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1. Determine the amount of paint required to paint

the inside and outside surfaces of the cone, if one

gallon of paint covers 300 ft2.

y

y

3 ft

3 ft

3 ft

= 1.5 ft

2

straight line through the

origin.

10 ft

10 ft

x

x

rC = 1.5 ft

3 ft

4 The length of the curve can be found from the Pythagorean theorem:

L=

= 10.4403 ft

10 ft

A = 2 rcL

= 2 (1.5 ft)(10.4403 ft)

= 98.3975 ft2

Calculate the volume of paint required:

Volume of paint = 2(98.3975 ft2)(

= 0.656 gal

1 gal

300 ft2

Ans.

Because both the inside and outside surfaces must be painted, the value of

the computed area must be doubled.

2. Determine the volume of the cone.

y

1 The y axis is the axis of rotation.

y

3 ft

rc =

3 ft

= 1 ft

3

3 ft

2 The generating area is

a triangle

10 ft

3 The centroid of a

triangle is located

one-third of the

distance from the base

to the opposite vertes.

C

10 ft

4 The area of the triangle is

x

= 15 ft2

Pappus-Guldinus gives the volume:

V = 2 rcA

=2

ft)( 15 ft2)

= 94.2 ft3

Ans.

3. Determine the area of the

half-torus (half of a doughnut).

y

1m

is a circle.

y

C

4 The length of

the curve is the

circumference

of the circle:

1m

4m

C

x

4m

L = 2 (1m)

x

= 6.2832 m

z

3

is rc = 4 m.

5 Applying the first theorem of

Pappus-Guldinus gives the area:

A = rcL

= (4 m)(6.2832 m)

= 79.0 m2

Ans.

the figure is a half -torus.

4. Determine the volume of the

half-torus (half of a doughnut).

y

1m

region bounded by a circle

y

C

the circle is

1m

4m

C

x

A = (1 m)2

4m

= m2

x

z

3 The distance to the centroid is rc = 4m

5

Pappus-Guldinus gives the volume:

V = rcA

= (4 m)( m2)

= 39.5 m3

Ans.

the figure is a half -torus.

5. Determine the area of the frustum of the cone.

y

straight line BD. The

horizontal coordinate d of

the lower end of the line

can be found by similar

triangles:

3m

D

3m

3m

D

4m

4m

d

B

2m

O

2m

x

4m

C

d

2m

O

3m

d

=

2m

2m+4m

Solving gives

d=1m

y

3m

The distance to

the centroid is

rc = (1 m + 3 m)/2

C

B

1m

=2m

3m

O

D

4 The length of the generating curve BD is

4m

B

O

3m

L = (2 m)2 + (4 m)2

2m

= 4.4721 m

4m

1m=2m

D

x

B

A = 2 rcL

= 2 (2 m)(4.4721 m)

= 56.2 m2

Ans.

6. Determine the volume of the frustum of the cone.

1 The y axis is the axis of rotation

y

rC

3m

2 The generating area is the

trapezoid BDEF. The

horizontal coordinate d of

D

E

the lower end of the line

C

BD can be found by similar

4m

triangles:

3m

B

F

D

d

2m

4m

x

O

d

B

2m

y

3m

4m

2m

O

O

3 The distance rc to the centroid of the

area can be calculated by dividing the

crosshatched trapezoid into composite

parts and using the formula

rc =

xelAel

Ael

3m

d

=

2m

2m+4m

Solving gives

d=1m

(1)

of the part with area Ael.

4

second theorem of Pappus-Guldinus involves the

product of rc and the generating area A:

V = 2 rcA

(2)

Solving Eq. 1 for the product of rc and Ael gives

rc Ael = xelAel

A = total area = sum of individual elements of area

and substituting this result in Eq. 2 gives

V=2

xelAel

(3)

independently we need only evaluate the first

moment of the area, xelAel.

