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NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY

PRACTICE EXAMPLES

1A

(E) A has a mass number of zero and an atomic number of 1 . Emission of this

241

0

electron has the effect of transforming a neutron into a proton. 241

94 Pu 95 Am + 1

1B

(E) 58 Ni has a mass number of 58 and an atomic number of 28. A positron has a mass

number of 0 and an effective atomic number of +1 . Emission of a positron has the

seeming effect of transforming a proton into a neutron. The parent nuclide must be

copper-58.

58

29

2A

2B

0

Cu 58

28 Ni + 1

(E) The sum of the mass numbers 139 +12 = ? +147 tells us that the other product

species has A = 4 . The atomic number of La is 57, that of C is 6, and that of Eu is 63. The

atomic number sum 57 + 6 = ? + 63 indicates that the atomic number of this product

species is zero. Therefore, four neutrons must have been emitted.

139

12

147

0

57 La + 6 C 63 Eu + 41 n

(E) An alpha particle is 42 He and a positron is 01 . We note that the total mass number in

the first equation is 125; the mass number of the additional product is 1.

The total atomic number is 53; the atomic number of the additional product is 0; it is a

4

124

1

121

neutron.

51 Sb + 2 He 53 I + 0 n

In the second equation, the positron has a mass number of 0, meaning that the mass

number of the product is 124. Because the atomic number of the positron is +1 , that of the

product is 52; it is 124

52 Te .

124

53

3A

I 0+1 + 124

52 Te

(M) (a)

=

(b)

0.693

1d

1h

1min

= 0.0862 d 1

= 9.98 107 s 1

8.040 d

24 h 60 min 60 s

The number of

131

1g

1 mol 131 I 6.022 1023 atoms

1 mol 131 I

activity N 9.98 107 s 1 9.42 1018 atoms 9.40 1012 disintegrations / second

1196

We now determine the number of atoms remaining after 16 days. Because two halflives elapse in 16 days, the number of atoms has been halved twice, to one-fourth

(25%) the original number of atoms.

(c)

The rate after 14 days is determined by the number of atoms present on day 14.

(d)

3B

0.693 0.693

=

= 0.0608 d 1

t1/2

11.4 d

Then we set N t = 1 % N 0 = 0.010 N 0 in equation (25.12).

ln

Nt

0.010 N 0

= t = ln

= ln 0.010 = 4.61 = 0.0608 d 1 t

N0

N0

t=

4A

4.61

= 75.8 d

0.0608 d 1

(M) The half-life of 14 C is 5730 y and = 1.21 104 y 1 . The activity of 14 C when the

object supposedly stopped growing was 15 dis/min per g C. We use equation (25.12) with

activities N in place of numbers of atoms (N).

ln

4B

At

8.5 dis/min

0.57

= t = ln

= 1.21104 y 1 t = 0.568 ; t =

= 4.7 103 y

15 dis/min

1.21104 y 1

A0

(M) The half-life of 14 C is 5730 y and = 1.21 104 y 1 . The activity of 14 C when the

object supposedly stopped growing was 15 dis/min per g C. We use equation (25.12) with

activities N in place of numbers of atoms (N).

ln

At

At

= t = ln

= 1.21 104 y 1 1100 y = 0.13

15 dis/min

A0

At

= e 0.13 = 0.88 , At = 0.88 15 dis/min = 13 dis/min (per gram of C)

15 dis/min

5A

(M)

mass defect. 145.913053 u

146

Sm 141.907719 u

142

Nd 4.002603 u

5B

He 0.002731 u

4

931.5 MeV

= 2.544 MeV

1u

(M) Unfortunately, we cannot use the result of Example 255 ( 0.0045 u = 4.2 MeV ) because it

is expressed to only two significant figures, and here we begin with four significant figures.

But, we essentially work backwards through that calculation. The last conversion factor is from

Table 2-1.

1197

E = 5.590 MeV

m=

2

1.602 1013 J

= 8.955 1013 J = mc 2 = m 2.9979 108 m/s

1 MeV

8.955 1013 J

2.9979 10

m/s

1000 g

1.0073 u

= 0.005999 u

1 kg 1.673 1024 g

6A

6B

1u

= 0.006001 u

931.5 MeV

88

(E) (a)

Sr has an even atomic number (38) and an even neutron number (50); its

mass number (88) is not too far from the average mass (87.6) of Sr. It should be

stable.

118

(b)

Cs has an odd atomic number (55) and a mass number (118) that is pretty far

from the average mass of Cs (132.9). It should be radioactive.

(c)

30

S has an even atomic number (16) and an even neutron number (14); but its mass

number (30) is too far from the average mass of S (32.1). It should be radioactive.

(M) We know that 19 F is stable, with approximately the same number of neutrons and

protons: 9 protons, and 10 neutrons. Thus, nuclides of light elements with approximately

the same number of neutrons and protons should be stable. In Practice Example 251 we

saw that positron emission has the effect of transforming a proton into a neutron.

emission has the opposite effect, namely, the transformation of a neutron into a proton. The

mass number does not change in either case. Now let us analyze our two nuclides.

