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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL
The utilization of industrial waste or secondary materials has encouraged
the production of cement and concrete in construction field. Newby-products and
waste materials are being generated by various industries. Dumping or disposal
waste materials causes environmental and health problems. Therefore, recycling of
waste materials is a great potential in concrete industry. For many years, byproducts such as fly ash, silica fume and slag were considered as waste materials.
Concrete prepared with such materials showed improvement in workability and
durability compared to normal concrete and has been used in the construction of
power, chemical plants and under-water structures. Over recent decades, intensive
research studies have been carried out to explore all possible reuse methods.
Construction waste, blast furnace, steel slag, coal fly ash and bottom ash have
been accepted in many places as alternative aggregates in embankment, roads,
pavements, foundation and building construction, raw material in the Manufacture
of ordinary Portland cement pointed out by Teik thye luin et al (2006).
Copper slag is an industrial by-product material produced from the process
of manufacturing copper. For every ton of copper production, about 2.2 tons of
copper slag is generated. It has been estimated that approximately 24.6 million
tons of slag are generated from the world copper industry (Gorai et al 2003).
Although copper slag is widely used in the sandblasting industry and in the
manufacturing of abrasive tools, the remainder is disposed of without any further
reuse or reclamation. Copper slag possesses mechanical and chemical
characteristics that qualify the material to be used in concrete as a partial
replacement for Portland cement or as a substitute for aggregates. For example,
copper slag has a number of favorable mechanical properties for aggregate use
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such as excellent soundness characteristics, good abrasion resistance and good


stability reported by (Gorai et al 2003). Copper slag also exhibits pozzolanic
properties since it contains low CaO. Under activation with NaOH, it can exhibit
cementations property and can be used as partial or full replacement for Portland
cement. The utilization of copper slag for applications such as Portland cement
replacement in concrete, or as raw material has the dual benefit of eliminating the
cost of disposal and lowering the cost of the concrete. The use of copper slag in
the concrete industry as a replacement for cement can have the benefit of reducing
the costs of disposal and help in protecting the environment. Despite the fact that
several studies have been reported on the effect of copper slag replacement on the
properties of Concrete, further investigations are necessary in order to obtain a
comprehensive understanding that would provide an engineering base to allow the
use of copper slag in concrete.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF COPPER SLAG
Sterlite Industries India Limited (SIIL), Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu is the
principal subsidiary of Vedanta Resources public limited company(PLC), a
diversified and integrated FTSE 100 metals and mining company, with principal
operations located in India and Australia.
The annual turnover of SIIL, Tutucorin, India is Rs.13, 452 crores.SIIL, a
leading producer of copper in India, pioneered the manufacturing of continuous
cast copper roads and established Indias largest copper smelting and refining plant
for production of world class refined copper. SIIL is the producer of copper slag
(Figure 1.1) during the manufacture of copper metal. Presently, about 2500 tons of
copper slag is produced per day and a total accumulation of around 1.5 million
tons.

Figure 1.1 Appearance of copper slag sample


This slag is currently being used for many purposes. It is a glassy granular
material with high specific gravity particle sizes. The various myths about copper
slag is shown in Table 1.1. The size of the particle is of the order of sand and can
be used as a fine aggregate in concrete. To reduce the accumulation of copper slag
and also to provide an alternative material for sand and cement, an approach has
been done to investigate the use of copper slag in concrete for the partial
replacement of sand and cement.
TABLE 1.1 Properties of copper slag
S.No

Properties

Non-toxic material

High durability

Improves concrete strength

No bleeding of concrete up to 40-50%


replacement

Leaching levels are insignificant

1.3 PRODUCTION OF COPPER SLAG

Copper slag is a by-product obtained during the matte smelting and refining
of copper has been reported by Biwas and Davenport (2002). The major
constituent of a smelting charge are sulphides and oxides of iron and copper. The
charge also contains oxides such as SiO 2, Al2O3 CaO and MgO, which are either
present in original concentrate or added as flux. It is Iron, Copper, Sulphur,
Oxygen and their oxides which largely control the chemistry and physical
constitution

of

smelting

system.

A further

important

factor

is

the

oxidation/reduction potential of the gases which are used to heat and melt the
charge stated by Gorai et al (2002). As a result of this process copper- rich matte
(sulphides) and copper slag (oxides) are formed as two separate liquid phases. The
addition of silica during smelting process forms strongly bonded silicate anions by
combining with the oxides.
This reaction produces copper slag phase, whereas sulphide from matte
phase, due to low tendency to form the anion complexes. Silica is added directly
for the most complete isolation of copper in matte which occurs at near saturation
concentration with SiO2.The slag structure is stabilized with the addition of lime
and alumina. The molten slag is discharged from the furnace at 1000-1300C.
When liquid is cooled slowly, it forms a dense, hard crystalline product,
while a granulated amorphous slag is formed through quick solidification by
pouring molten slag.
1.4 ADVANTAGES OF COPPER SLAG
_ Reduces the construction cost due to saving in material cost.
_ Reduces the heat of hydration.
_ Refinement of pore pressure.
_ Reduces permeability.
_ Reduces the demand for primary natural resources.
_ Reduces the environmental impact due to quarrying and aggregate
mining.
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1.5 USE OF COPPER SLAG IN VARIOUS FIELDS


1.5.1 Use of Copper Slag in Cement Clinker Production
Since the main composition of copper slag is vitreous FeSio 3, it has low
melting point and could reduce the calcination temperature for cement clinker.
Thus, the use of copper slag to replace iron powder as iron adjusting material
facilitates cement production and reduces or eliminates the need of mineralizes has
been pointed out by (Huang 2001). The performance testing results indicated that
cement produced by using copper slag performed even better than using iron
powder.
1.5.2 Use of Copper Slag in Blended Cement
The use of copper slag as a pozzolanic material for ordinary Portland
cement and its effects on the hydration reactions and properties of mortar and
concrete have been reported in several applications (Al-Jabri et al2006, Tata et al
2007, Malhotra 1993, Tixier et al 1997, Ariro and mobasher1999). The copper slag
incorporation into the cement mortar does not cause an increase in the leached
elements reported by Sanchez de Rojas et al (2004).Another work showed that the
amounts of leached elements of copper slag are significantly lower than the
regulatory levels determined by United States Environmental Protection Agency
(USAPA) (Alter 2005). Arino and mobasher (1999) suggested that up to 15% of
copper slag can be used as a cement replacement with constant w/c ratio of 0.4.
This gives higher compressive strength than ordinary cement.
1.5.3 Use of Copper Slag in Concrete
Several researchers have investigated the possible use of copper slag as a
fine and coarse aggregate and cement in concrete and its effects on the different
mechanical and long term properties of mortar and concrete.Hwang and Laiw
(1989) evaluated the compressive strength development of mortars and concrete
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containing fine copper slag aggregate with different water cement ratios. The
strength of mixtures with 20-80% substitution of copper slag was higher than that
of control specimens. Shoya et al (1997) reported that the amount and rate of
bleeding increased by using copper slag fine aggregate depending on the water to
cement ratio and also they recommended using less than 40% copper slag as
partial replacement of aggregate to control the amount of bleeding to less than 5
l/m2. There fore copper slag can be replaced 40% with that of sand.
The pozzolanic activity of copper slag has been investigated by Pavez et al
2002. The effect of copper slag on hydration of cement was investigated by
Mobasher et al and Tixier et al 1997. Up to 15% by weight of copper slag was
used as a Portland cement replacement together with 1.5% of Hydrated lime as an
activator to pozzolanic reaction. Result indicated a significant increase in the
compressive strength.
Although there are many studies that have been reported by investigators
from other countries on the use of copper slag in cement concrete, not much
research has been carried out in India concerning the incorporation of copper slag
in concrete and also its durability effects.There fore to generate specific
experiment data on the potential use of copper slag as sand and cement
replacement in concrete, this research was performed. In this research work, an
extensive study using copper slag has been carried out to investigate the following.
1. To find the optimum proportion of copper slag that can be used as a
replacement/ substitute material for cement and fine aggregate.
2. To evaluate compressive and tensile strength of copper slag replaced
concrete specimens.
3. To investigate flexural, axial compressive and buckling strength of
copper slag replaced structural members (RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete)
beams and RCC columns)
4. To investigate corrosion and durability characteristics of copper slag
admixed concrete.
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5. To examine the possibility of using copper slag in resisting seismic earth


