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CETMA

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TCNICO
EM
ELETROTCNICA

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CETMA

CENTRO DE EDUCAO TECNOLGICA MARAB LTDA


Credenciado pelo parecer n 001/08-CEE, processo n 405/07-CEE

Rodovia Transamaznica Km 01 Lote 47 Cidade Nova Marab Par Fone 3324-6358


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CETMA

CENTRO DE EDUCAO TECNOLGICA MARAB LTDA


Credenciado pelo parecer n 001/08-CEE, processo n 405/07-CEE

Direo e Coordenao Pedaggica


Maria Aparecida Pirovano de Almeida

Direo de Relaes Empresariais e Comunitrias


Adomiran de Almeida

Coordenador do Curso
Eng. Eletricista Deive Frana de Almeida Duarte

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CETMA

CENTRO DE EDUCAO TECNOLGICA MARAB LTDA


Credenciado pelo parecer n 001/08-CEE, processo n 405/07-CEE

Rodovia Transamaznica Km 01 Lote 47 Cidade Nova Marab Par Fone 3324-6358


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CENTRO DE EDUCAO TECNOLGICA MARAB LTDA


Credenciado pelo parecer n 001/08-CEE, processo n 405/07-CEE

INGLS
INSTRUMENTAL

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CETMA

CENTRO DE EDUCAO TECNOLGICA MARAB LTDA


Credenciado pelo parecer n 001/08-CEE, processo n 405/07-CEE

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CENTRO DE EDUCAO TECNOLGICA MARAB LTDA


Credenciado pelo parecer n 001/08-CEE, processo n 405/07-CEE

SUMRIO
PARTE I GRAMTICA

11

1- Prepositions

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2- Pronouns
2.1- Pronomes Pessoais
2.2- Pronomes Possessivos
2.3- Peonomes Indefinidos
2.4- Pronomes Relativos
2.5- Pronomes Interrogativos
2.6- Pronomes Demosntrativos
2.7- Pronomes Reflexivos

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3 Simple Present
3.1- Forma Interrogativa
3.2- Forma Negativa

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4 Simple Past
4.1- Verbos Regulares
4.2- Verbos Irregulares
4.2.1- Interrogative Form
4.2.2- Negative Form
4.3- Passado verbo TO BE
4.3.1- Presente Continuous Tense

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5 - Simple Future
5.1- Formao
5.1.1- Formas abreviadas
5.1.2- Forma negativa
5.1.3- Forma Interrogative
5.2- Going to

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6 - Adverbs
6.1- Adverbs of Place
6.2- Adverbs of Time
6.3- Adverbs of Frequency
6.4- Adverbs of Manner
6.5- Adverbs of Degree

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7 Posio dos Adverbios

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PARTE II INTERPRETAO DE TEXTOS

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CENTRO DE EDUCAO TECNOLGICA MARAB LTDA


Credenciado pelo parecer n 001/08-CEE, processo n 405/07-CEE

1 Tecnicas de Leituras
1.1- Cognatos
1.2- Palavras Repetidas
1.3- Pistas Tipogrficas
1.4- General Comprehension
1.5- Skimming
1.6- Scanning

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2- Texto 1

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3- Texto 2

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4- Texto 3

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5- Termos Tcnicos
5.1- Digital Oscilloscope
5.2- Features
5.3- Precautions
5.4- Minilab Technical Terms
5.5- Abreviations / Monograms
5.5.1- Minilab Research
5.6- Multitester Instruction Manual
5.6.1- Aparence and Parts Names
5.7- Specification
5.7.1- DC Voltage
5.7.2- AC Voltage
5.7.3- DC Currenty
5.7.4- Test
5.7.5- DCV Test
5.7.6- ACV Test
5.7.7- DCA Test
5.7.8- ACV Test
5.7.9- Transistor Test
5.7.10- hFE (DC Amplification) Test
5.7.11- Diode Test
5.8- Eletronic Circuits
5.8.1- Introduction
5.8.2- Shining a light
5.8.3- Drawing a Circuit Diagram
5.8.4- Curret
5.8.5- Voltage
5.8.6- Resistence
5.8.7- Ohms Equations
5.8.8- Did You Know...? Lights Bulbs
5.8.9- Parallel Lamps
5.8.10- Batteries

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CENTRO DE EDUCAO TECNOLGICA MARAB LTDA


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5.8.11- Fuses
5.8.12- Eletric Circuits
5.8.13- Inductor
5.8.14- Eletric Motors
5.8.15- Flash Lights
5.8.16- Dimming Lights
5.8.17- Capacitor
5.8.18- Linear Resistors

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6- Introduction
6.1- General
6.2- Test on Indepndent Data
6.3- Assembly Languages
6.3.1- Vacabulary
6.4- Imputting / Outputting Information
6.4.1- Vocabulary
6.5- Mainframe, Minicomputers and Microcomputers
6.5.1- Vocabulary
6.6- The Concept of Database
6.6.1- Vocabulary
6.7- What Happens Inside a Computer
6.7.1- Vocabulary
6.8- Artificial Intelligence
6.8.1- Vocabulary
6.9- Binary Numbers
6.9.1- Vocabulary
6.10- Different Kinds of Memory
6.10.1- Vocabulary
6.11- Progamming Languages
6.11.1- Vocabulary
6.12- What is am Algorithm
6.12.1- Vocabulary

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CETMA

CENTRO DE EDUCAO TECNOLGICA MARAB LTDA


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CETMA

CENTRO DE EDUCAO TECNOLGICA MARAB LTDA


Credenciado pelo parecer n 001/08-CEE, processo n 405/07-CEE

I. GRAMTICA
1- Prepositions
Preposio a palavra que liga dois termos e que estabelece entre eles algumas
relaes. Nessas relaes, um termo explica ou completa o sentido do outro.
As principais preposies so:
About sobre; a respeito de

We are talking about the math test.

After aps; depois (de)

She arrived after the class.

Against contra

I God is us, who could be agaist us?

Before antes

The children before.

Behind atrs

The dogs house is behind the


garden.

Beside ao lado de

John seated beside his girlfriend.

Besides alm de

My citie is besides that hills.

During durante; usado para expressar perodos de tempo conhecidos pelo nome ou
perodos que j foram definidos:
The students were laughing during the class.

In front of em frente de

That school is in front of the gas station.

Inside dentro; do lado de dentro

There was some money inside that wallet

Instead of ao invs de

Why dont you work instead of oppose?

Near = next to perto de

The bank is next to the post Office.

Outside fora; lado de fora

My cat is outside the house

Since desde

I live here since 1997.

With com

Linda travelled with some friends.

Without sem

I cant stand without your presence by my side.

To para; em direo a ; a; ao; ; at;


Im going to school.
para; a fim de; em; com; de; da ...

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For por; em lugar de; a favor de; de; em


nome de; para; a fim de ...

Ill buy a new dress for my mother

Under embaixo

There is a ball under the chair.

Beneath debaixo

Paulo went beneath the rain.

During the Christmas


During the summer
During my holidays
From de; proveniente de; desde de; a partir de
Where are you from?
Normalmente so colocadas antes de substantivos ou pronomes. De qualquer forma, em
dois tipos de construo possvel, no Ingls informal mudar a preposio para o final da frase.
1. Em perguntas comeando com uma preposio + WHOM/ WHICH/ WHAT/ WHOSE/
WHERE:
To whom were you talking? (formal)
Who were you talking to? (informal)
In which drawer does he keep it? (formal)
Which drawer does he keep it in? (informal)
2. Similarmente nas oraes relatives (relative clauses), uma preposio colocada antes
de WHOM/ WHICH pode ser movida pra o final da frase. O pronome relativo , muitas vezes
omitido:
The people with whom I was travelling. (formal)
The people I was traveling with. (informal)
The company from wich I hire my TV ser. (formal)
The company from I hire my TV set from. (informal)
H preposies que apresentam variaes quanto ao seu significado:
Above acima de; por sobre; por cima de; sobre (sem indicar contato); indica que uma
coisa est em uma posio superior em relao a outra; mais alto que:
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CETMA

CENTRO DE EDUCAO TECNOLGICA MARAB LTDA


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The sky is above us.


Over acima (de); sobre; por cima (no indica contato; expressa um sentido vertical entre
dois pontos; mais que; mais alto que:
There is a picture over the door.
She didnt eat over than five cookies. (Ela no comeu mais que cinco biscoitos)
Up acima; para cima; para o alto (indicando movimento)
Get up!
This side up.

AT: -

momento exato:

at 8 oclock.

momento definido:

at sixteen/ at the age of sixteen

lugar definido:

at school

endereo completo:

at 45 Main Street

nomes de datas comemorativas:

at Christimas, at Easter, at Carnival

nomes de vilas ou pequenas cidades: at Areal.

ON: -

IN: -

em contato com:

on the desk

nomes de ruas:

on Main Stree, On CSB 08

em datas:

on Christmas day, on 4th July

dias da semana::

on Sunday

significando dentro:

in a cave, in a building

cidades, estados, pases:

in Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil

partes do dia:

in the morning, in the afternoon, in the


evening (but AT night)

estaes do ano, meses, anos:

in the winter, in 1992, in July.