5

the sum of a rectangle and triangle, and set up a table.

y

y

3m

2m

1m

1m

Ael = (4 m)(1 m)

4m

4m

= 4 m2

1m

O

C

+

4m

xel = 0.5 m

x

4m

= 4 m2

xel = 1 m + (1/3)(2 m)

Region

Ael (m2)

xel (m)

Rectangle

Triangle

4

4

0.5

1.6667

xelAel (m3)

= 1.6667 m

2

6.6668

xelAel = 8.6668

Substituting the value of xelAel into Eq. 3 gives the volume of the solid:

V=2

xelAel

(Eq. 3 repeated)

8.6668

= 54.5 m3

Ans.

7. Determine the centroidal coordinate rc of a

semicircular arc of radius R, given that the area of a

sphere of radius R is known to be 4 R2.

y

a sphere of radius R is generated. The first

theorem of Pappus-Guldinus says that the

area of the sphere is given by

A = 2 rcL

rC

C

solve this equation for rc in terms of R and L:

4 R2

rc =

A

2 L

(1)

the semicircle:

L= R

Substituting this result in Eq. 1 gives

2

rc = 4 R

2 L

(Eq. 1. repeated)

R

2R

Ans.

8. Determine the centroidal coordinate rc of a

semicircular area of radius R, given that the volume of a

sphere is known to be (4/3) R3.

y

Radius = R

a sphere of radius R is generated. The second

theorem of Pappus-Guldinus says that the volume of

the sphere is given by

V = 2 rcA

rC

C

(1)

solve Eq. 1 for rc in terms of A and R:

(4/3) R3

rc =

V

2 A

(2)

semicircle:

R2

2

Substituting this result in Eq. 2 gives

A=

rc =

(4/3) R3

2 A

(Eq. 2 repeated)

R2

2

4R

3

Ans.

9. A concrete dam is to be constructed in the shape

shown. Determine the volume of concrete that

would be required.

1 The y axis is the axis of revolution

y

3.5 m

20 m

3.5 m

x

40

20 m

3m

3m

1m 2m

1m 2m

y

rc

x

20 m

1m 2m

rectangle and two triangles

volume as

V = 2 40/360)rcA

3.5 m

3m

(1)

area, A is the magnitude of the area, and the

factor 40/360 accounts for the fact that the dam

corresponds to 40 rather than to a complete circle.

Thus we must calculate the product rcA. This product

may be found by dividing the crosshatched area into

composite parts and then using the formula

rc =

xelAel

Ael

(2)

A = sum of element areas

area Ael. Solving for the product rcA gives

rcA = xelAel

Thus Eq. 1 can be written as

V = 2 40/360)(rcA)

= (2/9)

xelAel

(Eq. 1 repeated)

(3)

y

distances, and set up a table.

xel = 23 m + (3 m)/3 = 24 m

3.5 m

Ael = (1/2)(3.0 m)

x

23 m

3m

rc

Triangle 1

+

xel = 20 m + 2 m + 0.5 m = 22.5 m

Ael = (3.5 m)

3.5 m

20 m

1m 2m

3.5 m

3m

3.5 m) = 5.25 m2

m) = 3.5 m2

O

x

Rectangle

1m 2m

20 m

O

+

Ael = (1/2)(3.5 m)

= 3.5 m2

3.5 m

x

m)

O

Triangle 2

2m

20 m

5 Table

Region

Ael (m2)

xel (m)

Triangle 1

Rectangle

Triangle 2

5.25

3.5

3.5

24

22.500

21.333

xelAel (m3)

126

78.750

74.665

xelAel = 279.415

volume of the solid:

2

V= 9

xelAel

(Eq. 3 repeated)

279.415 m3

= 195.1 m3

Ans

10. The concrete steps shown are in the shape of a quarter

circle. Determine the amount of paint required to paint

the steps, if one liter of paint covers 1.5 m2.

y

260 mm

190 mm

260 mm

190 mm

1 The y axis is the axis of revolution.

x

z

y

2 The generating

curve is a series of

four straight

line-segments.