17

F has 9 protons and 8 neutrons. Replacing a proton with a neutron would produce a more

stable nuclide. Thus, we predict positron emission by 17 F to produce 17 O .

22

F has 9 protons and 13 neutrons. Replacing a neutron with a proton would produce a

more stable nuclide. Thus, we predict emission by 22 F to produce 22 Ne .

INTEGRATIVE EXAMPLE

A. (M)

0.693

5.54 10 10 y -1 Calculate the fraction of

1.25 10 9 y

40

109 y.

ln

Nt

t 5.54 10 10 y -1 1.5 10 9 y 0.83

N0

Nt

0.44

N0

Thus, the fraction of 40K that has decayed is 1.000 0.44 = 0.56.

The fraction of the 40K that has decayed into 40Ar is 0.110 0.56 = 0.062.

1198

This fraction is proportional to the mass of 40Ar. Then the ratio of masses is determined.

mass

mass

B.

40

40

Ar

K

0.062

0.14

0.44

1.43 V

0.828 V

0.602 V (spont)

______________________________________

0.0592

log K eq

n

0.602 V =

0.0592

log K eq

4

(b)

E =

(c)

pH = 7

(d)

Zr may be the culprit responsible for the H2(g) formation. In the Chernobyl accident,

the reaction of carbon with superheated steam played a major role.

Reaction: H2O(g) + C(s) CO(g) + H2(g)

0.0592

0.0592

Eox = Eox

log Q = 1.43 V

log(1.0 10 7 ) 4 =1.84 V

n

4

0.0592

0.0592

Ered = Ered

log Q = 0.828 V

log(1 107 ) 4 0.414 V

n

4

Ecell = Eox + Ered = 1.84 + (0.414) = 1.43 V (spontaneous)

EXERCISES

Radioactive Processes

1.

2.

234

94

(E) (a)

230

Pu 92

U + 24 He

(b)

248

97

248

Bk 98

Cf + 01e

(c)

196

82

Pb + 01e

214

82

(E) (a)

(b)

226

88

(c)

69

33

196

81

Tl ;

196

81

214

Pb 83

Bi + 01e ;

222

Ra 86

Rn + 24 He ;

222

86

Tl + 01e 196

80 Hg

214

83

214

Bi 84

Po + 01e

Rn

218

84

69

As 32

Ge + 01e

1199

Po + 42 He

218

84

Po

214

82

Pb + 42 He

3.

(E) We would expect a neutron:proton ratio that is closer to 1:1 than that of 14 C . This

would be achieved if the product were 14 N , which is the result of decay:

14

14

0

6 C 7 N + 1e .

4.

(E) A nuclide with a closer to 1:1 neutron:proton ratio (than that of tritium) is helium-3,

arrived at by beta emission: 13 H 32 He + 01e . Another possible product is deuterium, which

is arrived at by neutron emission: 13 H 12 H + 10 n

(M) We first write conventional nuclear reactions for each step in the decay series.

232

90

228

Th 88

Ra + 24 He

228

88

Ra

228

89

Ac + 01e

228

89

Ac

228

90

228

90

Th

224

88

Ra

220

86

Rn + 42 He

220

86

Rn

216

84

224

88

Ra + 24 He

Th + 01e

Po + 42 He

these two

216

84

Po

212

82

Pb + 24 He

212

82

Pb

212

83

or these two

216

84

Po

216

85

At + 01e

216

85

At

212

83

these two

212

83

Bi

208

81

Tl + 42 He

208

81

Tl

or these two

212

83

Bi

212

84

Po + 01e

212

84

Po

Bi + 01e

Bi + 42 He

235

208

82

208

82

Pb + 01e

208

82

Pb + 42 He

230

Atomic Mass (u)

5.

225

220

215

210

205

80

82

84

86

88

Atomic Number (Z)

1200

90

92

6.

(M) The series begins with uranium-235, and ends with lead-207.

235

92

231

90

Th + 24 He

231

90

Th

231

91

Pa + 01e

231

91

Pa

227

89

Ac + 24 He

227

89

or these two

then

223

88

Ac

223

87

Fr + 42 He

223

87

Fr

223

88

Ac

227

90

Th + 01e

227

90

Th

223

88

227

89

these two

Ra

219

86

Rn + 42 He

219

86

211

82

Ra + 01e

215

Rn 84

Po + 42 He

Pb

211

83

Ra + 42 He

215

84

Po

211

82

Pb + 24 He

Bi + 01e

these two

211

83

Bi

or these two

211

83

211

Bi 84

Po + 01e

207

81

Tl + 42 He

207

81

Tl

207

82

211

84

Po

207

82

Pb + 01e

Pb + 42 He

The plot of atomic mass versus atomic number for these decay series is shown below.

Plot of Atomic Mass versus Atomic Number

Mass Number(u)

233

228

223

218

213

208

203

80

82

84

86

88

Atomic Number (Z)

90

92

7.

