touch-screen and
those subsets of medical products that mostly captured their
trained on how to manage each single task. A personal
interest because more known and used in case of need
computer ran the Java Virtual Machine which recorded all the
without a deep attention for differences and similarities
among drugs. The cue of the highest interest was again side
As well described in the original paper of the VES Task
effects, followed by the doctors advice. Side effects was
[5], the test began similarly by asking participants to choose
explored in the 61% of times, and doctors advice was
between hypothetical nonprescription drugs commonly
explored in the 39% of times.
available in a Pharmacy. Participants were invited to explore
Finally, about the interviews questions, participants
a 6 x 2 matrix displaying in each of the two rows the two
showed a high level of support, clearness and satisfaction
alternative treatments (Drugs 1, Drugs 2) and in each column,
with the tool, reporting highly satisficing interactions with the
six treatment features: price, doctors advice, daily dose,
instrument and a clearness in usability with ratings of 8 or 9
availability, brand and side effects. There were no constraints
on the 10-point scale, where 8 and 9 represented a very high
on how participants should look up feature information even
degree of support, clearness and satisfaction (see Fig. 2).
if there was a constraint on the number of possible features
looked up.

Fig.2. Tool evaluation expressed by participants

Legend: green: support
red: clearness
blue: satisfaction

Fig 1. The VES task

After the exploration phase, we asked participants how
they evaluate this test in terms of comprehensibility and
satisfaction in selecting drugs and make an appropriate by the
following questions:
-How much did the tool support your process of choice?
-How much was the tool clear and comprehensible?
-How much were you satisfied in using this tool?
Answers were given on a 10-point scale from not at
all to completely. The level of support, clearness and
satisfaction were measured according to the scores given by

The aim of this study was to investigate how common
people judged a virtual device as an appropriate tool make
medical decisions for selecting a non-prescription drug. We
analysed three factors: the ability to perform the task choice,
the type of information that people considered before
choosing the treatment and the results from the short
structured interview. For this study, we designed naturalistic
environments in which participants had to choose common
non-prescription drugs therapy for common health problems,
frequently experienced by people.
We observed that all the participants were able to
perform the task revealing a direct expression of
comprehensibility and clearness of the device. Moreover, we
observed that, during the experiment, participants consulted
very little information at their disposal, confirming
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www.ijtra.com Volume 2, Issue 5 (Sep-Oct 2014), PP. 91-93
[III] Covington T (2006) Nonprescription Drug Therapy: Issues and
preliminary data published before [5]. Two features were
Opportunities. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
systematically explored: side effects in the 61% of times, and
70: 137141.
doctors advice in the 39% of times. The process of choice
Riva S, Schulz P, Staffoni L, Shoeb V (2014) Patient
was also very quick reflecting the use of some smart
participation in discharge planning decisions in the frame of
strategies (eg. cognitive heuristics) that helped participants in
Primary Nursing approach: A conversation analytic study,
selecting the most important pieces of information easily [5Studies in Communication Sciences 14: 61-67
2]. The behaviour of participant in performing the task in a
[V] Riva S, Monti M, Antonietti A (2011) Simple heuristics in oversuch way can represent a direct indicator of clearness and
the-counter drug choices: a new hint for medical education and
comprehensibility of the tool.
practice, Advances in Medical Education and Practice 2: 59 -70.
doi 10.2147/AMEP.S13004
Finally, the semi-structured interview confirmed our
[VI] Riva S, Monti M, Iannello P, Antonietti A (2012) The
initial hypothesis showing that participants evaluated the tool
Representation of Risk in Routine Medical Experience: What
as highly clear, understandable and they reported highly
Actions for Contemporary Health Policy? PLoS ONE 7(11):
satisfaction in the task.
e48297. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048297
This is a preliminary and exploratory study, and the
[VII] Schulz PJ, Hartung U, Riva S (2013) Causes, Coping, and
present findings require further investigation. The study has
Culture: A Comparative Survey Study on Representation of
several limitations. First, the size of our sample, composed of
Back Pain in Three Swiss Language Regions. PLoS ONE 8(11):
50 participants, is clearly a small sample not highly
e78029. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078029
representative of certain group of population like elderly
[VIII] Schnbrodt FD, Asendorpf JB (2011) Virtual social
environments as a tool for psychological assessment: dynamics
people that might be have more difficulties in performing a
of interaction with a virtual spouse. Psychology Assessment
VES task. Second, we acknowledge that the choice of a non23:7-17
prescription drug can be affected by other variables not
Loomis JM, Blascovich JJ, Beall AC (1999) Immersive virtual
examined in this study such as past experience, the opinion of
environment technology as a basic research tool in psychology.
other people, and commercial advertisement.
Behavioural Research Methods Instruments Computation
Last but not least, there were limitations in using this
type of methodology. We tried our best to design a tool that
[X] Riva S, Camerini AL, Allam A, Schulz PJ (2014) Interactive
could reveal real-life situations with very common treatment
Sections of an Internet-Based Intervention Increase
used in Italy. Nonetheless, we may expect different outcomes
Empowerment of Chronic Back Pain Patients: Randomized
Controlled Trial Journal of Medical Internet Research,
in real situations.
Even though this research does not claim absolute
generalisations, we can describe some interesting findings in
a context-bound sense that come from an active process of
reflection given by the experimental phase and quantitative
data analysis.
First, the use of VES have the potential to support the
ability of individuals to judge and participate in decisions
concerning their self-care. Second, the education to
cooperation, along with the entire team of health
professionals, technicians and computer specialists, will
permit to overcome problems of communication and
obstacles, so that the use of VES technology will help people
in choosing the more appropriate drug for specific healthproblems.
Finally, the future research in psychology,
especially cognitive psychology, should work together with
technology and computer science to find new strategies to
improve the education of society regarding appropriate use of
non-prescription drugs.

[XI] Blascovich J, Loomis J, Beall, AC, Swinth, KR, Hoyt, CL, and
Bailenson, JN (2002) Immersive Virtual Environment
Technology as a Methodological Tool for Social Psychology,
Psychological Inquiry 13:103124

The first author wants to thank dr. Marco Monti and Prof.
Alessandro Antonietti for their support in design and
conceptualize the first version of the tool that helped us to
project the current version.
[I] Berry DC (2006) Informing People about the Risks and Benefits
of Medicines: Implications for the Safe and Effective Use of
Medicinal Products. Current Drug Safety 1: 121126.
[II] Riva S, Monti M, Iannello P, Pravettoni G, Schulz P, Antonietti
A (2014) A Preliminary Mixed-Method Investigation of Trust
and Hidden Signals in Medical Consultations. PlosOne 9(3):
e90941. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090941

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Mohamed Magzoub Garieb Alla, Amel G. Elsharief
Abstract: Waste is actually the biggest feed stock available for
processing, to produce useful and usable products. The
increasing amount of waste is a characteristic of the modern
human, though this discloses a more luxury life it presents an
environmental hazard that cannot be ignored. Following this
understanding we decided to impact on method of utilizing waste
and converting it into useful and usable products as well as
reducing the nuisance of waste. The methodology followed comes
in steps; first a random trial to detect the use of unsorted waste
and evaluating the equipment design, secondly improvement of
blending of different components of waste, thirdly improvement
of facilities for uniformity of heat and pressure, finally arriving
at suitable formula regarding the ratio of the different waste
components to give uniformity and better hold of the product.
Key words: waste, aseptic carton, plastic waste, hard Sheets.

Human activities create waste, and the ways that waste is
handled, stored, collected, and disposed of can pose risks to
the environment and to public health. Solid waste management
includes all activities that seek to minimize health,
environmental, and aesthetic impacts of solid waste.
In urban areas, especially in the rapidly urbanizing cities
of the developing world, problems and issues of municipal
solid waste management (MSWM) are of immediate
importance. Most governments have acknowledged the
importance of MSWM; however, rapid population growth
overwhelms the capacity of most municipal authorities to
provide even the most basic services.
According to a United Nations Development Programmer
survey of 151 mayors of cities from around the world, the
second most serious problem that city dwellers face (after
unemployment) is insufficient solid waste disposal (UNDP
1997). Typically one- to two-thirds of the solid waste that is
generated is not collected. The uncollected waste is dumped
indiscriminately in the streets and in drains, contributing to
flooding, breeding of insect and rodent vectors, and spreading
of diseases.
In recent years, environmental problems and recycling
issues are being discussed with more popularity in most of the
developed and developing countries. In 2006, 313000 tons of
beverage carton were recycled within a total capacity of 12
billion tons recycled material that represents a recycling rate
of 30% in Europe. Recycling is not only increasing at a high
rate but also combining with recovery of material reaching to
almost 636000 tons with an approximate value of 61% rate in
European Union. It is expected that more than 70% of
municipalities will have enhanced opportunities for recycling
household packaging. Recycled food carton also has

substantial amount of market share within recycling industry.

In Sudan, recently the discussion of environmental
problems and recycling issues is started with more popularity.
Recovering waste material from used beverage cartons (UBC)
to manufacture a value-added product with an economical and
efficient method is an important issue from the perspective of
environmental pollution. Recycling of beverage cartons is a
relatively new developing industry in Sudan. The material
obtained from recycled UBC carton in world is predominantly
used for the manufacture of paper and carton based products
including shopping bags, cores for paper reel, sheets of
cardboard, disposable kitchen towels, printing paper, plaster
board lining and corrugated board.

FIGURE 1: Aseptic carton

Throughout the manufacturing process, the cartons
are treated in such a way that no other material including toxic
adhesives are needed. Cardboard also offers excellent
soundproofing and insulation qualities UBC carton can be
recycled using a thermal compression process to manufacture
home and building products. The dominating structure of a
used beverage carton is seen in Fig.1. As an alternative to repulping for paper applications, an additional process converts
shredded cartons into thermally compressed to make a high
strength bio-composite panel alternative to traditional wood
based panels such as particleboard, medium density fiberboard
(MDF) and oriented strand board (OSB). This type of panel
product was developed by Tetra Pak and is produced in
various countries under different brand names. Which is
composed of 70 - 90% paper, 10 - 25% low density
polyethylene (LDPE) and about 5% aluminum which are
existing components of UBC used. UBC cartons collected
from consumers are shredded and then molded together under
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high temperature and pressure. The process uses the whole
B. Hot press design:
waste package without leaving any waste. UBC cartons are
The hot press should give:shredded into 5 mm particles and formed in a layer to get a
1- High temperature
desired thickness. The mat is then compressed under pressure
2- High pressure
and heat in a hot press. In this process, there is no need for the
3- Uniformity
addition of an adhesive element due to 20% polyethylene in
The first trials using steel plates were very tedious
UBC carton raw material. The polyethylene content in the mat
and did not give the required results due to:
melts and binds fiber and aluminum pieces together in the
1- High temperature burning the stock.
form of a compact elastic matrix. Aluminum at the rate of 5%
2- Non uniformity of selvedges heating.
causes the heat to spread more uniformly. Nystrm(2000)
The design changed using high resistant bricks
similar to bricks use in bakeries and those gave the required
A. Production of panel board:
The next step was to improve the selection of the
It started as a project in Lund, Sweden, in mid-eighties.
feed batches, in such a way that each batch contain similar
The first production site was built at Tetra Pak in Kenya 1987.
ratio of different component, we took notice of the fact that to
Since then, other manufacturing sites operating in countries
give repeatability of the production, we also made note of the
across the world have developed. Todays manufacturing
fact that the plastic component under action of heat and
plants are located in Argentina, Brazil, China, Germany,
pressure will act as binder to increase the composure and solid
Kenya, Pakistan, Slovakia South Korea and Turkey.
properties of the sheet.
Most plants are small-scale business with production
Having obtained sheets of reasonable characteristics
operating at 1-2 shifts, 5 days/week. Capacities vary but are in
then proceeded to reduce the thickness to facilities production
general from 2-5 tons/day. The world production for 1999 is
of corrugated sheets which are popular as ceiling.
summarized in the table below. Nystrm(2000).
The trails were done at different conditions such as different
recipes of feed stock, different temperatures. But most of them
were done at time between 10 to 15 minutes.
Trial 1:(2 factories)
This is entry to the process to get adequacy of self-made
simple equipments to give required results as governed by the
production obtained. Waste was cut in small pieces mixed
Green Board
manually and randomly scattered to give a uniform layer. The
Tetra K1,K2,K3
production obtained:Turkey
1- Lack in uniformity.
2- Selvage where not adequately heated and pressed.
3- The whole of the final product was doubtful as
Production of the panel board is basically the same
regards to its use for specific purpose.
across the world and includes the following unit operations.
Shredding, (washing, drying), forming, hot and cold pressing,
Trial 2:handling / trimming.
As it was noticed that the feedstock suffered from burning also
The modern trend of utilizing natural resources is
the heating plates had to be modified from iron plates to heat
becoming more and more prime since the resources are limited
resistant bricks. This gave safer heating without causing
and full utilization is no longer a luxury but a necessity. While
change to the stock and modifying pressure. The result was
reprocessing of water ,soil remediation , and the hot cakes
better as regards to selvage heating and uniformity.
other areas can be ignored paper processing has gained a
Consistency was still a problem as hold.
remarkable momentum as raw material for paper are trees and
forest which are getting exhausted.
Trial 3:In his endeavors to play a role however small it might
In this trial we concentrate on more proper blending of the
be , he put in his mind the utilization of feed stock which
waste and the result was a visible improvement but lack in
nobody wants, and which actually is considered a bother and
ability to cement.
an environmental hazard, namely waste packaging material
including:Trial 4:1- Paper
Concentration was on how to give a better hold avoiding as
2- Aluminum foil
much as possible any expensive additions so it was thought
3- Plastics
that the incorporation of thermoplastic should be consider a
4- Cartons
prime factor in the percentage of polyethylene to be used was
5- Shrubbes
give more than step child attention, so minium of:Aseptic carton (commercially known as Tetrapak)
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3-George Tchobanoglous, Frank Keith, (2002) handbook
1. 25% linear chain polyethylene of the used a cheaper
solid Waste management, second edition, McGraw-Hill.
packs which always available around is made a rule.
Cheremisinoff, Nicholas P., (2003), Handbook of solid
2. The polyethylene is cut in small pieces and uniform
waste management and waste minimization technologies,
distributing the blend.
Elsevier Science
The use of poly ethylene is important as binding agent as a
Zhu Da, Asnani P. U., Zurbrgg Chris, Anapolsky
dissolve under the reaction of heat and pressure and then
Sebastian, Mani Shyamala , (2008),Improving Municipal
solidified acting as glue improving the whole and giving a
Solid Waste Management in India, The World Bank
better light reflection.
Washington, D.C.

Trial 5:Was done using Aseptic Carton (terapack) as major

component the recipe runs as follows:75% paper
20% polyethylene
5% aluminum foil
The purpose behind the use of aluminum is it shiny looks and
luster and extra strength it gives to the product.

Young, Gary C., (2010) Municipal solid waste to energy

conversion processes, John Wiley &Sons.

General speaking we made more than twenty trails for plain

C. Corrugated trials:
A mold was designed to produce corrugated product to be
used as fencing and roofing. Results were encouraging even
compare to standard light weight international products
available in the market. The same recipe was done in the
corrugated trials.

Plate1. Different trials

The best recipes according the trials are:
1. 50% plastic and 50% agricultural waste (Shrubbes).
This trial was done under temperature 80C.
2. 30% newsprint waste, 30% agricultural waste and
40% plastic. This trial was done under temperature

Nystrm Tommy,(Aug 2000) Carton Environment, Tetra
Pak Carton Packaging Division.
Miller, Debra A., (2010) Garbage and recycling, Gale,
Engage Learning.

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Sunil Kumar Gupta, Jyotsna Sengupta
Department of Computer Science,
Punjabi university Patiala (147002)
abr_sunil@yahoo.com, Jyotsna.sengupta@gmail.com
Abstract The Mobile WiMAX simulation model is
implemented by using MATLAB code. The simulation model
consists of different phases which will help us to model the
transmitter and receiver section. In the next phase, the data is
being modulated by using the modulation methods QPSK and
QAM followed by OFDM transmitter. These phases can be
used to show the performance of these modulation methods
under varying condition. The Multipath Rician fading model is
implemented to introduce the fading in the transmitter data.
Receiver section is used to receive data from channel will be fed
into the OFDM demodulation. In the next phase, Fast Fourier
Transform is used to disassemble OFDM frame. After that
convolution encoding is applied to data and interleaving is
carried on by using MATLAB function. BPSK method is used
to change the data in the form of bit information to be symbols.
We had used
Different functions to modulate and demodulate data.