190 mm

190 mm

x

260 mm

260 mm

3 The first theorem of Pappus-Guildinus gives the area as

A = 2 (90/360)rcL

y

= ( /2)rcL

190 mm

190 mm

x

260 mm

(1)

curve, L is the length of the area, and the factor (90/360)

accounts for the fact that the steps are in the shape of a

quarter circle. Thus we must calculate the product rcL.

This product may be found from the formula for the centroid

of a composite curve made of a of collection of line

segments:

260 mm

rc =

xelLel

Lel

(2)

L = sum of segment lengths

with length Lel. Solving for the product rcL gives

rcL = xelLel

Thus Eq. 1 can be written as

A = ( /2)(rcL)

= ( /2) xelLel

(Eq. 1 repeated)

(3)

4

and lengths of the line segments, and

set up a table.

Lel = 190 mm

Lel = 260 mm

y

y

xel = 260 mm

260 mm

=

190 mm

190 mm

= 130 mm

380 mm

+

190 mm

x

190 mm

x

260 mm

Line 2

Line 1

260 mm

y

= 520 mm

Lel = 260 mm

+

260 mm

Lel = 190 mm

260 mm

+

190 mm

x

190 mm

x

260 mm

260 mm

Line 3

Line 4

5 Table

Region

Lel (mm)

xel (mm)

Line 1

Line 2

Line 3

Line 4

260

190

260

190

130

260

390

520

xelLel (mm2)

33 800

49 400

104 100

98 800

xelLel = 283 400

6 Substituting the value of xelAelinto Eq. 3 gives the area of the steps

A = 2 xelLel

(Eq. 3 repeated)

2

283 400 mm

= 445 164 mm2

7

= 0.297 liter

[1 m/(1000 mm)]2

Ans.

11. The concrete steps shown are in the shape of a quarter circle.

Determine the total number of cubic meters of concrete required to

construct the steps.

y

260 mm

190 mm

190 mm

260 mm

190 mm

x

190 mm

260 mm

260 mm

x

z

shown.

3 The second theorem of Pappus-Guildinus gives the

volume as

V = 2(90/360 rcA

= ( /2)rcA

190 mm

190 mm

O

260 mm

x

260 mm

rectangles

(1)

area, A is the magnitude of the area, and the factor

(90/360) accounts for the fact that the steps form a

quarter circle. Thus we must calculate the product rcA.

This product may be found by dividing the crosshatched

area into composite parts and then using the formula

rc =

xelAel

Ael

(2)

A = sum of element areas

area Ael. Solving for the product rcA gives

rcA = xelAel

Thus Eq. 1 can be written as

V = ( /2)(rcA)

= ( /2) xelAel

(Eq. 1 repeated)

(3)

4

and set up a table.

y

190 mm

260 mm

380 mm

190 mm

O

O 260 mm

260 mm

Ael = (380 mm)(260 mm)

= 98 800 mm2

Region

Ael (mm2)

xel (mm)

Rectangle 1

Rectangle 2

98 800

49 400

130

390

xelAel (mm3)

12 844 000

19 266 000

xelAel = 32 110 000

Substituting the value of xelAelinto Eq. 3 gives the volume of the solid

V = 2 xelAel

= 0.0504 m3

O

260 mm

Rectangle 1

190 mm

x

Ans.

260 mm

Rectangle 2

Ael = (190 mm)(260 mm)

= 49 400 mm2

12. Determine the mass of the steel V-belt pulley

shown. The density of the steel is 7840 kg/m3.

12 mm 10 mm 12 mm

4 mm

4 mm

of revolution:

15 mm

(20 mm)/2 = 10 mm

100 mm 70 mm

2

20 mm

15 mm

Front view

Side view

the generating area for

the right half of the

pulley.