pressure.
1.6 COPPER SLAG REPLACEMENT FOR SAND
The use of slag from copper smelting as a fine aggregate in concrete was
investigated by Akihiko and Takashi (1996). Copper slag was also used by Ayano
et al (2000) as a fine aggregate in concrete. They described the strength, setting
time and durability of concrete mixtures made with copper slag. The fundamental
properties of concrete using copper slag and class II fly ash as fine aggregates
were investigated by Ishimaru et al (2005). It was concluded that up to 20% (in
volume) of copper slag or class IIfly ash as fine aggregates substitution can be
used in the production of concrete. To control the bleeding in concrete mixtures
when incorporating copper slag as fine aggregates, Ueno et al (2005) suggested a
grading distribution of fine aggregate based on particle density. The study
investigated the maximum size of slag fine aggregate that does not significantly
influence the amount of bleeding and the required plastic viscosity of paste to
control the amount of bleeding by the variation of water-to-cement ratios. Shi et al
(2008) presented a comprehensive review on the use of copper slag in cement,
mortars and concrete.
The paper was focused on the characteristics of copper slag and its effects
on the engineering properties of cement, mortars and concrete. Wu et al (2010)
investigated the mechanical properties of copper slag and reinforced concrete
under dynamic compression. The results showed that the dynamic compressive
strength of copper slag reinforced concrete generally improved with the increase in
amounts of copper slag used as a sand replacement up to 20%, compared with the
control concrete, beyond which the strength was reduced. Wu et al (2010) also
investigated the mechanical properties of high strength concrete incorporating
copper slag as a fine aggregate. The results indicated that the strength of concrete,
with less than40% copper slag replacement, was higher than or equal to that of the
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control specimen. The microscopic view demonstrated that there were limited
differences between the control concrete and the concrete with less than 40%
copper slag content.
Based on above investigations, this research study was conducted to
investigate the performance of concrete made with copper slag as a partial
replacement for fine aggregate. Three test groups were constituted with
replacement: 0%, 10%, 30%, and 50% of copper slag with sand in each series. The
following tests have been conducted to find the mechanical properties of concrete
and structural members.
i) Compressive strength test on concrete cubes
ii) Split tensile strength test on cylinders

CHAPTER 2
8

LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 GENERAL
Concrete is a most versatile construction material because it is designed to
withstand the harsh environments. Engineers are continually pushing the limits to
improve its performance with the help of innovative chemical admixtures and
supplementary materials. These materials are majority by products from other
processes. The use of these byproducts not only helps to utilize these waste
materials but also enhances the properties of concrete in fresh and hydrated states.
The usage of industrial by-products especially industrial slags in making of
concrete is an important study of worldwide interest. Many researchers have
investigated the possible use of copper slag as a concrete aggregate. For this
investigation, some of the important literatures were re viewed and presented
briefly.
2.2 PAPERS REVIEWED
Al-Jabri et al (2009) has investigated the performance of high strength
concrete (HSC) made with copper slag as a fine aggregate at constant workability
and studied the effect of super plasticizer addition on the properties of HSC made
with copper slag. Two series of concrete mixtures were prepared with different
proportions of copper slag. The first series consisted of six concrete mixtures
prepared with different proportions of copper slag at constant workability. The
water content was adjusted in each mixture in order to achieve the same
workability as that of the control mixture. Twelve concrete mixtures were prepared
in the second series. Only the first mixture was prepared using super plasticizer
whereas the other eleven mixtures were prepared without using super plasticizer
and with different proportions of copper slag used as sand replacement.
The results indicated that the water demand reduced by almost 22%at 100%
copper slag replacement compared to the control mixture. The strength and
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durability of HSC were generally improved with the increase of copper slag
content in the concrete mixture. However, the strength and durability
characteristics of HSC were adversely affected by the absence of the super
plasticizer from the concrete paste despite the improvement in the concrete
strength with the increase of copper content. The following conclusions were
drawn from this study
Compared to the control mix, there was a slight increase in the HPC density
of nearly 5% with increase of copper slag content, whereas the workability
increased rapidly with increase in copper slag percentage.
Addition of up to 50% of copper slag as sand replacement yielded
comparable strength with that of the control mix. However, further additions of
copper slag caused reduction in the strength due to an increase of the free water
content in the mix.
There was a decrease in the surface water absorption as copper slag
quantity increased up to 40% replacement. Beyond that level of replacement, the
absorption rate increases rapidly.
It was recommended that 40 wt% of copper slag can be used as replacement
of sand in order to obtain HPC with good properties.
Al-Jabri (2009 a) investigated the effect of using copper slag as are
placement of sand on the properties of high performance concrete (HPC).Eight
concrete mixtures were prepared with different proportions of copper slag ranging
from 0% (for the control mix) to 100%. Concrete mixes were evaluated for
workability, density, compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength and
durability.
The results indicate that there is a slight increase in the HPC density of
nearly 5% with the increase of copper slag content, whereas the workability
increased rapidly with increases in copper slag percentage. Addition of upto 50%
of copper slag as sand replacement yielded comparable strength with that of the
control mix. However, further additions of copper slag caused reduction in the
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strength due to an increase of the free water content in the mix. Mixes with 80%
and 100% copper slag replacement gave the lowest compressive strength value of
approximately 80MPa, which is almost 16% lower than the strength of the control
mix. The results also demonstrated that the surface water absorption decreased as
copper slag quantity increases upto 40% replacement; beyond that level of
replacement, the absorption rate increases rapidly.
Wei wu et al (2010) investigated the mechanical properties of high strength
concrete incorporating copper slag as fine aggregate. The work ability and strength
characteristics were assessed through a series of tests on six different mixing
proportions at 20% incremental copper slag by weight replacement of sand from
0% to 100%. A high range water reducing admixture was incorporated to achieve
adequate workability. Micro silica with a specific gravity of 2.0 was used to
supplement the cementations contenting the mix for high strength requirement.
The following conclusions were drawn from this study
The results indicated that the strength of concrete with less than 40%
copper slag replacement was higher than or equal to the control specimen.
The microscopic view also suggest that the microstructure of concrete with
more than 40% copper slag contains more voids, micro cracks, and capillary
channels that accelerate the damage of concrete during loading.
The surface water absorption decreases constantly until 40%of copper slag
substitution.
Al-Jabri et al (2005) dealt with the effect of copper slag and cement by-pass
dust addition on mechanical properties of concrete. Here in addition to the control
mixture, two different trial mixtures were prepared using different proportions of
copper slag (CS) and cement by-pass dust (CBPD).CBPD was primarily used as
an activator. One mixture consisted of 5%copper slag substitution for Portland
cement. The other mixture consisted of13.5% CS, 1.5% CBPD and 85% Portland
cement. Three water- to-binder ratios (0.5, 0.6 and 0.7) were studied. Concrete