A. What is WiMAX?
World Wide Interoperability for Micro Wave Access is
the IEEE 802.16 standard, that specifies a frequency band in
the range from 10 GHz to 66 GHz. Basically WiMAX is a
wireless internet that's able to covering a wide geographic
area by serving a vast selection of users at a very low cost. It
particularizes a metropolitan area networking protocol
which not only provides a wireless alternative for cable,
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) and T1 level services for last
mile broadband access and also provides a backhaul for
802.11 hotspots and automobile higher data rates WiMAX is
usually more established in cellular sector [1].
B. Multipath delay spread
The channel impulse response of a wireless channel
looks like a compilation of pulses, due to the multipath
reflections. The volume of pulses that may be eminent is
very large, and depends on the time resolution of the
communication or measurement system. So because of the
non line of vision propagation nature of the WiMAX
OFDM, we have to address multipath delay spread in this
channel model. To handle the effect of multipath
propagation, the delay spread parameter is employed. It
depends on terrain, distance, antenna directivity and
additional factors [3]. We can show a LOS and multipath
scenario. It shows that at different time, multiple reflections
of the same signal come to the receiver. This might result in
an Inter symbol Interference (ISI) causing noticeable
degradation in signal quality [2].
C. Fading Characteristics
In multipath fading, the received signal experiences
variation in its amplitude, phase and angle of arrival in a

multipath propagation environment. As a result they might

add either constructively or destructively leading to a
complex envelope. Small scale fading has also been
addressed in this channel model due to the fixed deployment
of transmit and receive antenna. If there is no line of vision
signal component and there are multiple reflective paths that
are large in number then small scale fading is termed
Rayleigh fading [6]. When there is a line of vision
component in conjunction with the multiple reflective paths
then small scale fading is described by a Rician pdf, so in
this channel model Rician distribution is used. The key
component of this is the k factor that is the ratio of the direct
component power and the scatter component power [5].
Lee et. al. [5] Here, all simulations are performed by
using Matlab programs. At First, the 88 data bits are
randomly generated for BPSK modulation. Next we use the
function in Matlab named as rsenc (msg,N,K,varargin) to
perform Reed-Solomon encoding with the output of 96 bits
(8 code word bits). Later, the 96 bits are input of Viterbi
(msg , template , Tx) in order to perform Convolution
encoding. At this stage, the output of data stream is 192 bits.
Next, the task of interleaving 192 bits is carried on by using
intrlv (data, elements). Now, it is ready to change the data in
form of bit information to be symbols. For BPSK, the
number of bits is equal to the number of symbols. The
function to modulate data is called as pskmod (x,M) in
which pskdemod (x,M) is a function to demodulate signal.
Loutfi et.al. [7] The simulation result shown in this
paper infers that mobile WiMAX system using Turbo
coding provides BER of 10-5 at Eb/No of 14 dB which is
better than LDPC coding by providing BER of 10-4 for
QPSK modulation scheme in the presence of Rayleigh
fading channel.
Ghosh et.al. The performance analysis of WiMAX
802.26e physical layer model, simulation is performed by
considering the standard test vectors specified in the
WIMAX standard. BER Verses SNR. BER is the number of
error bits occurs within one second in transmitted signal.
BER define mathematically as follow. When the transmitter
and receivers medium are good in a particular time and
Signal-to-Noise Ratio is high, and then Bit Error rate is very
low. In our thesis simulation we generated random signal
when noise occurs after that we got the value of Bit error
SNR= Signal Power/Noise Power
SNR= (Signal Amplitude/Noise Amplitude) 2
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method remain the same which had been used by other
Khan et.al. [11] The WiMAX MAC (Medium Access
channels for the comparison. I had used MATLAB software
Control) layer simulink model is used; we use AWGN
to implement different functions related to this simulation
(Additive White Gaussian Noise) and different modulation
model. Various parameters which can affect the throughput
schemes used like QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)
of the model are defined beforehand. Different metrics are
and QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation).
chosen to perform the evaluation and results are represented
Chowdhury et.al. [8] The performance of WiMAX
in tabular and graphical from [7].
MAC layer is based on the simulation results. Mobile
C. Methodology Used
WiMAX system using LDPC coding and Turbo coding and
The methodology which we have used to develop the
MIMO model is simulated for different modulation schemes
WiMAX Modelling using ideal Rician Channel for the
such as QPSK and 16-QAM under Rayleigh fading channel
physical layer is given as follows:
with the help of MATLAB.
Grewal et.al. [9] It is inferred that mobile WiMAX
system using LDPC coding has BER of approximately 10-4
at 9 dB of Eb/No for QPSK modulation. But, the BER is
approximately 10-4 at 13 dB of Eb/No for 16-QAM
modulation under Rayleigh channel.
Neha et.al. [10] BER performance of Mobile WiMAX
system using LDPC and Turbo coding is determined and
compared for above mentioned modulation schemes in the
presence of Rayleigh channel. Further, BER analysis of
mobile WiMAX system using MIMO model with STBC and
STTC is calculated as compared between STBC and STTC.




A. WiMAX System Modelling Using Rician Fading

The third variation in the modelling of WiMAX product
is with the replacement of Rayleigh channel by Rician
channel. For sub cities where there can be the prospects for
realizing the line of vision path in conjunction with
multipath structure, the wireless channel must be modeled as
the Rician channel and that is again the real time realization
of fading phenomenon of the wireless systems. In the
modeling of the Rician channel the multipath variations of
signal are superimposed over the line of sight component
which increases the overall strength of the whole
information at the receiver.[12]
Rician fading is characterized by a factor, which is
expressed as the power ratio of the secular (los or dominant
path) component to the diffused component. This ratio, k,
defines how in close proximity to Rayleigh statistics the
channel is. In fact when k=infinite, there isn't any and when
k=0, this method for Rayleigh fading. The ratio is expressed
linearly and not in decibels. While the Average path gain
vector parameter manages the overall gain through the
channel, the K-factor parameter controls the gains partition
into line-of-sight and diffuses components [4]. The other
blocks and properties of WiMAX model will continue to be
the same. [1]
B. Implementation
We have done the following for implementation and
In this semester, I had implemented the Mobile
WIMAX simulation model by using Multipath Rician
Fading Channel. The throughput of the model is being
analysed and it is compared with the results already given
for various other channels. Basic encoding and modulation


The first step which had been followed is to

generate a random data stream of length 4400 bit
which we have used as the input binary data. We
have used Matlab 7 version in which data input of
bits is done by using inbuilt function of the Matlab.
We have used the random function which is used to
divide and assemble the data so that it nis possible
to convert long sequences of 0's or 1's in a random
sequence. If the input is given in a proper way then
it is possible to have better coding performance.
After the data is input then we have to check the
errors in data. There are many inbuilt functions
available In Matlab which can used for error
checking. The encoded data after error checking is
used to perform rated convolutional encoding. The
interleaving function is applied on the encoding
Then various digital modulation techniques like
QAM, 16-QAM and 64-QAM, are specified for
WiMAX Physical layer so that we can say that it is
used to modulate the encoded data.

In this part of the report, we will presents and discuss all of
the results obtained by the computer simulation program
written in Matlab7. We have analyzed the wireless
communication system considering AWGN, Rayleigh
Fading and Rician Fading channel.

In the figure given above, we have performed all the

calculations with the synthetically generated data. The
results are shown in terms of bit energy to noise power
spectral density ratio (Eb/No) and bit error rate (BER) for
original values of system parameters. By varying SNR, we
have plotted Eb/No vs. BER by using the semiology
function. The Bit Error Rate (BER) plot obtained in the
performance analysis showed that simulator is valid for
Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) less than 25 dB.

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Simulation results in figure above shows the performance of

the system over AWGN and fading (Rayleigh & Rician)
channels using modulation scheme. In this research work, it
has been shown that the performance of an OFDM based
WIMAX Communication system adopting different coding
schemes and digital modulation scheme.
The performance of Rician fading channel is worse than that
of AWGN channel and better than that of Rayleigh fading
channel. Because Rician fading channel has higher BER
than AWGN channel and lower than Rayleigh fading
channel. BER of this channel has not been much affected by
noise. The elapsed time taken for the implementation of the
simulation is reduced as compared to other models. The path
gain values for the Rician fading model are given foe certain
points as well as a total value.
This thesis presents performance over MAC layer under
various modulation schemes in Rician channel. A key
performance way of measuring a wireless communication
equipment is the SNR versus PER. It might be figured for a
certain price of SNR at some signal power the performance
in relation to BER is less in QAM system compared to a
QPSK system.
To realize ideal conditions of propagation of WiMAX
system, the modeling can be achieved by assuming the
international calls highly efficient path i.e. AWGN channel.
For understanding the real time multipath structure of
WiMAX model, the channel is simulated as Rayleigh
channel in worst scenario wherein the performance in terms
of fading can be improved by changing the valuation on
Doppler shift. With the same criterion, the presence of line
of vision is usually justified by modeling WiMAX with
Rician channel. Also the performance can be improved by
implementing of antenna diversity techniques with BLAST
and also STBC with fading channel scenario.

Broadband Wireless Access Systems, Re v. of IEEE 802.162001, 1 Oct.2001.

[5] J. El-Najjar, B. Jaumard, C. Assi, Minimizing Interference
in WiMAX 802.16 based Mesh Networks with Centralized
Scheduling, Global Telecommunications Conference, New
Orleans, LA, USA, pp.1-6, 30Nov.4 Dec., 2008.
[6] K. Lee and D. Williams, A space-time coded transmitter
diversity technique for frequency selective fading channels,
Proceedings of IEEE Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal
Processing Workshop, Cambridge, Mass, USA, pp.149152,
March, 2000.
[7] M. Patidar, R. Dubey, and N.K. Jain Performanc analysis of
WiMAX 802.16e Physical Layer model proceeding 2012
Ninth International conference on, 2012, pp. 1-5.
[8] Muhammad Nadeem Khan, Sabir Ghauri , The WiMAX
802.16e Physical Layer Model , University of the West of
England, United Kingdom.
[9] Nuaymi Loutfi, 2007, WiMAX Technology for Broadband
Wireless Access, Wiley London.
Performance Analysis of WiMAX PHY by S.M. Lalan
Chowdhury, P. Venkateswaran, IEEE CASCOM Post
Graduate Student Paper Conference 2010 jadavpur
university, Kolkata, pp.13-16,Nov, 2010.
Simulation of WiMAX 802.16 MAC Layer Model:
Experimental Results by Neha
Rathore, IJ ECT Vol. 3
Issue 1, Jan.- March 2012, R.K.D.F. Institute of Technology
& Science, Bhopal, MP,India.
The WiMAX 802.16e Physical Layer Model by
Muhammad Nadeem Khan, Sabir Ghauri, University of West
of England, United Kingdom.
V. Grewal, A. K. Sharma, On performance
Enhancement of WiMAX PHY Layer with Turbo coding for
Mobile Environments, International Journal of Advanced
Science and Technology, Volume 31, pp.37-46, June, 2011.

[1] Fan Wang, Amitava Ghosh, Chandy Sankaran, Philip J.
Fleming, Frank Hsieh and Stanley J. Benes, Mobile
WiMAX Systems: Performance and Evolution, IEEE
Communications Magazine, ISSN: 0163-6804,Volume 46,
Issue 10, pp. 41-49, October 2008.
[2] IEEE 802.16-2006: IEEE standard for Local and
Metropolitan Area Network- Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed
Broadband Wireless Access Systems.
[3] IEEE 802.16e-2005, IEEE Standard for Local and
Metropolitan Area Networks, part 16, Air Interface for Fixed
and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Systems, IEEE
Press, 2006.
[4] IEEE 802.16-2004, IEEE Standard for Local and
Metropolitan Area Networks Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed

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Khwaja M. Anwar

Aggarwal Vanita

Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering,

Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Mullana,
Ambala, India

Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,

Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Mullana,
Ambala, India

Abstract- The study was conducted to evaluate the groundwater

quality of Aligarh city, (India). Groundwater samples were
collected from 40 wells and analyzed for 20 water quality
parameters in post-monsoon seasons during the year 2013. High
coefficient of variance indicates variability of physico-chemical
parameters concentrations in ground water. The descriptive
statistical analysis was done beside Pearson correlation. From
correlation analysis it was observed that very strong correlations
exist between total hardness and Mg++ (0.99), TDS and total
hardness (0.88), TDS and Chloride (0.87). In 100% of the
samples recorded alkalinity and magnesium concentration were
found higher than maximum permissible limit prescribed by BIS.
Concentration of hardness, cadmium, pH, iron, lead, and total
dissolved solids were also found above the standard limits
prescribed by BIS. This reveals deterioration of water quality. It
is therefore, suggested to take up regular monitoring of
groundwater in areas of Aligarh city.
Key words: Contamination, Groundwater quality, Multivariate,
Physicochemical characteristics, Statistical analysis.

ater is blessing of God and is very precious resource of
this planet. It is well known that human health and survival
depends upon use of uncontaminated and clean water for
drinking and other purposes. Most human activities involve
the use of water in one way or other such as food, production,
nutrition are dependent on water availability in adequate
quantities and good quality (Howari F.M., 2005). It is
estimated that approximately one third of the world's
population uses groundwater for drinking purposes and today
more than half the world's population depends on groundwater
for survival (Mohrir A., 2002). Data has shown that
groundwater were less susceptible to bacterial re growth
(Niquette et al. 2001). The water supply for human
consumption is often directly sourced from groundwater
without biochemical treatment and the level of pollution has
become a cause for major concern (Sinha, 2004).
Groundwater resource is under threat from pollution either
from human life style manifested by the low level of hygiene
practiced in the developing nations (Ikem, A. et al, 2002).
With increasing industrialization, urbanization and growth of
population, Indias environment has become fragile and has
been causing concern (Mohapatra and Singh, 1999). Pollution
of water is due to increased human population,
industrialization, use of fertilizers in agriculture and man made
activity (Rao, et al, 2012). Once the groundwater
contaminated, its quality cannot be restored by stopping the
pollutants from the source therefore it becomes very important
to regularly monitor the quality of groundwater.

In this study statistical techniques were used to analyze

the water quality data collected from Aligarh City, (India).
Correlation coefficient is used to measure the strength of
association between two continuous variables. This tells if the
relation between the variables is positive or negative that is
one increase with the increase of the other. Thus, the
correlation measures the observed co-variation. The most
commonly used measure of correlation is Pearsons correlation
(r). It is also called the linear correlation coefficient because r
measures the linear association between two variables (Halsel
and Hirsch, 2002).
The Aligarh is an ancient city in the north Indian state
of Uttar Pradesh is situated in the middle of doab-the land
between The Ganga and Yamuna rivers, at a distance of 130
Km Southeast of Delhi on the Delhi- Howrah rail route and the
Grand Trunk road. Aligarh lies between latitude 27 54 and
28 north and Longitude is 78 and 78 5 east. The Aligarh
city is spread over an area of about 36.7 km2. The area lies
between the Karwan River in the west and the Senger River in
the east and is a part of central Ganga basin. Aligarh is mostly
known as a university city where the famous Aligarh Muslim
University is located. The Aligarh city is an important centre
of lock smithy and brassware manufacturing.There are a total
of 5506 industrial units in Aligarh city, of these; there are
3500 small scale industries, 2000 medium scale 6 large
industries. Environmental quality of the area deteriorates
mainly as a result of the increasing industrial activities. All
segments of environment are being polluted by various ways.
However, the study of water pollution is selected as it is not an
ordinary liquid but is the elixir of life.
Aligarh has a monsoon influenced humid subtropical
climate. July is the wettest month. The normal annual rainfall
is 760 mm. Maximum temperature shoots upto 47 0C and
minimum temperature may fall around 20C. The average
relative humidity in the morning is 62.25% and in the evening
it is 44.2%. Hydrogeologically there is a three to four tier
aquifer system. Aquifers seem to merge with each other, thus,
developing a single bodys aquifer. This makes the aquifer
vulnerable to contamination (Khan T. A., 2011).

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B. Temperature
The maximum water temperature was observed 240C at
S31 and minimum 170C at S14with an average value of
19.250C. The variation in temperature may be due to different
timing of collection and influence of season (Jayaraman et al,
2003). Temperature controls behavioral characteristics of
organisms, solubility of gases and salts in water, No other
factor has so much influence as temperature (Welch 1952).


Forty water samples were collected in post-monsoon
(November) seasons during the year 2013. These samples
were collected as per the standard methods prescribed for
sampling. Plastic bottles of 1.5 liter capacity with stopper were
used for collecting samples. Each bottle was washed with 2%
Nitric acid and then rinsed three times with distilled water.
Samples were analyzed to determine the concentrations of pH,
Turbidity, Temperature, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS),
Electrical conductivity, Hardness, Chloride, Sulfate,
Alkalinity, Fluoride, Iron, Calcium, Magnesium, Nitrate, Zinc,
Copper, Lead, Chromium and Cadmium in the laboratory of
U.P. Jal Nigam, Aligarh. All the tests were conducted in
accordance with the techniques described by American Public
Health Association (APHA 2005).
pH was measured by digital pH meter micro
processor based model no: LPV 2550 t. 97, 2002 make:
HACH USA. Electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved
solids (TDS) were measured with digital EC-TDS analyzer
model No: CM 183, make Elico, India. Turbidity was
measured by using Nephalo-meter model No: 2100 Q-01
make: Hach USA. Iron, Nitrate, Sulfate, Fluorides, Calcium,
Magnesium, Copper, Zinc, ion concentrations were
determined by spectrophotometer, using UV-Vis laboratory
spectrophotometer (Model No: DR 5000) make Hach, USA.
All the general chemicals used in the study were of analytical
reagent grade (Merck/BDH). Standard solutions of metal ions
were procured from Merck, Germany, Fisher Scientific,
Mumbai and Rankem from RFCL limited, New Delhi. Various
statistical analyses of the experimental data were performed
using Microsoft Excel 2007.

The pH of a solution is the negative logarithm of

Hydrogen ion concentration in moles per liter. pH is
dependent on the carbon dioxide-carbonate-bicarbonate
equilibrium. pH values ranged and 7.01 to 8.82 with an
average value of 8.38,indicating the alkaline nature of water
samples. 62.5% of samples were above the standard limit (6.5
to 8.5) prescribed by BIS. Carbon dioxide in groundwater
normally occurs at a much higher partial pressure than in the
earths atmosphere. When groundwater was exposed to the
atmosphere, CO2 will escape and the pH will rise. For
consumption point of view, all the samples may be considered
fit, as they are neither acidic nor strongly alkaline in nature.
C. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
A total dissolved solid (TDS) is the concentrations of all
the dissolved minerals in water. TDS is used as an indication
of aesthetics and general nature of salinity of water.
Concentration of dissolved solids is important parameter in
drinking water; to ascertain the suitability of the groundwater
for any purpose, it is essential to classify the groundwater
depending upon its hydro chemical properties based on the
total dissolved solids values (Freeze and Cherry 1979). The
TDS values in all the study area varies from 224 to 987 mg/l
with an average value of 541.38 mg/l in post-monsoon period.
In the present study, 42.5% of the samples were exceeding
maximum permissible limit (500 mg/l) prescribed by BIS. An
elevated level of TDS, by itself, does not indicate that the
water present a health risk. However, elevated level of specific
ions included in the TDS measurement such as Mg++, Ca++,
No3-, F- could present health risk. The concentration of
dissolved ions may cause the water to be corrosive, salty or
brackish taste, result in scale formation.
D. Turbidity
The turbidity is a measure of the extent to which light is
either absorbed or scattered by suspended material in water.
The turbidity for all the samples is below the BIS Standards
limit 1.0 NTU. The highest value of turbidity is 2.37 NTU.
Turbidity in water causes the degradation in the clarity.


