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Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; A.

Types of Compounds and Their Formulas

Molecular View of
Elements and Compounds

Tro, Chemistry: A Molecular


Approach

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; A. Types of Compounds and Their Formulas

Molecular Elements
Certain elements occur as 2 atom molecules
H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2

Other elements occur as polyatomic molecules


P4, S8, Se8

Chemistry A Molecular Aprroach, Tro, 1st edition, 2008, Pearson Prentice Hall, p.94

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; A. Types of Compounds and Their Formulas


A. Types of Compounds and Their Formulas

Molecular Compounds
Made up of nonmetal atoms bound with covalent bonds
(sharing electrons)
The smallest unit of a molecular compound is the molecule

Example:
one water molecule

the molecular compound water

CHEM101 F14

Chapter 2: Chemical Compounds

A. Types of Compounds and Their Formulas

Formulas for Molecular Compounds

Molecular formula Compounds are represented by the


symbols of the atoms found in the molecule. A subscript
represents the number of atoms of each element.

H2O (water) contains two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen


atom
C12H22O11 (sucrose) contains 12 carbon atoms, 22 hydrogen
atoms and 11 oxygen atoms
No information about how atoms are connected to one
another in a molecular formula

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; A. Types of Compounds and Their Formulas

A. Types of Compounds and Their Formulas

Formulas for Molecular Compounds

Empirical formula the simplest formula for a compounds; the


relative numbers of atoms are shown (empirical formulas are not
too informative)
Structural formula shows how atoms are connected and the
types of bonds
Condensed structural formula shows how atoms are
connected and is written on a single line
Line-angle formula lines represent bonds; carbon and
hydrogen atoms are not shown (all other elements shown)

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; A. Types of Compounds and Their Formulas

A. Types of Compounds and Their Formulas

Formulas for Acetic Acid

Condensed structural formula

CH3COOH or CH3CO2H

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 69

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; A. Types of Compounds and Their Formulas

A. Types of Compounds and Their Formulas

Example of a line-angle formula


H3C
CH3
CH3

OH

Structure of cholesterol

CH3
CH3

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; A. Types of Compounds and Their Formulas

A. Types of Compounds and Their Formulas

Notes about organic compounds/structures

In organic compounds, carbon shares four electrons with other


atoms and thus forms four bonds with other atoms
Carbon can form large chains based on this bonding scheme
A double line ( = ) between two atoms represents a double
bond. This is a stronger type of covalent bond in which two
atoms are sharing two electrons
A triple line ( ) between two atoms represents a triple bond.
This is the strongest type of covalent bond. Two atoms share
three electrons in a triple bond.

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; A. Types of Compounds and Their Formulas

A. Types of Compounds and Their Formulas

Ionic Compounds

Made up of metal and nonmetal atoms bound with


ionic attractions (electrons are transferred and opposite
charges attract )

Ionic compounds are crystalline network solids

The smallest unit of an ionic compound is called the


formula unit

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; A. Types of Compounds and Their Formulas

Example: NaCl

Electron transfer
Electron

Cl

Na

Na

ClIonic interaction

Na

Cl-

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; A. Types of Compounds and Their Formulas

A. Types of Compounds and Their Formulas

Formulas for Ionic Compounds give the formula for the


smallest electrically neutral collection of ions
Example: NaCl

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 71

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; A. Types of Compounds and Their Formulas


A. Types of Compounds and Their Formulas

Example: What is the formula unit for the salt formed by


magnesium and chlorine (Mg forms +2 ions, chlorine
forms -1 ions)?