3 The second theorem of Pappus-Guildinus gives the

volume as

y

5 mm 12 mm

V = 2 rcA

(1)

4 mm

15 mm

(70 mm

10 mm

20 mm)/2 = 25 mm

x

rectangles, and a triangle

area, and A is the magnitude of the area. Thus we must

calculate the product rcA. This product may be found

by dividing the crosshatched area into composite parts

and then using the formula

rc =

yelAel

Ael

(2)

A = sum of element areas

area Ael. Solving for the product rcA gives

rcA = yelAel

Thus Eq. 1 can be written as

V = 2 (rcA)

=2

yelAel

(Eq. 1 repeated)

(3)

4 Calculate the centroidal distances

and areas for the rectangles and

triangle, and set up a table.

y

5 mm 12 mm

= 525 mm2

y

4 mm

= 90 mm2

y 12 mm

5 mm + 12 mm + 4 mm

= 21 mm

15 mm

15 mm

+

25 mm

10 mm

=

x

two rectangles, and a triangle

25 mm

10 mm

10 mm + 5 mm = 35 mm

x

Rectangle 1

yel = 10 mm + 25/2 mm

= 22.5 mm

yel = 35 mm + 15/3 mm

= 40 mm

+

yel = 35 mm + 15/2 mm

= 42.5 mm

Ael = (4 mm)(15 mm)

= 60 mm2

Triangle

y

4 mm

15 mm

35 mm

x

Rectangle 2

5

Table

Region

Ael (mm2)

yel (mm)

Rectangle 1

Triangle

Rectangle 2

525

90

60

22.5

40.0

42.5

yelAel (mm3)

11 812.5

3 600.0

2 550.0

yelAel = 17 962.5

Substituting the value of yelAelinto Eq. 3 gives half the volume of the

V-belt pulley

V=

yelAel

17 962.5 mm3

7

= (2

= 1.770 kg

Double the half-volume.

density

7840 kg/m3

Ans.

13. Determine the area of the surface of

revolution generated by rotating the curve

y = z4, 0 z 1 m, about the z axis.

y

1 The z axis is the axis of revolution.

2 The generating curve is

y = z4, 0 z

y

1m

1m

z

z

1m

3

the surface of revolution as

A = 2 rcL

(1)

curve, and L is the length of the curve. Thus we must

calculate the product rcL. This product may be found

by considering the equation for the centroidal

coordinate:

rc =

1m

rc

z

1m

yel dL

dL

L

y

coordinate of the increment. Solving for the product rcL

gives

dL

1m

rcL = yel dL

yel

z

1m

A = 2 (rcL)

=2

yel dL

(2)

yeldL.

4

equation of the curve,

y = z4

(3)

dL =

=

(dy)2 + (dz)2

( dy )2 + 1 dz

dz

(4)

y

dL

dz

dy = 4z3

dz

so Eq. 4 can be written as

dL =

yel = y = z4

(4z3)2 + 1 dz

(5)

1m

A=2

dy dL

yel dL

1

= 2 z4 (4z3)2 + 1 dz

0

(Eq. 2 repeated)

function key on a calculator gives

A = 3.44 m2

Ans.

14. Determine the volume of the solid of

revolution generated by rotating the curve

y = z4, 0 z 1 m, about the z axis.

y

area under the y = z4 curve.

y

y = z4

x

1m

1m

z

1m

y

volume as

V = 2 rcA

y = z4

C

rC

area, and A is the magnitude of the area. Thus we must

calculate the product rcA. This product may be found

by considering the equation for the centroidal distance:

rc =

y = z4

(1)

yel dA

dA

coordinate of the centroid of the incremental region.

Solving for the product rca gives

(x, y)

yel

rcA = yel dA

Thus Eq. 1 can be written as

V = 2 (rcA)

=2

yel dA

(2)

yel dA.

4 To evaluate the integral yel dL in Eq. 2, we use the

equation of the curve,

y = z4

to express dA as a function of z. Thus

y

dA = y dz

= z4 dz

y = z4

(y, z)

A=2

yel dz

(Eq. 2 repeated)

z

dz

1m

=2

z4/2)(z4) dz

(

0

on a calculator gives

V = 0.349 m2

Ans.

15. A pharmaceutical company plans to put a coating

0.01 mm thick on the outside of the pill shown.

Determine the amount of coating material required.

Radius = 20 mm

y

(1.5 mm)/2 = 0.75 mm

3.5 mm

x

7 mm

1.5 mm

2 The generating curve for half of the

pill surface is a composite curve

consisting of one straight line and a

circular arc. By symmetry, the total

surface area of the pill will be two

times the area generated by the curve

above.