A. Groundwater chemistry
Groundwater samples were drawn from deep (> 50 m)
and shallow wells (<50 m) and analyzed for physico-chemical
parameters. The results obtained were evaluated in accordance
with the standards prescribed under Indian standard drinking
water specification IS: 10500:2012 of Bureau of Indian
Standards. The parameters exceeding the BIS permissible
limits along with their permissible limits are presented in
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Table-1 Parameters exceeding the permissible limit



Temperature in 0C
TDS in mg/l
EC in mohs/cm
Turbidity in NTU
Iron in mg/l
Nitrate in mg/l
Sulfate in mg/l
Fluorides in mg/l
Chloride in mg/l
Alkalinity in mg/l
T. Hardness in mg/l
Calcium in mg/l
Magnesium in mg/l
Copper in mg/l
Zinc in mg/l
Manganese in mg/l
Lead in mg/l
Chromium in mg/l
Cadmium in mg/l

Permissible limit
as per BIS


E. Electrical Conductivity
Electrical conductivity is the measure of capacity of a
substance to conduct the electric current. Most of the salts in
water are present in their ionic form and capable of conducting
current and conductivity is a good indicator to assess
groundwater quality. EC is an useful parameter of water
quality for indicating salinity hazards. In the study area, EC
values varied between 378.3 mohs/cm to 2532.7 mohs/cm
with an average value of 1005.65 mohs/cm.
F. Iron
Iron concentrations in this study varied from 0.08 to 0.64
mg/l with an average value of 0.35 mg/l. 65% of samples were
found above the standard limit (0.30 mg/l) prescribed by BIS.
Iron is a common metallic element found in the earth's crust
Iron can affect the flavor and color of food and water. Iron is
biologically an important element which is essential to all
organisms and present in hemoglobin system.
G. Nitrate
The highest value of Nitrate concentration was 25.23 mg/l
with an average value of 6.52 mg/l. All the samples is below
the BIS Standards limit 45.0 mg/l. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) in
groundwater may result from point sources such as sewage
disposal systems and livestock facilities, non-point sources
such as fertilized cropland.
H. Sulfates
Sulfates were found in the range from 13.2 to 379.2 mg/l
with an average value of 149.05 mg/l. In 35% samples the
values were found above the standard limit (200 mg/l)
prescribed by BIS. The sulfate content in water is important in
determining the suitability of water for public and industrial

Analytical results of

Sample exceeding
permissible limit

supplies. Higher concentration of sulfate in water can cause

malfunctioning of alimentary canal and shows cathartic effect
on human beings (M. Lenin Sunder et al. 2008).
I. Fluorides
The fluoride values in the study area ranges from 0.01 to
0.71 mg/l with an average value of 0.25 mg/l. The fluorides
concentration in all the samples is below the BIS standards
limit 1.0 mg/l. Fluoride is beneficial for human beings as a
trace element, this protects tooth decay and enhances bone
J. Chlorides
Chloride occurs in all natural waters in widely varying
concentrations. The chloride contents normally increases as
the mineral contents increases (Dubey, 2003). Chlorides
concentrations ranged from 22.0 to 421.0 mg/l with an average
value of 156.33 mg/l. In 30% sample wells, the chloride values
exceeded the maximum limit (250 mg/l) prescribed by BIS. At
concentration above 250 mg/l, water acquires salty taste which
is objectionable. However no adverse health effects on humans
have been reported from intake of water containing highest
content of chloride (Amrita Singh et al., 2011). If the water
with high chloride concentration is used for construction
purpose, this may corrode the concrete.
K. Alkalinity
Alkalinity is the measure of the capacity of the water to
neutralize a strong acid. The Alkalinity in the water is
generally imparted by the salts of carbonates, silicates, etc.
together with the hydroxyl ions in free state. Most of the
natural waters contain substantial amounts of dissolved carbon
dioxide, which is the principal source of alkalinity. The
alkalinity varies from 216 to 598 mg/l. 100% samples were
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found above the standard limit (200 mg/l) prescribed by BIS.
sickness and in extreme cases liver damage (Marwari, et al,
The alkalinity values were found increasing in the post
monsoon period, compared to the pre-monsoon period in
almost all the wells. This may be due to the movement of
P. Zinc
pollutants into the ground water during rainfall season. The
The zinc concentrations were varied from 0.009 to 1.836
most prevalent mineral compound causing alkalinity is
mg/l. It can be observed that all the samples having Zinc value
calcium carbonate, which can come from rocks such as
below 5.0 mg/l fall within the limits. Zinc compounds are
limestone or can be leached from dolomite and calcite in the
astringent, corrosive to skin, eye and mucus membrane. They
soil. Large amount of alkalinity imparts a bitter taste to water.
cause special type of dermatitis known as Zinc pox.
Large amount of alkalinity in water imparts a bitter taste to
Q. Manganese
Manganese was one of the most abundant metals in the
L. Total Hardness
earths crust and usually occurs together with iron (Khan M.
Total hardness is a measure of the capacity of water to the
M. A., et al, 2010). Manganese concentration in water samples
concentration of calcium and magnesium in water and is
ranged between 0.001 to 0.255 mg/l. In 25% of samples
usually expressed as the equivalent of CaCo3 concentration. In
Manganese concentration were found above the standard limit
the study, the total hardness of the water samples ranges
(0.10 mg/l) prescribed by BIS. Manganese concentrations as
between 197 to 608 mg/l. 97.5% of samples were found above
low as 0.05 mg/L can cause color problems.
the standard limit (200 mg/l) prescribed by BIS. Hard water is
not a health hazards. In fact, the National Research council
R. Lead
states that the hard drinking water generally contributes a
The lead concentrations in the water samples were ranged
small amount toward total calcium and magnesium human
between 0.001 to 0.21 mg/l. In 19 sampling locations, the
dietary needs. In some instances, where dissolved calcium and
value of lead exceeded the limit (0.01 mg/l) prescribed by BIS.
magnesium are very high, water could be a major contributor
In 47.5% of samples lead concentration were found above the
of calcium and magnesium to the diet. Hard water is useful in
standard limit (0.01 mg/l) prescribed by BIS. Lead is one of
the growth of children, if within the permissible limit.
the hazardous and potentially harmful polluting agents. It has
However, hard water is a nuisance because of mineral buildup
impact on man and animals. Lead poisoning symptoms usually
on fixtures and poor soap /detergent performance. The high
develop slowly. It inhibits the formation of hemoglobin by
degree of hardness in the study area can definitely be
reacting with SH group and interfering with many enzyme
attributed to the disposal of untreated, improperly treated
functions (Sabhapandit P., et al. 2011).
sewage and industrial wastes.
S. Chromium
M. Calcium
The chromium concentration in the study area was found
The Calcium concentrations were varied from 47 to 122
between 0.001 to 0.328 mg/l with an average value of 0.03
mg/l. 50% of samples were found above the standard limit (75
mg/i. In 12.5% samples the value of chromium exceeded the
mg/l) prescribed by BIS. Calcium (Ca2+) is an important
limit (0.05 mg/l) prescribed by BIS. Chromium and chromate
element to develop proper bone growth. It is found in alkaline
are known to be potential carcinogenic and chromate are
in nature. Calcium content is very common in groundwater,
known to be potential carcinogenic substance for lung and
because they are available in most of the rocks, abundantly
nose cancer. Chromates act as irritant to the eyes, nose and
and also due to its higher solubility.
throat in traces and chronic exposure with high concentration
lead to liver and kidney damage (Marwari, et al, 2012).
N. Magnesium
A large number of minerals contain magnesium;
T. Cadmium
Magnesium is washed from rocks and subsequently ends up in
The Cadmium concentration of water samples were varied
water. Magnesium has many different purposes and
from 0.001 to 0.480 mg/l. In 87.5% samples Cadmium
consequently may end up in water in many different ways.
exceeded BIS permissible limit (0.003 mg/l). Cadmium in
Chemical industries add magnesium to plastics and other
high concentration is harmful, but small amounts of cadmium
materials as a fire protection measure or as filler. It also ends
taken over for a long period also bio-accumulates in the body
up in the environment from fertilizer application and from
and cause serious illness (Sabhapandit P., et al. 2011).
cattle feed. The values of magnesium from groundwater
ranged between 36.45 to 118.1 mg/l. In all the well locations,
U. Statistical analysis
the values of magnesium exceeded the limit (30 mg/l)
The data were subjected to normal distribution analysis
prescribed by BIS and this indicates the hardness of water.
and Pearson correlation Microsoft Excel 2007. Normal
distribution analysis (involved mean, median, standard
O. Copper
deviation, skewness and kurtosis) analysis is an important
The Copper concentrations were varied from 0.004 to
statistical tool for identifying the distribution patterns of the
0.186 mg/l. 40% of samples were found above the standard
different water quality parameters in groundwater samples.
limit (0.05 mg/l) prescribed by BIS. Copper is an essential
Correlation coefficients of various parameters analyzed
element in the human being for metabolism. Human being
were calculated. These Correlation coefficients values were
especially requires copper as a trace element in the formation
used in estimating the values of other parameters at the
of R.B.C and some enzymes. 0.05 m/L are not generally
particular place without actually measuring them (Mishra, et
regarded as toxic as but more than 1.5 mg/L may cause
al, 2003). Pearson correlation analysis is an approach, which
provides intuitive similarity relationship between any one
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sample and entire data set. Pearsons correlation coefficient is
correlation, 0.0 is no correlation and 1.0 is a perfect positive
usually signified by r (rho), and can take on the values from correlation. The variables having coefficient value (r) > 0.5 or
1.0 to 1.0. Where -1.0 is a perfect negative (inverse)
< -0.5 are considered significant.

Table-2 Statistical analysis post-monsoon 2013



































































































































































Table 2 indicates the normal distribution analysis

pattern of different water quality parameters, where,
significant variations between mean and median for
parameters, viz. temperature, TDS, EC, Cl-, SO4-- ,F-, alkanity,
hardness, Ca++, Mg++, NO3-and Zn++ were observed. It
indicated that these parameters were not found to be
completely distributed in a normal (almost normal) and
symmetric way in the samples. However, small difference of
mean and median for parameters pH, turbidity, Fe, Cu, Mn,
Pb, Cr and Cd, indicated that these parameters were seemed to
be distributed normally in groundwater samples. Parameters
temperature, TDS, Fe, Cl-, SO4-- ,F-,pH, TDS, and EC in the
collected samples had negative values of Kurtosis, which
indicated that, the distribution of these parameter have flat
peak compared to normal distribution pattern. The negative
values of skewness of pH (-1.97) and Fe (-0.23) indicated that
the data were distributed towards the lower values or having a
negative tail in the negative direction. The skewness values for
Temp. (0.32), TDS (0.56),EC(1.08),turbidity(2.88), NO3(1.15) were positive, indicated their tail distributed towards the
higher values which pointed out that data were distributed in
the right direction of the tail.
Correlation among water quality parameters greatly
facilitates the task of rapid monitoring of water quality. Table
3 presents the Pearson correlation coefficient matrix between
major chemical parameters of ground water of the study area.
The variables having coefficient value (r) > 0.50 are
considered significant.


The analytical data showed close significant positive

association of TDS with EC(r=0.93), Turbidity (0.50), SO 4-(r=0.81), Cl- (r=0.87), alkalinity(r=0.71), total hardness
(r=0.88), Ca++ (r=0.72), Mg++ (r=0.87), Cd (r=0.50). It
indicates that TDS was increased with increasing these
parameters in ground water samples. EC with Sulfate (r=0.80),
Chloride (r=0.83), Alkalinity (r=0.71), Total hardness
(r=0.82), calcium (r=0.64), Mg++ (r=0.81). It indicates that EC
was increased with increasing these parameters in ground
water samples, Turbidity with TDS alkalinity (0.52). SO4
with TDS EC (r=0.80), Cl- (r=0.78), alkalinity (r=0.61), total
hardness (r=0.73), Ca++(r=0.64), Mg++ (r=0.71). Cl- with
Alkalinity (r=0.61), total hardness (r=0.76), Ca++(r=0.59),
Mg++ (r=0.75), Cd (r=0.51). It indicates that Cl- was increased
with increasing alkalinity, total hardness, Ca++, Mg++, Cd in
ground water samples.
Pb and F- content also showed negative correlation
with almost all parameters. pH content showed negative
correlation with TDS, EC, turbidity, SO4-- , Cl- , alkalinity, total
hardness, Ca++ , Cu++,Zn, Pb, Cr and ,Cd. Fe++content showed
negative correlation with Temperature, TDS, EC, turbidity,
NO3-, SO4--, Cl-, alkalinity, total hardness, Ca++, Mg++ , Cu++,
Mn, Pb, ,Cr, Cd. It reflects a decreasing trend in Fe++ values of
groundwater due to increasing Temperature, TDS ,EC,
turbidity , NO3-,SO4--, Cl- , alkalinity, total hardness, Ca++
,Mg++, Cu++,Mn, Pb, Cr , Cd . Bangar et al (2008) also
observed a highly significant negative correlation coefficient
between pH and SO4--,EC, Ca++, Cl-, SO4--. This indicates that
these variables have an inverse relation.

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Table-5.Pearson correlation between different water quality parameters post-monsoon 2013














The present study clearly reveals that all the water sources
chosen for study are not managed suitably for the utilization of
water. From the present study the following conclusions were
drawn: In all places alkalinity were found above the standard
limit (200 mg/l) prescribed by BIS, reveals that the
groundwater of the study area is alkaline in nature.
The Ca++ and Mg++ ion and total hardness values were
high in most of the places, reveals that groundwater
of the study area is hard to very hard.
The Fe++ values were high in most of the places.
The correlation matrix indicates that the TDS is
mainly controlled by SO4--,Cl-, alkalinity, total
hardness, Ca++and Mg++.There is a strong positive
relationship between TDS and these parameters.
pH content showed negative correlation with TDS,
EC, turbidity, SO4-- , Cl- , alkalinity, total hardness,
Ca++ , Cu++,Zn, Pb, Cr and ,Cd.
There is an immediate and urgent need for the
implementation of a better water quality management
policy incorporating the following recommendations.
Tube wells and other drinking water sources should
be installed in a safety place.
A proper planning and management is required to
mitigate the problem of drinking water contamination
in the study area.


















The authors are thankful to the Head of Civil
University, Mullana, Ambala for support and facilities
provided. They also thankful to Dr Taqveem Ali Khan,
Associate Professor Department of Geology, AMU Aligarh
India for helping in bringing out the paper in the present form.
The author is also thankful to Er Mohammad Owais,
Executive Engineer U.P. Jal Nigam Aligarh for providing
necessary facilities.
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Rabia Sehgal, Maninder Singh
Department Computer Science,
Punjabi University
Patiala, Punjab
Abstract A Broadband Wireless Access technology known as
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) is
based on IEEE 802.16 standards. It uses orthogonal frequency
division multiple accesses (OFDMA) as one of its multiple access
technique. Major design factors of OFDMA resource allocation are
scheduling and burst allocation. To calculate the appropriate
dimensions and location of each users data so as to construct the
bursts in the downlink subframe, is the responsibility of burst
allocation algorithm. Bursts are calculated in terms of number of
slots for each user. Burst Allocation Algorithm is used to overcome
the resource wastage in the form of unused and unallocated slots per
frame. It affects the Base station performance in mobile WiMAX
systems. In this Paper, HOCSA (Hybrid One Column Striping with
Non Increasing Area) algorithm is proposed to overcome frame
wastage. HOCSA is implemented by improving eOCSA algorithm
and is evaluated using MATLAB. HOCSA achieves significant
reduction of resource wastage per frame, leading to more
exploitation of the WiMAX frame.
Index Terms Burst allocation, downlink subframe, Mobile

The vendor interoperability organization gave the name
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) to
the 802.16-2004 amendment which is an industry name. Main
aim of WiMAX is to provide broadband wireless access (BWA).
WiMAX is an alternative solution to wired broadband
technologies like cable modem access and digital subscriber line
(DSL). Mobile WiMAX or 802.16e is known as the mobile
version of 802.16. To maintain mobile clients connected to a
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) while moving around, this
amendment is done[1]. Point-to-Multipoint (PMP) topology is
used for Mobile WiMAX, where the traffic occurs between a
Base Station (BS) and its Mobile Stations (MSs). Here, the BS is
the centre of the system. Thus BS efficiency highly affects the
performance of Mobile WiMAX systems performance.
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)
technology is used by the physical layer (PHY) of Mobile
WiMAX. OFDMA can be implemented by Time Division
Duplex (TDD) or Frequency Division Duplex (FDD). TDD is the
preferred technology for mobile WiMAX. Mobile WiMAX
frames uses TDD mode consists of two parts, the downlink
subframe and the uplink subframe as shown in figure 1. The
upward data is sent from the MS towards the BS through the UL
subframe interval and the downward data is sent from the BS
towards the MS through the DL subframe interval. The Ratio of
downlink-to-uplink-subframe may vary from 3:1 to 1:1. Guard
time intervals between successive DL and UL subframes are
transmit-receive Transition Gap (TTG) and Receive transmit
Transition Gap (RTG) [2].

Mobile WiMAX channel resources frequency and time are

used to formulate frames. These frames carry users data in the
form of data bursts. The frame has a limited size as defined in
Mobile WiMAX standards (5ms) [3]. The frame should carry a
maximum number of data bursts to satisfy high system
A data burst is formed by a number of slots in the form of
irregular rectangles. A slot is the smallest resource portion that
can be allocated to a single user in a frequency and a time
domain. Each slot is defined by one subchannel (frequency) and
one to three OFDM symbols (time). The Burst Profile for each
data burst is assigned by BS. Burst

Fig. 1 TDD frame structure of mobile WiMAX.