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cubes, cylinders and prisms were prepared and tested for strength after 7 and 28
days of curing.
The modulus of elasticity of these mixtures was also evaluated. The results
showed that 5% copper slag substitution for Portland cement gave a similar
strength performance as the control mixture, especially at low w/b ratios (0.5and
0.6). Higher copper slag (13.5%) replacement yielded lower strength values. The
results also demonstrated that the use of CS and CBPD as partial replacements of
Portland cement have no significant effect on the modulus of elasticity of concrete,
especially at small quantities substitution.
Caijun Shi et al (2008) reviewed the characteristics of copper slag and its
effects on the engineering properties of cement, mortars and concrete and they
concluded that the utilization of copper slag in cement and concrete provides
additional environmental as well as technical benefits for all related industries,
particularly in areas where a considerable amount of copper slag is produced.
When it is used as a cement replacement or an aggregate replacement, the cement,
mortar and concrete containing different forms of copper slag have good
performance in comparison with ordinary Portland cement having normal and
even higher strength.
Al-Jabri et al (2011) investigated the effect of using copper slag as a fine
aggregate on the properties of cement mortars and concrete. Various mortar and
concrete mixtures were prepared with different proportions of copper slag ranging
from 0% (for the control mixture) to 100% as fine aggregates replacement.
Cement mortar mixtures were evaluated for compressive strength, whereas
concrete mixtures were evaluated for workability, density, compressive strength,
tensile strength, flexural strength and durability. The results obtained for cement
mortars revealed that all mixtures with different copper slag proportions yielded
comparable or higher compressive strength than that of the control mixture. There
was more than70% improvement in the compressive strength of mortars with 50%
copper slag substitution in comparison with the control mixture.
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The results obtained for concrete indicated that there is a slight increase in
density of nearly 5% as copper slag content increases. On the other hand, the
workability increased significantly as copper slag percentage increase compared
with the control mixture. A substitution of upto 4050%copper slag as a sand
replacement yielded comparable strength to that of the control mixture. However,
addition of more copper slag resulted in strength reduction due to the increase in
the free water content in the mix. The results demonstrated that surface water
absorption decreased as copper slag content increases upto 50% replacement.
Beyond that, the absorption rate increased rapidly and the percentage volume of
the permeable voids was comparable to the control mixture. Therefore, it was
recommended that upto 4050% (by weight of sand) of copper slag can be used as
a replacement for fine aggregates in order to obtain a concrete with good strength
and durability requirements.
Isa Yuksel and Turhan Bilir (2007) presented the results of research
aimed at studying the possible usage of bottom ash (BA) and granulated blast
furnace slag (GBFS) in production of plain concrete elements. Sufficient number
of briquettes, paving blocks and Krebs specimens containing GBF Sand BA as
fine aggregate replacement were produced in laboratory. Then, a few tests were
conducted for investigating durability and mechanical properties of these
specimens. Unit weight, compression strength and freezethaw tests were
conducted for briquette specimens. Compression strength, freezethaw, water
absorption and surface abrasion tests were conducted for paving blocks. Surface
abrasion and flexural tensile strength tests were conducted for kerb specimens.
While compression strength was decreased slightly, durability characteristics such
as resistance of freezethaw and abrasion were improved. The results showed that
usage of partially fine aggregate of these industrial by-products have more
beneficial effects on durability characteristics of plain concrete elements.
Ramazan Demirbog and Rustem Gul (2007) investigated the use of Blast
furnace slag aggregates (BFSA) to produce high-strength concretes (HSC). These
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concretes were made with total cementitious material content of460610 kg/m 3.
Different water/cement ratios (0.30, 0.35, 0.40, 0.45 and0.50) were used to carry
out 7- and 28-day compressive strength and other properties. Silica fume and
super plasticizer were used to improve BFSA concretes. Slump was kept constant
throughout this study. Ten percent silica fume was added as a replacement for
ordinary Portland cement (OPC) in order to obtain HSC. Results showed that
compressive strength of BFS concretes were approximately 6080% higher than
traditional (control) concretes for different w/c ratios. These concretes also had
low absorption and high splitting tensile strength values. Therefore, it was
concluded that BFSA, in combination with other supplementary cementitious
materials, can be utilized in making high strength concretes.
Caroline Morrison et al (2003) reported that Ferro-silicate slag from the
Imperial Smelting Furnace production of zinc can be used as are placement for
sand in cementitious mixes. The ISF slag contains trace quantities of zinc and lead,
which are known to cause retardation of concrete set. Testing of experimental
concrete mixes proves this retardation affect, although the delay in set does not
appear deleterious to the eventual concrete hydration. Leaching studies
demonstrated that pulverized fuel ash and ground granulated blast-furnace slag
had the potential to reduce the leaching of lead and zinc ions from the ISF slag,
even in highly alkaline solutions.
The following conclusions were drawn from this study:
The replacement of sand in concrete mixes with Ferro silicate slag from the
ISF production of zinc (ISF slag) caused a retardation of concrete set.
The leaching of lead and zinc ions was increased in high pH solutions.
However, the combination of ISF slag and PFA or GGBS reduced leaching, even
in highly alkaline solutions containing PFA.
Byung Sik Chun et al (2005) conducted several laboratory tests and
evaluated the applicability of copper slag as a substitute for sand of sand
compaction pile method.. From the mechanical property test, the characteristics of
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the sand and copper slag were compared and analyzed, and from laboratory model
test, the strength of composite ground was compared and analyzed by monitoring
the stress and ground settlement of clay, sand compaction pile and copper slag
compaction pile.
Teik-Thye Lim and Chu (2006) conducted a study on the feasibility of
using spent copper slag as fill material in land reclamation. The physical and
geotechnical properties of the spent copper slag were first assessed by laboratory
tests, including hydraulic conductivity and shear strength tests. The physical and
geotechnical properties were compared with those of conventional fill materials
such as sands. The potential environmental impacts associated with the use of the
spent copper slag for land reclamation were also evaluated by conducting
laboratory tests including pH and Eh measurements, batch-leaching tests, acid
neutralization capacity determination and monitoring of long-term dissolution of
the material. The spent copper slag was slightly alkaline, with pH 8.4 at a solid
/water ratio of 1:1. The batch leaching test results showed that the concentrations
of the regulated heavy metals leached from the material at pH 5.0. They were
significantly lower than the maximum concentration for their toxicity limits
referred by United States Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. They finally
suggested that the spent copper slag was a good fill material and it can be used as a
fill material for land reclamation.
Mobasher et al (1996) investigated the effect of copper slag on the
hydration of cement based materials. Upto 15% by weight of copper slag was used
as a Portland cement replacement. Activation of pozzolanic reactions was studied
using upto 1.5% hydrated lime. Hydration reactions were monitored using
quantitative X-Ray diffraction and the porosity was examined using mercury
intrusion porosimetry. The results indicate a significant increase in the
compressive strength for upto 90 days of hydration. A decreases in capillary
porosity measured using MIP indicated densification of the microstructure. The
embrittlement due to the addition of slag is measured using fracture parameters.
15

Fracture properties such as critical stress intensity factor and fracture toughness
showed a constant or decreasing trend with the addition slag.
Tixier et al (1997) worked on the effect of copper slag on the hydration of
cement based materials. Upto 15% by weight of copper slag was used as a
Portland cement replacement. Hydration reactions were studied through semi
quantitative X-ray diffraction and thermo gravimetric analysis. Samples of copper
slag and hydrated lime were used to test the pozzolanic properties of the slag. The
porosity was examined using mercury intrusion porosimetry. A decrease in
capillary porosity was observed while the gel porosity decreased. A significant
increase in the compressive strength was observed.
Caijun Shi and Jueshi Qian (1999) reported that most Industrial slags are
being used without taking full advantage of their properties or disposed rather than
used. The industrial slags, which have cementitious or pozzolanic properties,
should be used as partial or full replacement for Portland cement rather than as
bulk aggregates or ballasts because of the high cost of Portland cement, which is
attributable to the high energy consumption for the production of Portland cement.
They stated that the traditional way to utilize metallurgical slags in cementing
materials is to partially replace Portland cement, which usually results in a lower
early strength and longer setting times. The presence of activator(s) can accelerate
the break-up of structure and hydration of Slags. Many research results have
indicated that clinker less alkali-activated Slags even exhibit higher strengths,
denser structure and better durability compared with Portland cement. In this
paper, the recent achievements in the development of high performance cementing
materials is based on activated slags such as blast furnace slag, steel slag, copper
slag and phosphorus slag . They were reviewed and the following
conclusions were drawn from this study:
Copper slag such as blast furnace slag, steel slag, alkali activated slag and
phosphorus slag exhibit not only higher early and later strength, but also better
corrosion resistance than normal Portland cement.
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The production of Portland cement is an energy-intensive process, while


the grinding of metallurgical slags needs only approximately 10% of the energy
required for the production of Portland cement.
Arino and Mobasher (1999) presented the effect of ground copper slag on
the strength and fracture of cement-based materials. Upto 15% by mass of ground
copper slag was used as a portland cement replacement. The strength and fracture
toughness of concrete samples were studied using closed-loop controlled
compression and three-point bending fracture tests. The compression test utilized a
combination of the axial and transverse strains as a control parameter to develop a
stable post-peak response. A cyclic loading-unloading test was conducted on threepoint bending notched specimens under closed-loop crack mouth opening control.
Test results were used to construct the Resistance Curve (R-Curve) response of the
specimens describing the dependence of fracture toughness on the stable crack
length. Mechanical response of GCS concrete was also reported. The compression
test results indicated that GCS concrete was stronger but more brittle than ordinary
Portland cement concrete. Fracture test results confirmed thein creased brittleness
of concrete due to the use of GCS. Long-term results showed equal or higher
strengths for the GCS specimens without concern Forde gradation of other
properties.
Sioulas and Sanjayan (2000) reported the results of use of slag blended
cements in the production of HSC. Slag replacement can assist in reducing high
hydration temperatures, which is a problem in concrete with high cement contents.
Slag replacement levels were studied of 70%, 50%,30% and 0%. Slag replacement
levels studied were of 70%, 50%, 30% and0%. A ternary blend, containing
Portland cement, slag and silica fume was also investigated in one of the columns.
The study was based on square columns of size 800 x 800 mm in cross-section and
1200 mm high. Altogether, results of 11 columns are reported.
They concluded that the peak and net temperature rise encountered at the
center of the columns are substantially reduced with the inclusion of slag into the
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binder. A progressive reduction in maximum net temperature rise was obtained