Common Expressions

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AT

IN

ON

At once

In a hurry

On holiday, on vacation

At dinner, at breakfast

In fun, in earnest

On business

At war, at peace

In love

In foot, on horseback

At last, at least

In public, in private

One ones own

In danger, in trouble

On the contrary, on the other hand

2- Pronouns
O pronome uma palavra usada no lugar do nome (substantivo) para evitar a sua
repetio e concorda, em gnero e nmero com o substantivo que representa.
2.1- Pronomes Pessoais
So os que designam as pessoas.
Pronomes subjetivos (caso reto)

Singular
I
You
He
She
It

Plural
We
You
They

Estes pronomes funcionam como sujeito da orao, vindo antes do verbo: She comes by
train.
Pronomes objetivos (caso oblquo)
Singular
Me me, mim
You te, ti
Him o, ele
She
It o, a, ele, ela

Plural
You vs
Them os, as, eles, elas

Estes pronomes funcionam como objeto da orao, vindo depois do verbo: Give her a
chance.

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2.2- Pronomes Possessivos


So os pronomes que indicam posse de um ser ou objeto.
Adjetivos possessivos
My meu (s), minha (s)
Your seu (s), sua (s)
His seu (s), sua (s), dele (s)
Her seu (s), sua (s), dela (s)
Its dele (s), neutro, animais
Our nosso (s), nossa (s)
Your seu (s), sua (s)
Their seus (s), sua (s), deles (as)
Tm a funo de modificar um substantivo e deve sempre anteceder esse substantivo. He
wrote his address on the envelope.
Pronomes adjetivos possessivos
Mine o meu (s), a minha (s)
Yours o seu (s), a sua (s)
His o seu (s), a sua (s), o dele (s)
Her o seu (s),a sua (s), o dela (s)
Its o (a) dele (s), neutro, animais
Ours o nosso (s), a nossa (s)
Yours o (s) seu (s), a (s) sua (s)
Theirs o (s) seu (s), a (s) sua (s), dele (s), dela (s)
Esses pronomes so usados em construes chamadas de double possessive (posse
em dobro):
A friend of mine
A cousing of hers

=
=

one of my friends
one of her cousins

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An old friend dram of ours =

one of my old dreams

2.3- Pronomes Indefinidos


Os pronomes indefinidos so os que se referem a pessoas ou coisas de modo vago ou
impreciso. So eles:
All tudo, todo (s), toda (s)
Another um (a) outro (a)
Any algum (s), alguma (s)
Anybody algum, qualquer um
Anything qualquer coisa, algo, tudo
Both ambos, os dois.
Much muito, muita; usado para indicar uma grande quantidade de coisas que no podem
ser contadas. Ex. I love you very much.
One um, tal
2.4- Pronomes Relativos
Os pronomes relativos so assim chamados porque se referem a um termo mencionado
anteriormente.
So eles:
Who que, o qual, os quais, as quais, quem (refere-se a pessoas)
Which que, o que, o qual, a qual (refere-se a coisas inanimadas ou animais)
Whom quem, que, o qual, a qual, os quais (refere-se a pessoas)
Whose de quem, do qual, da qual, dos quais, cujo, cuja, cujos, cujas (refere-se a pessoas)
What aquilo que, o que, a coisa que (s se refere a coisas inanimadas ou animais)
That que, o que, o qual, a qual (pode representar quaisquer pessoas, coisas ou animais)
2.5- Pronomes Interrogativos
So os pronomes que indicam um elemento dentro de um conjunto, mas que no se
define.
So eles:
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Which qual, o qual, a qual? (refere-se a coisas inanimadas ou animais)


Who quem? (refere-se a pessoas)
Whose de quem? (refere-se a pessoas)
What que, qual, quais? (s se refere a coisas inanimadas ou animais)
Who is that man?
2.6- Pronomes Demonstrativos
Os pronomes demonstrativos so os que indicam o lugar em que uma pessoa ou coisa se
encontra.
So eles:
Singular
This este, esta, isto
That esse, essa, isso

Plural
These estes, estas
Those esses, essas, aqueles, aquelas
Such - tais

This e These referem-se a pessoas, animais ou coisas que se encontram perto de quem fala.
That e Those referem-se a pessoas, animais ou coisas que se encontram afastadas de quem
fala.
2.7- Pronomes Reflexivos
Os pronomes reflexivos indicam que o sujeito a mesmo tempo e agente e paciente da
ao.
So eles:
Myself me, eu, mesmo, eu prprio
Yourself tu, tu mesmo
Himself se, ele mesmo
Itself se, ele/ ela mesmo
Ourself ns, ns mesmos
Yourself vs, vs mesmos
Themselves se, eles/ elas mesmos (as)

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Oneself a gente, a gente mesmo.


Pronomes Reflexivos: uso reflexivo
Concordam sempre com o sujeito e aparecem depois do verbo (objeto) mostrando que
uma determinada ao do sujeito reflete sobre ele mesmo: The boy hurt herself ( o menino
feriu-se)
Pronomes Reflexivos: uso enftico
Do um realce ao sujeito ou ao objeto. Podem ser usados logo aps o sujeito ou aps o
complemento do verbo.
She herself charged the tire (Ela mesma trocou o pneu)
3- Simple Present
O usamos para fala sobre algo que acontece o tempo todo ou repetidamente ou, ainda
sobre uma verdade universal;
No futuro depois das seguintes conjunes: when, as soon as, until, before, if;
Veja os exemplos:
Nurses look after patients in hospitals. (Enfermeiras cuidam de pacientes em hospitais)
I usually go away at weekends. (Eu sempre saio aos fins de semana)
The Earth goes round the Sun (A Terra gira em torno do Sol)
When she arrives I will ask her.(Quando ela chegar eu a perguntarei)
Lembre-se que na 3 pessoa do singular (HE, SHE, IT) sempre usamos o S ao final:
I work
He/ She/ It works.
Em palavras terminadas em ss, s, sh, ch, x, o e z acrescentamos o ES tambm em He/
She/ It:
You wash.
She washes.
Palavras terminadas em Y:
Se precedido de vogal: acrescenta-se apenas o S normalmente: say says.

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Se precedido de consoante: substitui-se o Y pelo IES: study studies


Para as formas interrogativa e negativa no Simple Present usamos os verbos auxiliares
DO/ DOES, sendo que a forma negativa desses auxliliares e DONT (do + not) e DOESNT
(does + not):
3.1- Forma Interrogativa
Do

I/ We/ You/ They

Does

He/ she/ It

Work?
Go?

3.2- Forma Negativa


I/ We/ You/ They

Dont

He/ she/ It

Doesnt

Work.
Go.

No exemplo a seguir o DO tambm o verbo principal:


What do you do? ( O que voc faz?)
4- Simple Past
O Simple Past expressa aes que comearam e terminaram em um determinado
momento no passado. Geralmente essas sentenas vm com um advrbio de tempo.
yesterday (ontem)
the day before yesterday (anteontem)
this morning (esta manh)
a week ago ( h uma semana atrs)
in 1992 (em 1992)
4.1- Verbos Regulares:
A maioria dos verbos da lngua inglesa recebe a terminao ED no passado. Isso vale
para todo e qualquer tipo de sujeito. Uma nica forma de verbo que corresponde, em
Portugus, ao Pretrito Perfeito, Pretrito Imperfeito e Pretrito-mais- que perfeito.
Ex. to talk (conversar) talked
OBSERVAES:
Aos verbos terminados em E acrescenta-se somente o D: to remove = removed; to love =
loved.
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Nos verbos terminados em Y:


se precedido de consoante: tiras-se o Y acrescenta-se o ED: to study = studied
se precedido de vogal: simplesmente acrescenta-se o ED: to play = played
Nos verbos monosslabos terminados em consoante-vogal-consoante, repete-se a ltima
consoante antes de acrescentar o ED: to chop = chopped
EXCEES: Nos verbos terminados X e W no se repete a ltima consoante: to fix =
fixed.
Nos verbos disslabos oxtonos com a terminao consoante-voagal-consoante, repete-se
igualmente a ltima consoante antes de colocar ED: to admit = admitted; to control = controlled.
4.2- Verbos Irregulares
Embora os verbos regulares constituam a maioria dos verbos na lngua inglesa, temos
que considerar os verbos irregulares. Veja alguns:
INFINITIVE

SIMPLE PAST

PAST PARTICIPLE

To cut

Cut

Cut

To feed

Fed

Fed

To break

broke

broken

4.2.1- Interrogative form


A forma interrogativa srgue uma regra bastante fcil. Antes do pronome acrescenta-se o
verbo auxiliar DID, seguida do pronome e do verbo no infinitivo (DID = PRON. = VERBO NO
INFINITIVO):

Did

I
You
He
She
It
We
You
They

enjoy?

4.2.2- Negative Form


Na forma negativa acrescenta-se o partcula didnt logo aps o pronome, seguida do
verbo no infinitivo (didnt + infinitivo):
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I
You
He
She
It
We
You
They

Didnt

Enjoy.

4.3- O passado do verbo TO BE


O passado do verbo TO BE (am, is, are) was/ were:
I
You
He
She
It
We
You
They

was
were
was

were

4.3.1- Present Continuous Tense


Indica que uma ao est acontecendo no momento em que se fala, ou na atualidade:
We are writing a letter now.
Jeniffer is reading a book.
O Present Continuous pode ser empregado tambm em frases que denotam um futuro
provvel, aes que pretendemos realizar ou que temos certeza de que iro acontecer.
Estrutura do Present Continuous:

VERBO TO BE

Forma afirmativa

VERBO PRINCIPAL
Forma interrogative

We are speaking English now. Are you felling bad at this

TERM. ING
Forma negative
It is not raining anymore.

moment?
I am looking for a teacher.