3 The first theorem of Pappus-Guildinus gives the area as

A = 2 rcL

y

0.75 mm

curve and L is the length of the curve. Thus we must

calculate the product rcL. This product may be found

by dividing the curve into composite parts and then

using the formula

3.5 mm

rc =

x

Generating curve divided into a

straight line segment and an arc

(1)

yelLel

Lel

(2)

L

length Lel. Solving for the product rcL gives

rcL = yelLel

Thus Eq. 1 can be written as

A = 2 (rcL)

=2

yelLel

(Eq. 1 repeated)

(3)

4 Calculate the centroidal distances and

the lengths, and set up a table.

y

y

0.75 mm

0.75 mm

yel = 3.5 mm

3.5 mm

=

x

Radius = 20 mm

3.5 mm

x

20 mm

Straight line

Arc

y

5 For the straight line, the length and

coordinate of the centroid are easily

calculated..

Lel = 0.75 mm

0.75 mm

yel = 3.5 mm

x

Straight line

6 To calculate xelLel for the arc,

use the information shown below,

which has been taken from a table

of properties of common

geometric shapes.

A

20 mm

3.5 mm

= (1/2) sin-1(3.5/20)

2

B

= 0.08795 rad

Thus

Centroid Location

Length = 2 r

y

r

Length = 2 r

C

= 2(0.08795)

20 mm

= 3.5180 mm

rarc = (r sin

= (20 mm)(sin 0.08795)/(0.08795)

r sin

= 19.9742 mm

y

A

rarc

= 1.7545 mm

3.5 mm

yel

B

20 mm

Arc

8 Table

yelLel (m2)

Region

Lel (m)

yel (m)

Line

Arc

0.75

3.5180

3.5

2.6250

1.7545

6.1723

yelLel = 8.7973

Substituting the value of yelAelinto Eq. 3 gives the area of the solid

A=2

yelLel

8.7973 mm2

= 110.5501 mm2

where a factor of 2 has been inserted to account for the fact that we took advantage

of symmetry to calculate the area of only half of the body.

Amount of coating material required = 110.5501 mm2

= 1.106 mm3

0.01 mm

Ans.

16. Determine the volume of the funnel.

1

10 mm

y

10 mm

60 mm

5 mm

60 mm

5 mm

70 mm

5 mm

70 mm

2.5 mm

crosshatched area shown.

3 The second theorem of Pappus-Guildinus gives the

volume as

y

10 mm

V = 2 rcA

5 mm

area and A is the magnitude of the area. Thus we must

calculate the product rcA. This product may be found

by dividing the cross-hatched area into composite parts

and then using the formula

60 mm

rc =

70 mm

2.5 mm

(1)

rectangles and two triangles

xelAel

Ael

(2)

A

area Ael. Solving for the product rcA gives

rcA = xelAel

Thus Eq. 1 can be written as

V = 2 (rcA)

=2

xelAel

(Eq. 1 repeated)

(3)

4

into the sum of two rectangles and

two triangles, and set up a table.

y

10 mm

5 mm

xel = 2.5 mm

y 10 mm

xel = 5 mm + (5 mm)/3

= 6.6667 mm

5 mm

60 mm

60 mm

5 mm

= 300 mm2

60 mm

Ael = (1/2)(5 mm)(60 mm)

= 150 mm2

O

=

70 mm

2.5 mm

Rectangle 1

x

Triangle 1

y

y

2.5 mm

2.5 mm

xel =1.25 mm

xel = 2.5 mm + (2.5 mm)/3

= 3.3333 mm

+

+

70 mm

Ael = (2.5 mm)(70 mm)

= 175 mm2

x

Rectangle 1

70 mm

Ael = (1/2)(2.5 mm)(70 mm)

= 87.5 mm2

x

2.5 mm

Triangle 2

5 Table

Region

Ael (mm2)

xel (mm)

Rectangle 1

Rectangle 1

Triangle 1

Triangle 2

300

175

150

87.5

2.5

750

1.25

218.75

6.6667

1000.0050

3.3333

291.6637

xelAel = 2260.4187

xelAel (mm3)

Substituting the value of xelAelinto Eq. 3 gives the volume of the funnel

V=

xelAel

(Eq. 3 repeated)

2260.4187 mm3

= 14 200 mm3

Ans.