with increasing slag content. The inclusion of slag into the concrete binder results
in a delay in time required to attain peak temperature. The maximum thermal
gradients exhibited by the general purpose columns were significantly reduced
when slag was incorporated into the concrete. There moval of the formwork at 24
h exacerbated the temperature difference between the center and surface of the
columns containing a slag replacement equal to or greater than 50%.
Washington Almeida Moura et al 2007 presented the results of a study on
the use of copper slag as pozzolanic supplementary cementing material for use in
concrete. Initially, the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of the copper
slag were determined. After this, concrete batches were made with copper slag
additions of 20% (relative to the cement weight) and set properties were
investigated, i.e., specific gravity, compressive strength, splitting-tensile,
absorption, and absorption rate by capillary suction and carbonation. The results
pointed out that there is a potential for the use of copper slag as a supplementary
cementing material to concrete production. The concrete batches with copper slag
addition presented greater mechanical and durability performance. The following
conclusions were drawn from this study
The addition of copper slag to concrete results in an increase on the
concretes axial compressive and splitting tensile strengths.
It was observed that a decrease in the absorption rate by capillary suction,
absorption and carbonation depth in the copper slag concrete tested improved its
durability.
Moura et al (1999) reported that the use of electric steel slag and copper
slag can be a potential alternative to the admixtures used in concrete and mortars.
The results of physical, chemical and physical-chemical characterizations of
electric steel lags from Rio Grande do Sul and copper slags from Bahia, both in
Brazil, are presented in their work. They also presented the results of compressive

18

tests, flexural tests and Brazilian tests in concrete specimens with these
admixtures, indicating the viability of their use.
Ayano Toshiki et al (2000) presented the problems in using copper slag as
a concrete aggregate. One of them is excess bleeding attributed to the glassy
surface of copper slag. Another problem is the delay of setting time of concrete
with copper slag. Nevertheless, it produced the same refinery. The delay of setting
time is more than one week in some cases although the durability in concrete is
not affected by it. In this paper, the strength, setting time and durability of concrete
with copper slag was clarified. Finally, they concluded that the delay of setting
time does not have a negative influence on durability.
Bipra gorai et al (2003) reviewed the characteristics of copper slag as well
as various processes such as pyro, hydro and combination of pyro
hydrometallurgical methods for metal recovery and preparation of value added
products from copper slag. Copper slag, which is produced during pyro
metallurgical production of copper from copper ores, contains materials like iron,
alumina, calcium oxide, silica etc. This paper discusses the favorable physicomechanical characteristics of copper slag that can be utilized tomake the products
like cement, fill, ballast, abrasive, aggregate, roofing granules, glass, tiles etc.
apart from recovering the valuable metals by various extractive metallurgical
routes. The favorable physico-mechanical and chemical characteristics of copper
slag lead to its utilization to prepare various value added products such as cement,
fill, ballast, abrasive, cutting tools, aggregate, roofing granules, glass, tiles etc. The
utilization of copper slag in such manners may reduce the cost of disposal. This
may also leads to less environmental problems.
Ke Ru Wu et al (2001) studied the effect of copper slag in coarse
aggregate type on mechanical properties of high-performance concrete. Tests were
carried out to study the effect of the coarse aggregate type on the compressive
strength, splitting tensile strength, fracture energy, characteristic length, and elastic
modulus of concrete produced at different strength levels with 28-day target
19

compressive strengths of 30, 60 and 90 N/mm2respectively. Concrete was


produced using crushed quartzite, crushed granite, limestone, and marble coarse
aggregate. The results showed that the strength, stiffness, and fracture energy of
concrete for a given water/cement ratio(W/C) depend on the type of aggregate,
especially for high-strength concrete. It was suggested that high-strength concrete
with lower brittleness can be made by selecting high-strength aggregate with low
brittleness.
Najimi et al (2011) investigated the performance of copper slag contained
concrete in sulphate solution. In this regard, an experimental study including
expansion measurements, compressive strength degradation and micro structural
analysis were conducted in sulphate solution on concretes. This was made by
replacing 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% of cement with copper slag waste. The results of
this study emphasized the effectiveness of copper slag replacement in improving
the concrete resistance against sulphate attack.
Jack et al (2003) studied the effect of carbonation on mechanical properties
and durability of concrete. Ordinary portland cement (OPC) with water/cement
ratios of 0.58 and 0.48 and self-compacting concretes with water/binder ratios of
0.40 and 0.36 were used in this study. Compressive strength test, splitting strength
test, electrical resistivity test, rapid chloride penetration test (RCPT), open circuit
potential method and alternative current(AC) impedance method were performed
to estimate the properties of concrete. Test results showed that carbonation may
compensate some concrete properties such as compressive strength, splitting
strength, electrical resistivity and chloride ion penetration. However, corrosion test
results showed that carbonation increases corrosion rate of reinforcing steel.
McGrath et al (2001) tested an easily constructed accelerated carbonation
test chamber suitable for evaluation of the carbonation rate into concrete
specimens. The test chamber was constructed at low cost using readily available
materials. Uniform test conditions were created within the chamber. Anticarbonation coatings were applied to site to cast and pre-cast concrete substrates.
20

The types of coatings included polymer additives of acrylic and styrene butadiene
in both powdered and liquid form. Coatings were applied to both formed and
exposed/cast surfaces. Depth of carbonation was measured using phenolphthalein
solution. A simple and inexpensive test chamber was developed which can be
quickly assembled. It is used for carbonation studies of concrete. He states that the
samples coated with the cement based reactive/proprietary coating tended toward
the least penetration. The thick build epoxy was an effective barrier to carbonation
but would not provide the necessary breath ability
vapour required under the construction conditions.
Rathan Raj et al (2007) suggested that High-Reactivity Metakaolin and
Alumina Red Mud in dry densified form can be used for the partial replacement of
cement and super plasticizer. Platy shaped HRM and ARM in small percentage
improved the mechanical and durability characteristics of concrete. Super
plasticizer improved the workability of concrete and made possible to get
sufficient workable concrete of lower water binder ratio. They reported that, out of
the various percentages of HRM and ARM as admixtures, the concrete with 8 %
replacement of cement with admixtures gives better results. Based upon the
experimental investigation carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.
Concrete with 8% replacement of HRM and ARM behaved better than the
concrete without any admixtures.
Addition of HRM and ARM replaced cement in concrete improved the
corrosion resistance of the concrete without any reduction in compressive strength.

CHAPTER 3
AIM AND SCOPE OF INVESTIGATION

21

3.1 GENERAL
Copper slag is considered as one of the waste material
which can have a promising future in construction industry as
partial or full substitute of either cement or aggregates. Many
researchers have already found it possible to use copper slag as a
concrete aggregate. But not much research has been carried out
in India concerning the incorporation of copper slag in concrete
and RCC members. Therefore this research was performed to
create specific experimental data on the potential use of copper
slag in concrete and RCC members.
3.2 AIM
The main aim of this research work was to investigate
effective replacement of sand and cement by copper slag in
concrete and RCC structural elements and its applications to
reduce seismic earth pressure. To achieve this, an extensive
study has been carried out to investigate the following using
copper slag.
1. To find the optimum proportion of copper slag that can be
used as a replacement/ substitute material for cement and fine
aggregate.
2. To evaluate compressive and tensile strength of copper
slag admixed concrete specimens.
3. To investigate flexural, axial compressive and buckling
strength of copper slag replaced structural members.
4. To investigate corrosion and durability characteristics of
copper slag admixed concrete.