A neutral collection of ions of Mg and Cl would need to include:


ONE Mg2+ (total of +2 charge) and TWO Cl- (total of -2 charge)

The formula is then MgCl2

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; A. Types of Compounds and Their Formulas

Practice Example:
Classify the following substances as atomic elements, molecular
elements, ionic compounds or molecular compounds

MgCl2

Br2

Li

LiF

Oxygen
CLICKER QUESTION

CH3CH2OH

S8

Ti

TiO2

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; B. The Mole and Chemical Compounds

B. The Mole and Chemical Compounds

Because molecules are made up of atoms, the mass of a


molecule can be calculated using the atomic masses of
atoms from the periodic table Molecular mass
Example: What is the mass of one molecule of H2SO4?
2 H atoms = 2 x (1.0079 u) = 2.0158 u
1 S atom = 1 x (32.066 u) = 32.066 u
4 O atoms = 4 x (15.9994 u) = 63.9976 u
2.0158 u + 32.066 u+ 63.9976 u = 98.0794 u

Note on significant figures:


Do not round when using atomic weights from the Periodic
Table: Generally keep four significant digits after the decimal

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; B. The Mole and Chemical Compounds

B. The Mole and Chemical Compounds

Formula mass - the mass of a formula unit of an ionic


compound

Example:
One formula unit of NaCl weighs ?
1 Na atom = 22.9898 u
1 Cl atom = 35.4527 u
22.9898 + 35.4527 u = 58.4425 u

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; B. The Mole and Compounds

Practice examples:
Calculate the molecular or formula weights of the following:
SO2

CLICKER QUESTION

Ba(OH)2

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; B. The Mole and Compounds

B. The Mole and Chemical Compounds

The mole concept can be extended and applied to


compounds
Example: water, H2O
One molecule of water contains two hydrogen atoms and
one oxygen atom
One molecule of water weighs 18.0152 u
One mole of water weighs 18.0152 g
One mole of water contains 6.022 x 1023 water molecules

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; C. Composition of Chemical Compounds

C. Composition of Chemical Compounds

Moles and chemical formulas


The chemical formula can be used to relate moles of a
compound to moles of the atoms making up the
compound:
Example: water, H2O
One mole of water contains two moles of hydrogen atoms
and one mole of oxygen atoms
6.022 x 1023 water molecules contains 12.044 x 1023
hydrogen atoms and
6.022 x 1023 oxygen atoms

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; C. Composition of Chemical Compounds

Practice examples:

How many moles of Carbon and Oxygen are in one mole of carbon
dioxide, CO2?

Calculate the number of molecules in 5.02 g of carbon dioxide

Calculate the number of oxygen atoms in 5.02 g of carbon dioxide

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; C. Composition of Chemical Compounds

C. Composition of Chemical Compounds

Practice Example:

How many ions are present in 0.10 mg of MgCl2?

CLICKER QUESTION

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; C. Composition of Chemical Compounds

Percent Composition
For a compound, the mass percentage of one element that
makes up the compound is calculated as follows:

mass of element
Mass percentage
100%
mass of compound
The mass percentage of hydrogen in water is:
2.0158 u
Mass % of H
100%
18.0152 u
= 11.1894 %

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; C. Composition of Chemical Compounds

Practice Example:
What is the mass percent composition of acetic acid,
CH3COOH?

Chapter 3: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations; F. Determining Formulas

Determining formulas

Formulas from percent composition


When the formula for a compound is unknown, the compound
can be analyzed for the percentages of the elements that
make up the compound

To determine a formula from percent composition data:


STEP 1: Assume 100 g of compound is present and set the masses in g
of each element to their percentages.
STEP 2: Convert all masses to moles
STEP 3: Write a formula based on the numbers of moles
STEP 4: Convert subscripts to small whole numbers (divide each
subscript by the smallest number) to get the empirical formula
STEP 5: Use the experimentally-determined molecular mass to calculate
the molecular formula

Chapter 3: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations; F. Determining Formulas

Determining formulas

Formulas from percent composition


Example: A compound that contains only nitrogen and oxygen is 30.4%
nitrogen by mass; the molecular mass of the compound is 92 u.
STEP 1: Assume 100 g of compound is present:
Mass (N) = 30.4 g
Mass (O) = 69.6 g
STEP 2: Convert all masses to moles
1mol N
= 2.17 moles
Moles (N) = 30.4 g x
14.0067 g
Moles (O) = 69.6 g x

