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P1, Chapter 1

Answers

Marks

When a fluid is heated it expands, becomes less dense, and rises. The warm
fluid is replaced by cooler, denser, fluid. The resulting convection current
transfers energy throughout the
fluid.

a
b
c
d
e

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a conduction
b Emc

A solid has a fixed shape and a fixed volume.


A liquid has a fixed volume but not a fixed shape.
A gas has neither a fixed shape nor a fixed volume.
Fluids are liquids or gases.
The particles in a solid vibrate about fixed positions.

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3

E = 1.3 kg x 380 J/kg C x 20 C


E = 9880 J
a A matt black surface is a very good absorber of infrared compared to light,
shiny surfaces.

b Shiny metal. Shiny surfaces are poor emitters of infrared. Matt black
surfaces are good emitters of infrared.

a i The higher the wind speed, the greater the rate of evaporation.
ii The higher the temperature, the greater the rate of evaporation.
iii The higher the humidity, the slower the rate of evaporation.
b The most energetic molecules leave the surface of the liquid, so the average
kinetic energy of the remaining molecules is less. The temperature depends
on the average kinetic energy, so it is reduced.

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1
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3

a There is more glass and glass is a good insulator. The air between the
glass is a good insulator.

Marks awarded for this answer will be determined by the Quality of Written
Communication (QWC) as well as the standard of the scientific response.
There is a clear, balanced and detailed description of the similarities and
differences in conduction in metals and non-metals. The answer shows almost
faultless spelling, punctuation and grammar. It is coherent and in an
organised, logical sequence. It contains a range of appropriate or relevant
specialist terms used accurately.

5-6

There is a description of a range of similarities and differences in conduction in


metals and non-metals. There are some errors in spelling, punctuation and
grammar. The answer has some structure and organisation. The use of
specialist terms has been attempted, but not always accurately.

3-4

New AQA GCSE Science Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

P1, Chapter 1

Answers

There is a brief description of at least one similarity or difference, which has


little clarity and detail. The spelling, punctuation and grammar are very weak.
The answer is poorly organised with almost no specialist terms and/or their
use demonstrating a general lack of understanding of their meaning.
No relevant content.

Marks

1-2

Examples of physics points made in the response:


Similarities:
involve particles
atoms vibrate, causing neighbouring atoms to vibrate, so energy is passed
along.
Differences:
metals have free electrons.
these collide with other free electrons and ions, passing energy along
this process much more effective, so metals are better conductors.

New AQA GCSE Science Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

P1, Chapter 2

Answers

Marks

A television is designed to transfer electrical energy into light and sound


energy. Some energy is transferred to the surroundings, which become
warmer.

a
b
c
d

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a Efficiency

kinetic energy, sound


Sound.
B It eventually makes the surroundings warmer.
It is less efficient.

useful energy transferred by the device


(x100%)
total energy suppliedto the device

Efficiency = 100J x100%


111J

Efficiency = 0.90 x100%


Efficiency = 90%

b The energy becomes too spread out to use.


c The insulation reduces the rate at which energy is lost from the tank to
the surroundings.
The water in the tank will stay hotter for longer.
This increases the efficiency of the hot water system.

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a Gravitational potential energy.


b Efficiency

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useful energy transferred by the device


(x100%)
total energy suppliedto the device

total energy supplied =

240000J
0.4

total energy supplied = 600 000 J


energy wasted = 600 000 J 240 000 J
energy wasted = 360 000 J
c Friction between the moving parts of the motor causes some energy to be
transferred by heating.
(Or the current flowing in the motor has a heating effect.)
5

New AQA GCSE Science Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

P1, Chapter 2

Answers

Marks

There is a clear, balanced and detailed description of why an electric


heater is the only appliance that can possibly be100% efficient. The
answer shows almost faultless spelling,
punctuation and grammar. It is coherent and in an organised, logical
sequence. It contains a range of appropriate or relevant specialist terms
used accurately.

5-6

There is a partial description of why an electric heater is the only


appliance that can possibly be 100% efficient. There are some errors in
spelling, punctuation and grammar. The answer has some structure and
organisation. The use of specialist terms has been attempted, but not
always accurately.

3-4

There is a brief description of why an electric heater is the only appliance


that can possibly be 100% efficient, which has little clarity and detail. The
spelling, punctuation and grammar are very weak. The answer is poorly
organised with almost no specialist terms and/or their use demonstrating a
general lack of understanding of their meaning.

1-2

No relevant content.