22

5. To examine the possibility of using copper slag in


resisting seismic earth pressure.
3.3 SCOPE
The government of India has targeted the year 2010 and
2011 for providing housing for all. Such large scale housing
construction activities require huge amount of money. Out of the
total cost of house construction, building materials contribute to
about 70 percent costs in developing countries like India.
Therefore the need of hour is replacement of costly and scarce
conventional building materials by innovative, cost effective and
environment friend by alternate building materials. Since copper
slag concrete showed an enhanced mechanical performance and
also has non substance deemed as toxic was leached, it can be
used as a building raw materials. Therefore in this investigation,
possibilities of using copper slag for various purposes were
examined and reported.

23

CHAPTER 4
MATERIALS INVESTIGATION
4.1 GENERAL
The materials used in the present investigation and their properties are
briefly discussed below.
4.2 CEMENT
An OPC 43 Grade Sankar cement was used in this investigation. The
quantity required for this work was assessed and the entire quantity was purchased
and stored properly in casting yard. The following tests were conducted in
accordance with IS codes.
1. Specific gravity (Le Chatelier flask) (IS: 1727-1967)
2. Standard consistency (IS: 4031 1988 Part 4)
3. Initial setting time (IS: 4031 1988 Part 5)
4. Final setting time (IS: 4031 1988 Part 5)

4.2.1 SPECIFIC GRAVITY (LE CHATELIER FLASK) (IS: 17271967)


PROCEDURE
Specific gravity of pozzolona shll be determined on the material as
received, unless otherwise specified.
24

Fill the flask with kerosene or naptha to a point on the stem between the
zero and the 1 ml mark and replace the stopper. Then immerse the flask in a
constant temperature water bath, maintained at about room temperature for
sufficient interval to avoid greater than 0.2C in the temperature of the liquid in
the flask. Take the reading of the liquid in the flask.
Introduce a weighed quantity of pozzolona into flask, taking care that no
portion of it adhere to the inside of the flask above the liquid, by slightly vibrating
the flask. Replace the stopper and roll the flask in an inclined position to expel any
bubble in the pozzolon, the level of the liquid will be in its final position at some
point of the upper series of graduations. The reading shall be taken after the flasks
immersed in the eater bath.
Note 1 A rubber pad on the table may be used when filling or rolling the flask.
Note 2

The flask may be held in a vertical position in the water bath by means of

a burette clamp.
Calculation: The difference between the first and final readings represents the
volume of liquid displaced by the weight of cement used in the test. Specific
gravity shall be calculated as follows:

Specific gravity =

Weight of pozzolonag
Displaced volumeml

4.2.2 STANDARD CONSISTENCY (IS: 4031 1988 PART 4)


PROCEDURE
The standard consistency of a cement paste is defined as that consistency
which will permit the Vicat plunger G shown in IS : 5513-l 976*to penetrate to a
point 5 to 7 mm from the bottom of the Vicat mould when the cement paste is
tested as described in 5.2 to 5.4.
Prepare a paste of weighed quantity of Cement with a weighed quantity of
potable or distilled water, taking care that the time of gauging is not less than 3
25

minutes, nor more than 5 min, and the gauging shall be completed before any sign
of setting occurs. The gauging time shall be counted from the time of adding water
to the dry cement until commencing to fill the mould. Fill the Vicat mould E with
this paste, the mould resting upon a non-porous plate. After completely filling the
mould, smoothen the surface of the paste, making it level with the top of the
mould. The mould may be slightly shaken to expel the a.ir.
Clean appliances shall be used for In filling the mould, the operators hand
on the blade of the gauging trowel shall alone be used.
Place the test block in the mould, together with the non-porous resting
plate, under the rod bearing the plunger; lower the plunger gently to touch the
surface of the test block, and quickly release, allowing it to sink into the paste.
This operation shah be carried out immediately after filling the mould.
Prepare trial pastes with varying percentages of water and test as described
above until the amount of water necessary for making up the standard consistency
as defined in 5.1 is found.

4.2.3 Initial setting time (IS: 4031 1988 Part 5)


Determination of Initial Setting Time
Place the test block confined in the mould and resting on the non-porous
plate, under the rod bearing the needle ( C ); lower the needle gently until it comes
in contact with the surface of the test block and quickly release, allowing it to
penetrate into the test block. In. the beginning, the needle will completely pierce
the test block. Repeat this procedure until the needle, when brought in contact with
the test block and released as described above, fails to pierce the block beyond5.0
0.5 mm measured from the bottom of the mould. The period elapsing between
the time when water is added to the cement and the time at which the needle fails
to pierce the test block to a point 5.0 0.5 mm measured from the bottom of the
mould shall be the initial setting time.

26

4.2.4 FINAL SETTING TIME (IS: 4031 1988 PART 5)


Determination of Final Setting Time
Replace the needle ( C ) of the Vicat apparatus by the needle with an
annular attachment ( F ).The cement shall be considered as finally set when, upon
applying the needle gently to the surface of the test block, the needle makes an
impression thereon, while the attachment fails to do so. The period elapsing
between the time when water is added to the cement and the time at which the
needle makes an impression on the surface of test block while the attachment fails
to do so shall be the final setting time. In the event of a scum forming on the
surface of the test block, use the underside of the block for the determination.
TABLE 4.1 Test on cement

Specific Gravity

3.10

Standard consistency

31.5%

Initial setting time

57 min

Final setting time

4 hour

Soundness test (Le- Chateliers test)

0.95mm

4.3 FINE AGGREGATE


The fine aggregate used in this investigation was clean river sand and the
following tests were carried out on sand as per IS: 2386- 1968 (III).
1.
2.
3.
4.

Sieve analysis and fineness modulus


Water absorption test on fine aggregate
Specific gravity of sand
Voids in sand

27

4.3.1 SIEVE ANALYSIS AND FINENESS MODULUS


Sample Taken = 2000 g
IS Sieve Size

4.75
2.36
1.16
600
300
150
90
75
Receiver
Total

Wt of fine
aggregate
retained in
each sieve
43
56
232
579
704
333
36
8
9
2000

Cumulative
Wt of fine
aggregate
retained
43
99
331
910
1614
1947
1983
1991
2000

Cumulative
Wt % of fine
aggregate
retained
2.15
4.95
16.55
45.5
80.7
97.35
99.15
99.55
445.9

Cumulative
Wt % of fine
aggregate
passing
97.85
95.05
83.45
54.5
19.3
2.65
0.85
0.45
100

of Cumulative Wt of fine aggregateeach sieve


100
445.9
=
= 4.46
100

Finenessmodulus of fine aggregate=

28

120
100
80
60

percentage Passing (%)

40
20
0
0.05

0.5

Sieves in (mm)

Fig 4.1 Finesse modulus graph on fine aggregate


4.3.2 WATER ABSORPTION TEST ON FINE AGGREGATE
Sample Specimen = 200 g
Weight of Specimen + container

= 470 g (W1)

Weight of Specimen water absorbed + container = 477 g (W2)


% of water absorption

1
477470
100=(
100
( W 2W
W1 )
470 )

Water absorption of course aggregate

= 1.5%

4.3.3 SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SAND


Sample = 200 g
Weight of pycnometer (W1 g)

= 453 g

Weight of pycnometer + Dry sand (W2 g)

= 0.653 g

Weight of pycnometer + sand + water (W3 g) = 1.33 g


Weight of pycnometer + water (W4g)

29

= 1.210

Specific gravity of sand =


(W 2W 1)
(0.6530.453)
=
(W 4W 1)(W 3W 2) (1.2100.453)(1.3340.653)

=2.632
4.3.4 VOIDS IN SAND
Weight of pycnometer (W1 g)

= 660 g

Weight of pycnometer + Dry sand (W2 g)

= 2012 g

Weight of pycnometer + water (W3 g)

= 1515 g

Weight of sand (W1-W2) g

= 1352 g

Weight of water in pycnometer (W3-W1) g = 855 g

Bulk Density

Weight of sand 1352


=
=1.6
Volume of water 855

Specific gravity (G)

g/cc

= 2.6 for sand

G
% of Voids =
) x 100

=38.46%

TABLE 4.2 Test on fine aggregate


1

Sieve analysis and fineness modulus

4.46

2
3

Water absorption test on fine aggregate


Specific gravity of sand

1.5%
2.632

Voids in sand

38.46%

4.4 COURSE AGGREGATE


In the present investigation, locally available crushed blue granite stone
aggregate of size 20 mm and down, was used and the various tests, carried out on
the aggregates, are given below.
30