(E) In Figure 252, only the following mass numbers are represented: 206, 210, 214, 218,

222, 226, 230, 234, and 238. We see that these mass numbers are separated from each

other by 4 units. The first of them, 206, equals 4 51 + 2 , that is 4n + 2 , where n = 51.

8.

(M) The series to which each nuclide belongs is determined by dividing its mass number

by 4 and obtaining the remainder.

(a)

214

The mass number of 83

Bi is 214, and the remainder following its division by 4 is 2.

This nuclide is a member of the 4n + 2 series.

1201

216

(b) The mass number of 84

Po is 216, and the remainder following its division by 4 is 0.

This nuclide is a member of the 4n series.

215

(c) The mass number of 85

At is 215, and the remainder following its division by 4 is 3.

This nuclide is a member of the 4n + 3 series.

235

(d) The mass number of 92

U is 235, and the remainder following its division by 4 is 3.

This nuclide is a member of the 4n + 3 series.

Nuclear Reactions

9.

(c)

10.

160

74

(E) (a)

214

83

(E) (a)

(b)

214

Bi 84

Po + 01

23

11

(c)

(e)

11.

4

W 156

72 Hf + 2 He

24

Na + 12 H 11

Na + 11H

238

92

240

U + 12 H 94

Pu + 01

238

92

Li + 11H 84 Be +

14

7

(c)

238

92

32

17

38

Cl 18

Ar + 01

32

Cl 16

S + 0+1

4

Co + 10 n 56

25 Mn + 2 He

(b)

59

27

(d)

246

96

254

1

Cm + 13

6 C 102 No + 5 0 n

246

1

U + 14

7 N 99 Es + 6 0 n

7

3

(E) (a)

(a)

(d)

38

17

(b)

9

4

1

Be + 12 H 10

5 B + 0n

1

N + 10 n 14

6 C + 1H

239

U + 42 He 94

Pu + 310 n (b)

12.

(E)

13.

(E)

209

83

Bi + 64

28 Ni

272

111

Rg + 10 n ;

14.

(E)

208

82

Pb + 86

36 Kr

293

118

E+ 10 n ;

15.

(M)

48

20

16.

(M)

293

118

17.

(M)

58

26

18.

(M)

238

92

Ca 249

98 Cf

Unk

289

116

249

118

293

118

272

111

3

1

H + 12 H 24 He + 10 n

(c)

33

16

33

S + 10 n 15

P + 11H

Rg 5 42 He + 252

101 Md

E 6 42 He + 269

106 Sg

Unk 42 He

302

Fe 244

94 Pu 120 Unk

302

U 64

28 Ni 120 Unk

19.

(M) (a)

Since the decay constant is inversely related to the half-life, the nuclide with

the smallest half-life also has the largest value of its decay constant. This is the

214

nuclide 84

Po ,with a half-life of 1.64 104 s .

1202

(b)

The nuclide that displays a 75% reduction in its radioactivity has passed through two

half-lives in a period of one month. Thus, this is the nuclide with a half-life of

32

P , with a half-life of 14.3 days.

approximately two weeks. This is the nuclide 15

(c)

If more than 99% of the radioactivity is lost, less than 1% remains. Thus ( 12 ) n 0.010 .

Now, when n = 7 , ( 12 ) n = 0.0078 . Thus, seven half-lives have elapsed in one month, and

each half-life approximates 4.3 days. The longest lived nuclide that fits this description

222

is 86

Rn , which has a half-life of 3.823 days. Of course, all other nuclides with shorter

half-lives also meet this criterion, specifically the following nuclides:

28

12

20.

21.

214

84

Po 1.64 104 s .

0.693

1y

1d

= 1.52 105 h 1

5.2 y 365.25 d 24 h

N=

rate of decay

6740 atoms/h

= 4.4 108

5

1

1.52 10 h

60

27

Co atoms

(M) This follows first-order kinetics (as do all radioactive decay processes) with a rate of

decay directly proportional to the number of atoms. We therefore use equation (25.12),

with rates substituted for numbers of atoms.

6740

ln

dis

1h

dis

= 112

h 60 min

min

Rt

101 dis/min

= t = ln

= 1.5 105 h 1t = 0.103

112 dis/min

Ro

t=

23.

80

35

O 8.7 103 s ,

(M) Since 16 = 2 4 , four half-lives have elapsed in 18.0 h, and each half-life equals 4.50 h.

The half-life of isotope B thus is 2.5 4.50 h = 11.25 h . Now, since 32 = 25 , five half-lives

must elapse before the decay rate of isotope B falls to 321 of its original value. Thus, the

time elapsed for this amount of decay is:

11.25

timeelapsed 5half -lives

56.3h

1 half- life

(M) We use equation (25.13) to determine and then equation (25.11) to determine the

number of atoms.

22.