Examples of physics points made in the response:

all electrical devices convert some energy by heating.


in most appliances some energy is wasted.
energy is usually wasted by heating.
the useful energy transfer in the heater is by heating.
an appliance is 100% efficient only if all the energy transfer is useful.
the heater can be 100% efficient if no energy is wasted as light.

New AQA GCSE Science Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

P1, Chapter 3

Answers
1

Marks

Fan heater
Washing machine
Blender
Vacuum cleaner
Efficiency =

useful power out


x 100%
total power in

Efficiency =

30W
x100%
75W

Efficiency = 40%
3

a (J) and c (kWh)

a 215
b Total cost = number of kWh used X cost per kWh
cost per kWh = total cost/number of kWh used
cost per kWh = 525p/35
cost per kWh = 15p
c E=PXt
E = 2.4 kW X 2 h
E = 4.8 kW h

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3

a 90 joules of energy are transferred


each second
b E=PXt
E = 0.09 kW X 0.25 h
E = 0.0225 kW h (3 marks)
c cost = number of kW h used X cost per kW h
cost per day = 0.0225 kW h X 14p = 0.315p
cost for the year = 0.315p X 365 = 115p or 1.15

a Compact fluorescent bulb is more efficient than the filament bulb.


A bigger proportion of the energy supplied to the compact fluorescent
bulb is transferred to light and less wasted to the surroundings as
heating.

b There is a clear, balanced and detailed description of the advantages


and disadvantages of buying compact fluorescent bulbs rather than
filament bulbs. The answer shows almost faultless spelling, punctuation
and grammar. It is coherent and in an organised, logical sequence. It
contains a range of appropriate or relevant specialist terms used
accurately.
There is a description of a range of the advantages and disadvantages of
buying compact fluorescent bulbs rather than filament bulbs. There are
some errors in spelling, punctuation and grammar. The answer has some
structure and organisation. The use of specialist terms has been
attempted, but not always accurately.
New AQA GCSE Science Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

3
2

5-6

3-4

P1, Chapter 3

Answers

There is a brief description of at least two advantages and disadvantages


of buying compact fluorescent bulbs rather than filament bulbs, which
has little clarity and detail. The spelling, punctuation and grammar are
very weak. The answer is poorly organised with almost no specialist
terms and/or their use demonstrating a general lack of understanding of
their meaning.
No relevant content.

Marks

1-2

Examples of physics points made in the response:


Advantages of compact fluorescent bulbs:
more efficient/4 times more efficient
cheaper to use
lasts longer/lasts 8 times as long
better for the environment.
Disadvantages of compact fluorescent bulbs:
more expensive to buy/cost 24 times as much to buy
disposal a problem because of mercury vapour
shortened lifespan if turned on and off very frequently.

New AQA GCSE Science Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

P1, Chapter 4

Answers

Marks

In a coal-fired power station, fuel is burned to heat water. This produces


steam at high pressure, which makes a turbine spin round. This then drives
a generator that produces electricity.

A
B
C
D

B A solar cell generates electricity when it is supplied with light.

To increase power quickly, and to meet changing demand and prevent power
cuts.

Pumped storage; electric pumps pump water into a high reservoir and this is
later released through a turbine.

To increase the voltage on the cables and reduce power losses.

a Any two from the following:


conserves crude oil reserves;
is a renewable resource;
is carbon neutral
b Any two from the following:
may lead to deforestation;
reduces land available for growing
may lead to soil erosion

falling water
tides
waves
wind

2
food;

a All other sources account for 75%;


gas is 25% or
b
c
d
e

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4
2
3

25
100

or 0.25

Gas/coal/oil
Hydroelectric
Any sensible answer, e.g. wood burning.
Nuclear or hydroelectric
There is a clear, balanced and detailed description of the effect that gases
could have on the environment and what could be done to reduce the gas
emitted. The answer shows almost faultless spelling, punctuation and
grammar. It is coherent and in an organised, logical sequence. It contains
a range of appropriate or relevant specialist terms used accurately.

New AQA GCSE Science Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

1
1
1
1
5-6

P1, Chapter 4

Answers

Marks

There is a description of at least 2 effects that gases could have on the


environment and at least one example of what could be done to reduce the
gas emitted. There are some errors in spelling, punctuation and grammar.
The answer has some structure and organisation. The use of specialist
terms has been attempted, but not always accurately.

3-4

There is a brief description of at least one effect that gases could have on
the environment or one example of what could be done to reduce the gas
emitted. The answer has little clarity and detail. The spelling, punctuation
and grammar are very weak. The answer is poorly organised with almost
no specialist terms and/or their use demonstrating a general lack of
understanding of their meaning.