Profile is used to identify the forward error correction (FEC),
combination of modulation, and code rate for individual bursts.
A burst allocation algorithm or burst mapping faces a problem
to fill up the frame with irregular downlink burst rectangle
shapes. This often leads to wastage of resources in the form of
unallocated and unused slots due to decision complexity of
finding conformity between the rectangular shapes and that of
the available area within the frame. This leads to design an
efficient algorithm to avoid the resource wastage. When the
allocation of bursts to the user data in the DL subframe is bigger
than the actual data size it results in Unused slots as shown in
figure 1 (the red area).
The area which is not assigned to any burst in the DL
subframe due to a mismatch of rectangular shapes to the
available area within the DL subframe is known as Unallocated
slots (the yellow area). Eventually, the frames utility will
definitely be decreased by the unused and unallocated slots left
out vacant and transmitted as blank slots. A part of the frame is
assigned to the overhead bursts, which informs the served users
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about their burst profiles. At the beginning of each frame the of the burst and is known as Downlink MAP Information
overhead is compulsory to be allocated and broadcasted to all Element (DL_MAP_IE).
users under BS coverage. The overhead bursts include: preamble,
The contribution of this paper is to design and develop a burst
downlink map (DL-MAP) and uplink map (UL-MAP), Frame allocation algorithm with low complexity and minimum resource
Control Header (FCH) as shown in figure 1.
wastage. The developed algorithm is based on allocation of data
Drawbacks which affect the frame utilization of the standard slots in the form of columns. The algorithm is developed to
allocation algorithm can be listed as follows:
achieve higher frame utilization, by reducing the unused and
(1) The allocation algorithm faces problem in area calculation unallocated slots without violating the agreed QoS guarantee
and frequently re-dimensioning the incoming data to find a within the downlink subframe.
match between burst rectangles and available area due to lack of
The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Section 2
knowledge about the incoming data sizes. (2) Burst size affects describes the related works, section 3 describes the proposed
the allocation procedure, which results in more resource wastage. work, section 4 presents the results and discussion and finally in
(3) User waiting time inside the Medium Access Control (MAC)
section 5 conclusion and future work.
layer queue increases, which results in increase in data
transmission time. (4) ST algorithm is an NP-complete problem
[4]. NP-complete problem is a class of decision complexity
WiMAX systems performance depends on the burst allocation
problems. It uses a set of rules that prescribes more than one algorithm; therefore it is a very crucial matter for the
action to be performed for a given situation, which leads to an manufactures. This paper identifies key factors and tradeoff
increase in the computational load.
issues associated with the downlink burst packing algorithm
through a competitive survey of algorithms.
A. Downlink Data Allocation Problem
Literature surveys can be divided into many methods of
The IEEE 802.16e standard specifies some constraints while designing the Burst Allocation Algorithm, as follows:
mapping the user data bursts into downlink sub frame these are
A. The first method is to reshape the rectangular burst to get the
described below:1. Downlink subframe has a limited size as defined by Mobile appropriate shape that can be inserted into the DL subframe with
WiMAX standards. This subframe should carry a maximum minimum wastage of slots, as given in the following literatures :number of user data bursts in order to achieve high system
In [19] authors introduced an algorithm which used a physical
2. The overhead is compulsory to be added at the beginning of component called Bucket. A Bucket consisted of a number of
each subframe, which informs the served users within a slots allotted to each user in the form of columns. Then the
subframe about their burst profiles and significantly effects Buckets with similar profile were combined to construct a single
the system performance.
burst. This scheme violated QoS, when the packets that did not
3. Mapping of the data bursts into downlink subframe has to match the available burst space and did not meet their
be in rectangular form. This constrain results in two- transmission deadline were to be discarded because there was no
dimensional rectangular burst mapping problem which is a estimate of how many packets to be dropped.
NP complete problem. To shape the selected data bursts in
In [10] Hung-Chang Chen et.al. authors presented Efficient
rectangular form may require extra allocation of slots, Downlink Bandwidth Allocation (EDBA) algorithm. It
moreover to fit those rectangles into subframe may leave calculated the shape, alleviation of unallocated slots, sequence
some slots as unutilized. These unutilized slots and and location of the bursts within downlink subframes. In this
unallocated slots left out vacant decreases frame utility and algorithm overhead calculation was ignored within the frame as
the efficiency of mapping algorithm.
well as the results showed that there was much wastage of slots
4. There are many considerations along with two-dimensional with lower number of users per frame. This algorithm increased
rectangular burst mapping problem like: (i) to reduce power the computational load.
consumption and SS active time minimize the number of
Chakchai SO-IN et al. developed OCSA algorithm in which
burst time symbols [7], (ii) to efficiently utilize the all the user data to be mapped was sorted in the descending order
subchannel minimize the number of burst subchannels [8, [7]. The resource allocations were mapped from bottom to top
9] and (iii) to reduce DL-MAP overhead size reduce the and from right to left in the DL subframe. According to the burst
number of bursts [10].
area, there were many possible combinations of height and width
out of which we chose the pair which was smallest in width.
B. DL-MAP Overhead & Allocation Algorithm
Small width lead to save energy as the receiving MS shut down
Users are assigned slots in the rectangular form called a burst.
its electronic circuit for the remaining of the DL subframe.
A burst contains data for a single or multiple CID that share same
Chakchai SO-IN et al. presented eOCSA (enhanced One
physical parameters. DL_MAP massage is broadcasted with the
Column Striping with non increasing Area first mapping)
most reliable MCS at the beginning of the DL subframe which
algorithm [8]. It was a two-dimensional burst mapping algorithm.
informs each user about its burst allocation. The DL_MAP field
Its goal was to minimize the unused slots and the energy
consists of two main groups. The first group needs 104 bits once
consumption as in [11]. It allowed the MAP to grow
per DL Subframe. It consists of Message Type, DCD Count, BS
dynamically. In this algorithm, allocations were sorted in the
ID, PHY Synchronization, and No Symbols. The second group
decreasing order, and mapped from right to left and bottom to
needs (44+16 No CID) bits once per burst. It consists of No CID,
top. It consisted of two phases. In the first phase, vertical
CID, Boosting, No Subchannel, No Symbols, Symbol Offset,
mapping took place in which the largest allocation was mapped
Subchannel Offset, DIUC and Repetition Coding Indication [3].
with the least width or least height. After this the left space above
This group is used to define a two-dimensional allocation criteria
this allocation was used for the horizontal mapping phase, where
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eOCSA tries to assign the largest allocation that can be fitted in as multiples of buckets which are fixed sized can be easily
that space. Also, in this scheme some slots were left unused, packed into the DL subframe [11].
some were over allocated.
Zhu et. al. introduced an algorithm in which the bursts were
allocated in the columns of identical width .Then these allocated
bursts were shuffled to combine the left scattered unused space in
The contribution of this work is to develop a new burst
the frame. This formed a large space which could accomodate allocation algorithm, a Hybrid One Column Striping with nonmore bursts [10]. .
increasing Area first mapping (HOCSA) algorithm with low
Ahmed M Husein Shabani et al. presented Improved eOCSA complexity to overcome frame wastage. HOCSA is implemented
Algorithm (IOCSA) [3]. The improvement algorithm is same as using MATLAB software.
eOCSA algorithm with a little difference in the vertical mapping
step. In eOCSA algorithm the requests were mapped based on
A. HOCSA (Hybrid OCSA Algorithm)
maximum height (H) which minimized the burst width. In case
Hybrid OCSA is obtained by improving One Column Striping
most of the bursts were large sized, the unused space left above with non-increasing Area first mapping (OCSA) proposed by Sothe allocated burst cannot accommodate any burst in the In et.al. in [13] and its enhancement in [14]. HOCSA uses
horizontal mapping step. In IOCSA, the vertical mapping step Genetic Algorithm to optimize the allocated space so as to have
included slight increment in the burst width so as to fit more better frame utilization.
bursts in the horizontal mapping step. Instead of maximum The algorithm can be described in three main steps.
height we used 3/2 of the maximum height. This efficiently
1. Sort all the data bursts in decreasing order.
utilized the left space.
2. Vertically allocate the largest burst (Bi) with dimensions
B. The second method is to fragment the burst to get the
(Here mapping is done if the allocated slots are less than
required shape that can fit the available allocation space in the
unallocated slots. And mapping will take place if user
DL subframe, such as in the following papers:data burst is equal to the fitness function. Where
Wi=Bi/H, Hi=Bi/Wi where H is maximum
Jincao Zhu et al. presented a linear complexity algorithm [13].
height and is ceiling function.)
It included frequent reshaping and fragmentation of the bursts.
3. Allocate the left space in the allocated column
The constructed bursts were shifted and combined in the adjacent
area. Overhead size was not considered especially when there
was burst fragmentation which required additional overhead on
After this we further optimize the frame utilization by merging
the expense of the data slots.
the adjacent unallocated columns and map the remaining
Zaid G. Ali introduced a low complexity algorithm called appropriate bursts that best fits in it. There by utilizing the left
Sequential Burst Allocation (SBA) [25]. SBA was based on space to the maximum. For this step, if the column value is less
sequential allocation of data slots in the form of columns. It than the fitness function then merge this column with the
reduced the unused slots within a burst to be one slot per burst at adjacent column to allocate the remaining appropriate bursts, and
the worst case and eliminated the unallocated slots between the continue this process till all the columns are covered.
bursts. It numbered the fragments to be re-assembled in the
correct order by the recipients.
Figure 4.1 illustrates the algorithm steps.
C. The third method consists of the cross layer design between 1st step
Sorted_allocations = Sort (resource_allocations)
PHY and MAC layers to satisfy the differentiation between
FOR each unmapped element in sorted_allocations
service types and utilize the QoS information to allocate the
2nd step
bursts according to the priorities and constrains to reduce the
slots wastage.
FOR each unmapped element in sorted_allocations
Authors proposed a cross layer design [14] to achieve the non- If allocated.slot<unallocated.slot
real time and real time scheduling in addition to the burst Allocate.slot.initialize.coulumn
allocation. It consisted of a two tier framework, the first was for If sorted.structure==fitness.function
the priority scheduling and the second was for the burst Allocation.column=true
allocation. The burst allocation divided the downlink subframe Else
into several slices horizontally, each called a bucket. The Allocation.column=false
allocation process ignored the calculation of the unused slots end
within a bucket. The overhead reduction depended on the number 3rd step
of buckets that can be aggregated. This method enhanced the Horizontal_Mapping(start_strip_GA_i,end_strip_GA_i,
system QoS by manipulating the subchannels, distributing the height_GA_i, &sub_height_GA_i)
computational load between burst allocation algorithm and the For i=1:column.count
QoS scheduler, aggregates similar users conditions in a single If column.value<fitness.value
Jia-Ming et. al. combined the problem of burst allocation and end
scheduling in the cross-layer manner. The proposed allocation END FOR
algorithm scheduled the non real time and real time data traffic END FOR
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1) Genetic Algorithm used in HOCSA
numColNeeded = same previous numColNeeded
Genetic algorithm is a method for solving both constrained numSubchannels = (sizeInPs / numColNeeded)
and unconstrained optimization problems based on a natural numsymbols = numColNeeded * num symbols per PS
selection process. The algorithm repeatedly modifies a For i=1:column.count
population of individual solutions. At each step, the genetic If column.value<fitness.value
algorithm randomly selects individuals from the current Column.e=column.e+column.e+1;
population and uses them as parents to produce the children for end
the next generation. Over successive generations, the population Mark these symbols are used on all subchannels
"evolves" toward an optimal solution. As proposed in HOCSA, Step 5 return allocated burst info (burstIndex, moduencoding
Genetic Algorithm optimizes eOCSA Algorithm to have better type, subchannelOffset, numSubchannels, symbolOffset,
frame utilization. Genetic Algorithm uses fitness function. Inputs numSymbols )
to the Genetic Algorithm are provided slots and used slots.
Genetic algorithm further optimizes the used slots by comparing
the value of used slots with that of fitness value. Fitness value is
Results are the most important part of any research work, they
calculated using Fitness Function. If the value of used slots is are used to justify the work. To analyze Downlink Burst
equal to the Fitness value then allocation is mapped otherwise it allocation algorithm in a WiMAX network, MATLAB is chosen
is ignored.
as the simulation tool to reflect the actual deployment of the
Fitness function that the GA uses:- f= (1-e)*((1-Fs)/Ft)
WiMAX network.
Fs= each slot, Ft = total number of slots, e is the classification
error rate
A. Simulation Parameters
The following outline summarizes the genetic algorithm:Table 5.1 shows the parameters that are used to perform the
1. The algorithm begins by creating a random initial evaluation experiments. The data traffic is generated with
different packet sizes and different time intervals to produce
2. The algorithm then creates a sequence of new different burst sizes. The number of users(SS) are changed from
populations. At each step, the algorithm uses the 10 to 50.
individuals in the current generation to create the next
Table.5.1 WiMAX System Simulation Parameters
2) Implementation of HOCSA algorithm in MATLAB
Frame length
5 ms
Channel BW
10 MHz
The algorithm implementations main steps are:Duplexing
Multiple Access
Define frame parameters (number of subchannel (rows), number
Permutation scheme
of time symbols (columns ), PS size (1 subchannel X 2 time
Number of subchannels
symbols) , symbol (0) for preamble, Symbol 1 and symbol 2 on
subchannel, 0 and 1 are for FCH, Burst 0 for( FCH +DL-MAP ),
Simulation time
100 ms
Burst 1for UL-MAP )
B. Results (Performance evaluation)
Allocate B0 (DL-MAP) &B1 (UL-MAP) as previous allocations.
Here different simulation scenarios are used for performance
evaluation and the results are obtained from them. In this section,
Sort the scheduled data based in PS required as set by scheduler. we compare the performance of the Hybrid eOCSA with eOCSA
Merge Sorting is used here.
and IOCSA algorithms using MATLAB simulation software.
Step 4
Start allocation from the head of sorted list do
Average unused slots- Unused slots are calculated for every
Vertical mapping Calculate number of columns needed and
allocated frame then divided by number of allocated frames to
number of rows needed inside the frame as per the equation:
get the average unused slots.
numColNeeded = (sizeInPs / numSubchannels)
Figure 5.6 illustrates the average unused slots per DL
numSubchannels = (sizeInPs / numColNeeded)
subframe and the results show that the average of unused slots
numsymbols = numColNeeded * num symbols per PS
for the HOCSA algorithm is smaller than that of eOCSA and
If allocated.slot<unallocated.slot
IOCSA. This is because eOCSA and IOCSA left more unused
space that cannot accommodate any burst. But the HOCSA
If sorted.structure==fitness.function
Algorithm uses Genetic Algorithm to optimize the frame space
and merges the unused columns to allocate the data bursts that
best fits into that space. Results also show that the unused slots
continuously decrease as the number of users or the load
increases in the given subframe.
Mark these symbols are used on all subchannels
Horizontal mapping Calculate Empty slots available in Current
allocation and Check largest request that can fit in it and
Calculate number of columns needed and number of rows needed
inside the frame as per the equation
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of rectangles limits the opportunities of fitting more users in the
frame which leads to an increase in slot wastage.

Figure 5.6: Comparision of unused slots of eOCSA, HOCSA,

Average allocation efficiency- Allocation efficiency is
calculated for every allocated frame and then divided by the
number of allocated frames to get average allocation efficiency.
Figure 5.7 illustrates the average allocation efficiency of
HOCSA, eOCSA and IOCSA. Here we increase the load upto
30%, the results show that the HOCSA algorithm achieves higher
efficiency than eOCSA and IOCSA when the most burst sizes are
large and close in size. HOCSA Algorithm uses Genetic
Algorithm to optimize the frame space by mapping more number
of user data bursts, thus efficiently packs the downlink sub frame
further merges the unused columns to allocate the data bursts that
best fits into that merged space.

Figure 5.7: Comparision of allocation efficiency of

Figure 5.8 shows the frame utilization versus different MAC
PDU sizes. There are two curves, each corresponding to an
individual allocation algorithm HOCSA and eOCSA. The figure
shows that the algorithm HOCSA outperforms the eOCSA and
the percentage difference between them is 22.84%. Moreover the
figure depicts that the utilization of the eOCSA algorithm
declines comparatively to the HOCSA while increasing the MAC
PDU size because in eOCSA, the size of MAC PDU in the form

Fig 5.8 Frame utilization vs MAC PDU size

Figure 5.9 shows the unallocated slots versus different MAC
PDU sizes. In HOCSA the allocation is optimized as the result of
Genetic algorithm, further merges the unallocated columns to
map appropriate burst into it. Thus has a major effect of reducing
the unallocated slots per frame. On the other hand the eOCSA
algorithm curve allocates more users when MAC PDU is small
size which reduce the unallocated slots, while when MAC PDU
become large size the opportunity of allocating more users
decreases which increase the unallocated slots per frame. The
HOCSA algorithm behavior explains the effect of MAC PDU
size to the increment of the unallocated slots.

Fig 5.9: Unallocated slots vs MAC PDU size

The graph in Fig. 5.10 below shows the average packing
capacity of the number of users in HOCSA and eOCSA. Average
packing capacity of HOCSA is more than that of eOCSA. As the
size of MAC PDU increases average packing capacity of both

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Fig. 5.10: Packing Capacity vs No of users in HOCSA and

A. Conclusion
In this paper, an efficient burst allocation algorithm for mobile
WiMAX network has been presented. This work discussed the
downlink burst allocation algorithm for IEEE 802.16e Mobile
WiMAX networks and its implementation in MATLAB, namely
HOCSA. Our work shows that the implemented burst allocation
algorithm (HOCSA) in MATLAB is obtained by modifying
eOCSA (enhanced One Column Striping with non-increasing
Area first mapping). HOCSA is a burst allocation algorithm with
low complexity and minimum resource wastage. It has been
observed from the simulation results, obtained by MATLAB
simulation model that the HOCSA exhibit 15% improvement in
efficiency as compared to the eOCSA. The proposed algorithm
achieves higher frame utilization within the downlink subframe,
by reducing the unused and unallocated slots and without
violating the agreed QoS guarantee.
B. Future Work
Future work may be done to optimize the frame utilization and
reduce the unused and unallocated slots in the DL_Subframe
without violating the agreed QOS. Here, the proposed downlink
burst allocation algorithm known as HOCSA reduces the wastage
of slots by using genetic algorithm and further by merging the
adjacent vacant columns to allocate the remaining bursts that best
fits into it.
Future work may include various design factors and optimization
techniques to achieve significant reduction of resource wastage
per frame, leading to more exploitation of the WiMAX frame.
Furthermore, the proposed algorithm may be taken forward and
BFO optimization algorithm may be used on it to achieve higher
frame utilization.
[I] Abbas, Hajj, H. Yassine, Optimal WiMAX Frame Packing for
Minimum Energy Consumption, IEEE IWCMC, pp. 1321 - 1326,
[II] Abbas, Hajj, H. Yassine, An Energy-Efficient Scheme for
WiMAX Downlink Bursts Construction, IEEE ICEAC, pp. 1-6,

[III] Ahmed M Husein Shabani.et.al, WiMAX Downlink Burst

Allocation Algorithm, Proceedings published in International
Journal of Computer Applications (IJCA) (0975 8887), Mobile
and Embedded Technology International Conference, pp. 12-25,
[IV] Bacioccola, Cicconetti, Lenzini, Mingozzi, E.A.M.E., and Erta ,
A.A.E.A., A downlink data region allocation algorithm for IEEE
802.16e OFDMA, 6th International Conference on Information
Communications & Signal Processing, pp. 1-5, December 2007.
[V] Chakchai So-In, Raj Jain, Abdel-Karim Al Tamimi, OCSA: An
Algorithm for Burst Mapping in IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX
Networks, 15th Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications, pp.
5-10, 2009.
[VI] Chakchai So-In, Raj Jain, Abdel-Karim Al Tamimi, "eOCSA: An
algorithm for burst mapping with strict QoS requirements in
IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX networks," in 9 th International
Conference on Information Communications & Signal Processing
, pp. 1-5,2009.
[VII] Hung-Chang Chen, Sheng-Shih Wang, Chi-Tao Chiang,"An
Efficient Downlink Bandwidth Allocation Scheme for Improving
Subchannel Utilization in IEEE 802.16e WiMAX Networks," 71st
IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC 2010), pp. 1-5,
[VIII] IEEE 802.16 Working Group, "IEEE Draft Standard for local and
metropolitan area networks Part 16: Air Interface for Broadband
Wireless Access Systems," IEEE P802.16Rev3/D5, March, pp. 12614, 2012.
[IX] Jeffrey G. Andrews, Arunabha Ghosh, Rias Muhamed,
Fundamentals of WiMAX United States: Prentice Hall 2007.
[X] Jincao Zhu, Hyogon Kim, Hee Hwan Kwak, "A LinearComplexity Burst Packing Scheme for IEEE 802.16e OFDMA
Downlink Frames," 69th IEEE
Vehicular Technology
Conference, pp .1-5, 2009.
[XI] Jia-Ming Liang, Jen-Jee Chen, You-Chiun Wang, Yu-Chee Tseng,
"A Cross-Layer Framework for Overhead Reduction, Traffic
Scheduling, and Burst Allocation in IEEE 802.16 OFDMA
Networks," IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, Vol. 60, pp.
1740-1755, May 2011.
[XII] L. Nuaymi, WiMAX: Technology for Broadband Wireless
Access. The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex
PO19 8SQ, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2007.
[XIII] T. O. Takeo Ohseki, Megumi Morita, Takashi Inoue, "Burst
Construction and Packet Mapping Scheme for OFDMA
Downlinks in IEEE 802.16 Systems," IEEE Global
Telecommunications Conference, GLOBECOM '07, pp. 43074311, 2007.
[XIV] T Wang, H Feng, B Hu, Two-dimensional resource allocation for
OFDMA system, in Proc IEEE International Conference on
Communications Workshops, pp.15 ,May 2008.
[XV] Xin Jin, Jihua Zhou, Jinlong Hu, Jinglin Shi, Yi Sun, Eryk
Dutkiewicz, "An Efficient Downlink Data Mapping Algorithm for
Telecommunications Conference, GLOBECOM 2008, pp. 1-5,
[XVI] Y. Xiao, WiMAX/MobileFi: advanced research and technology.
New York: Taylor & Francis Group, 2008.
[XVII] Zaid G. Ali, R. B Ahmad, Abid Yahya, Burst Fragmentation
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Allocation to Achieve High Frame Utilization of Mobile WiMAX
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Sandeep Singh R1, Feroz Morab2, Sadiya Thazeen3, Mohamed Najmus Saqhib4

[M.Tech] Signal Processing, SJCIT, Chikkaballapur, Karnataka, India.