Mg 21 h ,

13

8

1d

1y

0.103

= 6.9 103 h

= 0.79 y

5

1

24 h 365.25 d

1.5 10 h

(M) Let us use the first and the last values to determine the decay constant.

ln

Rt

138 cpm

= t = ln

= 250 h = 1.981

Ro

1000 cpm

1.981

= 0.00792 h 1

250 h

0.693

= 87.5 h

0.00792 h 1

A slightly different value of t1/2 may result from other combinations of Ro and Rt .

t1/2 =

0.693

1203

24.

0.693

1y

1d

1h

= 1.3 1015 s1

7

1.7 10 y 365.25 d 24 h 3600 s

N = 1.00 mg

25.

129

1g

1 mol 129 I 6.022 1023 atoms

1000 mg

129 g

1 mol 129 I

decay rate = N = 1.3 1015 s 1 4.67 1018 atoms = 6.1 103 dis/s

(M) 32

15 P half-life = 14.3 d. We need to determine the time necessary to get to the detectable

limit,

1

0.693 0.693

of the initial value. Use

0.0485 d 1

t1/ 2

14.3 d

1000

1

1

ln

= 0.0485 d (t)

1000

26.

t = 142 days

(M) 1.00 mCi = 1.00 103 (3.70 1010 dis s1) = 3.70 107 dis s1

0.693

0.693

=

= 1.21 104 y1 ( 1 y = 365.25 d = 3.156 107 s)

t1/2

5730 y

1.21 104

1y

= 3.83 1012 s1

7

y

3.156 10 s

N = 9.66 1018 atoms of

14

14.00 g 14 C

mass of C = 1.604 10 mol C

= 2.25 104 g 14C

14

1 mol C

14

14

27.

(E) Again we use equations (25.12) and (25.13) to determine the time elapsed. The initial

rate of decay is about 15 dis/min. First we compute the decay constant.

=

ln

0.693

= 1.21 104 y 1

5730 y

10 dis/min

0.405 t ;

15 dis/min

0.405

3.4 103 y

1.21 104 y 1

The object is a bit more than 3000 years old, and thus is probably not from the pyramid

era, which occurred about 3000 B.C.

1204

28.

ln

Rt

0.03 dis min 1 g 1

= t = 1.21104 y 1 t = ln

= 6.2

Ro

15 dis min 1 g 1

t=

29.

6.2

= 5.1 104 y

1.21 104 y 1

0.693

= 4.99 1011 y 1

10

1.39 10 y

Then we can determine the ratio of (Nt),the number of thorium atoms after 2.7 109 y, to

N 0 , the initial number of thorium atoms:

ln

Nt

= kt = 4.99 1011 y 1 2.7 109 y = 0.13

N0

232

Nt

= 0.88

N0

0.88 mol 232 Th and 0.12 mol 208 Pb . From this information, we can compute the mass ratio.

0.12 mol 208 Pb 1 mol 232 Th 208 g 208 Pb 0.12 g 208 Pb

=

0.88 mol 232 Th 232 g 232 Th 1 mol 208 Pb

1 g 232 Th

30.

0.693

= 4.99 1011 y 1

10

1.39 10 y

The rock currently contains 1.00 g 232 Th and 0.25 g 208 Pb . We can calculate the mass of

232

Th that must have been present to produce this 0.25 g 208 Pb , and from that find the

original mass of 232 Th .

original mass

ln

232

232

208

232 g 232 Th

Pb

208 g 208 Pb

Nt

1.00 g 232 Th now

= t = ln

= 0.247 = 4.99 1011 y 1t ;

N0

1.28 g originally

t=

0.247

= 4.95 109 y

11

1

4.99 10 y

31.

(M) First convert argon-40 to the number of atoms/g in the sample. Next, convert %

potassium to atoms/g in the sample. Finally, use equation (25.21) to determine the

final answer 3.03109 y.

32.

1205

33.

34.

(M) The principal equation that we shall employ is E = mc 2 , along with conversion

factors.

(a)

E = 6.02 1023 g

(b)

E = 4.0015 u

2

1 kg

3.00 108 m/s = 5.42 109 kg m 2 s 2 = 5.42 109 J

1000 g

931.5 MeV

= 3727 MeV

1u

1.0073 u

1.0087 u

60

n

1 p

1 n

=

107 nucleons

1u

nucleon

35.

(E) The mass defect is the difference between the mass of the nuclide and the sum of the

masses of its constituent particles. The binding energy is this mass defect expressed as an

energy.

particle mass

= 9 p +10 n + 9 e = 9 p + n + e + n

931.5MeV

1u

7.805 MeV/nucleon

19 nucleons

0.1592 u

binding energy per nucleon =

36.

(E) The mass defect is the difference between the mass of the nuclide and the sum of the

masses of its constituent particles. The binding energy is this mass defect expressed as an

energy.

particle mass

= 26 p + 30 n + 26 e = 26 p + n + e + 4n

= 26 1.0073 +1.0087 + 0.0005486 u + 4 1.0087 u = 56.4651 u

931.5MeV

1u

8.819 MeV/nucleon

56 nucleons

0.5302 u

binding energy per nucleon =

1206

37.

energy = 0.00436 u

38.

energy = 0.00516 u

39.