1. Sieve analysis for course aggregate


2. Water absorption test on course aggregate

3. Specific gravity of course aggregate


4. Aggregate impact test
4.4.1 AGGREGATE IMPACT TEST
Weight of the empty cup W1g

= 1.714

Weight of the cup with aggregate W2g

= 2.286

Weight of aggregate passing through sieve W3 g = 0.41


Aggregate impact test =

W3
100
W 2W 1

0.41
2.2861.714

100

71.6%

4.4.2 SIEVE ANALYSIS FOR COURSE AGGREGATE


Sample Taken = 1000 g
IS Sieve Size

20
16
12.5
10
6.3
4.75
Receiver
Total

Wt of course
aggregate
retained in
each sieve
169
450
312
54
4
6
5
1000 g

Cumulative
Wt of course
aggregate
retained
169
619
931
985
989
995
1000

Fineness modulus of course aggregate


31

Cumulative
Wt % of
course
aggregate
retained
16.9
61.9
93.1
98.5
98.9
99.5
-

Cumulative
Wt % of
course
aggregate
passing
83.1
38.1
6.9
1.5
1.1
0.5
-

of CumulativeWt of courseaggregate each sieve


100

468.8
=
= 4.7
100

90
80
70
60
50

pe rce ntage Passing (%)

40
30
20
10
0
0.1

10

Sie ve s in (mm)

Fig 4.2 Finesse modulus graph on course aggregate


4.4.3 WATER ABSORBTION TEST ON COURSE AGGREGATE
Sample Specimen = 200 g
Weight of Specimen + container

= 491 g (W1)

Weight of Specimen water absorbed + container = 494 g (W2)


% of water absorption

1
494491
100=(
100
( W 2W
W1 )
491 )
Water absorption of course aggregate

= 0.6%

4.4.4 SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF COURSE AGGREGATE


Sample = 200 g
Weight of pycnometer (W1 g)

=0. 453 g
32

Weight of pycnometer + Dry sand (W2 g)

= 0.655 g

Weight of pycnometer + sand + water (W3 g)

= 1.138 g

Weight of pycnometer + water (W4g)

= 1.013 g

Specific gravity of sand =


(W 2W 1)
(0.6550.453)
=
(W 4W 1)(W 3W 2) (1.0130.453)(1.1380.655)

=2.623
1

TABLE 4.3 Test on course aggregate


Sieve analysis for course aggregate

4.7

Water absorption test on course aggregate

0.6%

Specific gravity of course aggregate

2.623

aggregate impact test

71.6%

Percentage of voids

39.02%

4.5 WATER
In the present investigation, potable water was used.
Combining water with a cementitious material forms a cement paste by the
process of hydration. The cement paste glues the aggregate together, fills voids
within it, and makes it flow more freely.
A lower water-to-cement ratio yields a stronger, more durable concrete,
whereas more water gives a freer-flowing concrete with a higher slump. Impure
water used to make concrete can cause problems when setting or in causing
premature failure of the structure.
Hydration involves many different reactions, often occurring at the same
time. As the reactions proceed, the products of the cement hydration process
33

gradually bond together the individual sand and gravel particles and other
components of the concrete to form a solid mass.
Reaction:
Cement chemist notation: C3S + H C-S-H + CH
Standard notation: Ca3SiO5 + H2O (CaO)(SiO2)(H2O)(gel) + Ca(OH)2
Balanced: 2Ca3SiO5 + 7H2O 3(CaO)2(SiO2)4(H2O)(gel) + 3Ca(OH)2
4.6 COPPER SLAG
Copper slag is a by-product material produced from the process of
manufacturing copper. As the copper settles down in the smelter, it has a higher
density, impurities stay in the top layer and then are transported to a water basin
with a low temperature for solidification. The end product is a solid, hard material
that goes to the crusher for further processing. Copper slag used in this work was
bought from Sterlite industries(India) ltd,Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, India.

4.6.1 SIEVE ANALYSIS REPORT OF COPPER SLAG

Sample Taken = 500 g


S.No

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Sieve
Size
mm

4.75
2.36
1.18
0.6
0.3
0.15
0.075

Weight
Retained
gm

0
29
106
154
5
197
9

Total
Weight
Retained
gm

0
29
135
289
294
491
500

Fineness modulus of copper slag = 3.476


34

Total
Weight
Passing
gm

%
Passing

500
471
365
211
206
9
0

100
94.2
73
42.2
41.2
1.8
0

%
Retained

0
5.8
27
57.8
58.8
98.2
100

120
100
80
60

pe rce ntage Passing (%)

40
20
0
0.05

Sie ve s in (mm)

Fig 4.3 Finesse modulus graph on copper slag

4.6.2 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF COPPER SLAG


Copper slag is black glassy and granular in nature and has a similar particle
size range like sand. The specific gravity of Indian slag lies between3.4 and 4.1.
The bulk density of copper slag varies between 1.9 to 2.15 kg/m3which is almost
similar to the bulk density of conventional fine aggregate. Table 4.4 shows
physical properties of copper slag. The free moisture content present in slag was
found to be less than 0.5%. Gradation test was conducted on copper slag and sand
showed that both copper slag and sand had comparable particle size distribution as
shown in Table 4.4 However, it seems that sand has higher fines content than
copper slag. Tests to determine specific gravity and water absorption for copper
slag and sand were carried out in accordance with ASTM C128. The results
presented in Table 4.2 shows that copper slag has a specific gravity of 3.91which
is higher than that of sand (2.57) and OPC (3.12) which may result in production
of HPC with higher density when used as sand substitution. Table 4.4 shows sieve
analysis report for various proportions of sand by copper slag. Table 4.4 shows
35

that the measured water absorption for copper slag was 0.16% compared with
1.25% for sand. This suggests that copper slag would demand less water than that
required by sand in the concrete mix. Therefore, it is expected that the free water
content in concrete matrix will increase as the copper slag content increases which
consequently will lead to increase in the workability of the concrete. The presence
of silica in slag is about 26% which is desirable since it is one of the constituents
of the natural fine aggregate used to normal concreting operations. The fineness of
copper slag after grinding was calculated as 125 m2 /kg. The Table 4.4 shows
physical properties of copper slag.

TABLE 4.4 Physical Properties of copper slag


Physical Properties slag

Copper

Particle shape
Appearance

Irregular
Black and glassy

Type
Specific gravity
Percentage of voids
Bulk density g/cc

Air cooled
3.91
% 35
2.08

Fineness modulus
Angle of internal friction
Ultimate shear stress kg/cm2
Water absorption %

3.47
51 20
0.4106
0.16

Moisture content %
Fineness m2 /kg (after grinding)

0.1
125

36

4.6.3 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF COPPER SLAG


Copper slag has high concentrations of SiO2 and Fe2O3 compared with
OPC. In comparison with the chemical composition of natural pozzolans of ASTM
C 618-99, the summation of the three oxides (silica, alumina andiron oxide) in
copper slag is nearly 95%, which exceeds the 70% Percentile requirement for
Class N raw and claimed natural pozzolans. Table 4.5 shows the chemical
composition of copper slag which was obtained from National council for cement
and building materials, Ballabgarh, India, 2010.

TABLE 4.5 Chemical composition of copper slag


% of chemical component

Chemical Component
SiO2

25.84

Fe2O3

68.29

Al2O3
CaO

0.22
0.15

Na2O
K2 O

0.58
0.23

Mn2O3
TiO2
SO3
CuO
Sulphide sulphur

0.22
0.41
0.11
1.20
0.25

Insoluble residue

14.88

4.6.4 LEACHING OF HEAVY ELEMENTS IN COPPER SLAG

37

Copper slag samples were dipped in distilled water and studied for leaching
of heavy metals from them up to a period of 15 days using ICP technique. No
leaching of heavy metals such as Pb, Zn, Cr, and Ni, Mo etc was observed.
Leaching of very small quantities of Ba (0.008 ppm), Cu (0.087ppm), Mn (0.008
ppm) and Sr (0.002 ppm) was however observed at 15 days. The leaching of heavy
metals in copper slag samples was also conducted by National council for cement
and building materials, Ballabgar has per the method given in ASTM D-52331995d which involves sample treatment under aggressive conditions. Even though
the Copper slag contains traces of heavy metals such as As, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, and
Fe, it has been established in several studies that these metals are present in highly
stable conditions so that there is no possibility of leaching of any of these metals.
Hence, use of copper slag from environmental pollution considerations is
acceptable (SERC, 2010). The results presented in Table.4.6 indicate that the
leaching of heavy metals was well below the toxicity limits even under aggressive
conditions.
TABLE 4.6 Leaching of heavy metals on copper slag
Constituents Determined

Leaching (ppm)

Arsenic

0.923

Barium

0.258

Cadmium

Nil

Cobalt

Nil

Chromium

Nil

Mangenese

0.048

Molybdenum

Nil

Nkel

0.097

Selenium

Nil
38

Strontium

0.046

Zinc

0.991

NUMBER OF SPECIMENS
Concrete cube compressive strength - 24 Nos.
Split tensile strength on cylinders

- 16 Nos.