[M.Tech] Dept. of Electronics and Communication, RRCE
M.Tech, Digital Electronics
Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Abstract Present technologies of locking and monitoring the

cargo do not provide effective solution for the situation. A little
corruption among the employees can easily deceive whole
security system. Since the cargo contains materials of high value
and in high quantity, these containers are more prone to the
pilferage and hence to protect the material we need a sound
technique which minimizes the loss due to involvement of the
corrupt employees. The technical work undertaken here aims at
providing a sound mechanism to prevent pilferage in the cargo
containers by implying an electronic lock and having series of
basic security check like swapping the RFID card provided to the
customer, biometric sensor and by entering the password which
is sent at the time of delivery to the customer. Therefore it
minimizes the human interference security of the cargo
This paper proposes a cost effective method of tracking cargo
mobility using GPS. The system gives current vehicle location
whenever needed with reliable accuracy. The system uses GSM
and GPS Technology, helping in efficient monitoring of the
desired vehicles. The paper also discusses the proposed GPS
based vehicle Tracking System using GSM technology in which
the coordinates are forwarded to Central monitoring system. The
position of the vehicle can be traced on Google / Local maps. The
paper gives functional, Technical description and Software
implementation for the GPS and GSM based Vehicle Tracking
Index Terms GPS (Global Positioning System), GSM (Global
System for Mobile Communications), Pilferage, RFID, Vehicle
Tracking system.

guilty or not comes under the light of suspicion .This results in

culminate loss of the industry and people involved in the
process of transportation.
At present days, during the course of transportation, a scam
of pilferage is being done. This results in culminate loss of
industry. So, to overcome this type of theft, we aim to provide a
sound mechanism to prevent the pilferage in the cargo
container by implying an electronic lock and minimizing the
human interference in the security of the cargo containers. This
mechanism secures the container by an electronic lock which
requires a series of security check during opening of the lock.
The lock is controlled and monitored by the base station.
The paper describes the idea of tracking a vehicle using
latest technology of GPS and GSM. The number of industry
related vehicles like oil tankers (trucks), vans carrying huge
amount of money for ATMs are increasing at a very fast rate
and keeping a track of these vehicles is becoming difficult day
by day. To keep a check on these kinds of vehicles, these
technologies prove to be very useful since in case of theft or
missing of vehicles, they can be easily traced and tracked on
the website or cell-phones. Mobile technologies such as GSM /
GPRS and GPS can be used for displaying the current position
of the vehicle indicating the latitude, longitude and height from
sea level. This displaying of location of the vehicle can be done
by a number of methods. The location can be sent via SMS to a
GSM modem kept at the control station or to a cell phone.

ISLAMABAD: In a bid to hush up Rs. 50 billion scam of
pilferage of thousands of containers of Afghan Transit Trade
(ATT), the Federal Board of Revenue (FBR) has reinstated
over 22 suspended staff in grade 14 to 18 apparently after
pressure from the Supreme Court of Pakistan. It is learnt that
the apex court of the country has taken suo moto notice of
pilferage of containers scam causing billions of rupees loss to
the national kitty. The FBR was under pressure at that time that
resulted into suspension of officials of customs in grade 14 to
18 mainly at Karachi Port to settle down the dust for the time
being. When contacted, Acting Chairman FBR Mehmood
Alam who is also looking after the affairs of Customs because
Member of Customs went abroad, told The News on
Wednesday that legal opinion of FBRs team were sought
before instating the suspended officials because no one could
be suspended for an indefinite period. This news article shows
the loss of huge sum of money due to pilferage from the Cargo
containers which is used in transporting huge amount of
manufactured product or raw material from one place to
another. In the course of transportation, the pilferage or
employee theft is done and all the authorities involved whether


As discussed above, in the course of transportation of goods
like PETROL, MILK products, RAW IRON, VEHICLE etc, if
pilferage happen then every concerned person associated with
the task whether guilty or not comes under the light of
suspicion. This results in huge loss of money and also the
industrys reputation is at stake causing havoc to the company
and the people involved in the process of transportation. This is
due to the absence of strong security system. Presently we have
Vehicle tracking system where we can only trace the location
of the vehicle using GSM & GPS, but we cannot avoid the theft
of goods.
Another scenario is when the vehicle is reaching the
destination much later than the scheduled time but provide a
fake delivery time report to the company. During this time the
vehicle will be used for other illegitimate purposes like shifting
the other company goods or products in local area, pick & drop
etc in the companys expenses.
We have proposed a sound mechanism to prevent pilferage
in the cargo containers by implying an electronic lock and
having series of basic security check like swapping the RFID
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card provided to the customer, biometric sensor and by entering
the password which is sent at the time of delivery to the
The SMS Based Vehicle Tracking System has been
customer, thereby minimizing the human interference with
implemented using GPS module and GSM / GPRS module
regard to the security of the cargo containers. This paper
SIM300. Figure above shows the block diagram for the
proposes a cost effective method of tracking cargo mobility
implementation of a GPS based vehicle tracking and
using Global Positioning System (GPS). The system gives
monitoring system. GPS module receives signals from a series
current vehicle location whenever needed with reliable
of satellites and calculates its current geographical location,
accuracy. The system uses GSM and GPS technology, helping
speed etc. The microcontroller processes this data through
in efficient monitoring of the desired vehicles. The paper also
MAX232 level converter. GSM module receives request for
discusses the proposed GPS based vehicle Tracking System
sending vehicle location from system registered cell phone.
using GSM technology in which the coordinates are forwarded
The GSM module sends reply SMS to same cell phone
to Central monitoring system. The position of the vehicle can
giving the vehicle location. The information about vehicle
be traced on Google / Local maps. The paper gives functional
location i.e. latitude, longitude and height from sea level can
and technical description and Software implementation for the
also be stored for later retrieval or frequently transmitted to a
GPS and GSM based Vehicle Tracking
control station where it can be displayed on a high-resolution
Here we are providing Electromechanical Lock, controlled
geographical map or can be directly sent to a data server
by a Relay, which is locked after loading the consignment and
through GSM module. The LCD at the system end indicates
the monitoring system gets activated. Once the door is locked,
coordinates and speed of the vehicle. The system consists of
it will not get opened in any case until it reaches the
following modules.
destination. If in case it is tampered, the buzzer which is
A. GPS Module
provided gets activated for alert. The monitoring system keeps
GPS receivers are composed of an antenna, tuned to the
sending status message to the vehicle to check and track the
frequencies transmitted by the satellites, receiver-processors
Cargo location. We have a monitoring front end designed using
and a highly stable clock (often a crystal oscillator). They may
VB.NET, interfaced with Google map for mapping the cargo.
also include a display for providing location and speed
Once the vehicle reaches the destination, a message is sent to
information to the user.
Monitoring system. If the coordinates match then a password is
sent to the person who is collecting the consignment. Once the
password is reached, LCD displays SWIPE THE RFID CARD
65 channels to acquire and track satellites
AND ENTER PASSWORD. Upon the card swiping and
password entering, if these two parameters are accurate only

Industry-leading TTFF speed

then the door opens, otherwise the monitoring system gets a

Tracking sensitivity reaches -161 dBm

tampering message. The user gets only 3 attempts to enter the
0.5 PPM TCXO for quick cold start
correct password.
Integral LNA with low power control
By using this technology, we can track the Vehicle to avoid
theft of consignments and loss for the company due to over trip
Cold start 29 sec under clear Sky
and illegal usage of diesel. Figure 1 describes the design of the
Hot start 1 sec under clear Sky
proposed system.
Accuracy 5m CEP
Operable at 3.6V-6V
Both of RS232 and UART interface at CMOS level
Small form factor of 32mm W x 32mm L x 8mm H
Mountable without solder process
6 pins wafer connector
Automotive and Marine Navigation
Automotive Navigator Tracking
Emergency Locator
Geographic Surveying Personal Positioning
B. MAX 232
MAX232 is an integrated circuit that converts signals from
an RS232 serial port to signals suitable for use in TTL
compatible digital logic circuits. MAX232 is a dual
driver/receiver which typically converts the RX, TX, CTS and
RTS signals. Here, in this device, the MAX 232 is expected to
serially interface the GPS module with the microcontroller so
that the microcontroller can accept the GPS frames sent by the
GPS module in an efficient way.

Fig.1. Block diagram for GPS and GSM/GPRS based system

C. Microcontroller 89S52
In this system, the microcontroller 89S52 plays the most
vital role. The code burnt in the microcontroller decodes the
data received from the satellite using the concept of counter.
Thus converting the GPS frames received from the GPS
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module in an understandable format. Moreover, the
power output and the radio frequency used. When an
microcontroller is also responsible to send the required
RFID tag passes through the electromagnetic zone, it
information through MAX232 and GPRS/GSM to the
detects the reader's activation signal.
The reader decodes the data encoded in the tag's
integrated circuit (silicon chip) and the data is passed to
D. GSM/GPRS Module SIM 300
the host computer for processing.
SIM300 is a Tri-band GSM/GPRS engine that works on
frequencies EGSM 900 MHz, DCS 1800 MHz and PCS1900
F. Electromagnetic Lock
MHz SIM300 provides GPRS multi-slot class 10 capabilities
An electromagnetic lock, magnetic lock, or mag-lock is a
and support the GPRS coding schemes CS-1, CS-2, CS-3 and
locking device that consists of an electromagnet and an
armature plate which is used by attaching the electromagnet to
The physical interface to the mobile application is made
the door frame and the armature plate to the door.
through a 60 pins board-to-board connector, which provides all
hardware interfaces between the module and customers boards
except the RF antenna interface.
The magnetic lock relies upon some of the basic concepts

The keypad and SPI LCD interface will give you the
flexibility to develop customized applications.
Two serial ports can help you easily develop your
Two audio channels include two microphones inputs
and two speaker outputs.
This can be easily configured by AT command.

GSM300 AT commands:
AT+CMGF=1 <ENTER>:To check the modem
AT+CPIN="0000" <ENTER> :To check the network
AT+CMGF=1 <ENTER>: To send the message in
text format
To enter the
destination number
AT+CNMI=2,2,0,0,0<ENTER>: To receive the
Features of GSM 300:
SIM300 Tri-band: EGSM 900, DCS 1800, PCS 1900.
The band can be set by AT COMMAND, and default
band is EGSM 900 and DCS 1800.
Power supply: Single supply voltage 3.4V 4.5V
Normal operation: -20C to +55C
Supported SIM card: 1.8V ,3V
Programmable via AT command
RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) is a technology that
incorporates the use of electromagnetic or electrostatic
coupling in the radio frequency (RF) portion of the
electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identify an object,
animal, or person. RFID is coming into increasing use in
industry as an alternative to the bar code. The advantage of
RFID is that it does not require direct contact or line-of-sight
scanning. RFID is sometimes called Dedicated Short Range
Communication (DSRC).
A basic RFID system consists of three components:
An antenna or coil
A transceiver (with decoder)
A transponder (RF tag), electronically Programmed
with unique information
The antenna emits radio signals to activate the tag and
to read and write data to it.
The reader emits radio waves in ranges of anywhere
from one inch to 100 feet or more, depending upon its

of electromagnetism. Essentially it consists of an electromagnet

attracting a conductor with a force large enough to prevent the
door from being opened. In a more detailed examination, the
device makes use of the fact that a current through one or more
loops of wire (known as a solenoid) produces a magnetic field.
This works in free space, but if the solenoid is wrapped around
a ferromagnetic core such as soft iron the effect of the field is
greatly amplified. This is because the internal magnetic
domains of the material align with each other to greatly
enhance the magnetic flux density.
Easy to install: Magnetic locks are generally easier to
install than other locks since there are no
interconnecting parts.
Quick to operate: Magnetic locks unlock instantly
when the power is cut, allowing for quick operation in
comparison to other locks.
Sturdy: Magnetic locks may also suffer less damage
from multiple blows than do conventional locks. If a
magnetic lock is forced open with a crowbar, it will
often do little or no damage to the door or lock.
The complete project is implemented using software KIEL
UV4 for Programming, debugging and compiling. Once this
program is compiled and target is generated, flash the program
into the IC using software FLASH MAGIC. KICAD is used
for schematic and PCB designing of the complete project and
VB6.0 software is used for Front-end design for monitoring
The below figures depict the software and results of frontend and Hardware implementation.

Fig. 2: Board designing using KICAD

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for designing as well as improving the performance of the
security system.

Fig. 3: Hardware arrangement of Module

Fig. 4: Complete Hardware arrangement of Module

Fig. 5: Monitoring System designed using VB 6.0

Once the module is implemented as shown in above figures,

Hardware module is initialized and monitoring of front-end
which is designed using VB.NET, interfaced with Google
map, for mapping the cargo, is executed on the PC.
Monitoring system gets initialization message and status
message for every request. Once the vehicle reaches the
destination, a message is sent to Monitoring system. If the
coordinates match, then the Password is sent the person, who
is in charge of collecting the consignment. Once the password
is reached LCD displays SWIPE THE RFID CARD AND
ENTER PASSWORD. Once the card is swiped and password
is entered, if both matches then the door opens, otherwise the
monitoring system gets an alert message about the tampering.
The user has 3 attempts to enter the correct password.
A design of providing a sound mechanism to prevent the
pilferage in the Cargo containers by implying an electronic
lock was carried out in the above explained work. While
designing the cargo many factors were considered. These kind
of security systems have a lot of advantages in this developing
world. They reduce large amount of maintenance problem and
improves the security to a great extent. The performance of the
checking of cargo pilferage was found to be satisfactory. A
similar design principle can be adopted for the security of
other vehicles which carry out material of high value and in
high quantity. So this technical work can be extended further

[I] Fleischer P.B., Nelson A.Y., Sowah R.A., Bremang, A.,

Design and development of GPS/GSM based vehicle tracking
and alert system for commercial inter-city buses, Adaptive
Science & Technology (ICAST), 2012 IEEE 4th International
Conference on:25-27 Oct. 2012Page(s):1 6
[II] Ganesh G.S.P, Balaji B, Varadhan T.A.S, Anti-theft tracking
system for automobiles (autogsm)Full textsign-In or Purchase,
Anti-Counterfeiting, Security and Identification (ASID), 2011
IEEE International Conference on24-26 June 2011Page(s):17
[III] Zhigang Liu, Anqi Zhang, Shaojun Li, Vehicle anti-theft
tracking system based on Internet of things, Vehicular
Electronics and Safety (ICVES), 2013 IEEE International
Conference on 2013 , Page(s): 48 52
[IV] Hui Song, Sencun Zhu, Guohong Cao, SVATS: A SensorNetwork-Based Vehicle Anti-theft system, INFOCOM 2008.
The 27th Conference on Computer Communications. IEEE
[V] Baburao Kodavati, V.K. Raju, S. Srinivasa Rao, A.V. Prabu,
T. Appa Rao, Dr. Y.V. Narayana GPS Based Automatic
Vehicle Tracking Using RFID, International Journal of
Engineering Research and Applications , Vol. 1, Issue 3,
[VI] Devyani Bajaj, Neelesh Gupt, GSM and GPS based vehicle
location and tracking system, International Journal of
Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 1,
Issue 1, January 2012
[VII] Mrs. Ramyakulandaivel, P. Ponmalar, B. Geetha, G. Saranya,
GPS and GSM based vehicle information system,
International Journal of Communications and Engineering
Volume 01 No. 1, Issue: 01 March 2012.
[VIII] Deepak Mishra, Apurv Vas, Puneet Tandon, A novel and cost
effective approach to public vehicle tracking system,
International Journal of ubicomp (IJU), Vol. 3, No. 1, January
[IX] Ruchika Gupta and BVR Reddy, GPS and GPRS Based Cost
Effective Human Tracking System Using Mobile Phones,
Volume 2 January-June 2011.
[X] Mohammad A. Al-Khedher, Hybrid GPS-GSM Localization
of Automobile Tracking System, International Journal of
Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 3,
No 6, Dec 2011.
[XI] Francis EnejoIdachaba Design of a GPS/GSM based tracker
for the location of stolen items and kidnapped or missing
persons in NIGERIA, ARPN Journal of Engineering and
Applied Sciences VOL. 6, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2011.
[XII] Adnan I. Yaqzan, Issam W. Damaj, and Rached N. Zantout
GPS-based Vehicle Tracking System-on-Chip, Proceedings
of the World Congress on Engineering 2008 Vol I WCE 2008,
July 2 - 4, 2008, London, U. K.
[XIII] T. Krishna Kishore, T. Sasi Vardhan, N. Lakshmi Narayana,
Vehicle Tracking Using a Reliable Embedded Data
Acquisition Sytem With GPS and GSM, IJCSNS International
Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL. 10
No. 2, February 2010
[XIV] S.S Pethakar, N Srivastava and S.D Suryawanshi. Article:
GPS and GSM based Vehicle Tracing and Employee Security
System, International Journal of Computer Applications
62(6):37-42, January 2013. Published by Foundation of
Computer Science, New York, USA.