931.5 MeV

= 4.06 MeV

1u

931.5 MeV

= 4.81 MeV

1u

1 eV = 1.602 1019 J,

Hence, 1 neutron = 1.49 1010 J

6.75 106 MeV

40.

1 eV

= 9.30 108 eV or 930. MeV

1.602 1019 J

1 neutron

= 7.26 103 neutrons

930 MeV

Each -ray has the same energy as the complete conversion of one electron into pure

energy.

E = mc2 = (9.11 1031 kg) (2.998 108 m s1)2 = 8.19 1014 J

1 eV

In electron volts: 8.19 1014 J

= 5.11 105 eV or 0.511 MeV

19

1.602 10 J

Each -ray has an energy of 0.511 MeV

Nuclear Stability

41.

42.

(E) (a)

We expect 20 Ne to be more stable than 22 Ne . A neutron-to-proton ratio of 1to-1 is associated with stability for elements of low atomic number (with Z 20 ).

(b)

number of neutrons are associated with a stable isotope.

(c)

protons, but only 7 Li has an even number of neutrons.

(E) (a)

We expect 40 Ca to be more stable than 42 Ca . A neutron-to-proton ratio of 1to-1 is associated with stability for elements of low atomic number (with Z 20 ).

(b)

protons, but only 31 P has an even number of neutrons.

1207

(c)

43.

even number of neutrons are associated with a stable isotope.

(M) emission has the effect of converting a neutron to a proton. + emission, on the

other hand, has the effect of converting a proton to a neutron.

(a)

to 1-to-1 and an even number of neutrons. Thus, 29 P has too few neutrons, or too

many protons. It should decay by + emission. In contrast, 33 P has too many

neutrons, or too few protons. Therefore, 33 P should decay by emission.

(b) Based on the atomic mass of I (126.90447), we expect the isotopes of iodine to have

mass numbers close to 127. This means that 120 I has too few neutrons and

therefore should decay by + emission, whereas 134 I has too many neutrons (or

44.

(M) emission has the effect of converting a neutron to a proton, while + emission has

the effect of converting a proton to a neutron.

(a)

Based on the fact that elements of low atomic number have about the same number

28

of protons as neutrons, 15

P with 15 protons and 13 neutronshas too few neutrons.

Therefore, it should decay by + emission.

(b)

Once again, elements of low atomic number have about the same number of protons

45

as neutrons. 19

K with 19 protons and 26 neutronshas too many neutrons.

Therefore, it should decay by emission.

(c)

45.

Based on the atomic mass of zinc (65.39) we expect most of its isotopes to have

about 36 neutrons. There are 42 neutrons in 72

30 Zn , more than we expect. Thus we

(M) A doubly magic nuclide is one in which the atomic number is a magic number (2, 8,

20, 28, 50, 82, 114) and the number of neutrons also is a magic number (2, 8, 20, 28, 50,

82, 126, 184). Nuclides that fit this description are given below.

4

Nuclide

He

No. of protons 2

No. of neutrons 2

46.

16

O

8

8

40

Ca

20

20

56

Ni

28

28

208

Pb

82

126

(M) For isotopes of high atomic number, stable nuclides are characterized by a neutron-toproton ratio greater than 1, which increases with increasing atomic number. Naturally

occurring isotopes of high atomic number decrease their atomic number by losing an alpha

particle, which has a neutron-to-proton ratio of 1. This leaves the neutron-to-proton ratio

for the daughter that is higher than that of the parent, when it should be slightly lower. In

order to redress this, the number of neutrons needs to be decreased and the number of

1208

isotopes have no definite neutron-to-proton ratio. Thus, sometimes, the number of neutrons

needs to be decreased, which is accomplished by beta emission, while at other times the

number of protons needs to be decreased, which is accomplished by positron emission.

47.

(E) We use the conversion factor between number of curies and mass of

developed in the Integrative Example.

48.

131

I which was

18.8 g 131 I

= 1.37 103 g = 1.37 mg

2.33 106 curie

(M) Nuclear fission is the process by which a heavy nucleus disintegrates into neutrons

and stable nuclei with smaller mass numbers. For instance, uranium-238 undergoes fission

according to the equation

238

92

234

U 90

Th + 24 He

The nuclear binding energy for uranium-238 is less than the sum of the binding energies

for thorium-234 and helium-4. Consequently, when a uranium-238 nucleus splits apart,

energy is released. Nuclear fusion, by contrast, involves the amalgamation of light nuclei

into heavier, more stable nuclei. For instance, part of the energy released by our Sun is

believed to come from the fusion of hydrogen to form deuterium:

1

1

H + 11H 12 H + 0-1e

Although both fusion and fission release vast amounts of energy, fusion releases far more

energy on a per nucleon basis. To understand why this is so, we need to refer to Figure 25-6,

which is a plot of average binding energy per nucleon as a function of atomic number. The

graph clearly shows that the increase in binding energy observed for the formation of the

lightest nuclides (e.g., deuterium, tritium, helium-3) is much more dramatic than the decrease

in binding energy that is seen for the fragmentation of heavier nuclei such as uranium-235.