17. A satellite dish is shaped in the form of a paraboloid of

revolution to take advantage of the geometrical fact that all

signals traveling parallel to the axis of the paraboloid are

reflected through the focus. Determine the amount, in m2,

of reflecting material required to cover the inside surface of

the dish.

y

(0, 0.3)

0.3 m

( 0.2, 0)

Signals parallel

to axis of dish

2 The generating

curve is a parabola.

axis is

x = ay2 + b

0.3 m

(0, 0.3) gives the equations

0.2 = a(0)2 + b

0.2 m

and

(1)

0 = a(0.3)2 + b

gives

x = 0.2222y2

0.2

(2)

4 Apply the first theorem of Pappus-Guldinus

to calculate the surface area of the dish:

A = 2 rcL

y

dL

yel

rc

x

( 0.2, 0)

5

yel dL

dL

(0, 0.3)

dx

(3)

length of the parabolic curve and its

centroidal coordinate. The product may be

found by considering the equation for the

centroidal coordinate:

rc =

dL

dy

the equation of the parabola,

x = 0.2222y2

0.2

(Eq. 2 repeated)

to express dL as a function of y. Thus

rcL = yel dL

dL =

=

A = 2 (rcL)

(dx)2 + (dy)2

dx

dy

+ 1 dy

(5)

=2

yel dL

(4)

dx = 0.4444y,

dy

so Eq. 5 can be written as

dL =

(0.4444y)2 + 1 dy

(6)

6

Eq. 4 gives

A=2

=2

y

yel dL

y

(0, 0.3)

(Eq. 4 repeated)

(x, y)

0.3

y (0.4444y)2 + 1 dy

0

A = 0.284 m2

Ans

yel

rc

( 0.2, 0)

18. Determine the amount of coffee that

the coffee mug holds when full to the

brim. The radius of the rounded corners

and the rim is 15 mm.

generating area is the cross-hatched area shown.

y

80 mm

Radius = 15 mm

90 mm

x

Radius = 15 mm

be calculated by dividing the crosshatched

area into composite parts and using the

formula

rc =

xelAel

Ael

(1)

part with area Ael.

3

theorem of Pappus-Guldinus involves the product of rc and the

generating area A:

V = 2 rcA

(2)

Solving Eq. 1 for the product gives

rc Ael = xelAel

A

and substituting this result in Eq. 2 gives

V=2

xelAel

(3)

need only evaluate the first moment of the area, xelAel.

we

4

sum of a rectangle, two squares, and two quarter circles,

and set up a table.

y

y

40 mm

rounded corner have been drawn

disproportionately large.

y

Radius = 15 mm

90 mm

Radius = 15 mm

5 Subtract quartercircular area

from square to

form area near

rim.

Square 1

6 Subtract square

from quartercircular area to

form rounded

corner.

x

Quarter circle 1

Rectangle

Square 2

x

Quarter circle 2

7

rectangle and the squares.

y

y

40 mm

40 mm

Radius = 15 mm

90 mm

40 mm

15 mm

= 3600 mm2

15 mm

90 mm

= 47.5 mm

x

x

xel = 20 mm

Radius = 15 mm

Original area

Square 1

Rectangle

y

40 mm

15 mm

= 32.5 mm

15 mm

x

Square 2

8

of the quarter-circular regions..

gives the information shown below.

y

Centroid location

y

40 mm

15 mm

xel = 40 mm + 15 mm

= 48.6338 mm

x

Quarter circle 1

A=

r2

4

6.3662 mm

C

4r

3

r

x

y

40 mm

15 mm

xel = 40 mm 15 mm

+ 6.3662 mm

= 31.3662 mm

x

Quarter circle 2

distance to the centroid is

4r = 4(15 mm) = 6.3662 mm4

3

3

Also, the area is

(15 mm)2

Ael =

= 176.7146 mm2

4

11 Table

Region

Ael (mm2)

xel (mm)

xelAel (mm3)