1mol O
15.9994 g

= 4.35 moles

STEP 3: Write a formula based on the numbers of moles


N2.17O4.35

Chapter 3: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations; F. Determining Formulas

Determining formulas

Formulas from percent composition


Example: continued
N2.17O4.35
STEP 4: Convert subscripts to small whole numbers (divide each subscript by the
smallest number) to get the empirical formula

NO2
STEP 5: Use the experimentally-determined molecular mass to calculate the
molecular formula
empirical formula molecular mass: 14.0067 + 2(15.9994) = 46.0055 g
molecular formula molecular mass: 92 g/mol
Correct formula must be N2O4

Chapter 3: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations; F. Determining Formulas

Determining formulas
Practice Example: A compound with a molecular mass of 98.0 u
contains 3.09 % Hydrogen by mass; 31.6% Phosphorus by mass
and 65.3% Oxygen by mass. Determine its molecular formula.

Chapter 3: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations; F. Determining Formulas

Determining formulas

Combustion Analysis
The empirical formulas for compounds that are easily burned
can be found via combustion analysis:
In a combustion reaction, molecules are burned in a
stream of oxygen gas. If the molecule contains H and
C, the products are always carbon dioxide and water.

Chapter 3: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations; F. Determining Formulas

Determining formulas
Combustion Analysis
An apparatus for combustion analysis: The masses of the products H2O
and CO2 are recorded; the mass of the original sample is known

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 80

Chapter 3: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations; F. Determining Formulas

Determining formulas

Combustion Analysis

To determine an empirical formula via combustion analysis:


STEP 1: Determine the mass of carbon in the original sample. (Find the number of
moles of C in the CO2 product and convert to grams of C)
STEP 2: Determine the mass of hydrogen in the original sample. (Find the number of
moles of H in the H2O product and convert to grams of H)
STEP 3: Determine the mass of oxygen in the original sample. (Find the difference in
the original mass and the known C and H masses).
STEP 4: Determine a formula for the compound from the number of moles of C, H and
O (C and H already known, calculate O from mass)
STEP 5: Find the empirical formula by converting subscripts to smallest whole numbers

Chapter 3: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations; F. Determining Formulas

Determining formulas

Combustion Analysis
Example: What is the empirical formula for Vitamin C? Combustion
analysis on a 0.2000 g sample yields 0.2998 g CO2 and 0.0819 g
H2O.
STEP 1: Determine the mass of carbon in the original sample. (Find the number of
moles of C in the CO2 product and convert to grams of C)
0.2998 g CO2 x 1 mol CO 2 x 1 mol C x 12.011 g C
44.010 g CO 2 1 mol CO 2
1 mol C

= 0.08182 g C

STEP 2: Determine the mass of hydrogen in the original sample. (Find the number of
moles of H in the H2O product and convert to grams of H)
0.0819 g H2O x

1 mol H 2 O
2 mol H
1.00794 g H
x
x
= 0.009164 g H
18.0153 g H 2 O 1 mol H 2O
1 mol H

Chapter 3: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations; F. Determining Formulas

Determining formulas

Combustion Analysis
Example continued: (0.08182 g C

0.009164 g H)
STEP 3: Determine the mass of oxygen in the original sample. (Find the difference in
the original mass and the known C and H masses).
Mass O
= sample mass mass C mass H
= 0.2000 g 0.08182g 0.009164 g = 0.1090 g O

STEP 4: Determine a formula for the compound from the number of moles of C, H and
O (C and H already known, calculate O from mass)

1 mol C
= 0.006812 moles C
12.011 g C
0.009164 g H x 1 mol H
= 0.009092 moles H
1.00794 g H
1 mol O
0.1090 g O x
= 0.006813 moles O
15.9994 g O
0.08182 g C x