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Deepti Sharda1, Sonal Chawla2

Assisstant Professor, Department of Computer Science and Application

MCM DAV College for Women
Chairperson, Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science and Application
Panjab University
Chandigarh, India
Abstract Web personalization is the process of customizing a
Web site according to the needs of specific user. It takes
advantage of the knowledge acquired from the analysis of the
users navigational behavior (usage data) in correlation with
other information collected in the Web context, namely
structure, content and user profile data. Due to the explosive
growth of the Web, the domain of Web personalization has
gained great momentum both in the research and commercial
area. A lot of research has been done in this field. This paper is
comprised of three parts. First part gives introduction to Web
Personalization. Second part tries to summarize the work done
in this field and third part does research analysis. This paper
tries to throw light on the research areas that are required to
be explored.
TermsWeb Personalization,
Recommendation System, Ranking System, Wisdom Web

With the dramatic, quick and explosive growth of
information on the Web, it seems that Web users are
drowning in the ocean of information. They are facing the
problem of information overload. Apart from the diversity in
information, there is diversity in the way users navigate
web. A major drawback of generic search engines is that
they follow same model and are not adaptable to the needs
of an individual user. Personalization of web is a solution to
such problems as it can provide different search results
based on preferences and information needs of the users.
Web Personalization is a technique to provide users with
the desired information they require, without expecting from
them to ask for it. Personalization requires implicitly or
explicitly collecting visitor information and leveraging that
knowledge in Content Delivery Framework. It then
manipulates this information and decides which information
should be provided to user and how it should be presented
Different users have different backgrounds and interests.
They may have completely different needs and goal when
issuing the same query. For example, the query issued
trees by a Botanist requires totally different information as
compared to the same query issued by a programmer. Such
queries are termed as ambiguous queries. Mostly, these
types of short and ambiguous queries are issued by the
users. If the user does not get information related to his
interest then he may get frustrated.

his preferences web page is constructed. Hence

customization is dependent on users input where as
personalization does not expect from a user to give
directions. Personalization mechanism is based on explicit
preference declarations made by the user. Iteratively it
monitors the users navigation, collects its request of
ontological objects and stores them in its profile in order to
deliver personalized contents [2]. Web Personalization is
divided into four distinct phases as follows:
In this phase, Web data is collected. It can be in implicit
or explicit form. Implicit data includes past activities/click
streams which are recorded in Web server logs and/or via
cookies or session tracking modules. Explicit data usually
comes from registration forms or rating questionnaires. Apart
from this data, Web content, structure and usage data can
also be included to give extra knowledge that can be helpful
in next phases.
In this phase, Web data that is collected from previous
phase is preprocessed to put it into a format compatible with
the analysis technique to be used in the next step.
Preprocessing may include cleaning data of inconsistencies,
filtering out irrelevant information and completing the
missing links in incomplete click through paths.
In this phase, automatic user profile is created after
analyzing data processed from the previous step. It is
generally done offline so that no extra burden is added on the
Web server. This step applies Machine Learning or Data
Mining techniques to discover interesting usage patterns and
statistical correlations between Web pages and user groups.
The last phase in personalization makes use of the results
of the previous analysis step to deliver recommendations to
the user. The recommendation process typically involves
generating dynamic Web content on the fly, such as adding
hyperlinks to the last web page requested by the user. This
can be accomplished using a variety of Web technology
options such as Common Gateway Interface(CGI)

Personalization should not be confused with

customization. It is different from customization. In case of
customization user is given questionnaire and then based on
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survey [1] presented the uses of Web Mining and Web
Personalization and other highlighted Web usage mining as
a tool for personalization [3]. Another survey done by
Chhavi Rana (2012), gave a precise and comprehensive
understanding of the work done in this sphere from 2007 to
2012. This paper reviews usefulness of different approaches
along with the projects associated with some of the
techniques [4]. After that there has been lot of up heals that
are encountered in this area of Web Personalization. This
paper tries to summarize the work done in various subfields
of Web Personalization after 2012.

Fig.1 Phases of Web Personalization

Fig. 1 shows the different phases of Web

Personalization. There are numersous startegies for Web
Personalization. Developers can use any of these or in
combination depending on the personalization requirements.
Different strategies used for Web Personalization are as
Using this strategy, user information such as name and
browsing history is stored using cookies. It is later used to
recognize and greet the returning user. It is usually
implemented on the Web server.
This form of personalization takes as input a users
preferences from registration forms in order to customize the
content and structure of a web page. This process tends to be
static and manual. So it is called semi-automatic. It is usually
implemented on the Web server. Typical examples include
personalized Web portals such as My Yahoo and Google.
Recommender systems automatically recommend
hyperlinks that are deemed to be relevant to users interest. It
is usually implemented on the Web server. It relies on data
that reflects the users interest implicitly or explicitly.
Implicitly refers to browsing history as recorded in Web
server logs. Explicitly refers to user profile as entered
through a registration form or questionnaire.
In case of Task Performance Support systems, personal
assistant executes action on the behalf of the user in order to
facilitate access to the relevant information. This approach
requires heavy involvement on the part of the user, including
access, installation, and maintenance of the personal assistant
Though Personalization of user data is a recent
phenomenon due to the rise of Internet usage, but over the
years Web mining techniques have developed a full fledged
support to provide personalized experience for user. Lot of
work is done to improvise Web Personalization. The two
important surveys done by [1, 3], gave a complete overview
of the work done in this sphere up to 2003. One of these

With the dramatic increase in the number of websites on

the Internet, tagging has become popular for finding related,
personal and important documents. Onur Yilmaz (2013),
presented a tag-based website recommendation method,
where similarity measures are combined with semantic
relationships of tags. This approach performs well in
recommending new websites or catching user's current
interests. However, there is no control on the tags provided
by users in this system. Although users do not intend to
mislead the method while tagging websites, different
purposes of tagging can create confusion [13].
Su, Chang and Tseng (2013) present music
recommendation system that utilizes social media tags
instead of user rating to calculate the similarity between
music pieces. Through the proposed tag-based similarity, the
user preferences hidden in tags can be inferred effectively.
The empirical evaluations on real social media datasets
reveal that proposed approach in this paper using social tags
outperforms the existing ones which are using only ratings
in terms of predicting the users preferences to music [7].
A.Vaishnavi (2011) proposed a technique for developing
Web Personalization system using Modified Fuzzy
Possibilistic C Means (MFPCM). The author claims that this
approach raises the possibility that URLs presented before a
user will be of his interest [6].
Another area that has been explored by many researchers
is Research Paper Recommendation System. Different
researchers have used different approaches. Hong, Jeon and
Jeon (2013) proposed Personalized Research Paper
Recommendation System PRPRS (PRPRS) that designed
expansively and implemented a user Profile-based algorithm
for extracting keyword by keyword extraction and keyword
inference. PRPRS calculates the similarity between given
topic and collected papers by using Cosine similarity which
is used to recommend initial papers for each topic in the
information retrieval [8].
Lee, Lee and Kim (2013) have proposed Personalized
Academic Research Paper Recommendation System
(PARPRS) using collaborative filtering methods, which
recommends related articles, for each researcher that may be
interesting to her/him [9]. Gao et al. (2014) have suggested
novel collaborative filtering approach that will make itembased CF more robust [12]. Jiang et al. (2013) have
proposed two novel boosting frameworks for collaborative
filtering [15]. Jing Lu et al. (2013) investigated Online
collaborative filtering techniques for building live
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recommender system [16]. Nikos and Katrien (2013) have
context. The solution proposes an analytical approach over
discussed Layered evaluation applied for multi-criteria
the computer aided learning mechanism. It defines the
recommendation service. It could be deployed for paper
concept of personalized learning and provides an example of
recommendation using Mendeley dataset [14]. Mendeley
implementation for a software system. This example
dataset is in the form of Mendeley Research Catalog with a
subsequently offers support and assistance for visually
collection of 80 million research documents.
impaired computer users [25].
Bedi and Aggarwal (2013) presents Aspect-Oriented
Trust Based Mobile Recommender System (AOTMRS) that
Yarandi, Jahankhani & Tawil (2013)
present an
uses the concept of trust and Aspect Oriented Programming
ontology-based approach to develop adaptive e-learning
for advice-seeking and decision-making process similar to
system based on the design of semantic content, learner and
real life. The proposed system AOTMRS builds a mobility
domain models to tailor the teaching process for individual
aspect and generates the trustworthy recommendations
learners needs. The proposed new adaptive e-learning has
based on the user preferences and his demographic
the ability to support personalization based on learners
information such as location, time, need etc [10].
ability, learning style, preferences and levels of knowledge
Preeti, Ankit and Purnima (2014) emphasize visualization
in recommendation systems. It proposes an argument based
Cakulaa and Sedleniecea (2013) have aimed to identify
recommender system which uses hybrid approach in which
overlapping points of KM and e-learning phases to improve
two results: trustworthy users and arguments occurred
the structure and transfer of personalized course knowledge
between user agent is visualized, using D3 tool [11].
using effective methods of ontology and metadata standards.
This research offers a theoretical background of knowledge
Pan and Chen (2013) propose a new Group Bayesian
management principle implementation for the development
Personalized Ranking (GBPR) system for one-class
of a practical personalized e-learning model [23].
collaborative filtering or collaborative ranking which
models users ranking-related preferences more directly
Another major application area of personalization is e[17].
commerce. Personalized recommendation technology in ecommerce is widespread to solve the problem of product
S.Geetha rani (2013) suggests click count as well as linkinformation overload. However, with the further growth of
click based Ranking algorithm. In this algorithm the count
the number of ecommerce users and products, the original
of click of each query concept can be evaluated as well as
recommendation algorithms and systems face several new
the link is also evaluated in the submitted query [18]. Wang
challenges such as modeling of users interests more
et al. (2013) explained General Ranking Model Adaptation
accurately, providing more diverse recommendation modes
Framework for personalized search is explained [19]. Global
and supporting large-scale expansion. To address these
RankNet model which is widely adopted ranking model for
challenges from the actual demands of e-commerce
web search tasks is discussed in another paper [20]. They
applications, Dong et al. (2013), designed and implemented
have suggested improvements in this model.
a personalized hybrid recommendation system, which can
support massive data set using Cloud technology [26].
One of the subfield of web personalization is e-learning.
Personalization of e-learning is considered as a solution for
World Wide Web has undergone three generations from
exploiting the richness of individual differences and the
Information Web to Social Web to Semantic Web. It has
different capabilities for knowledge communication. In
started its journey towards the fourth generation which
particular, to apply a predefined personalization strategy for
expects wisdom from the Web and so termed as the Wisdom
personalizing a course, some learners characteristics have
Web. In present era, where computers and Internet has
to be considered. Furthermore, different ways for the course
become inseparable parts of our life, user wants the Web to
representation have to be considered too. Fathi, Leila,
sense their requirements and interests and serve the contents
Mohammad (2013) have studied solutions to the question:
accordingly. Search engines play major role in information
How to automate the E-learning personalization according
extraction and delivery and present models of search
to an appropriate strategy? The study is about finding an
engines that are still struggling for providing personalized
answer to this original question by integrating the automatic
information to the users. Aarti Singh and Basim Alhadidi
evaluation, selection and application of personalization
[27] present knowledge oriented personalized search engine
strategy [21].
framework which can provide personalized contents to its
users. This framework provides a direction for the next
D.Suresh, S.Prakasam (2013) suggest the instructors to
generation of WWW and contributes towards Wisdom Web.
use the combination of e-learning system using Rank-Based
In another research paper Aarti Singh and Dr. Singh (2013)
Clustering Algorithm (ESURBCA) to get consistency in
highlight the technologies contributing towards the next
content delivery, quality content in learning materials,
generation of WWW and also suggest future direction for
Web Personalization [28].
improvement in their examination [24].
Another upcoming area is being suggested by Hanak et
Diana Butucea (2013) presents a theoretical framework
al. (2013). They have suggested methodology for measuring
for visually impaired persons, followed by a technical
personalization in Web search results. They have also
implementation of the concept in relation with the e-learning
applied this methodology to 200 users on Google Web
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Search and have deducted the results. The causes of
apply simple recommendation approaches that are not based
personalization on Google Web Search are also investigated.
on any recent research results. So there is a need of research
There effort is a step towards understanding the extent and
paper recommendation system which incorporates all the
effects of personalization on Web search engines today [29].
latest research work done in this field.
Another future scope can be to develop frameworks for
research paper recommender system evaluations. This
The wealth of Research projects described in the previous
should include an analysis of how suitable offline
section indicates that the demand for better Web
evaluations are, to what extend datasets should be allowed
personalization is high. However, many challenging
to be pruned, how many participants user studies shall have
research problems must be addressed if this demand is to be
at minimum and which factors influence the results of
fully met. Issues that cut across all of the applications are
evaluations (e.g. user demographics).
henceforth described, where progress will consequently
have the broader impact. The goal of personalization is to
One of the latest areas under Web Personalization is
provide users with what they want or need without requiring
Wisdom Web. WWW is on a journey of wisdom and
them to ask for it explicitly. Following are listed some of the
maturity, where it can sense what user wants and serve
major issues that needs to be catered to provide a better
relevant contents on its own. Transformation of WWW to
personalized system.
Wisdom Web requires change in the way web is accessed
Research on recommendation system is an emerging
field. Although it has obtained very good results, but there
are still many problems that need to be handled. One of the
problems faced is Data acquisition. It is mainly dependent
on the user's explicit evaluation. If user does not know about
the product it will not be helpful. Another problem that is
being faced is Cold start problem also called first evaluation
problem. If a new product has no evaluation, then the
product will not get a recommendation, hence
recommendation system will lose action. Ping, Xiang and
Ming (2012) have suggested that the future recommendation
research should use the web mining technology to collect
the users implicit browsing information rather than
depending on explicit evaluation information supplied by
the user for some product. At present, the recommendation
system needs the user to make preference assessments for a
product but this method has low degree of automation and
many users do not evaluate the product. Web mining
technologies can improve the automation degree of the
collected information.
Another angle for future research has been suggested by
Xujuan et al. (2012). Social Networking Sites contain a
warehouse of information. It can be mined and analyzed to
expand user profiles. It can be used to build complex
diagrams and maps of user-to-user and user-to-interest
relationships. A lot can be understood about the user using
these websites. The research issues on how to make
breakthrough on the current recommender system for social
networking environment or how to build the trust-based
Web personalized recommender systems need to be
explored further [31].
Another area which has been researched is Research
Paper Recommendation System. Different authors have
given different approaches. Some have used Content Based
Filtering and some have used Collaborative Filtering.
Stereotyping is one of the oldest approaches that are
successfully applied by Yahoo. Some authors have used
item centric approach and some have taken help of graphs.
One generalized approach is required which could handle
various issues related to research paper recommendation.
Despite the large number of research articles, there is only a
hand full of active recommender systems, and most of them

and therefore it requires new architecture. A new model of

web personalization search engine, which is capable of
providing knowledge, based recommendation to an
individual is suggested by Singh & Allhadidi (2013). Its
implementation and evaluation is still in pipeline. Further
new approaches can be adopted and developed [27].
Another area of measuring personalization of web search
can be explored. Over the past few years, we have witnessed
a trend of personalization in numerous Internet-based
services, including Web search. While personalization
provides obvious benefits for users, it also opens up the
possibility that certain information may be unintentionally
hidden from users. Despite the variety of speculation on this
topic, to date, there has been little quantification of the basis
and extent of personalization in Web search services today.
Efforts should be made to provide transparency for users of
Web search and other Web based services. Measurement of
personalization is in its budding stages. New methodologies
can be investigated, generalized and applied on various Web
Search engines and Web sites.
Personalized e-learning model using effective methods of
ontology can also be explored. Dynamic user modeling is
another upcoming research area. Few systems have
attempted to handle the dynamics within the user profile.
The behavior of users varies over time and it may affect the
construction of models. In nutshell a Web Personalization
system should be able to adapt to the users behavior.
Web personalization is the process of customizing a Web
site to the needs of a specific user. Web personalization is a
very important, if not necessary, part of WWW today with
many of its application areas. This paper tries to present a
comprehensive description of the various web
personalization efforts made in the last three years. Though,
a lot of research has been done since the last decade in this
area and many researchers have addressed the problem of
information bombardment, yet a system that can effectively
integrated various diverse requirements of the users has not
yet been proposed. This paper tries to identify potential
directions, and provides at the same time a quest for
exploration in the area of Web Personalization.
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[18] S.Geetha rani, A New Ranking Algorithm for Ranking

Search Results of Search Engine based on Personalized User
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Song, Ryen White, and Wei Chu, Personalized Ranking
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Personalization, A. Holzinger and G. Pasi (Eds.): HCI-KDD
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#Amit Sharma1, kshitij shinghal2, Pushpendra Vikram Singh3, Himansu Verma4

Deptt. of E&C Engg., KIMT, Moradabad, U.P.

Deptt. of E&C Engg., MIT, Moradabad, U.P.,
#Author 1 is a research scholar at IFTM University Moradabad, UP. India

Abstract: Multi-path routing has been studied thoroughly in

the context of wired networks. It has been shown that using multiple paths to route messages between any source-destination pair
of nodes balances the load more evenly throughout the network.
The common belief is that the same is true for ad hoc networks,
i.e., multi-path routing balances the load significantly better than
single-path routing. In this paper, we introduce The Temporally
Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) is a highly adaptive loop
free distributed routing algorithm based on the concept of link
reversal. TORA is proposed to operate in a highly dynamic
mobile networking environment.
Keywords: TORA, RREQ, DSR, RERR.