Is she studing French?

ATENO!
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to try trying
to studt studying

mantm-se o y antes do -ing

to play playing
to carry carrying, etc.

to die dying
to lie lying

Nesses verbos, substitui-se o ie


pelo y" e acrescenta-se o - ing.

to tie - tying

to put putting
to sit sitting
to swim swimming, etc.

Dobra-se a ltima consoante quando


houver a seqncia: CVC (consoante
- vogal consoante).

begin - beginning
prefer - preferring
omit - omitting

Quando a slaba tnica for a ltima,


dobra-se a ltima consoante tambm.

occur - ocurring, etc

to take taking

Em verbos terminados em e,
substitui-o pelo -ing

to have having
to live living

EXCEES:
to be - being
to see - seeing
to agree agreeing

to save saving
to shine shining

Os demais verbos que no participam das excees acima citadas mantm sua forma
acrescida do ing.
Certos verbos no so flexionados no Present Continuous. So verbos que geralmente
indicam um estado ou condio. Alguns deles so:

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agree (concordar)

forget (esquecer)

hope (esperar)

believe (acreditar)

hate (odiar)

know (saber)

belong (pertencer)

have (possuir)

love (amar)

disagree (discordar)

hear (ouvir)

O present do verbo TO BE (is/am/are) + going to uma estrutura muito usada antes do


infinitivo de um verbo que expressa uma ao futura planejada, quando falamos sobre aes
que j esto planejadas:
... I am finally going to retire. (Finalmente vou me aposentar)
5- Simple Future
Expressa fatos e acontecimentos que provavelmente ocorrero:
They will arrive tomorrow.
Indica decises tomadas no momento em que se fala:
The cell phone is ringing. Ill answer it.
Oferecer ou pedir ajuda:
Who will help me?
I will help you.
5.1- Formao: SUJEITO + WILL + VERBO PRINCIPAL (no infinitivo sem o TO)
5.1.1- Formas abreviadas:
ll (will)

wont (will not)

5.1.2- Forma negativa:


I wont drink it.

I will not drink it.


5.1.3- Forma interrogative:
Will they drink it?
5.2- Going to

Essa forma expressa a inteno do sujeito de realizar uma ao no futuro. Esta inteno
sempre premeditada e planejada; expressa tambm a idia de que alguma preparao para
esta ao j foi feita;

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Aes expressadas pelo going to so mais provveis de acontecer:


He is going to be a denstist when he gets the graduation. (Ele ser um dentista quando se
formar)
Im going to to meet Tom at the station at six oclock. (Encontrarei Tom na estao na
esto s seis horas)
Observaes:
O will pode ser substitudo por shall na primeira pessoa do singular e do plural (I / We)
em sentenas mais formais:
I shall do everything and we shall live in peace.
O auxiliar will expressa fomente uma inteno que no est certo que vai acontecer,
enquanto que o going to denota uma probabilidade maior de que a ao acontea.
6- Adverbs
O advrbio uma palavra que modifica um verbo, um adjetivo ou um outro advrbio. Os
advrbios, de acordo com a circunstancia que expressam, podem ser:
6.1- Adverbs of Place (advrbios de lugar)
Here (aqui, neste lugar)
There (a, l, ali, para l, nesse lugar, nesse ponto)
Near (prximo, perto, a pouca distncia)
Up (em cima, acima)
Down (abaixo, para baixo)
Exemplos:
She lives there (Ela mora l)
John Works here. (John trabalha aqui)
6.2- Adverbs of Tme (advrbios de tempo)
Podem ser usados no incio ou no final da orao.
Now (agora, j, imediatamente)
Today (hoje)

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Tomorrow (amanh)
Last week (semana passada)
In 1997 (em 1997)
Exemplo:
I bought this computer yesterday. (Eu comprei este computador ontem)
6.3- Adverbs of Frequency (advrbios de freqncia)
Twice (duas vezes)
Often (frequentemente)
Always (sempre)
Never (nunca)
Usually (sempre, freqentemente)
Sometimes (s vezes)
Rarely (raramente)
Seldon (raramente)
Os advrbios de freqncia so posicionados:
1. Aps o verboTO BE em oraes em que ele o verbo principal:
I am always tired. (Eu estou sempre cansado)
2. Antes do verbo principal:
She usually Works on Saturdays. (Ele sempre trabalha aos Sbados)
He never stays there. (Ele nunca est l)
3. Depois do primeiro verbo auxiliar em oraes com tempos compostos:
She had never studied French. (Ela nunca tinha estudado Francs)
OBSERVAO:
Os advrbios de freqncia com sentido negativo podem vir no incio da orao. Neste
caso, dever haver uma inverso do verbo com o sujeito:

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She is never happy/ Never is she happy.(Ela nunca est feliz)


Se a orao estiver no Simple Present ou Simple Past, o verbo ser substitudo pelo
auxiliar correspondente:
They seldom went out/ Seldom did they go out. (Eles raramente saam)
Em oraes formadas por verbo auxiliary/ modal e principal, inverteremos o sujeito com o
verbo auxiliary/ modal:
He can never get there/ Never can he get there. (Ele nunca chegar l)
6.4- Adverbs of Manner (advrbios de maneira)
Quickly (rpido)
Calmly (camamente)
Happily (rapidamente)
Exemplo:
She types quickly. (Ela digita rapidamente)
OBSERVAO:
Os advrbios de modo so geralmente formados de um adjetivo mais o sufixo ly:
calm + ly = calmly
6.5- Adverbs of Degree (advrbios de intensidade)
Too (muito, demais)
Very (bastante, muito)
Almost (quase, perto)
Really (realmente)
Rather (antes, um tanto, melhor)
Quite (completamente, bastante, razoavelmente)
Exemplo:
It is very cold. (Est muito frio)
OBSERVAO:

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Alguns advrbios mantm a mesma forma dos adjetivos dos quais so derivados:
Far (longe)
Low (baixo)
Well (bem)
Fast (rpido, rapidamene)
Outros possuem duas formas, mas seus significados so diferentes:
High (alto) haghly (em alto grau)
Hard (difcil, rduo, duro) hardly (mal; quase)
Late (tarde) lately (recentemente)
Near (prximo) - nearly (quase, por pouco)

7- Posio dos Advrbios


Se houver dois ou mais advrbios numa orao, a seqncia ser:
1: advrbio de maneira
2: advrbio de lugar
3 advrbio de tempo
Exemplo:
I is raining steadily in So Paulo today. (Est chovendo initerruptamente em So Paulo)
Quando o verbo indicar movimento, a seqncia ser:
1: advrbio de lugar
2: advrbio de modo
3 advrbio de tempo
Exemplo:
He went to England by plane in 1997. (Ele foi Inglaterra de avio em 1997)

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Se houver dois ou mais advrbios do mesmo tipo na orao, ficar mais prximo do verbo
aquele que contiver a informao mais especfica dentro do conjunto de informaes passado
pelos demais advrbios:
Exemplo:
I was Born in the morning, on april 15, in 1951. (Eu nasci na manh do dia 15 de abril de 1951).
Se forem advrbios de modo, o mais curto preceder o mais longo:
Exemplo:
He is speaking low and continuously. (Ele est falando baixo e continuamente)
OBSERVAO:
Always, Never e Ever geralmente so posicionados entre o auxiliar (have / has) e o
verbo principal.
Yet (j); usado em oraes interrogativas para indicar surpresa ou expectativa):
Exemplo:
Have you eaten all your desert yet? (Voc j comeu toda a sua sobremesa?)
Yet (ainda); usado no final de oraes negativas:
Exemplo:
Train hasnt arrived yet. (O tem no chegou ainda)
Just (muito recentemente); expressa uma ao que acabou de acontecer:
Exemplo:
She has just last her last chance. (Ela acabou de perder sua ltima chance)
Laterly (ultimamente):
Exemplo:
I havent gone to the theater lately. (Eu no tenho ido ao teatro ultimamente)
Recently (recentemente):
Exemplo:
He has changed his job recently. (Ele mudou de emprego recentemente)

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OBSERVAO:
Lately, Recently e Yet geralemnte so posicionados no final da orao.
TEMPO

Passado
Simples

Presente
Perfeito

Presente
Perfeito
Contnuo

FORMA
Verbo regular: term. ed;
verbo
irregular:
forma
variada (observar lista de
verbos irregulares);
verbo auxiliar did (na
forma
negativa
e
interrogativa).

EXPRESSA

ADVRBIO

Aes acabados que


ocorreram num tempo
definido no passado.

Yesterday, last,
night, last week,
last month, two
hours ago, three
weeks ago, etc.

Aes que ocorreram


num tempo indefinido
no passado;
have/ has + verbo
Aes que comearam
principal no particpio
no
passado
e
passado.
continuam
at
o
presente;
Aes que acabaram
de ocorrer.
Have/ has been + verbo Aes que comearam
principal com a terminao no passado e ainda
ing
continuam
at
o
presente (nfase na
continuidade)

Already, yet, ever,


lately, recently,
etc.

For, since, lately,


recently.