1-2

No relevant content.
0
Examples of physics points made in the response:

carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas


can contribute to global warming.
carbon dioxide may be removed by CCS.
sulfur dioxide (named)
dissolves in rainwater
to form acid rain
which can destroy vegetation/cause leaf loss in trees, etc.
Sulfur may be removed from fuels before burning.

New AQA GCSE Science Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

P1, Chapter 5

Answers

Marks

a Diagram must show direction of


Diagram must show direction of
wave travel.
b Diagram must show direction of
Diagram must show direction of
travel.

amplitude
frequency
wave speed
wavelength

wave travel.
vibration perpendicular to direction of

wave travel.
vibration parallel to direction of wave

A
B
C
D

3
4
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2

A It is a virtual image.

a refraction
b Diagram B

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Diffraction, when the gap is of the same order of magnitude as the


wavelength.

Similarity: They can both be reflected, refracted, diffracted.


Difference: Light waves are much faster /sound waves are much slower
OR light waves are transverse/sound waves are longitudinal.

v = f so 256 1.3 = 333 m/s

a i Any example using a mirror/water or a shiny smooth surface.


ii Any example of an echo.
iii Any example using a lens, e.g. spectacles, cameras.
iv Any example of hearing a sound around a corner.
b The wavelength of light is very small, so diffraction only occurs
when light passes through a very narrow gap.
OR
The wavelength of light is very small, so the diffraction effect is very
small.

1
1
1
1

New AQA GCSE Science Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

P1, Chapter 5

Answers
9

Marks

Wave speed = frequency wavelength


Frequency =

speed
wavelength

Frequency =

300 000 000 m/s


1500 m

Frequency = 200 000 Hz


10

There is a clear, balanced and detailed description of how the wave form
would change including increased amplitude and frequency. The answer
shows almost faultless spelling, punctuation and grammar. It is coherent
and in an organised, logical sequence. It contains a range of appropriate or
relevant specialist terms used accurately.

5-6

There is a description of at least one of the ways in which the wave form
would change. There are some errors in spelling, punctuation and
grammar. The answer has some structure and organisation. The use of
specialist terms has been attempted, but not always accurately.

3-4

There is a brief description of at least one way in which the wave form
would change, which has little clarity and detail. The spelling, punctuation
and grammar are very weak. The answer is poorly organised with almost
no specialist terms and/or their use demonstrating a general lack of
understanding of their meaning.
No relevant content.

1-2

Examples of physics points made in the response:


louder sound means larger amplitude
so height of crests increases
depth of troughs increases
speed is constant
higher pitch means higher frequency
so wavelength becomes smaller
crests are closer together.

New AQA GCSE Science Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

P1, Chapter 6

Answers

Marks

All electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed in a vacuum. They do


not carry material, but they do carry energy. Gamma waves have the
greatest frequency and the smallest wavelength.

A
B
C
D

a No direct line of sight due to Earths curvature.


b i Microwaves can carry more information.
Microwaves spread out less than radio waves/signal doesnt weaken
so much.
ii More difficult for visible light to penetrate atmosphere/a lot of energy
would be absorbed.

a visible light
infrared
b can carry more information;
more secure/less energy lost

a C The universe began from a very small initial point.


b B High-energy gamma radiation created just after the Big Bang.
c B Check the new evidence to make sure it is reproducible.

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The wavelength of light from a galaxy is shifted towards the red end of the
spectrum and the galaxy is moving away from us.

There is a clear, balanced and detailed description of how red-shift provides


evidence for the Big Bang theory. The answer shows almost faultless
spelling, punctuation and grammar. It is coherent and in an organised,
logical sequence. It contains a range of appropriate or relevant specialist
terms used accurately.

5-6

There is a description of how red-shift provides evidence for the Big Bang
theory. There are some errors in spelling, punctuation and grammar. The
answer has some structure and organisation. The use of specialist terms has
been attempted, but not always accurately.

3-4

infrared
microwaves
radio waves
visible light

3
2
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1

There is a brief description of at least one way in which the red-shift provides
evidence for the Big Bang theory. There is little clarity and detail. The
spelling, punctuation and grammar are very weak. The answer is poorly
organised with almost no specialist terms and/or their use demonstrating a
general lack of understanding of their meaning.

New AQA GCSE Science Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

1
2

1-2

P1, Chapter 6

Answers

Marks

No relevant content.
Examples of physics points made in the response:
light from (most) galaxies is red-shifted
the further the galaxy the bigger the red-shift
the furthest galaxies are moving fastest
(this shows that) the universe is expanding
if the universe has always been expanding
it must have once been very small.

New AQA GCSE Science Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011