Multi-path routing consists of finding multiple routes
between a source and destination node. These multiple paths
between source and destination node pairs can be used to
compensate for the dynamic and unpredictable nature of Ad
hoc networks. Multipath routing consists of three components
viz. route discovery, traffic allocation and route maintenance.
Route Discovery
Route discovery consists of finding multiple routes between a source and destination node. Multipath routing protocols can attempt to find node disjoint, link disjoint, or
non-disjoint routes. Node disjoint routes[1,2], also known as
totally disjoint routes, have no nodes or links in common.
Link disjoint routes have no links in common, but may have
nodes in common. Non-disjoint routes can have nodes and
links in common. Fig 1.1 shows different kinds of multipath
routes. Routes SXD, SYD, and SZD in Fig 1.1 (a) have no
links or nodes in common and are therefore node disjoint.
Routes SXYZD and SYD in Fig1 . 1 (b) have node Y in
common and are therefore only link disjoint. Routes SXD
and SXYD in Fig1 . 1 (c) have node X and link SX in common and are therefore non-disjoint.

It is a multipath version of DSR. Unlike many prior multipath routing protocols, which keep multiple paths as backup
routes, SMR is designed to utilize multipath concurrently by
splitting traffic onto two maximally disjoint routes. Two
routes said to be maximally disjoint if the number of common
links is minimum. SMR uses one route discovery process
to accumulate as many as possible routes to the destination
node. This route discovery process runs in the same way as in
DSR. However, there are more steps involved in processing
RREQ packets at intermediate and destination nodes[2]. If
an intermediate node receives a RREQ packet, it adds its
own address and rebroadcasts the RREQ packet. Whenever
an intermediate node receives another RREQ from the same
source node and with the same request id, i.e. a duplicated
RREQ, the node checks the following two things (Fig
If the first RREQ packet arrives at the destination node,
a RREP is generated and sent back on the reverse path, which
is the Shortest delay path. Then the destination node waits a
period of time and selects multiple disjoint routes, acording
to the first path, and sends RREP packets back to the
source via the selected routes (Fig 1.2(b)).

(a) RREQ Propagation

(b) Available Paths
Fig 1.2: Route Discovery

Fig1.1: Different Kinds of Multipath Routes

(a) Node Disjoint (b) Link Disjoint (c) Non Disjoint


DMSR extends DSRs routing mechanism to deal with
multi-path routing couple with bandwidth constraint. It consists of three major phases, namely routing discovery, multipath route selecting and routing maintenance. In multi-path
route selecting phase, the ideal number of multi-path routing is achieved to compromise between load balancing and
network overhead[4]. A DMSR RREQ includes Source id,
RREQ id, Routing list, Hmax and B min.When a source node
initiates a QoS request, it firstly checks whether it has the
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routing information to the destination node. If not, it begins
MP-DSR gives 100% multiple disjoint paths. It provides
to broadcast RREQ to its neighborhoods. Once relay nodes
QoS in terms of shortest delay path, which in most case
receive this RREQ, it cant respond to the RREQ even it
could be the best/shortest path. Nodes require more buffer
has the routing information to the destination node. Rather, it
space and periodic message exchange leads to more overhead.
follows the steps:
Step 1- If current node itself is in the Routing list of RREQ,
it will discard the RREQ because of the routing loop. Other(AODVM-R)
wise, and it goes to step 2;
When performing route discovery, the source and interStep 2- If the tuple (SourceID, RREQID) of RREQ is not
mediate nodes maintain multiple routes to the destination. To
included in the routing table, which means the current
ensure loop freedom the RREQ packet includes path infornode is the first time to receive this RREQ, it calculates
mation (path from the source to the router). Primary and
the corresponding value of the bandwidth. If the value
secondary routes will have the same sequence numbers.
cant meet the requirement denoted by B min, and the RREQ
When a link breaks, a node tries to reestablish the route
using alternate paths. If still there is an unreachable destiwill be discarded. Otherwise, it goes to step3.
nation, the node sends an RERR message to its neighbors. If
Step 3- Adds the value of bandwidth to the corresponding
the primary route works for a long time, alternate paths
fields of the RREQ. Then the RREQ will be continually formight timeout because they are not used. While the primawarded and it goes back to step 1.
ry route is being used, send REFRESH message to the
alternate routes occasionally to refresh them. The REFRESH
packet is sent every active route_timeout /2 seconds.The
(MP-DSR) [3]:
REFRESH packet is forwarded to the destination, refreshing
MP-DSR is an extension of DSR with QoS support. It
the routes on the way. If an alternate route is detected to be
tries to forward packets on multiple disjoint paths with certain
broken, it is simply discarded from the route table[5,6].
end-to-end reliability requirements. This reliability considers
the probability of having a successful transmission between
the two mobile nodes within the time period from t0 to t0 +
t, where t0 is any time instant. The probability successful
transmission is shown in the following equation.

Where k is a set of node-disjoint paths from the

source to the destination. p(k,t) is the path reliability of
path k, calculated as the product of link availability of all
the links in path k. In other words, P(t) is the probability that
at least one path stays connected for the duration of t. After
the value of lowest path reliability requirement and the
number of paths to be discovered are set, the source node
floods a RREQ packet for a set of paths (neighbor nodes),
which can satisfy these requirements as shown in Fig1.3.
Each RREQ packet contains additional parameters e.g. the
reliability requirement, time window, path that a RREQ message has traversed, etc. Whenever an intermediate node receives a RREQ, it checks, whether the RREQ meets the lowest path reliability requirement. If yes, the intermediate
node adds itself and sends out multiple copies of this RREQ
to its neighbors. Otherwise RREQ packet is dropped. After
the reception of first RREQ, the destination waits a period
of time. Then it selects multiple disjoint paths out of all
received RREQ packets. RREP packets are sent along these
paths as shown in Fig 1.3.



AOMDV involves route discovery and route maintenance phases similar to AODV. Noteworthy feature of the
AOMDV protocol is the use of routing information already
available in the underlying AODV protocol as much as possible. Thus little additional overhead is required for the computation of multiple paths. The AOMDV protocol has two main
1. A route update rule to establish and maintain
multiple loop-free paths at each node.
2. A distributed protocol to find l disjoint paths.
To keep track of multiple routes, the routing entries in
each node for each destination contain a list of the nexthops along with the corresponding hop counts. All the next
hops have the same sequence number. For each destination, a
node maintains the advertised hop count, which is defined
as the maximum hop count for all the paths.
Table 1: Structure of Routing Table Entries for
sequence number
advertised_ hopcount
route_ list
{seqnumi {(nexthop 1,hopcount1),
(nexthop2,hopcount 2),}
expiration timeout

Fig 1.3: MP-DSR RREQ & RREP Messages

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The advertised hop count is initialized each time the
SI1-ID1, SI2-ID2 or SI1-ID2, SI2-ID1.
sequence number is updated. A node i updates its advertised_hopcount for a destination d whenever it sends a route
advertisement for d. specifically, it is updated as followsAdverd
tised_hopcounti :=maxk{hopcountk|(nexthop k,hopcountk)
route_listi }The route update rule in algorithm 2 is invoked whenever a node receives a route advertisement. Lines (1) and
(9)-(10) of the AOMDV route update rule ensure loop freeFig 1.4 Link-Disjoint Paths
dom. AOMDV update rule is used whenever a node i receives a route advertisement to a destination d from a neighAOMDV offers better performance relative to AODV
a wide range of mobility and traffic scenarios. It has
bor j. The variables seqnumi , advertised_hopcounti ,
that AOMDV offers a significant reduction in
represent the sequence number, adverdelay, often more than a factor of two. It also provides up to
tised_hopcount and route_list for destination d at node i
about 20% reduction in the routing load and the frequency
respectively. AOMDV can be used to find node-disjoint or
of route discoveries. In general, AOMDV always offers a
link-disjoint routes. To find node-disjoint routes, each node
superior overall routing performance than AODV in a variety
does not immediately reject duplicate RREQs. Each RREQ
of mobility and traffic conditions[9].
arriving via a different neighbor of the source defines a
node-disjoint path. This is because nodes cannot broadcast
duplicate RREQs, so any two RREQs arriving at an interALGORITHM (TORA)
mediate node via a different neighbor of the source could
The Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) is a
not have traversed the same node. In an attempt to get
highly adaptive loop free distributed routing algorithm based
multiple link-disjoint routes, the destination replies to duplion the concept of link reversal. It is designed to minimize
cate RREQs regardless of their first hop[8].
reaction to topological changes. A key design concept in
TORA is that it decouples the generation of potentially farreaching control messages from the rate of topological changes. Such messaging is typically localized to a very small set
of nodes near the change without having to resort to a complex
dynamic, hierarchical routing solution. TORA is also characterized by a multi-path routing capability. Each node has a
height with respect to the destination that is computed by
the routing protocol. Fig1.5 illustrates the use of the height
metric. TORA is proposed to operate in a highly dynamic
mobile networking environment. The protocol performs three
basic functions as followsa. Route creation
b. Route maintenance
c. Route erasure

Algorithm 2 : AOMDV Route Update Rules

To ensure link-disjointness in the first hop of the RREP,
the destination only replies to RREQs arriving via unique
neighbors. After the first hop, the RREPs follow the reverse
paths, which are node-disjoint and thus link-disjoint. The
trajectories of each RREP may intersect at an intermediate
node, but each takes a different reverse path to the source to
ensure link-disjointness. Fig1 . 4 illustrates link-disjoint path
computation in AOMDV. S, D and I denote the source,
intermediate node and the destination, respectively. There
are two possible sets of link-disjoint paths between S and D,

Fig 1.5: TORA Height Metric

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S. J. Lee and M. Gerla, "Split multipath routing with maxWhen a node needs a route to a particular destination, it
imally disjoint paths in ad hoc networks," ICC 2001. IEEE
broadcasts a QUERY packet containing the address of the
International Conference on Communications, Helsinki,
destination for which it requires a route. This packet propa2001.
gates through the network until it reaches either the destina[9]
A. Tsirigos and Z. J. Haas, "Multipath routing in the prestion, or an intermediate node having a route to the destinaence of frequent topological changes," Communications
Magazine, IEEE, vol. 39, pp. 132- 138, 2001.
The node which receives the QUERY then broadcasts
Zhi Li and Yu-Kwong Kwok, "A New Multipath Routing
an update packet, listing its height with respect to the destiApproach to Enhancing TCP Security in Ad Hoc Wireless
nation. As this packet propagates through the network, each
Networks," Proc. ICPP Workshops, pp. 372379, June
node that receives the update sets its height to a value
Vincent D. Par and M. Scott Corson, Temporally-Ordered
greater than the height of the neighbor from which the upRouting Algorithm (TORA) Version 1: Functional Specidate has been received. This has the effect of creating a series
fication, Internet-Draft, draft- ietf-manet-tora-spec-01.txt,
of directed links from the original sender of the QUERY
August 1998.
to the node that initially generated the update.
In this paper we study the different multipath routing protocols for mobile Ad HOC network. The overall summery of
above-mentioned multipath routing protocols is shown in the
Protocol Base
(Source routing)

Made at
Source node

Motivation /Application

Reduces number of route

Reduction in delay, routing load and the frequency
of route discoveries

Source node
Splitting traffic pro(source routing) vides better load distribution
Source node
QoS applications with
(source routing) soft end-to-end reliability
Operate in a highly
TORA link reversal Source node
(Source routing) dynamic mobile networking environment.









Xuefei Li and Laurie Cuthbert, Stable Node-Disjoint
Multipath routing with low overhead in Ad Hoc Networks, MASCOTS-2004, pages 184-191, 2004.
Xuefei Li and Laurie Cuthbert, A Reliable NodeDisjoint Multipath Routing with Low Overhead in Wireless Ad hoc Networks, Venezia, Italy MSWiM04, October46, 2004.
M. K. Marina and S. R. Das On-Demand Multi Path Distance Vector Routing in Ad Hoc Networks, Proc. ICNP
2001,Nov. 2001.
S.-J. Lee and M. Gerla, Split Multipath Routing with
Maximally Disjoint Paths in Ad Hoc Networks, Proc. ICC
2001, vol. 10, June 2001.
S. Bouam and J. Ben-Othman, Data Security in Ad Hoc
Networks Using Multipath Routing, Proc. PIMRC 2003,
vol. 2, pp. 13311335, Sept. 2003.
N. Taft-Plotkin, B. Bellur, and R. Ogier, "Quality-ofservice routing using maximally disjoint paths," Quality of
Service, 1999. IWQoS '99. 1999 Seventh International
Workshop on, London, 1999.
Broch J. Jhonson DB, Maltz DA, The Dynamic Source
Routing protocol for mobile Ad Hoc Networks, IETF
Draft, October, 2003.

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Valentina S. Dyankovaa1, Stoyan N. Kapralovb2, Milko I. Yankovc3 and Yumit N. Ismailovd4
University of Shumen, Universitetska str., 115
Bulgaria, Shumen, 9700
valentina.dyankova@gmail.com, 3milkoyankov@gmail.com, 4yumit.goog@gmail.com

Technical University of Gabrovo, Hadji Dimitar str., 4

Bulgaria, Gabrovo, 5300

AbstractThis article presents DSLearning a web-based

learning system, developed by the authors, for teaching the concepts
of the Data Structures field. Oriented towards increasing the
independent work of students, the integration of the concepts in a
dynamic, self-developing system, allows for students to focus their
attention on the logical definitions of the terms. This allows
freedom, with regard to the choice of formalization, and determines
the adaptability of attained knowledge to the technology used for
software realization. In teaching the concepts of data structures, a
series of assignments is used. The web-based environment focuses
on providing helpful questions and tasks of lower difficulty, in the
cases when students give a wrong answer. This process is managed
via a developed structural task model. It is used as a basis for the
decomposition of a task to auxiliary tasks of lower difficulty. The
application of the DSLearning system fosters active independent
work and self-paced learning during the formation of skills for
modeling real objects and processes.
Index Termsimproving classroom teaching; interactive learning
environments; programming and programming languages;
teaching/learning strategies



In accordance with the ACM curricula (CS2013) [2], the study

of fundamental concepts/terms of data structures and the skills,
necessary for their use in modeling real-world tasks, are a part of
the subject matter of the Fundamental Data Structures
(knowledge area Software Development Fundamentals) and
Fundamental Data Structures and Algorithms (knowledge area
Algorithms and Complexity) courses. The CS2013 curriculum, in
regards to the time needed for introduction of new material in a
traditional lecture, assumes students to spend a significant
amount of additional time outside of class [2]. A way of
acquiring extracurricular skills and knowledge by the students is
using free, publicly-available educational resources. The main
guidelines on using such resources, related to the topic of Data
Structures education, can be systematized in the following ways:
- Publication of text materials: systems of this type contain
information on the data structures being studied. Examples of
such systems are presented in [8], [18].
- Use of graphics and multimedia for visualization of the
organization of the elements of a data structure and the basic
operations with such elements [4]. For instance, in [18] there is a
description of the possible ways of experimenting with a data
structure, while in [7] there are visualizations of specific data
structures and the operations performed on them.
- Algorithm visualization: systems of this type are described
in [7], [17], [24]. A key for them is to offer a good, dynamic
visualization of the algorithm stages through the use of
multimedia technology.

- Tests of programming code. In [25] the test of a studentgenerated program source code is executed on the basis of
varying data input. It is impossible to generate (and test) an
arbitrary source code, but rather one of predetermined modules
available in the system.
- Test questions and frequent mistakes. In [1] the system
supplies a warehouse of test questions, which can be solved by
students and be automatically validated in conditions similar to a
real testing environment.
- Knowledge testing. In such systems there is an emphasis on
the quantitative grading of the students answers.
It is apparent that openly available educational resources have
their limits in terms of capabilities for guiding the learning
process and their adaptability based on the students answers. In
[17] there is an accent on the need for self-balancing behavior
on part of the students. Such findings provide a natural focus on
the creation and realization of a Data Structures educational
model, in the context of a reflective approach in an open
educational environment. Learning of data structures requires the
development of the students ability to discover logical
relationships among the data structures with the goal of
formalization, adaptation of algorithms to a particular problem,
logical thinking within the terms of a specific system for the
formalization of knowledge.
The solutions presented in this paper, on the topic of
developing a web-based system, which incorporates a learning
process, can be summarized in the following three ways:
1) Organization of the learning process in the context of
Characteristics of Graduates given in CS2013 [2]: system-level
perspective, problem-solving skills, appreciation of the interplay
between theory and practice.
2) Choice and definition of a basic learning element, which
enables the technological realization of the learning process.
Developing a model for such basic learning element makes
possible the decomposition of knowledge into learning elements
of lower complexity, decreasing the difficulty for the students,
and creating the capability for self-testing. The latter follows one
of the major suggestions of professor Bergin for active learning
provide exercises of different difficulty levels [13].
3) Choice of strategy for defining a system of learning
elements, which purposefully influences the students to acquire a
certain knowledge element. In this system, every learning
element plays a particular role with regard to the complex goal
your job is not to give the students information. Your real job is
to show them ways to build new information structures for the
problems of their days.[13].