NAME OF SPECIMEN
CC

Control Concrete (0%)

S10

10% of sand replaced by copper slag

S30

30% of sand replaced by copper slag

S50

50% of sand replaced by copper slag

39

CHAPTER 5
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
5.1 GENERAL
The experimental setup and procedures for conducting tests on concrete.
5.2 PREPARATION OF SPECIMENS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The standard size of specimen.


Cube 150 mm 150 mm 150 mm .
Cylinder Dia = 150mm, Height = 300mm.
The mould is metal preferable.
The concrete is made in proper proportion and fill the cube in proper

layer.
6. Using manual mean the compaction is down.
7. After removed the specimen in the mould and stored in water for
specified (7, 14, 28) curing days.
5.3 TESTING PROCEDURE
1. The compression testing machine is used for test.
2. The cube specimen is placed horizontally between the loading
surface and applied load continuously up to the specimen get failed.

40

3. And the cylinder specimen is placed longitudinally between the


loading surface and applied load continuously up to the specimen get
failed.
4. The maximum load is applied to the specimen is recorded.
5. The recorded value is the compressive strength of concrete.
6. Test result.

Fig 5.1 Compression testing machine


5.4 COMPACTING
The test specimens are made as soon as practicable after mixing and in such
a way as to procedure full compaction of the concrete with neither segregation not
excessive laitance. The concrete is filled in to the mould in layers approximately
5cm deep.

41

Fig 5.2 Compacting in Concrete Cube

Fig 5.3 Compacting in Cylinder

5.4.1 Compacting by variation


When compacting by vibration, each layer is vibrated by means of an
electric or pneumatic hammer or vibration or by means of a suitable vibrating table
42

until the specified condition is attained. The mode and quantum of vibration of the
laboratory specimen shall be as nearly the same as those adopted in actual
concerting operations.
Care must be taken while compacting high slum concrete, which is
generally placed by pumping. If care its not taken severe segregation takes places
in the mould,which results in low strength when specimen are crushed. The
specimen crushing strength of concrete.
5.5 CURING
Because the cement requires time to fully hydrate before it acquires
strength and hardness, concrete must be cured once it has been placed. Curing is
the process of keeping concrete under a specific environmental condition until
hydration is relatively complete. Good curing typically considered to use a moist
environment

which promotes hydration ,since increased to use a moist

environment

which promotes hydration, since increased hydration lowers

permeability and increase strength ,resulting in a higher quality material. Allowing


the concrete surface to dry out excessively can result in tensile stress, which the
still-hydration interior cannot with stand ,causing the concrete to crack. Also the
amount of heat generated by the chemical process of hydration can be problematic
for very large placements. Allowing the concrete to freeze in cold climates before
the curing is complete will interrupt the hydration process, reducing the concrete
strength and leading to scaling and other damage of failure.

43

Fig 5.4 Curing of concrete specimen

5.6 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES


5.6.1 Compressive Strength Test
Concrete cubes of size 150mm150mm150mm were cast with and without
copper slag. During casting, the cubes were mechanically vibrated using a table
vibrator. After 24 hours, the specimens were demoulded and subjected to curing
for 28 days in portable water. After curing, the specimens were tested for
compressive strength using compression testing machine of 2000KN capacity. The
maximum load at failure was taken. The average compressive strength of concrete
and mortar specimens was calculated by using the following equation 5.1.
Compressive strength (N/mm2) =

ulimate comprssive load( N )


Area o f cross section of specimen (mm2 )

(5.1)

The tests were carried out on a set of triplicate specimens and the average
compressive strength values were taken.
5.6.2 Split Tensile Strength Test
44

Concrete cylinders of size 150 mm diameter and 300mm length were cast
with incorporating copper slag as partial replacement of sand and cement. During
casting, the cylinders were mechanically vibrated using a table vibrator. After 24
hours, the specimens were demoulded and subjected to curing for 28 days in
portable water. After curing, the cylindrical specimens were tested for split tensile
strength using compression testing machine of 2000kN capacity. The ultimate load
was taken and the average split tensile strength was calculated using the equation
5.2.
Split tensile strength (N/mm2) =

2P
LD

(5.2)

Where,
P=Ultimate load at failure (N),
L=Length of cylindrical specimen (mm),
D=Diameter of cylindrical specimen (mm).
The tests were carried out on a set of triplicate specimens and the average
tensile strength values were taken.

CHAPTER 6
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
6.1 GENERAL
Several researchers have investigated the possible use of copper slag as fine
and coarse aggregates in concrete and its effects on the different mechanical and
long-term properties of mortar and concrete (Tan et al 2000,Taeb et al 2002, Tang
et al 2000, Zong et al 2003). While most of the reports point to benefits of using
copper slag as fine aggregates, in some stray cases some negative effects such as
delaying of the setting time have also been reported (Ueno et al 2005, Premch and
45

et al 2000). Although there are many studies that have been reported by
investigators from other countries on the use of copper slag in cement concrete,
not much research has been carried out in India concerning the incorporation of
copper slag in concrete. Even though there are various research studies have been
reported by investigators about copper slag, its physical properties and chemical
composition varies countrywide and hence its mechanical performance also varies
according to that. Therefore, this research was performed to generate specific
experimental data on potential use of copper slag replacement in concrete.
6.2 COPPER SLAG REPLACEMENT FOR SAND
The following tests were conducted to examine the mechanical behaviors of
concrete incorporating copper slag as partial replacement of sand.
1. Compressive strength test on concrete specimens
2. Split tensile test on concrete cylinders of size 150mm diameter and 300mm
height.

46

Fig 6.1 Testing for concrete specimen

6.2.1 Compressive strength test on concrete cubes


The effect of copper slag substitution as a fine aggregate on the strength of
concrete is given in Table 6.2, which presents the 7,14 and 28 day cube
compressive strength of concrete. A total number of 24 specimens were cast and
tested shown in graph. The unconfined compressive strength values of concrete
mixtures with different proportions of copper slag tested at 7,14 and 28 days are
also plotted in Figure 6.2

47

Fig 6.2 Compressive strength tests on concrete cubes

TABLE 6.1 Compressive strength test on concrete cubes


S.N
O

Mix
Identit
y

CC

S10

S30

Ultimate load
(KN)

Avg ultimate load


( KN)

7
14
28
Days Days Days

7
Days

600
590
690
685
620
590

595

600
610
790
780
700
750

1010
950
1300
1220
850
870

687.
5
605

48

14
Day
s
605

Compressive
Strength N/mm2

28
7
Days Days

14
Days

28
Days

980

26.89

785

26.44
5
1260 30.55

43.5
5
56

725

860

32.22

26.88
5

34.89

38.2
3

S50

430
390

590
570

690
710

410

580

700

18.22

25.77
5

31.1
1

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH FOR CONCRETE CUBE


0%
Replacemen
t

10%
Replacemen
t

30%
Replacemen
t

50%
Replacemen
t

COPRESSIVE STRENGTH N/mm2

CURING DAYS

Fig 6.3 Brat chart in compressive strength for concrete cube

6.2.1.2 Result and discussions


The test results indicate that for mixtures prepared using up to 10%copper
slag replacement, the compressive strength of concrete increased. However, for
mixtures with S30 and S50 copper slag, the compressive strength decreased
rapidly. Mixture S10 yielded the highest 28 day compressive strength of 56
N/mm2 compared with 43.55 N/mm2 for the control mixture, whereas the lowest
compressive strength of 31.11 N/mm2was obtained for mixture S50 with 50%
copper slag. Still, the S50 values are greater than control mix. This reduction in
compressive strength for concrete mixtures with high copper slag contents is due
to increase in the free water content that results from the low water absorption
characteristics of copper slag in comparison with sand. This causes a considerable
increase in the workability of concrete and thus reduces concrete strength.
6.2.2 Split Tensile Strength Test on Concrete Cylinders
49

Split tensile strength is defined as a method of determining the tensile


strength of concrete using a cylinder which splits across the vertical diameter. The
effect of copper slag substitution as a fine aggregate on split tensile strength of
concrete is given in Table 6.2.