Advrbios usados com o Presente Perfeito e Presente Perfeito Contnuo:


Advrbio

Traduo

Tipos de frase

Since

Desde

Todos os tipos

For

Por, durante

Todos os tipos

Already

Afirmativa e interrogativa

Yet

J, ainda

Interrogativa e negativa

Just

Acabar de

Afirmativa

Lately

Ultimamente

Todos os tipos

Ever

Interrogativa

Alguma vez

never

nunca

negativa

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II. INTERPRETAO DE TEXTOS


1- Tcnicas de Leitura
As tcnicas de leitura, como o prprio nome diz, vo nos ajudar a ler um texto. Existem
tcnicas variadas, mas veremos as mais utilizadas. Ao ler um texto em Ingls, lembre-se de
usar as tcnicas aprendidas, elas vo ajud-lo. O uso da gramtica vai ajudar tambm.
As principais tcnicas so: a identificao de cognatos, de palavras repetidas e de pistas
tipogrficas. Ao lermos um texto vamos,ainda, apurar a idia geral do texto (general
comprehension) e utilizar duas outras tcnicas bastante teis: skimming e scanning.
1.1- Cognatos
Os cognatos so palavras muito parecidas com as palavras do Portugus. So as
chamadas palavras transparentes. Existem tambm os falsos cognatos, que so palavras que
achamos que tal coisa, mas no ; os falsos cognatos so em menor nmero, estes ns
veremos adiante.
Como cognatos podemos citar: school (escola), telephone (telefone), car (carro), question
(questo, pergunta), activity (atividade), training (treinamento)... Voc mesmo poder criar sua
prpria lista de cognatos!
1.2- Palavras repetidas
As palavras repetidas em um texto possuem um valor muito importante. Um autor no
repete as palavras em vo. Se elas so repetidas, porque so importantes dentro de texto.
Muitas vezes para no repetir o mesmo termo, o autor utiliza sinnimos das mesmas palavras
para no tornar o texto cansativo.
1.3- Pistas tipogrficas
As pistas tipogrficas so elementos visuais que nos auxiliam na compreenso do texto.
Ateno com datas, nmeros, tabelas, grficas, figuras... So informaes tambm contidas no
texto. Os recursos de escrita tambm so pistas tipogrficas. Por exemplo:
... (trs pontos) indicam a continuao de uma idia que no est ali exposta;
negrito d destaque a algum termo ou palavra;
itlico tambm destaca um termo, menos importante que o negrito;
(aspas) salientam a importncia de alguma palavra;
( ) (parnteses) introduzem uma idia complementar ao texto.

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1.4- General Comprehension

A idia geral de um texto obtida com o emprego das tcnicas anteriores. Selecionando
se criteriosamente algumas palavras, termos e expresses no texto, poderemos chegar idia
geral do texto. Por exemplo, vamos ler o trecho abaixo e tentar obter a general
comprehension deste pargrafo:
Distance education takes place when a teacher and students are separated by physical
distance, and technology (i.e., voice, video and data), often in concert with face-to-face
communication, is used to bridge the instructional gap.
From: Engineering Outreach
College of Engineering University of Idaho
A partir das palavras cognatas do texto (em negrito) podemos ter um a idia geral do que
se trata; vamos enumerar as palavras conhecidas (pelo menos as que so semelhantes ao
Portugus):
distance education = educao a distancia
students = estudantes, alunos
separeted = separado
physical distance = distncia fsica
technology = tecnologia
voice, video, data = voz, vdeo e dados (ateno: data no data)
face-to-face communication = comunicao face-a-face
used = usado (a)
instructional = instrucional
Ento voc poderia dizer que o texto trata sobre educao a distncia; que esta ocorre
quando os alunos esto separados fisicamente do professor; a tecnologia (voz, vdeo, dados)
podem ser usados de forma instrucional.
Voc poderia ter esta concluso sobre o texto mesmo sem ter muito conhecimento de
Ingls. claro que medida que voc for aprendendo, a sua percepo sobre o texto tambm
aumentar. H muitas informaes que no so to bvias assim.
1.5- Skimming
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skim em ingls deslizar superfcie, desnatar (da skimmed milk = leite desnatado), passar
os olhos por. A tcnica de skimming nos leva a ler um texto superficialmente. Utilizar esta
tcnica significa que precisamos ler cada sentena, mas sim passarmos os olhos por sobre o
texto, lendo algumas frases aqui e ali, procurando reconhecer certas palavras e expresses
que sirvam como dicas na obteno de informaes sobre o texto. s vezes no necessrio
ler o texto em detalhes. Para usar esta tcnica, precisamos nos valer dos nossos
conhecimentos de Ingls tambm.
Observe este trecho:
Using this integrated approach, the educators task is to carefully select among the
technological options. The goal is to build a mix of instructional media, meeting the needs of the
learner in a manner that is instructionally effective and economically prudent.
From: Engineering Outreach
College of Engineering University of Idaho
Selecionando algumas expresses teremos:
integrated approach = abordagem (approach = abordagem, enfoque) integrada
educators task = tarefa (task = tarefa) do educador s significa posse = do
tecnological options = opes tecnolgicas (tecnological adjetivo)
goal = objetivo
a mix instrucional media = uma mistura de mdia instrucional.
Com a tcnica do skimming podemos dizer que este trecho afirma que a tarefa do
educador selecionar as opes tecnolgicas; o objetivo ter uma mistura de mdias
instrucionais de uma maneira instrucionalmente efetiva e economicamente prudente.
1.6- Scanning
Scan em Ingls quer dizer examinar, sondar, explorar. O que faz um scanner? Uma
varredura, no ?! Logo, com a tcnica de scanning voc ir fazer uma varredura do texto,
procurando detalhes e idias objetivas. Aqui importante que voc utilize os conhecimentos de
Ingls; por isso, ns vamos ver detalhadamente alguns itens gramaticais no ser Estudo da
Lngua Inglesa.
Olhe este trecho:
Teaching and learning at a distance is demanding. However, learning will be more
meaningful and deeper for distant students, if students and their instructor share responsibility
for developing learning goals: actively interacting with class members; promoting reflection on

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experience; relating new information to examples that make sense to learners. This is the
challenge and the opportunity provided by distance education.
Poderamos perguntar qual o referente do pronome their em negrito no trecho?
Utilizando a tcnica de skimming, seria necessrio retornar ao texto e entender a sentena na
qual o pronome est sendo empregado. Their um pronome possessivo ( e como tal,
sempre vem acompanhado de um substantivo) da terceira pessoa do plural ( o seu referente
um substantivo no plural). A traduo de their instructor seria seu instrutor . Seu de quem?
Lendo um pouco para trs, vemos que h students; logo conclumos que their refere-se a
students, ou seja, instrutor dos alunos.

2- TEXTO 1
Every day more and more of us find that computers have become part of our daily
background: magazines we read have been typeset by computers, architects have designed
our houses with the help of computers, our paylips are printed by computers, we pay bills
prepared by computers, using checks marked with computer symbols, and the payments result
in bank statements prepared by computers. Even more directly associated with the machines
are those who use them in their day-today work scientists and storekeepers, clerks and
directors, soldiers and sailors, accountants and engineers besides the growing numbers of
computer personal who are responsible for making the machines do the work. Each of us,
whether layman, computer use or computer technician, will have problems with computer
terminology.

3- TEXTO 2
In the beginning, there was the analog cell phone. And then the cell phone went digital.
And that provides a clearer connection and more reability. Now the future of technology appears
to be in the hands of the mobile phone industry. Cell phones and handhelds are everywhere.
The future is now, and it is wireless. Except the future is still the future. Wireless technology is
relatively young. The first generation has been around only since the early 1980s, when analog
voice transmission networks were introduced. The second generation took over in the mid-90s
with the advent of digital wireless voice and data networks, giving us the capabilities that
spawned the cell phone revolution we know today.
Now comes the so-called third generation or 3G which generally refers to networks
capable of connecting to the Internet at speeds 40 tines the rate of todays cell phones,
promising Interneting connections will be fast enough to download streaming audio and files,
swap digital photos, and hold teleconferences. It will also use the existing spectrum space more
efficiently and increase the speeds with which basic data can be transmitted over wireless
devices.
4- TEXTO 3
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Lamps can be connected in series or in parallel. If you connect lamps in parallel the lamps
stay the same brightness however many lamps you add. This is because the voltage across
every lamp is the same. In your house the lamps are connected in parallel. This means that
even if you have all the lights on, the lights do not dim.
5- Termos Tcnicos
5.1- Digital Oscilloscope
For the maximum safety of the person who may use the oscilloscopes, they have been
designed and manufactured for full safety features and they are shipped after stringent
inspections. And yet, it is unavoidable handle it carefully, in order to avoid damage to the
instruments and hazards to the persons. Above, there are notes and warnings which the
persons using the instrument must take heed of and observe:
NOTE Calls for special attention for correct and efficient use of the instrument.
WARNINGS Calls for attention for a matter which might lead to a damage of the oscilloscope
itself or other instruments.
The following symbols may be posted on the oscilloscope as well as indicated in this manual.
DANGER! HIGH VOLTAGE This symbol means that the item cannot be charged up to
a hazardous high voltage and must not be touched with bare hands.
REFER TO THE CORRESPONDING SECTION This symbol means that relative
explanations contained in other parts of the handbook should be consulted.
CAUTION Means a matter which can lead to electric shock hazards to the person who is
operating the instrument or to damage of the instrument itself or other instruments.
USE A 3-PIN PLUG - For the input of AC input cable, be sure to use a 3-pin type (one of
the pins is used for safety grounding).
AC LINE VOLTAGE Be sure to operate the oscilloscope on an AC line voltage within is
correct range.
AC POWER CABLE When replacing the AC plug of the AC power cable, be sure to
replace it with a plug of the correct type and ratings, and to connector the GND,
NEUTRAL and LIVE wires which are color colored as shown in figure below:
AC POWER FUSE Be sure to use a power fuse of the correct ratings.
COVERS This oscilloscope has hazardous high voltages internally. Do not remove the
covers of the oscilloscope lest you should expose yourself to such high voltages. The covers
should be removed only by qualified experts.