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the group of properties, which can be isolated as primary, thus
The DSLearning system (www.dslearning.eu) is developed by determining all others. These properties are identified into the
the authors (Fig. 1). It is conceived as a learning system with a following three groups:
Properties for generalized volume type of elements and
feedback loop, utilizing non-linear algorithms, and organizing
the students learning process in accordance with the illustration dynamics (i.e. can their number be changed).
Properties for characterization of the relationships specific
on Fig. 2.
elements (are all elements equal, or are there different tiers),
specific fields (are certain element properties defining for the
treatment), linearity, connection (whether the elements are equal
or linked and what information is carried by the link).
Properties for permissible actions determine the range of
possible operations.
Defining the concepts of data structures in DSLearning,
through their common and key properties, focuses the attention
of students on the important characteristics invariant with regard
to programming language. In this sense, the system integrates the
CS2013 requirement for shifting the emphasis from writing a
code to a logical interpretation of concepts (problem-solving
skills [2]).
The understanding of logically related fundamental concepts,
integrated in a self-developing system, allows for the
Fig. 1. The DSLearning system
accumulation of facts for each new concept to occur in
The impact (1) on the students by the system is achieved connection to the rest, and aims for the setting of new goals. This
through entry questions. The students response (2) reflects the leads to awareness and generalization of the knowledge through
degree of understanding of the learning material. The response is the creation of internal, previously-generalized models of the
concepts in data structures. In this sense, the system organizes
learning activities based on constructive feedback, unified by the
idea of electronic education [16], [12], [27].
In the second level of knowledge organization, software
formalization (class) of the learned concepts is used. It is
devoted to aid the formation of skills for correct use of the
concepts software form.
Fig. 2 Management of the Learning Process
The third level of organization requires the application of
formalized in an appropriate way and is input into the error
acquired in the first two levels for modeling of real
analyzer (3). Depending on the accepted evaluation criteria for
Here, skills for adaptive application of the learned
the students knowledge, a corresponding influence (4) on part of
are formed. The learning environment offers
the system is determined. It is interpreted via a suitable
information model, which is presented to the students in terms of problem-solving scenarios, developing the students abilities to
a particular problem scenario. In addition, some slides may discover unknown properties of the data structures, which may
be essential for the solution of a particular problem, capabilities
reflect the
emoticon. The main purpose of this is to enable for broadening the functionality of a given data structure, in
students to receive help from the system a direction on accordance with a particular task, methods for modeling a
continuing the reasoning process, a control answer, or simply a specific process, logical thinking within the terms of a concrete
visualization of the task at hand.
system for the formalization of knowledge, as well as
DSLearning comprises of components, in accordance with the optimization of the created models.
requirements laid out in the Instructional-Design Theory [3]:
These three levels reflect the three tiers of mastery
clear information, thoughtful practice, informative feedback, and (Familiarity, Usage, Assessment), as per CS2013, associated
strong intrinsic or extrinsic motivation. This determines the with the expected results from the students education.
following model of learning activity in the system: goal, motive,
independent work, result.
The management of information flows, in the learning of data
The selection of a tool for the realization of the described
structures through DSLearning, is in accordance with the systemlevel perspective [2]. Beginning with its essence, the concept is organization of the teaching process is realized, in accordance
later developed in subsequent levels of more in-depth with the pedagogical pattern of prof. Joseph Bergin: How do
knowledge, i.e. it is defined at yet another, higher level of you begin the design of a new course? Therefore, first decide
organization. Each level is characterized by a system of on what the students will do in the course. Design the student
knowledge and a way of formalization of such knowledge. In tasks.[11]. The tasks in DSLearning are systematized based on
accordance with the Patterns for Experiential Learning [14], their structural development as the level of difficulty increases.
DSLearning realizes three levels of input of data structure terms, The number of unknown components is assumed to be the
objective criterion of difficulty. In this context, the authors have
thus allowing for monitoring of the students progress.
The first level of knowledge organization follows the classical developed a structural model of a data structure task. The correct
definition of a term as a system of properties, which defines a choice of a suitable structure requires in-depth analysis of the
qualitative determination. The DSLearning system emphasizes relationships among data. A basic model is selected to be the
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mathematical task model of L.M. Freedman [19]. In it, the with more unknown components is harder to solve than a task
functional dependencies among objects in the task are contained with less unknown components.
as separate structural elements. Freedmans model is adapted by
- Analysis of the information, provided by the known
the authors for the purposes of DSLearning, as the data structures structural elements, and the possibilities for its application in
task comprises of a system with the following elements:
completing particular practical exercises.
Objective (C) what should be reached as a result?
- Analysis of the logical correlation between unknown and
Subject matter field (P) the objects as described by the known structural elements of a task and the possibilities for its
exercise - consists of an input field (I), output field (O), as well adaptive interpretation, according to the particular situation.
The purposeful use of the transformation for decomposition of
as potential sets of other objects M (I O P). The output field
is related to the objective this is, in fact, a concrete action in exercises in DSLearning requires theevaluation to be conducted
under the following conditions:
terms of the required data formatting and the used output stream.
a) The objective of the exercise is always known.
Relation (F) the relationship between the objects in the task.
b) The unknown component of the exercise is a component,
Included here are the relations which connect input data F1(I),
relations connecting output data F2(O), relations of dependency for which there is no information, or one which has unknown
of output data on the input data F3(O), as well as relations sub-components.
c) The type of a given exercise is determined by the type of
between other objects in the subject matter F4(M). These
relations can be defined through reasoning or predicates. The unknown components of this exercise. Let K be the set of
unknown components in an exercise.
conjunction of these relations is defined by the component F.
d) A mandatory characteristic of each exercise type is their
The basis (B) theoretical basis for formalization of the task
at hand, in terms of data structures, in relation to a given difficulty. The elements of the set K determine the difficulty
parameters of the specific task.
knowledge system.
e) The set K uniquely defines the set Q, comprised of
The purposeful management of education through tasks ([22],
[23]) requires a selection of such tasks with an increasing level of relations MN among the components of an exercise in the
difficulty. Each unknown component of the problem requires of following way: Q = {MN: NK M{C, P, F, B}\K}.
the students to transfer the acquired knowledge and skills to a
Every logical link MN, within the set Q, has specific for its
new situation, modeled through the particular task.
nature methods of scientific knowledge. They outline the specific
The unknown components of a DSLearning exercise are way of determining the unknown component N through the
established through questions, which allow for: a single correct known component M. In this context, the form of links MN, in
answer (Radio Button); a variable number of correct answers set Q, defines the direction of the thinking process when solving
(Check Box); a selection of an option from a predetermined list an exercise. This is a basis for selection of an appropriate
of templates (List Box); an option for the arbitrary completion of informational model, in DSLearning, of management action of
parts of the complete task solution.
the system, in the case of a wrong answer given by students
Example 1: Question 36/38 of lesson stack (Fig. 3)
(Action 4, Fig. 2). For instance, the link CBQ (a known
The objective C is the addition of a new element as a bottom objective C and unknown basis B) requires the application of
of a stack. The subject matter field B consists of the set of analogy or concretization of a known approach. This implies that
integers and stacks, whose elements are integers as well. The the students execute a transfer of their knowledge and skills to a
relation F consists of the correlation element over stack, i.e. the new task situation, determined by the exercise objective C. In
participating objects are connected via links, which define them this instance, DSLearning furnishes students with an animated or
as elements of a given stack. This also results in the objects static graphic depiction of a similar tasks solution.
acceptable applications. The basis B consists of a sequence of
operators that realize the, given in the exercise, algorithm. In this
task, the unknown component is the basis B, which is set as a
sequence of list boxes.
Typical for DSLearning is the ability to change the pace of the
learning process, based on the students responses (Action 4 on
Fig.2). This is accomplished through the use of logical
relationships among the known and unknown components, to
reconstruct the exercise types, based on the number and type of
unknowns. The justification of the classification of problems,
based on the number of unknowns, may be summarized as
- Objective evaluation of the exercises difficulty level,
according to the type and number of their unknown components.
The conclusions of this assessment are used for organization of
the exercises in a complete system, used in the DSLearning
curriculum for learning data structures. It is assumed that a task

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Example 2: For the exercise from Example 1, the sets K and Q naturally implement the properties in a suitable sequence. The
are: K={B}; Q={CB,PB,FB}. CBQ and therefore the reasoning purposeful management of this process is achieved in the
done is deemed valid. In case of a wrong answer, DSLearning following way: It is assumed that for the internalization of given
makes a transition to an equivalent, related to the objective, knowledge the students perform a given action d. Each action
exercise with particular data and a particular operator (Fig. 4). includes a set of operations o1, o2 , on, performed in a
Students are required to determine the result of the operators particular order and in accordance with given rules. Each action
action for the objects provided on the drawing. The answer to the is directed towards an object H(d), which has properties c 1,
c2,,ck. The properties of the object, at which the action is
directed, are defined as parameters of the action. Therefore, the
parameterization of the action is a basis for the selection of the
operations comprising the object. The conformity between an
exercise and an operation can be defined via the scheme on
Figure 6, where z1, z2,,zk are the tasks, through which the
operations o1, o2 ,ok are realized. The completion of operation
oi aims determining the parameter ci of action d, i.e. learning
about the property ci.

Fig. 4. A problem concretization example

control question Will the elements of stack s be moved to stack
sp? determines the ability of the students to apply the particular
algorithmic scheme for the specific data. If the students give a
wrong answer here as well, they receive secondary information
(Fig. 5) in determining the result of each simple step of the
algorithmic scheme.




The exercises integrated in DSLearning allow the

decomposition of functions of the Data Structures education
process, the definition of relationships among the functional
subsystems, the division of the management and informational
flows, and the realization of an interactive overview of the
teaching process by using the activity approach [6], [9].
The exercises for each concept in DSLearning are divided into
two groups accumulation of knowledge of the logical structure
of the concept and accumulation of knowledge of the concept as
a software object. Each one of these modules examines the
concept as a concrete object with inherent, for the corresponding
point of view, properties. Students have to assimilate the required
knowledge and skills for the adequate use of these properties in
modeling of real processes. This requires for the exercises to

Fig. 6 Defining a Task with an Operation

The correspondence of an operation oi to its realizing exercise
zi can be defined via the following algorithm A:
A1. Defined is the parameter of action d, which varies with
operation oi. Let this be property ci of H(d).
A2. The property ci is interpreted in terms of the accepted
exercise model in the following way: task zi is considered, whose
goal is the definition of the property ci with given (already
identified) properties c1, c2, , ci-1.
A3. For the thus defined exercise zi, the set of unknown
structural elements K(zi) is defined.
A4. The elements of the set K(zi) determine the set of
correlations among known and unknown components Q(zi).
The interpretation of the objects properties, of the concept to
be learned through the described algorithm A, is a basis for
defining the series of exercises in each of the two groups. During
the execution of a given operation oi, the students possess
knowledge Z. With the execution of operation oi, the goal is to
define the parameter ci of the action d, i.e. assimilation of
knowledge Z(ci) for the property ci. This means that after
completing operation oi, the student possesses knowledge
Z=ZZ(ci). With the inclusion of knowledge from the zone of
proximal development [21] in Z, an active learning process
with a constructive approach is realized: To improve his skills,
the exercise must be located at the upper limit of the participant's
current skill level[13]. The thus systematized problems are
focused on empowering the student through active


The criteria and indicators for measuring the effectiveness of

the DSLearning systems use are:
K1 operations with the idiosyncratic properties of the
concepts. Indicators: an interpretation of the behavior of an
object via the values of the existence criteria (P11); a derivation
of new properties of the concept (P12); a perception of properties
as inherent to the logical definition of the concept, but not of its
software form (P13).
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K2 a choice of concept for modeling a real process (without
4 (67%)
a software realization). Indicators: identification of a concept
Good 3
Very good
based on sufficient properties (P21); finding of specific
4 (73%)
manifestations of the studied concept in a real process (P22);
ability to consider real processes as systems, characterized by
value for
objects and their interrelations (P23); option for algorithmic
modeling of a real-world process in natural language without
Good 3
Very good
programming realization (P24).
4 (71%)
K3 formalization of real processes through the learned
Good 3
Good 3
concepts of data structures in the terms of a programming
language. Indicators: transfer of knowledge based on analogy
(P31); formalization of given parts of the process via a
value for
programming language (P32).
K4 desire to enhance ones knowledge. Indicators: an ability
Good 3
Very good
to find critical parameters when modeling a process, via which
4 (63%)
the process can be optimized; independent research on the
likelihood of this topic (P41).
value for
These criteria and indicators are refined with the help of the
field research method [20]. Students accomplishment level is
graded on a 5-point scale of each criterion: poor, satisfactory,
Regarding criterion K1: an accumulation of facts about the
good, very good, and excellent. For each criterion, the grade is objects and their properties in cause-effect relationships; deriving
determined by the percentage ratio of the results exhibited by the consequences of the manifestation of the concept characteristics
students. The average of the grades reached on a given criterion in interaction with other objects; accumulation of facts about new
is the basis for determining its level as follows: 0%-20% - poor, properties when using experiment, induction, analogy;
denoted by 1; 21%-40% - satisfactory, denoted by 2; 41%-60% - organization of the amassed empirical material on the properties
good, denoted by 3; 61%-80% - very good, denoted by 4; and via abstraction and summarization.
81%-100% - excellent, denoted by 5.
The selected from the sample population are students studying
Computer Science at the University of Shumen Episkop
Konstantin Preslavski. An analysis, done on the study, interprets
the achieved results. The results (Table 1) show how the use of
cause-effect relationships, among the components of an exercise,
influences the learning goals.
The analysis of achievements on the first two criteria (Fig. 7)
demonstrates that the learners understand the essence and can
apply the knowledge of modeling and algorithmization of real
processes in the context of Problem solving skills [2].
Taking into consideration the grades variance of the target
experimental and the control groups on the corresponding
criteria, a conclusion can be reached, that the organization of the
learning process with DSLearning aids the development of the
Regarding criterion K2: a justified choice of a property,
following skills:
to a given data structure, which specifies a given
Table 1: Summarized results from the study
a real process; discovery, in various real situations, of
properties of the concepts, however not
With using
Criteria Indicator
system; discovery of a set of sufficient
properties, in the behavior of a real object, allowing the
understanding; application of base properties for modeling of a
Good 3
Excellent 5
real process; generation of ideas for structuring data with the
objective of modeling a given relationship.
Good 3
Excellent 5
Good 3
Excellent 5
value for
Good 3
Excellent 5
Regarding criterion K3: forming an understanding of the
Good 3
Excellent 5
of a real process via the studied concept;
thinking through the comparison of pros and
Good 3
Very good
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cons of different realizations of a real process (with and without
The empirical value of the t-statistic, t-emp. = 8.92, is greater
the studied concept); precision in modeling the process of the than the theoretical value (Table 4), which shows that the
studied concept through accenting on typical mistakes; discovery difference between the means of the two groups (EG and CG) is
of marginal cases of the model in consideration and the statistically significant. This corroborates the importance and
behavioral study of the object in such cases; alternative ways of value of the experimental work and confirms the effectiveness of
formalization of a given relation through the studied concept; DSLearning in the learning of data structures.
ability for evaluation of different models, using the concept as a
The effectiveness of a learning process with DSLearning can
given parameter; determination of sub-tasks and reconstruction be determined in the following ways:
of the whole from its parts; combination of known ways of
Stimulates the independent work of students. In the
modeling a new process; ideas for parameterization of real event of a wrong answer to an exercise, students receive helpful
problems and management of the parameters via the properties of information, needed for the self-correction of the mistake made.
the studied concept.
The system aims not the quantitative assessment of a wrong
Regarding criterion K4: the possibilities for practical answer, but rather creating a reflective environment for acquiring
application foster motivation and are a natural basis for further, knowledge.
more in-depth, investigation of this topic.
The clarification of the just of each concept is derived
To achieve the goal, students T criterion is calculated. The from the concepts applicability and there are no constraints on
results from the study of the application of DSLearning are the necessary knowledge of computer science. The burden shifts
analyzed via SPSS 9.0. To determine the succession rates (level from the realization of the main operations for one data structure
of attained knowledge) of students, a series of tests are carried to their use in real situations.
out. They are conducted according to the following methods:
Measurement of main statistical measures: average ( )
and standard deviation (SD). The statistical measures serve to
describe the empirical distribution of the population. They are
summary statistics and have a key role in the comparative
analysis, based on different conclusions for the state of the
population [10].
Hypothesis testing with the use of statistical measures.
Students T criterion is used.
Tables 2, 3 and 4 reflect the average values and measures of
spread, for the target student group using DSLearning, as well as
the statistical measures for hypothesis testing. From the values in
Tables 2 and 3, it can be observed that EG has a higher mean
( =75.80) compared to KG ( =47.91), which demonstrates
that the test results of students using DSLearning are higher.
Another important indicator for proving the effectiveness of
the DSLearning application is the standard deviation. The data
for SD in Table 2 shows the spread in the corresponding group.
A lower spread (lower SD) is observed in the students from the
EG group (11.99), as contrasted to the students from the control
group CG (20.65). The students from the target group exhibit
small deviation in the test scores among the members of the
group, which in turn means they are more tightly clustered
around the mean, according to which we measure the students
For comparison of the mean values, the Students T criterion is
used. Proving a hypothesis is linked to a determined difference
between the means for the two groups (EG and CG). Keep in
mind the level of authenticity of a standard confidence level =
0,05, and a standard critical value t-theoretical = 1.98 [15]. The
observed value of t (empirical) is compared to the t-alpha
(critical value).

Electronic learning is a process of accumulating knowledge,

defined in advance, in accordance with selected pedagogical
designs, and is presented in a form of a complete framework [5].
In developing this point through the outlined in [2], [3], [6], [9],
[11], [14], and [16], the authors have integrated in DSLearning
the following:
6. 1. Purposeful definition of the exercises contents in each
lecture. Learning of each of the concepts of data structures
begins with a general summary, followed by its detailing in
levels of hierarchical organization. Each level has a set of
character attributes. The developed, by the authors, algorithm
allows for conformity of these attributes to the exercises in a
particular lecture (Section IV).
6. 2. Systematization of exercises, ensuring their increasing
problematic level. For a criterion of difficulty, assumed are the
number and type of unknown components in a given
task/exercise. With this in mind, the authors have developed an
adaptive structural model of data structures exercises (Section
6. 3. Providing of helpful/secondary information for the
logical sequence of knowledge and skills, needed for
successfully completing a given exercise. The solution of a given
task is a result of the approach, using which the students perform
an analysis of the known components, and thus extract
information about the unknowns. In this way, the authors have
tested and systematized the specific, for the known-unknown pair
of components, methods of scientific knowledge (Section III, set
Q). The derived, upon testing, results are used in selecting an
information slide in case of a wrong answer, submitted by the

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The developed structural model of a task and the
[16] Schreurs, J., & Al-Huneidi, A., (2012). Blended echaracterization of the exercises, with respect to the unknown
learning process for professional and on distance learners.
components, can be used for a purposeful influence on the
International Conference on Interactive Mobile and
students reasoning process, via an analysis of the logical links
Computer Aided Learning (IMCL).
among the structural elements, in the context of using the
[17] Davis, K., & Hamilton Taylor, A. G., (2011) Interactivity
scientific knowledge methods (In [26] an alternative approach is
in Data Structures and Algorithm Courses with SKA for
presented for defining the model of the students behavior). The
RBTs. International Journal of Innovation, Management
in-depth study of relationships between the known and unknown
and Technology, vol. 2, no. 1.
components (set Q) of the exercise can be used for determining
[18] Tawsopar, K., & Mekhabunchakij, K., (2007). An
the model of students logical thinking.
Approach to RLO Design for Data Structures and
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