Thus, the plot indicates that more energy should be released by the combination of light

nuclei (nuclear fusion) than by the disintegration of heavy nuclei (nuclear fission).

49.

(E) The term rem is an acronym for radiation equivalent-man, and takes into account

the quantity of biological damage done by a given dosage of radiation. On the other hand,

the rad is the dosage that places 0.010 J of energy into each kilogram of irradiated matter.

Thus, for living tissue, the rem provides a good idea of how much tissue damage a certain

kind and quantity of radiation damage will do. But for nonliving materials, the rad is

usually preferred, and indeed is often the only unit of utility.

50.

(M) Low-level radiation is very close in its dosage to background radiation and one

problem is to separate out the effects of the two sources (low-level and background). The

other problem is that low-level radiation does not produce severe damage in a short

1209

period of time. Thus the effects of low-level radiation will only be observed over a long

time period. Of course other effects, such as chemical and biological toxins, will also be

observed over these time periods, and we have to try to separate these two types of

effects. (There also is the genetic heritage of the organism to consider, of course.)

51.

(M) One reason why 90 Sr is hazardous is because strontium is in the same family of the

periodic table as calcium, and hence often reacts in a similar fashion to calcium. The most

likely place for calcium to be incorporated into the body is in bones, where it resides for a long

time. Strontium is expected to behave in a similar fashion. Thus, it will be retained in the body

for a long time. Bone is an especially dangerous place for a radioisotope to be presenteven if

it has low penetrating power, as do raysbecause blood cells are produced in bone

marrow.

52.

(M) It is not particularly hazardous to be near a flask of 222 Rn , because it is unlikely that

the alpha particles can get through the walls of the flask. (Note that since radon is a gas, the

flask must be sealed.) The decay products of 222 Rn may produce other forms of radiation

that are more penetrating, such as particles and rays, so being near the flask may

still pose a risk. 222 Rn can be potentially hazardous if one breathes the gas.

Applications of Radioisotopes

53.

(M) Mix a small amount of tritium with the H2(g) and detect where the radioactivity

appears with a Geiger counter.

54.

(M) In neutron activation analysis, the sample is bombarded with neutrons. Radioisotopes

are produced by this process. These radioisotopes can be easily detected even in very small

quantities, much smaller, in fact, than the quantities that can be detected by conventional

means of quantitative analysis. These radioisotopes are produced in quantities that are

proportional to the quantity of each element originally present in the sample. And each

radioisotope is characteristic of the element from which it was produced by neutron

bombardment. Even microscopic samples can be analyzed by this technique. Finally,

neutron activation analysis is a nondestructive technique, while the conventional techniques

of precipitation or titration require that all of the sample, or at least part of it, be destroyed.

55.

(M) The recovered sample will be radioactive. When NaCl(s) and NaNO 3 s are

dissolved in solution, the ions ( Na + , Cl , and NO 3 ) are free to move throughout the

solution. A given anion does not remain associated with a particular cation. Thus, all the

anions and cations are shuffled and some of the radioactive 24 Na will end up in the

crystallized NaNO 3 .

56.

(M) We would expect the tritium label to appear in both the NH 3 g and H 2 O(l) . When

+

occasionally a tritium atom. In the subsequent reaction between the marked NH4Cl and

NaOH to form NH 3 g and H 2 O(l) , there are three chances in four that a tritium atom

1210

will remain attached to N in NH 3 , and one chance in four that a tritium ion will react with

a hydroxide ion to form H 2 O(l) .

57. (M) In the cases where rounding off the atomic mass produces the mass number of the most

stable isotope, there often is but one stable isotope. This frequently is the case when the

atomic number of the element is an odd number. For instance, think of situation with 39K (Z

= 19) and 85Rb (Z = 37), but not 88Sr (Z = 38). In the cases where this technique of rounding

does not work, there are two or more stable isotopes of significant abundance. Note that the

rounding off does not work in situations where it predicts a nuclide with an odd number of

neutrons and an odd number of protons (such as 64Cu with 29 protons and 35 neutrons),

whereas the rounding off technique works when the predicted nuclide has an even number

of protons, an even number of neutrons, or both.

58. (M) Each particle contains two protons and has a mass number of 4. Thus each particle

emission reduces the mass number by 4 and the atomic number by 2. The emission of 8

particles would reduce the mass number by 32 and the atomic number by 16. Thus the overall

reaction would be as follows: 238

8 42 He 206

92 U

76 Os (76 protons and 130 neutrons).

In Figure 25-7, a nuclide with 76 protons and 130 neutrons lies above, to the left of the belt of

stability; it is radioactive.

59. (M) We use H of [CO 2 (g)] 393.51 kJ/mol as the heat of combustion of 1 mole of carbon.