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5.2- FEATURES
( 1 ) Easy to operate You can easily use major functions of the oscilloscope which
employs a direct knob control system.
( 2 ) Compact and light COR 5500U series is very compact and light for its sophisticated
functions and reliable performance. This has become feasible through dexterous use of flushmount components.
( 3 ) CRT readout It displays various items of information on the CRT screen, providing
you with powerful means for rapid but accurate measurements.
( 4 ) Comment display You can display comments by using this feature.
( 5 ) Alternate magnified sweeps This feature allows you to magnify readily any portion of
the waveform you want to observe more closely. This time base can be magnified by 5,10 or 50
times. The Alternate Magnified Sweep mode, which runs a mains sweep and magnified sweep
alternately, is also available.
( 6 ) Sampling rate up to 20 MS/s Each channel has a 5 bit A/D converter, allowing you
to store the single-shot data from both channels simultaneously. In single Trigger Mode, you
can capture frequency components up to 5.7 MHz (when Curve Interpolation is used).
( 7 ) 4k words/ channel memory capacity each channel has a 4k word memory, and
resolutions of 400 points per one division horizontally. The stored and reproduced waveforms
closely resemble the original analog ones. COR 5500U series has two 4k-word Saving Memory
units. The memory units are internally backed up so that the data is not destroyed even if the
power is turned off. The data is maintained for a longer period.
( 8 ) Repetitive mode The COR 5500U can store repetitive signals up to 100 MHz.
5.3- PRECAUTIONS
( 1 ) Receiving Inspections The oscilloscope has been subjected to electrical and
mechanical tests to guarantee the satisfactory quality and performance.
( 2 ) General precautions - This section is about electrical and mechanical precautions for
safe and correct use of the oscilloscope. Read this section before start using it:
Checking the AC line voltage and frequency
Operate the oscilloscope on as rated AC input voltage of 100 through 240 V, frequency 50
through 400 Hz, although it is permissible to operate the oscilloscope on an AC line voltage of
90 -250 V, frequency 45-440 Hz.
Checking the type and ratings of fuse

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Before connecting the power cable to the AC inlet of the oscilloscope, check the type and
rating of the power fuse. The fuse holder of the oscilloscope is structured integrally with the AC
inlet. The fuse holder cap can be detached by using a screwdriver or a pointed tool as showing
bellow. Two fuses (one of which is for replacement spare) are put in the cap.
Take out the fuse and check that is a slow-blow fuse of 250 V AC, 2 A. Return the fuse
and cap to the original positions by following the take out procedure in the reverse order. Fully
insert the cap until it clicks.
When you replace the fuse with a new one, make sure to use a correct one. The spare
fuse is put in the fuse hold cap. When the fuse has also used up, you may use a new one
available on the market, but be sure that it is the correct type and rating.
Warnings: Never use a wrong or incorrect fuse. Never short-circuit the fuse holder
terminals instead of the fuse. These operations might result in serious damage and hazards.
( 3 ) Checking the power cable - Be sure that the power cable is supplied as an accessory
of the oscilloscope. The power cable has a 3-color wire and a 3-pin receptacle; one of the three
pins being for safety grounding.
( 4 ) Environments
Avoid using oscilloscope in environments as mentioned below:
a) High temperature Do not expose the oscilloscope to direct sunlight or other source of heat.
The ambient temperature range for the guaranteed performance is 10 to 40C or 50 to 104F.
b) High humidity Do not use the oscilloscope in high humidity. The humidity range for
guaranteed performance is up to 75% RH.
c) Electronic magnetic field - Do not use the oscilloscope in strong electric or magnetic field, lest
the displayed images should be distorted, or otherwise adversely affected.
d) Unstable position - Do not use the oscilloscope on a swaying bench or other unstable
positon.
e) Flammable atmosphere - Do not use the oscilloscope in flammable or explosive atmosphere,
to prevent fire and explosion hazards.
f) Blocked ventilations holes Do not block the rear, side and button panels. Provide an ample
space behind the rear panel, where the air-cooling fan is installed on.
( 5 ) Preserving the CRT
CRT intensity - In order prevent permanent damage to the CRT phosphor, do not make
the CRT trace Excessively bright or leave the beam spot stationary for an unreasonably long
time
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( 6 ) Checking the Oscilloscope operation


Check the operation of the oscilloscope as explained in this section. The oscilloscope will
automatically diagnose itself as you turn the power switch on.
a) Confirm if the power switch is off;
b) Connect the power cable to the AC inlet of the oscilloscope;
c) Connect the power plug to an AC outlet.
d) Turn the power switch on;
e) The green indicator LED on the power switch will light up;
f) The readouts and traces will appear on the CRT screen;
g) After a minute, turn the power switch off once;
h) Wait for several seconds and turn the power on again;
i) Your will see the screen for about 2 seconds if the diagnostic results are passed.
If a diagnostic result is failed turn the power switch on and off a few times, this fact means
that the oscilloscope has a trouble: the ROM or RAM of the oscilloscope might be failed.
( 7 ) Preparation for measurement
This section covers a simple preparative procedure to do first before using the
oscilloscope in order to measure waveforms or signals more efficiently and accurately. For the
preparative procedure, proceed as follows:
CAUTION Be sure to read Precautions and the following:
1) Checking the AC line voltage and frequency;
2) Checking the type and ratings of the fuse;
3) Checking the oscilloscope operation.
LOGIG LAB UNIT (MINILAB)
1. Features of ED- 1000-B LOGIC LAB UNIT (LLU)
LLU is devised to design and test the circuits consisted of various kinds of digital and
linear ICs as well as transistors.
There are two characteristics in this product. First, it has several buil-in circuits, which are
very useful for the experiment of digital circuits. Second, all the connectors, switches, lampas
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and knobs are located in order to provide easy connections and experiences with the
components.
Power is supplied from either 100V or 220V. This product has DC power supply.
2. Descriptions of panel controls and connectors
(1) HEXADECIMAL NUMBER DISPLAY (DIGIT DISPLAY): displays hexadecimal numbers
0-9 and A-F bit binary input.
(2) LED INDICATOR: there are four LEDs both sides, right and left, which makes eight in
total. Monitors inputs or outputs of BCD.
(3) VOLTAGE METER: measures voltage ranging from 0 to 15V. The input resistance is
100 K.
(4) VARIABLE RESISTOR 10 K and
(14) VARIABLE RESISTOR 500 K
(5) PULSE OUTPUT (1 Hz, 10 Hz, 100 Hz): provides continuous square waves at each
terminal.
(6) BREAD BOARD (PROTO BOARD): used for connections between several parts of a
circuit.
(7) PUSH BUTTON LOGIC SWITCH: provides inputs for logic control.
(8) DATA SWITCH: every five switches furnishes Low/ High logical levels. They enable
you to experiment digital circuits with different control signals and data input.
(9) PUSH BUTTON SWITCH: if inserted serially to a circuit, you can have ONOFF
operation.
(10) POWER SWITCH: turns ON and OFF AC 100V or 220 V input.
(11) DC OVERLOAD ALARM: gives a warning sign in case of overloading troubles.
(12) 60 Hz OUTPUT: outputs AC 4.5 V(RMS) with 60Hz. This signal can be applied to
clock signal or time base.
(13) BUZZER INPUT: operates on 2-5V. The input current is less than 1 mA (as small as
CMOS output).
(15) DC OUTPUT: provides + 5V/ - 5V DC power, with is used for digital circuits.
(16) CURRENT METER: measures load current of 5V out put. It is connected serially with
output.
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(17) COMMON MODE SWITCH (CM SELECTOR): selects input polarity to LED indicator.
If put to ANODE, LED will be ON with input 0. Contrarily, if put to CATHODE, LED will be
ON with input 1.
3. Logic Lab Unit operating procedures
WARNINGS
Make sure that AC input voltage is 110V or 220 V and select corresponding voltage input
selector at rear panel;
Keep this unit away from heat and dusty place;
When you connect the circuit on bread board, use jump wire whose diameter is less than
6 mm;
Make sure that pin 1 (index notch) identification of all IC is correctly directed as you
designed;
Check if Vcc/Vdd of every IC is connected to proper power supply.
PROCEDURES
1. Turn the power switch OFF;
2. Connect +5V DC and GND with bus strip on bread board. Be aware that pin 14 or 16 of
IC is Vcc/ Vdd and pin 7 or 8 is GND usually;
3. Place all the ICs and other parts so that connections between them may be done easily.
While doing this, take into consideration about LED indicators and logic switch too;
4. Connect them using jump wire. It is recommended to use wires with different colors
according to their usage for future checking.
Example:
+5V..red

Outputwhite

Input yellow

GND..black

Othersgreen

5. Check the circuit connections again. If everyone is correct, turn the power switch ON.
Keep and eye on current meter. If excess current is indicated, turn the power switch OFF
immediately and find out if there is any shorted circuit between +5V and GND;
6. After everything is proved right, do your experiment using those switches and indicators
properly.
5.4- MINILAB TECHNICAL TERMS
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MINILAB TECHNICAL TERMS