Rectangle

Square 1

Quarter circle 1

Square 2

Quarter circle 2

3600

225

176.7146

225

176.7146

20

72 000

47.5

10 687.5

48.6338

8 594.3025

32.5

7 312.5

31.3662

5 542.8655

xelAel = 72 323.5630

12 Substituting the value of xelAelinto Eq. 3 gives the volume of the solid

V=

xelAel

72 323.563 0 mm3

Ans.

19. Determine the capacity of the small bottle of lotion if the

bottle is filled half way up the neck.

5 mm

Half of the

neck is filled:

(5 mm)/2

2.5 mm

17.5 mm

17.5 mm

Radius = 20 mm

Radius = 20 mm

15 mm

15 mm

crosshatched area shown.

y

volume as

2.5 mm

V = 2 rcA

17.5 mm

Radius = 20 mm

(1)

area, and A is the magnitude of the area. Thus we must

calculate the product rcA. This product may be found

by dividing the cross-hatched area into composite parts

and then using the formula

15 mm

x

Generating area divided into a rectangle,

two triangles and a circular sector

rc =

xelAel

Ael

(2)

A

area Ael. Solving for the product rcA gives

rcA = xelAel

Thus Eq. 1 can be written as

V = 2 (rcA)

=2

xelAel

(Eq. 1 repeated)

(3)

4

found, we first must find the distances and angles

shown below.

C

D

17.5 mm

2.5 mm

C

D

20 mm

17.5 mm

O

Radius = 20 mm

2

DC = (20 mm)

(17.5 mm)

15 mm

= 9.6825 mm

DOC = cos-1

17.5

20

= 28.9550

O

(4)

15 mm

20 mm

EB = (20 mm)2

= 13.2288 mm

(15 mm)2

EOB = cos-1

15

20

= 41.4096

(5)

5 The areas and centroidal coordinates of

the rectangle and triangles can now be

calculated.

9.6825 mm

C

D

17.5 mm

2.5 mm

17.5 mm

= 84.7219 mm2

C

D

= 99.2160 mm2

= 3.2275 mm

= 4.4096 mm

15 mm

B

13.2288 mm

x

15 mm

E

Triangle 2

Triangle 1

Radius = 20 mm

9.6825 mm

2.5 mm

C

D

C

xel = 9.6825 mm/2

= 4.8412 mm

= 24.2062 mm2

x

Rectangle

+

O

B

Circular sector

6 To calculate the area and centroidal

coordinate of the circular sector, we can use

the information shown below, which has been

taken from a table of properties of planar

regions. Note that in the formula equals

half the angle of the arc.

y

= (180

DOC

EOB)/2

by Eq. 4

by Eq. 5

DOC = 28.9550

= (180

rc

y

D C

Centroid Location

28.9550

41.4096)/2

= 54.8177

r = 20 mm

A= r

r

EOB

90

= 54.8177 + 41.4096

C

= 6.2273

rc =

2r sin

B

xel

90

x

=

2r sin

3

2(20 mm) sin 54.8177

3(54.8177

/180)

EOB = 41.4096

= 11.3903 mm

xel = rc cos

8 Ael = r2

=(

54.8177/180)

= 382.6997 mm2

20 mm)2

= 11.3231 mm

9

Table

Region

Ael (mm2)

xel (mm)

xelAel (mm3)

Triangle 1

Triangle 2

Rectangle

Circular sector

84.7219

99.2160

24.2062

382.6997

3.2275

273.4399

4.4096

437.5029

4.8412

117.1871

11.3231

4333.3470

xelAel = 5161.4768

10 Substituting the value of xelAel into Eq. 3 gives the capacity of the bottle:

V=

xelAel

5161.4768 mm3

= 32 400 mm3

Ans.

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