In the text, the energy produced by the fission of 1.00 g 235U is determined as 8.20 107 kJ.

235

1 kg

1.00 g 235 U 393.5 kJ 1mol C

0.85 gC 1000g

1000 kg

60. (M) Since the two nuclides have the same mass number, the ratio of their masses is the same

as the ratio of the number of atoms of each type. We use equation (25.12) to determine the

time required for the Rb to decrease from 1.004 to 1.00. First we compute the decay

0.693

constant.

1. 4 10 12 y 1

11

5 10

1.00

ln

4.0 10 3 t 1. 4 10 12 y 1 t

1.004

1211

4.0 10 3

t

3 10 9 y

12 1

1. 4 10 y

61. (M)

1y

0.693

1d

1h

2.99 10 12 s 1

7340 y 365.25 d 24 h 3600 s

1g

1 mol 229 Th 6.022 1023

N 5.10 mg

1 mol

decay rate in disintegrations/s N 2.99 1012

229

Th atoms

229

1.34 1019

Th atoms

Th

1 Ci

s 1 1.34 1019 atoms

3.7 1010 dis/s

229

1000 mCi

1.1 mCi

1 Ci

62. (D) First we find the decay constant. The activity (N ) is the product of the decay constant

and the number of atoms.

1y

1d

1h

0.693

7.93 10 10 s 1

27.7 y 365.25 d 24 h 3600 s

1 Ci

3.7 1010 dis/s

radioactivity 1.00 mCi

3.7 10 7 dis/s

1000 mCi

1 Ci

7

activity 3.7 10 dis/s

90 g 90 Sr

1 mol 90 Sr

16 90

4

.

7

10

Sr

atoms

7.93 10 10 s 1

6.022 10 23 atoms 1 mol 90 Sr

7.0 10 6 g 90 Sr 7.0 g 90 Sr

N 1.00 mg

1 Ci

3.7 1010 dis/s

3.3 2 10 9 dis/s

1000 mCi

1 Ci

1g

1 mol 137 Cs 6.022 10 23 atoms

4.40 1018

137

1000 mg 137 g Cs

1 mol

137

Cs atoms

3.3 2 10 9 dis/s

decay rate

decay rate N

7.5 5 10 10 s 1

18

N

4.40 10 atoms

1y

0.693

0.693

1h

1d

t1 / 2

29 y

10 1

3600 s 24 h 365.25 d

7.5 5 10 s

64. (D)

1y

1d

1h

0.693

1.76 10 17 s 1

9

1.25 10 y 365.25 d 24 h 3600 s

1 mol KAlSi 3 O 8

1 mol K

0.000117 mol

N 1.00 g KAlSi 3 O 8

1 mol K

6.022 10 23

1 mol

40

40

K atoms

2.53 1017

K

40

K atoms

1212

40

65. (D) 14C is produced from 14N by neutron bombardment. Since 14N is a common element,

constituting 78% of the atmosphere, any activity that increases the emission of neutrons will

increase the production of 14C. A major source used to be thermonuclear explosions,

particularly atmospheric detonations. But most tests now take place underground.

Nonetheless, the extensive thermonuclear testing that took place during the 1950s and 1960s

could have produced sufficient 14C to invalidate the radiocarbon dating of materials that

were alive during that period. Nuclear power plants are a very minor source of 14C, as is

bringing to the surface neutron-emitting isotopes by mining activities.

Although we might suspect ozone depletion of playing a role in increasing the quantity of

C, such is not the case. Ozone absorbs ultraviolet radiation, not neutrons. And, in any case,

there is about the same proportion of 14N in the upper atmosphere as there is further down,

in layers that recently have become exposed to ultraviolet radiation because of the depletion

of ozone.

14

The products have more mass than the reactants. The difference must be supplied as energy from

the reactants. This difference in energy ends up entirely to the Ekinetic of the particle. Compute

this energy in MeV.

energy ( 18.00696 u 18.00567 u)

67.

931.5 MeV

1.20 MeV

1 u

(D) Assume we have in our possession 100 g of the hydrogen/tritium mixture. This sample

95.00gH

mol hydrogen

94.246mol hydrogen

1.008g/mol

5.00gH

1.656mol tritium

3.02g/mol

1.656mol tritium

mole fraction tritium

1.72 7 102

1.656mol tritium 94.246mol hydrogen

PV

(1.05atm)(4.65L)

total moles of gas in mixture

0.199 5 mol

L atm

RT

0.0821

(298.15K)

mol K

will afford us 95 g hydrogen and 5 g tritium.

mol tritium

1213

mols of tritium (0.1995mol)(1.727 10 2 mol tritium / mol mixture) 3.445 10 3mol tritium

# of tritium atoms (N) (2 3.445 10 3mol tritium)(6.022 10 23 tritium atoms/mol) 4.15 10 21tritium atoms

rate

0.693

t 1/2

0.693

4.15 10 21 7.42 1012disintegrations/s

365 d 24 h 60 min 60 s

12.3 y

1y

1d

1h

1 min

7

activity in curies

7.42 1012disintegrations/s

2.0 10 2 Ci

disintegrations/s

3.7 1010

Ci

69.(D)

2.5 g

0.006 g U

1 mol U

3

100.000 g shale

238 g U

1 cm

1 kJ

6.022 1023 U atoms 3.20 1011 J

1 mol U

1 U atom

1000 J

O

1.2 107 kJ

O

18

R C O H H O

18

versus

R C O H H O

R'

18

H O H

+

O

18

R C O

R'

bond does not break like an OH

bond (Na+ = R' ). From

this labeling experiment, we see

that it must be the C-O bond

in the organic acid that breaks.