BUZZER INPUT -

entrada de sonorizador, buzina

BREAD BOARD-

placa de alimentao

BUS STRIP-

barramento, barra nibus

CLOCK SIGNAL -

sinal de relgio

COMMON MODE SWITCH-

comutador de modo comum

CONTROL PANEL -

painel de controle

CURRENT METER-

ampermetro ou medidor de corrente

FRONT/ REAR BOARD-

placa frontal/ posterior

FRONT/ REAL PANEL-

painel frontal/ posterior

HEXADECIMAL DISPLAY-

mostrador em hexadecimal

HIGH LEVEL-

nvel alto/ elevado (1)

INDEX NOTCH-

entalhe marcador

JUMP WIRE-

fio jumper, ponte, ligao direta

LED INDICATOR-

indicador luminoso

LOGICAL LEVEL-

nvel lgico

LOW LEVEL-

nvel baixo (0)

NUMBER DISPLAY-

mostrador de nmeros

PANEL CONTROLS-

controles do painel

POWER SUPPLY-

suprimento de energia eltrica, fonte de alimentao

POWER SWITCH -

chave, interruptor, alavanca ou tecla para alimentao

PROTO BOARD -

placa para montagem de prottipos

PUSH BUTTOM SWITCH -

tecla de presso comutadora

SHORTED CIRCUIT-

curto circuitado, em curto

SWITCH OFF -

desligado, desarmado

SWITCH ON -

ligado, armado

TIME BASE -

base de tempo

VOLTAGE METER -

voltmetro

WIRE COLOR -

cor de fio ou condutor

5.5- ABREVIATIONS/ MONOGRAMS


ABREVIATIONS/ MONOGRAMS

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AC (LTERNATE CURRENT) -

Corrente alternada

BCD (BINARY CODED DECIMAL) -

decimal codificado embinrio

CMOS (COMPLEMENTARY METAL semicondutor metlico


OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR) DC (DIRECT CURRENT) -

corrente contnua

GND (GROUND) -

aterramento, terra

IC (INTEGRATED CIRCUIT) -

circuito integrado

LED (LIGHT EMITTING DIODE) -

diodo emissor de luz

RMS (ROOT MENA SQUARE) -

valor mdio quadrtico ou eficaz

SW (SWITCH) -

chave, interruptor, interruptor, alavanca

VR (VARIABLE RESISTOR) -

resistor varivel

5.5.1- MINILAB RESEARCH


According Emit Output Useful According
All Enable Own Useless All
Alternate Experiment Panel Very Alternate
Alternative Feature Pin View Alternative
Anode Find Procedure Voltage Anode
Any First Proper Wave Any
ApplyFive Provide Warning Apply
As small as Following Push Which As small as
As well as Front Pulse WhiteAs well as
At your ownFurnish Put Whose At your own
AwayGround Range Wide Away
Be offHeith Rear WidthBe off
Be on High Red Wire Be on
Because In order to Right yellow Because
Between Index Same Consist Between

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Black Input Second Current Black


BoardIntegrated Serially Design Board
Bread board Jump wire Several Devise Bread board
Buzzer Keep an eyeShord DiodeBuzzer
Cathode Knob Shorted DirectCathode
5.6- Multitester Instruction Manual
5.6.1- Appearence and parts names
1. Indicator zero corrector
2. Range selector switch knob
3. Measuring terminal +
4. Measuring terminal COM (common)
5. OUTPUT (series condenser) terminal
6. 0 adjusting knob
7. Panel
8. Indicator pointer
9. Rear case bolt
10. Rear case
11. Connector for hFE test
12. Connection pin to tester
13. Transistor base clip
14. Transistor collector clip
5.7- SPECIFICATION
5.7.1- DC VOLTAGE
Ranges:
0.1 0.5 2.5 10 50- 250 1000V

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Accuracy at FSD :

4%

Sensitivity :

20 K / V

5.7.2- AC VOLTAGE:
Ranges:
10-50-250-1000V
Accurancy at FSD :

5%

Sensitivity :

9K/V

Decibelmeter :

- 10 to + 50dB
0 db = 1mw/ 600

5.7.3- DC CURRENCY
Ranges:
50 A (at 0. 1VDC position), 2.5 25mA, 025A 10 A
Accuracy at FSD: 3%
Volt Drop : 250 mV
Weith 280g
Operation
5.7.4- TEST
(1) Plug the test lead into COM and + sockets;
(2) Place the range selector to a prescribed range position;
(3) Short the test leads and turn 0 ADJ to set the pointer to zero position;
(4) Make sure that there is no voltage across the circuit to be tested;
(5) Connect the test leads to the tested resistor and read the scale in accordance with the
reference table.
5.7.5- DCV TEST
(1) Plug the red test lead into the + socket and the black one into the COM;

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(2) Set the range selector to a selected DCV range position;


(3) Connect the red test read to the positive polarity of the circuit tested and the black one to the
negative;
(4) Read the DCV A scale referring the reference table.
5.7.6- ACV TEST
(1) Plug into the red tet leads into the + socket and the black into the COM socket;
(2) Set the range selector to a chosen ACV range position;
(3) Connect the test leads to the circuit being tested regardeless of the polarities;
(4) Read ACV scale with the reference table.
5.7.7- DCA TEST
Place the red test lead into the + socket and the black into the COM;
Set the range selector at the selected DCA range position;
Connect the red test lead to the positive polarity of the circuit tested and the balck into the
negative;
Read the DCV A scale converted with the reference table.
5.7.8- ACV TEST ON OUTPUT TERMINAL
Plug the red tet lead into the OUTPUT socket and the black one into the COM;
Set the range selector at the selected range position;
Connect the test leads to the circuit to be tested and read the scale in the same manner as ACV
test. Such a measurement is made to block the DC voltage which presents in the same circuit
and must be4 cut out so that AC Voltage can be read alone.
5.7.9- TRANSISTOR TEST
1. Iceo (leakage current) test.
1) Plug the test leads into + and COM sockets;
2) Set the range selector to X10(15mA) for small size transistor, or to X 1(150mA) for small size
transistor;
3) Adjust 0 ADJ to set the pointer to zero position of the scale;

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4) Connect the transistor with the tester:


- For NPN transistor, the N COLLECTOR ( C ) of the transistor and the P terminal with the
EMITTER (e) of the transistor;
- For PNP transistor, reverse the NPN transistor connection.
5) Read the Iceo range, if the pointer is within the LEAK zone or the pointer moves up the full
scale, the transistor tested is not good, otherwise it is a good transistor.
5.7.10- hFE (DC amplification) test
(1) Set the range selector at selected range position X 1K for 0 -150 for 15 mA, X1 for 0 150
mA test;
(2) Adjust 0 ADJ to adjust the pointer to zero position;
(3) Connect the diode to the tester:
- For IF (forward current) test:
A- Connect the P terminal of the tester to the emitter of the transistor with the hFE test lead;
B- Plug the hFE connector into N terminal and connect its red clip to the collector and the
black one to the base of the transistor;
- For PNP transistor:
A- connect the N terminal of the tester to the emitter of the transistor;
B- Plug the hFE connector into the P terminal and connect the clips in the same way as for
NPN transistor connection;
(4) Read the hFE scale. The value of the reading is Ic/ Ib, which is the DC amplification degree
of the transistor tested.
5.7.11- DIODE TEST
(1) Set the range selector at selected range position X1K for 0 150 A, for 15mA, X1 for 0
150 mA test;
(2) Connect the diode to the tester:
- For IF (forward current) test connect the N terminal of the tester to the positive polarity of the
diode and the P terminal to the negative polarity of the diode. For IR ( reverse current) test,
reverse the connection;
(3) Read IF or IR one the LI scale provided;

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(4) Read the linear (forward) voltage of the diode on the LV scale while testing IF or IR.
5.8- Electronic Circuits
5.8.1- Introduction
This unit introduces you to electronic circuits and explains the meaning of current, voltage
and resistance. You will find out about Ohms equations and about some of the components
used in building electronic circuits.
5.8.2- Shining a light
Have you ever taken an torch to pieces to find out how does it work? Look at Fig. 1 below,
which shows the arrangement of parts inside a torch.
Why did the designer of the torch choose this particular combination of materials?
The metal parts must conduct electric current if the torch is to function, but they must also
be able to stand up to physical forces.
The spring holding the cells in place should stay springy, while the parts of the switch
must make good electrical contact and be undamaged by repeated use.
Which materials used in making a torch are conductors and which are insulators?
( ) plastic
( ) copper
( ) tungsten (lamp filament)
( ) glass (outside of lamp)
5.8.3- Drawing a circuit diagram
A different way of describing the torch is by using a circuit diagram in which the parts of
the torch are represented by symbols.
In Fig. 2 there are two electric cells (batteries), a switch and a lamp (the torch bulb). The
lines in the diagram represent the metal conductors which connect the system together.
A circuit is a closed conducting path. In the torch, closing the switch completes the circuit
and allows current to flow. Torches sometimes fail when the metal parts of the switch do not
make proper contact, or when the lamp filament is blown. In either case, the circuit is
incomplete. The diagrams show different arrangements of cells, switches and lamps.
5.8.4- Current