Fig 6.4 Spilt tensile tests for cylinder

TABLE 6.2 Split Tensile Strength Test on Concrete Cylinders


S.NO

Mix Identity

Ultimate load
(KN)
7
DAYS

28
DAY
50

Avg ultimate
load
(KN)
7
28
DAYS DAY

Spilt tensile
Strength
N/mm2
7
28
DAYS DAYS

CC

S10

S30

S50

110
120
130
150
120
130
110
100

S
200
210
220
250
210
230
190
200

115

S
205

1.625

2.9

140

235

1.98

3.326

125

220

1.765

3.11

105

195

1.485

2.755

SPILT TENSILE STRENGTH IN CYLINDER


3.5
3
2.5
0% Replacement
10% Replacement
30% Replacement
50% Replacement

Spilt tensile sterngth N/mm2

1.5
1
0.5
0

7 DAYS

28 DAYS

CURING DAYS

Fig 6.5 Bar chart for Spilt tensile test in cylinder

6.2.2.1 Result and discussion


The results showed that the average split tensile strength of copper slag
admixed concrete specimens (Figure 6.6) increased upto 10%replacement. The
reason for improvement of strength was, copper slag has a better compressibility
51

than sand, which can partially relieve the stress concentration, if the sand is still as
the dominant fine aggregate holding the concrete matrix together. It is known that
the sand has good abrasion properties because of its rough surface, which can
improve the cohesion between cement paste and coarse aggregate. However, the
abrasion properties of sand is weakened with time after years of weathering
causing sand particles to have rounded edges, which are detrimental to the
interlocking properties of composite materials. The angular sharp edges of copper
slag particles have the ability to compensate to some extent the adverse effects of
sand and, thus, further improve the cohesion of concrete. This leads to improve the
mechanical performance of copper slag admixed concrete. It can be seen from
Table 6.3 that the 28 day split tensile strength of S10 and S30 specimens is higher
than that of control specimens. The maximum increase in strength was obtained at
10% replacement of copper slag with sand. This showed that the copper slag
admixed concrete are not only increased the compressive strength of concrete but
also increased the split tensile strength values.

CHAPTER 7
CONCLUSION

52

7.1 GENERAL
The present study investigated the effectiveness of using copper slag (a
waste material obtained from sterlite industry, tuticorin) for the partial replacement
of sand.
Since copper slag is a high density material and contains around60% of
Fe2O3, durability and corrosion characteristics were also incorporated in this
investigation. Another part of this research was the applications of copper slag to
reduce lateral or seismic earth pressure. In this investigation, copper slag was used
as backfill material in retaining walls and the displacement characteristics was
performed through shake table test.
7.2 CONCLUSION
Based on the investigations, the following conclusions were drawn.
The utilization of copper slag in concrete provides additional
environmental as well as technical benefits for all related industries. Partial
replacement of copper slag in fine aggregate and cement reduces the cost of
making concrete.
Replacement of copper slag (100% replacement with sand)increases the self
weight of concrete specimens to the maximum of 15-18%.
The initial and final setting time of copper slag admixed concrete is higher
than control concrete.
Water absorption of copper slag was 0.16% compared with1.25% for sand.
Therefore, the workability of concrete increases significantly with the increase of
copper slag content in concrete mixes. This was attributed to the low water
absorption and glassy surface of copper slag.
The results of compressive, split tensile strength test have indicated that the
strength of concrete increases with respect to the percentage of copper slag added
by the weight of fine aggregate up to 10% (S10). Further additions of copper slag
caused reduction in strength due to an increase of free water content in the mix.
53

Utilization of copper slag as Portland cement replacement in concrete and


as a cement raw material has the dual benefit of eliminating the costs of disposal
and lowering the cost of the concrete.
It was observed that, the copper slag replacement for sand is more effective
than cement.
Accelerated corrosion test reveals that the corrosion rate of copper slag
admixed uncoated rebar is somewhat higher when compared to control specimens.
But when the rebar is coated with zinc phosphate paint the corrosion rate had
become zero.
The addition of copper slag for the replacement of sand shows higher
resistance against Sulphate attack whereas addition of copper slag for the
replacement of cement gives lower resistance.
Seismic shake table test results shows that the lateral earth pressure acting
on retaining wall is reduced when copper slag used as backfill material. Even
though copper slag has higher density than sand , because of its higher shear
strength and angle of internal friction, the seismic lateral earth pressure is greatly
reduced.
From these results, it can be concluded that copper slag is a good backfill
material than sand and it can be used as backfill in retaining walls.

7.3 SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORKS


This research was intended to examine the influence of copper slag
additions in concrete and RCC elements for M20 mixes. The same word can be
extended to higher grades of concrete mixes with varying water/cement ratio

54

Copper slag can be effectively replaced in making bricks, hollow blocks


and pavement blocks
Since copper slag has higher shear strength value it can be used for soil
stabilization.
Copper slag can be replaced along with fly ash, silica fume and granulated
blast furnace slag in concrete and RCC members which can be tested for
mechanical performances.

APPENDIX
CONCRETE MIX DESIGN FOR CONTROL SPECIMEN
For M20 Mix design was done by Indian standard method.
i) Characteristic compressive strength
55

= 20 N/mm2

ii) Maximum size of aggregate

= 20 mm

iii) Degree of workability

= 0.9 (compaction factor)

iv)Degree of quality control

= good

v) Type of exposure

= mild

vi) Specific gravity of cement

= 3.15

vii) Specific gravity of sand

= 2.60

viii) Specific gravity of coarse aggregate = 2.62


ix) Sand confirms to zone III
1. Target mean strength of concrete = 20+1.65 (4)
(IS 456, IS 10262-1982)
= 26.6 N/mm 2
2. Water cement ratio for target mean strength = 0.50 (IS10262-1982, Fig2)
(For W/C ratio = 0.5, Workability = 0.9 CF., Sand in Zone III,)
Maximum size of aggregate = 20mm,
3. Water content per cubic meter of concrete

= 186Kg (IS10262-198

Table 4)

4. Sand as percent of total aggregate by absolute volume = 35%


Adjustment as per table 6 in IS 102621982
Therefore, required sand as percentage of total by aggregate absolute
volume = 35-3.5 = 31.5%
Required water content = 189Kg/m 3
5. Calculation of cement content Water / Cement ratio = 0.5
Water content = 189 l/m 3
Cement = 340 Kg /m 3
6. Calculation of fine aggregate Percentage of entrapped air into the
concrete for 20 mm size aggregate = 2%

56

V = [W + (C/ Sc) + (1/p)*( Fa / Sfa)] * (1/1000)


Where,
V - Absolute volume of fresh concrete
Sc - Specific gravity of cement
W - Mass of water per cubic meter of concrete
P - Ratio of fine aggregate to total aggregate by absolute volume
Fa - Total mass of fine aggregate
Sfa - Specific gravity of fine aggregate
Ca - Total mass of coarse aggregate
Sca - Specific gravity of coarse aggregate
To calculate fine aggregate
V = [W + (C/ Sc) + (1/p)*( Fa / Sfa)] * (1/1000)
0.98 = [189+ (378 / 3.15) + (1/0.315) * (Fa / 2.60] * (1/1000)
Fa = 549.55 Kg/m3
7. To calculate coarse aggregate
Ca = [ (1-p)/p x Fa x (Sca/ Sfa)
= [ (1-0.315)/0.315 x 549.55 x (2.62/2.6)
= 1278.5 Kg/ m3
8. Mix proportion by weight
Water: Cement: Sand: Coarse
189: 378: 549.55: 1195.05
0.5: 1: 1.45: 3.10

57

MIXING OF CONCRETE

SLUMP CONE TEST


58

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