C0.006812H0.009092O0.006813

Chapter 3: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations; F. Determining Formulas

Determining formulas

Combustion Analysis
Example continued: C0.006812H0.009092O0.006813
STEP 5: Find the empirical formula by converting subscripts to smallest whole numbers
Divide by 0.006812 first:
CH1.33O
For smallest whole numbers, multiply each number by 3:
C3H4O3
(actual formula for vitamin C6H8O6)

Chapter 3: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations; F. Determining Formulas

Practice Example
A 0.1888-g sample of a hydrocarbon produces 0.6260 g CO2 and 0.1602
g H2O in combustion analysis. Its molecular mass is found to be
106 amu. Determine the empirical and molecular formulas for this
hydrocarbon.

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; D. Oxidation States and Chemical Compounds


D. Oxidation States (AKA Oxidation Numbers) and Chemical Compounds

Rules for assigning oxidation states: (follow these rules in order)


1. An atom or molecule in its elemental state has an oxidation state of 0.
Examples: Na(0), S(0), H2(0), Br2(0), O2(0)

2. The sum of oxidation states in:


a. a neutral compound is 0.
b. a polyatomic ion is equal to the charge on the polyatomic ion.
Example: NO3- (O.S. of O + O.S. of N = -1)

3. In a compound, group 1 metals have an oxidation state of +1 and


group 2 metals have an oxidation state of +2
Examples: Na+(+1), Ca2+(+2)

4. In a compound, fluorine has an oxidation state of -1.


5. In a compound, hydrogen usually has an oxidation state of +1.
6. In a compound, oxygen usually has an oxidation state of -2.
7. In binary compounds with metals group 17 elements have an oxidation
state of -1; group 16 of -2; and group 15 of -3.
Examples: Cl-(-1), S2-(-2)

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; D. Oxidation States and Chemical Compounds

Practice examples:
Assign oxidation numbers to the atoms in the following
compounds:
CuF2
Fe2O3
C (s)
H2O
NaH
Fe (s)
Fe 2+
H2SO4

CLICKER QUESTION

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; E. Naming Compounds

E. Naming Compounds: Binary Ionic Compounds

The formula for a binary ionic compound represents the


simplest combining ratio of the ions in the compound

NaCl contains one sodium ion for every chloride ion

The simplest combining ratio of the ions is determined by


the number of electrons that are transferred between the
metal and nonmetal atoms

The formula for the ionic compound that is formed between


magnesium ions and bromide ions is MgBr2
Electron transfer

Br

Br

Mg
Ionic Interactions

Mg
Br-

2+

Br-

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; E. Naming Compounds

E. Naming Compounds: Binary Ionic Compounds

Formulas:
Net charge of the formula must equal zero
Write the elemental symbol for the cation first and the
elemental symbol for the anion second
Names:
Write the name of the cation first and the name of the
anion second
Leave out the word ion

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; E. Naming Compounds

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 85

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; E. Naming Compounds


E. Naming Compounds: Binary Ionic Compounds

Examples: What is the name and formula of the ionic compound made
up of the:

sodium ion and the chloride ion

Na+ and ClNeed one of each ion for a net charge of zero
NaCl, sodium chloride

Aluminum ion and the iodide ion

Al3+ and INeed one aluminum ion and three iodide ions for a net zero charge
AlI3, aluminum iodide

Iron (III) ion and the oxide ion

Fe3+ and O2Need two iron and three oxygen for a net zero charge
Fe2O3, iron (III) oxide (or ferric oxide)

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; E. Naming Compounds


E. Naming Compounds: Binary Ionic Compounds

Practice examples:

What is the name and formula of the ionic compound made up of


the:

calcium ion and the sulfide ion


Nickel (II) ion and the chloride ion

Name the following compounds:

MgF2
CoCl3
Ag2S
MnO2

Give formulas for the following compounds:

Copper (III) chloride


Lithium fluoride
Iron (II) oxide
Barium chloride

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; E. Naming Compounds


E. Naming Compounds: Molecular Compounds
Formulas of molecular compounds

Write the element with the positive oxidation state first


Naming molecular compounds

Name the first element in the formula, using a prefix if needed

Name the second element in the formula using ide ending and a prefix if needed
Prefixes:
Number
Prefix
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

monoditritetrapentahexaheptaoctanonadeca-

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; E. Naming Compounds


E. Naming Compounds: Molecular Compounds

Examples:
N2O5
BBr3
SO3
SF6

dinitrogen pentoxide
boron tribromide
sulfur trioxide
sulfur hexafluoride

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; E. Naming Compounds


E. Naming Compounds: Binary Acids

Binary acids are compounds of hydrogen and a non-metal in


aqueous solution. We name them differently than pure
binary molecular compounds because they behave like
acids in water:

HF (aq)
HCl(aq)
HBr (aq)
HI (aq)
H2S(aq)

hydrofluoric acid
hydrochloric acid
hydrobromic acid
hydroiodic acid
hydrosulfuric acid

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; E. Naming Compounds

Practice Examples:
Name the following compounds:

HF (aq)
PCl3
HCl (g)

CO2
N2O3

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; E. Naming Compounds

E. Naming Compounds: Polyatomic ions

Polyatomic ions
A polyatomic ion is a group of covalently-bonded atoms
with a net charge
Names usually end in ite or ate
Polyatomic ions containing oxygen are called oxoanions

They are named according to the increasing number of oxygen


atoms and increasing oxidation state of the nonmetal:
Hypo____ite
_____ite
____ate
per____ate
Eg. ClOClO2ClO3ClO4Hypochlorite
Chlorite
Chlorate
Perchlorate
(1 oxygen;Cl+1)

(2 oxygen;Cl+3) (3 oxygen;Cl+5) (4 oxygen;Cl+7)

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; E. Naming Compounds

E. Naming Compounds: Polyatomic ions

Polyatomic ions

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 89

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; E. Naming Compounds


E. Naming Compounds: Polyatomic ions

Naming ionic compounds that contain polyatomic ions

Memorize names of polyatomic ions (use rules about oxoanions for


help)

Naming rules are the same as they were for binary ionic compounds

Name cation first and anion second


Net charge of compound must equal zero
Use parentheses for polyatomic ions when more than one ion is needed in the
formula

Examples:

KCN
LiNO3
Fe(OH)3
(NH4)2SO4

potassium cyanide
lithium nitrate
iron (III) hydroxide
ammonium sulfate

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; E. Naming Compounds

E. Naming Compounds: Oxoacids


Naming oxoacids

Oxoacids are acids formed by hydrogen and oxoanions

Naming rules

Do not include the word hydrogen


Change oxoanion name by dropping -ate or -ite ending
Change to -ous or -ic ending

ate ic
ite ous

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; E. Naming Compounds

E. Naming Compounds: Oxoacids


Naming oxoacids

General Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications, Petrucci, Harwood, Herring, Madura, 9th edition, 2007, Pearson Prentice Hall, p. 90

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; E. Naming Compounds

E. Naming Compounds: Hydrates


Hydrates
Hydrates - ionic compounds that hold water molecules in the 3dimensional solid structure of the compound
Hydrates carry a certain number of water molecules per formula unit of
the ionic compound
The number of water molecules per formula unit of the compound is
denoted after the compound formula:
eg.
CoCl26H2O
Naming Hydrates:
Name the ionic compound first
Add the prefix for the number of water molecules + hydrate
eg. CoCl26H2O is cobalt (II) chloride hexahydrate

Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds; E. Naming Compounds

Practice examples:
Name the following compounds
MnO2
KMnO4
P2O5
CuO
NO
HClO3
CuSO45H2O

CLICKER QUESTION