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An electric current is a flow of charged particles. Current is sometimes carried by positively


charged particles, but inside a copper wire, current is carried by small negarively charged
particles, called electrons. Metals, such as copper, contain free electrons, which drift in rang]don
directions as shown in.
5.8.5- Voltage
Each cell provide a push, called its potencial difference or voltage. This is represented by
the symbol V, and is measured in volts, V. Sometimes, you will want to measure voltages in
thousands of a volt, or milivolts, mV.
Typically, each cell provides 1.5 V. If cells are joined together one after the other, they are
said to be connected in series. Two 1.5 V cells connected in series provide 3V, while three cells
provide 4.5 V.
5.8.6- Resistance
If a thick copper wire is connected from the positive terminal of a battery directly to the
negative terminal, you get a very large current for a very short time. In a torch, this does not
happen. Part of the torch circuit limits, or resists, the flow of current. Most of the circuit consists
of thick metal conductors which allow current to flow easily. These parts, including the spring,
switch plates and lamp connections, have a low resistance.
The flow of current through the filament causes it to heat up and glow white hot. Lamp
filaments are usually made of the metal tungsten because of its very high melting point. In hair,
the filament would quickly oxidize. This is prevented by removing all the air inside the glass of
the lamp and replacing it with a non-reactive gas.
5.8.7- Ohms equations
The relationship between current, voltage, and resistance was discovered by Georg Ohm,
who published his results in 1827.
Ohm made his won wires and was able to show that the size of an electric current depend
upon their length and thickness. The current was reduced by increasing the length of the wire or
by making it thinner. Current was increased if a shorter thicker wire was used. In addition, larger
currents were observed when the voltage across the wire was increased.
From experiments like these, Ohm found that, at constant temperature, the ratio of voltage
to current was constant for any particular wire, that is:
Where, R = resistance, V = voltage and I = current.
Ohms Law states that, at constant temperature, the electric current flowing in a
conducting material is directly proportional to the applied voltage, and inversely proportional to
the resistance.

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Rearranging the formula gives two additional equations:


And
These simple equations are fundamental to electronics and, once you have learned to use
them effectively, you will find that they are the key to a wide range of circuit problems. You are
going to need these equations, so learn them now.
5.8.8- Did you know? Light bulbs
The lamp filament was first invented in 1860 by a British physicist, Sir Joseph Swan. When
electric current passes through a thin filament of conducting material, the filament heats up and,
if the current is large enough, the filament becomes first red hot and then white hot, or
incandescent. In air, this effect is short-lived because the filament burns up and breaks. Swan
had the idea of enclosing the filament in a glass container, preventing oxidation by removing the
air inside the container using a vacuum pump.
These early experiments suggested that a useful light source was possible, but Swan did
not have as sufficiently powerful vacuum pump. Years later, Swan tried again using a better
vacuum pump. In 1878, he has successful in demonstrating a true incandescent light bulb.
The American Thomas Edison demonstrated a similar lamp in 1879. However, his real
contribution was to develop not just the light bulb but the whole concept of electric power into a
practical, safe and e economic system. In September 1882, the first commercial power station
went into operation, providing light and power to customers in part of Manhattan. The electric
age had begun.
Edison tested thousands of different filament materials. The first commercial lamps had
filaments made of carbon. This was later replaced by tungsten, a metal with a particularity high
melting point.
In modern filament lamp, a very fine tungsten wire is coiled in a tiny spiral.This spiral is
coiled again to make a coiled coil. This arrangement concentrates the heat produced as
current passes through the wire, causing the filament to heat up and reach incandescence
much more quickly. The space inside the lamp is filled with a non-reactive gas, usually an
argon/ nitrogen mixture.
The outline of most parts of the world is identified clearly by city lights. Only recently have
people stared to worry about all the energy used in lighting and how it affects global warming.
The filament lamp is not very efficient and converts just 10 per cent of its energy into light. The
rest is wasted as heat. Energy efficient light bulbs use a different technology and use three to
four times less energy for the same light output. Every home should have them!
The race is on for lighting manufacturers to find ways of making lighting more energy
efficient. Huge savings could be made. Its possible that in a few years you will be albe to light
your house using super-efficient giant LEDs (light-emitting diodes).
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5.8.9-Parallel lamps
Lamps can be connected in series or in parallel. If you connect the lamps stay the same
brightness however many lamps you add. This is because the voltage across every lamp is the
same. In your house the lamps are connected in parallel; this means that even if you have all
the lights on, the lights do not dim.
5.8.10- Batteries
Batteries are a source of electrical energy. The energy is stored as chemical energy and is
converted into electrical energy as it is required. The more energy a battery stores the longer it
will last.
Different types of batteries have different voltages. The voltage is a measure of the
strength of the battery. The higher the voltage, the brighter the bulb and the faster the motor. As
a battery runs out its voltage gradually drops.
Many batteries have a voltage of 1.5 V. for most lamps this is not enough, so often two
batteries are connected in series. This doubles the voltage to 3 V.
5.8.11- Fuses
Electricity can be dangerous if you short a battery or the supply in your house a very high
current flows. Sometimes the wires which carry the current heat up and melt. This may cause a
fire or an explosion.
Fuses protect against fire caused by electrical faults. When the current gets too high, fuses
burn out and break the circuit. This stops the wires from burning. After a fuse burns out, a
qualified person must find the fault before the fuse is replaced.
5.8.12- Electric Circuits
Electricity is a very useful type of energy. The beauty of electricity is that it can be
generated in one place and used in another place. For example, the lamps in your house could
be lit by electricity generated by solar panels on the top of a hill. Electric current can flow along
move around circuits (loops) like the chain moves on a bicycle. This is why batteries have two
terminals. Current flows out of the positive terminal and into the negative terminal. If there is a
break in the circuit then current cannot flow.
5.8.13- Inductor
An inductor stores energy in an electromagnetic field created by changes in current
through it.
Its ability to oppose a change in current flow is called inductance, L, and is measured in
henrys. An inductor can have any value form H to H.

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5.8.14- Electric motors


Electrical energy can be converted into mechanical energy using an electric motor. Electric
motors are used in many products. One of the most important uses of the elecrric motor is in
electric cars.
5.8.15- Flashlights
You can make a flashlight by connecting a lamp across a battery. This would not be a
good flashlight because the lamp would always be on. To turn on and off you need to add a
switch. Simple switches have two terminals together. This allows current to flow around the
circuit.
5.8.16- Dimming lights
Switches are useful if you want to turn a circuit on or off. But sometimes you also want to
vary how much current flow around a circuit. For example, some lamps have a knob to control
their brightness.
Putting a resistor in a circuit reduces the current. The higher of the resistor the more the
current is reduced. So a resistor can be used to dim lights.
5.8.17- Capacitor
A capacitor stores electrical energy in the form of electrostatic field. Capacitors are widely
used to filter or remove AC signals form a variety of circuits. In a DC circuit, they can be used to
block the flow of direct current while allowing AC signals to pass.
A capacitors capacity to sore energy is called is capacitance, C, which is measured in
farads. It can have any value form pF to mF.
5.8.18- Linear Resistors
Resistors are the most numerous components en electronics. Because of their frequent
use, they determine the rehabilitee of the whole system in many ways. The ideal resistor has a
purely real conductance. When a voltage is applied, the electrical energy is converted into
thermal energy. Since many of the resistors electrical characteristics are dependent on the
temperature, the behavior of the resistancetemperature curve is significant for determining the
range of possible applications.
We speak of linear resistors or ohmic resistors, when their voltage/ current behavior is
linear and obeys Ohms Law R= V/l (where R= resistance, V= voltage, l= current). As a rule the
resistance is temperature dependent: RT = TT0 . (1 + . T). T is the temperature variation
and is the temperature coefficient.
6- INTRODUCTION

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6.1- General
The region under consideration is Northeast Brazil between 1 and 18 south latitude and
between 35 and 47 west longitude. This covers an area of almost 1.6 million km2. This region
exhibits a pronounced time and space variability in the rainfall distribution, with a drastic dry
inland region where the annual normal rainfall is below 500 millimeters (~ 20 inches). Serious
social and economic problems result from the regional population requirements of over 20
million people and their dependence upon agriculture. It is noteworthy that the region is located
in a latitudinal band where a regular distribution of rainfall should be expected. This region was
first settled in the early 16th century. It is felt that in previous centuries the rainfall was
somewhat greater than it is now. Some natural or man induced climate changes may have
taken place. It is difficult to forecast the wheather in this area due to the lack of detailed
knowledge of the tropospheric wind structure and its influence on meteorological phenomena.
Careful investigation of the relationship between wind, temperature, moisture and weather
distribution, as well as the orographic influences, would provide a better understanding of the
rainfall amounts and their variability. This should increase the reliability of weather forecasts
required to carry out the many meteorologically sensitive human activities in this region. This is
the purpose of this study.
6.2- TESTS ON INDEPENDENT DATA
Standard statistical tests of significance are not strictly applicable to meteorological
prediction because the data are usually correlated in both space and time, and the weather
regime of one period may be entirely different from that of another. These difficulties were
compounded in the present study because the predictors were not chosen at random, and the
regression equations were derived from observed heights but applied to numerical prognostic
heights. Hence no tests of significance giving exact confidence intervals or probability levels
were applied. Instead all prediction equations were tested on independent data samples.
Unfortunately, however, these samples were rather limited in size because of paucity of data,
particularly in the form of numerical prognoses, so that the results of the prediction experiments
to be described here may not be duplicated on future samples. These results should therefore
be interpreted only as tentative and approximate indications, not as conclusive or quantitative
findings.
6.3- Assembly Languages
Assembly language is a programming language that talks fairly directly to the computer.
Unlike machine language, which is what the computer understands, assembly language is
mnemonic, so that it can be understood and remembered more easily by a human being; in fact,
assembly language is really just machine language in mnemonic form.
Assembly languages are specific to a given CPU chip and are named after it (e.g., 8080
assembly language, 6809 assembly language etc.). They are harder to program than a highlevel language, but they produce programs that are more efficient and run faster.

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6.3.1- VOCABULARY
Fairly = quase
Unlike = ao contrrio de, diferente de
Just = apenas, justamente
CPU = Central Processing Unit = Unidade Central de Processamento
Are named = recebem o nome
After it = de acordo com ele (chip)
Harder = mais trabalhosas
Run faster = rodam mais rpido
6.4- Inputting / Outputting Information
Magnetic tape it is one of the principal input/output recording media used with computers
and is mainly used for storing intermediate results of computations and for compact storing of
large amounts of data, in an ordered sequence. It is much cheaper to store information on tape
than in the computer main memory or on a disk memory device, but it takes longer to locate a
paritucular data item if it is stored on tape: data must be stored and accessed sequentially.
Magnetic disk it consists of a series of concentric paths or tracks each capable of storing data
in magnetically coded form. It looks like a phonograph record and a series of disks is mounted
on a vertical shaft. One or more access arms move into the disk to read or write the data stored
on it. Disks may be hard (made out of aluminum) or floppy (made out of plastic). Disks may be
permanently attached to the drive unit or they may be made up as removable disk packs. Disks
may be made even more efficient by using laser beam to read and write data.
6.4.1- VOCABULARY
Media = pl. of medium (Latin word) = meios
Large amounts = great quantities = grandes quantidades
Cheaper = more inexpensive = mais barato
It takes longer = leva mais tempo
Accessed = reached = alcanados, acessados
Paths or tracks = trilhas

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It looks like = parece com, semelhante a


Shaft = eixo
Drive unit = dispositivo impulsor
Packs = packages = vrios discos presos por um eixo
Laser beam = raio laser
6.5- Mainframes, Minicomputers and Microcomputers
A mainframe computer is a large computer system comprised of a large central processing
unit, separate memory banks, multiple data-storage devices and peripherals. It is found in
computer installations which process immense amounts of data. This powerful machine has a
larger repertoire of more complex instructions which can be executed more quickly.
A minicomputer is much smaller than the mainframe computer. It was developed to
perform limited functions in scientific environments with less computing capacity. It became
possible to reduce the size of the computer with the replacement of vacuum tubes by transistors
and the development of multicircuit chips.
A microcomputer is the smallest of the three sizes of computers. The central processor of
a micro, called the microprocessor, is built as a single semiconductor device, that is, all the
elements necessary to perform all the logical and arithmetic functions are manufactured as a
single chip. The microprocessor literally contains a computer on a chip that can pass through
the eye of a needle.
6.5.1- VOCABULARY
Comprised of = including = incluindo, compreendendo, composto de
Multiple = tendo muitas partes; mltiplo
Repertoire = repertrio, conjunto
Enveironments = surroundings = ambientes
6.6- The Concept of a Database
In general we might say that all the files that make up the data processing system of a
company form their database. However, the term database is now used in a much broader and
more comprehensive sense. To appreciate this let us contrast a conventional data processing
system and a database system.
A conventional data processing system consists of one or more separate files for each
application; in a database system a single large collection of data serves all applications.

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If we were to survey the software market today, we would find a large number of database
systems available.
6.6.1- VOCABULARY
Database = databank = banco de dados
Files = arquivos
Make up = formam
Broader = larger, wider = mais amplo
Sense = sentido, significado
To survey = to examine = examiner, pesquisar
Software market = Mercado de software, isto , de programas
6.7- What Happens Inside a Computer?
When we sit down at a computer, we type on a keyboard which is one of the means of
inputting data. And when we type on this keyboard, each letter or number is converted into a
series of 0s and 1s. This binary language is what the computer understands.
After being converted into 0s and 1s, the data are then changed into electrical impulses
which travel over a cable to the computer, where they are stored in memory. Each computer
word, called a byte, is assigned a place in a memory cell to await processing. The data, now in
the memory cells, are acted upon and processed according to the program being used. The
output, or final result, is then achieved and converted back into numbers and letters, which is
displayed on TV screen or printed on paper by a printer.
6.7.1- VOCABULARY
Keyboard = teclado
Binary language = linguagem que o computador entende, composta de zeros e uns; linguagem
binria.
Travel = passam de um ponto para outro
Byte = oito dgitos binrios; oito bis
Assigned = given = indicado, especificado
Achieved = accomplished = alcanado
Printer = mquina que imprime; impressora

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6.8- Artificial Intelligence


Artificial intelligence is the branch of computer science that deals with using computers to
simulate human thinking. It s concerned with building computer programs that can solve
problems creatively, rather than simply working through the steps of a solution designed by the
programmer.
One of the main problems of artificial intelligence (AI) is how to represent knowledge in the
computer in a form such that it can be used rather than merely reproduced. A computer that
tells you the call number of a library book is not displaying artificial intelligence; it is merely
echoing back what was put into it. Artificial intelligence would come into play if the computer
used its knowledge base to make generalizations about the librarys holdings or construct
bibliographies on selected subjects.
6.8.1- VOCABULARY
Deals with = trata de
Rather than = em vez de
Echoing back = devolvendo
Would come into play = entraria em ao
Librarys holdings = arquivos da biblioteca
6.9- Binary Numbers
Binary numbers are well suited for use by computers, since many electrical devices have
two distinct states: on and off. They are the numbers computers themselves understand.
Composed entirely of zeros and ones, they express all values in powers of two.
The advantage of the binary system is that you only need two symbols (0 and 1) to
express any number, no matter how big it is. Since computers are basically just large groups of
switches, and since these switches can only be either on or off, binary system fits right in; you
just define 0 as off and 1 as on and then binary numbers tell the computer which switches to
throw.
The table below shows some numbers written in binary and decimal form. Note that writing
numbers in binary requires more digits than writing numbers in decimal.

Decimal

Binary

Decimal

Binary

11

1011

12

1100

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13

1101

11

14

1110

100

15

1111

101

16

10000

110

17

10001

111

18

10010

1000

19

10011

1001

20

10100

10

1010

6.9.1- VOCABULARY
Well suited = well appropriate = bem adequados, aprorpiados
In powers = em potncias
No matter = no importando
Since = uma vez que
Switches = chaves
Either ... or = ou ... ou
Fits = suits = adequado, apropriado.
6.10- Different Kinds of Memory
Read only memory (ROM) In most computers it is useful to have some of the instructions
or whole programs permanently stored inside the computer. There are particular kinds of chips
which enable us to do this so that the memory is not lost even when the machine is switched off.
These are called ROM chips. ROM stands for read-only memory. The word non-volatile is
often used to describe this kind of memory meaning that it is not destroyed when the power is
switched off.
Random-access memory (RAM) The other kind of memory found inside computers is
called RAM. Another name for it is read/write memory. RAM chips are the kind which lose their
contents when the power is lost so this kind of memory is sometimes also described as
volatile. In the computer, RAM is the working memory.
Back-up memory The last kind of memory which concerns us is back-up memory. This
is memory outside the main body of the computer in which programs can be kept for future use

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or in which data can be kept until the computer is ready to use it. It could be a cassette tape or a
magnetic disk.
6.10.1- VOCABULARY
Chip = dispositivo que contm muitos transistores e outros componentes montados sobre uma
pea de silcio
Enable us = capacita-nos
Random Access memory = tipo de memria da qual a informao pode ser instantaneamente
copiada, no importando onde ela esteja localizada; memria de acesso randmico ou
aleatrio
Concern us = diz respeito a ns, concerne a ns
6.11- Programming Languages
Just as there are many human languages, so there are many computer languages. In the
early days, people programmed using the computers binary code, or what we call machine
language. When this became difficult, mnemonics were used to make life easier. This is called
assembly language programming. Finnally, there are the high-level languages like BASIC,
FORTRAN and ALGOL. These are much more similar to everyday language, and are translated
directly or indirectly into the computers machine code using the computers firmware.
BASIC is the language most often used to introduce programming.
6.11.1- VOCABULARY
In the early days = no princpio, no incio
Mnemonics = arte de desenvolver a memria mediante processos auxiliares como a
associao; mnemnica
To make easier = tornar mais fcil
High-level = alto nvel
BASIC = Beginners All-puspose Symbolic Instruction Code
FORTRAN = FORmula TRANslation
ALGOL = ALGOrithmic Language
Firmware = software armazenado em ROM em vez de disco
6.12- What Is an Algorithm?

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An algorithm is a sequence of instructions that tells how to solve a particular problem.


Once the problem has been identified, the next step is to select the best method for solving it. If
the problem is a familiar one, standardized algorithms may be available from program libraries.
But if standard algorithms are not available or suitable, a new algorithm must be written and
then added to the program library. An algorithm must be specified exactly, so there can be no
doubt about what to do next, and it must have a finite number of steps.
A computer program is an algorithm that is written in a language that a computer can
understand, but the same algorithm could be wirtten in several different languages.

6.12.1- VOCABULARY
Once = uma vez
Standardized = padronizados
Added = acrescentado, incorporado
There can be no doubt = no pode haver dvida
Steps = passos, etapas

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