Basically, the results shows that the O2 arises from the oxidation of H2O and that the CO2

involved in this reaction remains intact. Simplistically, this can be explained by using two

half-reactions:

12 H2O18(l)

6 O182(g) + 24 H+ + 24 e-

6 CO2(g) + 6 H2O18(l) C6H12O6(s) + 6 O182 (g)

In reality, the reaction is not this simple, however. What this labeling study shows is that the

O2 is evolved from the oxidation of water (the only time O182(g) forms is when H2O18 is used).

1214

U 238

1

U 238 t1/2 = 4.5 109 years

U 235 t1/2 = 7.1 108 years

U 235

U 238 0.9928

Currently 235

138

0.0072

U

0.693

0.693

Remember t1/2 =

Hence =

U 238 = 1.54 10-10 U 235 = 9.76 10-10

t1/2

-10

-10

e-1.5410 t (U 238 )

e - t (U 238 )

Currently, - t 235 138 - 9.7610-10 t 235 e8.22 10 t 138 (take ln of both sides)

e (U )

(U )

e

4.927

= 6.0 109 years

-10

8.22 10

FEATURE PROBLEMS

72.

(D) First tabulate the isotope symbols, the mass of the isotope and its associated packing

fraction.

Mass of

Isotope (u)

Packing

Fraction

1215

0.0085

versus Mass Number

0.0065

Packing Fraction

Isotope

Symbol

He

9

Be

12

C

16

O

20

Ne

24

Mg

32

S

40

Ar

40

Ca

48

Ti

52

Cr

56

Fe

58

Ni

64

Zn

80

Se

84

Kr

90

Zr

102

Ru

114

Cd

130

Te

0.0045

0.0025

0.0005

0

-0.0015

50

100

150

138

Ba

Nd

158

Gd

166

Er

142

This graph and Fig. 25-6 are almost exactly the inverse of one another, with the maxima of

one being the minima of the other. Actual nuclidic mass is often a number slightly less

than the number of nucleons (mass number). This difference divided by the number of

nucleons (packing fraction) is proportional to the negative of the mass defect per nucleon.

73.

(D) (a)

The rate of decay depends on both the half-life and the number of radioactive

atoms present. In the early stages of the decay chain, the larger number of radium-226,

atoms multiplied by the very small decay constant is still larger than the product of the

very small number of radon-222 atoms and its much larger decay constant. Only after

some time has elapsed, does the rate of decay of radon-222 approach the rate at which it is

formed from radium-226 and the amount of radon-222 reaches a maximum. Beyond this

point, the rate of decay of radon-222 exceeds its rate of formation.

(b)

(c)

74.

dD

- t

=p P - d D = p Po e p -d D

dt

The number of radon-222 atoms at the proposed times are: 2.90 1015 atoms after 1

day; 1.26 1016 after 1 week; 1.75 1016 after 1 year; 1.68 1016 after one century;

and 1.13 1016 after 1 millennium. The actual maximum comes after about 2

months, but the amount after 1 year is only slightly smaller.

(D) (a)

87

Sr

= 2.25

86

Sr

86

Sr

= 0.119

88

Sr

84

88

Sr

= 0.007

Sr

z

x

w

=2.25 ,

=0.119 , = 0.007

x

y

y

86

Set x = Sr = 1 and find the relative atom ratio of the other

z = 2.25x = 2.251 = 2.25

Hence,

x

1

y=

=

= 8.403

0.119 0.119

w = 0.007y = 0.0078.403 = 0.0588

x + y + z + w=1+2.25+8.403 +0.0588 = 11.712

As a percent abundance, we find the following for the Sr in the sample.

%86Sr = 1/11.712 100 % = 8.538 %

%88Sr = 8.403/11.712 100 % = 71.75 %

%87Sr = 2.25/11.712 100 % = 19.21 %

%84Sr = 0.0588/11.712 100 % = 0.5 %

1216

av. mass Sr = mass86Sr (% 86Sr) + mass88Sr (% 88Sr) + mass87Sr (% 87Sr) + mass84Sr (% 84Sr)

av. mass Sr = 8.538 % (85.909 u ) + 71.75 % (87.906 u)+ 19.21 % (86.909 u) + 0.5%(83.913 u)

average atomic mass Sr = 7.335 u + 63.07 u + 16.695 u + 0.42 u = 87.5 u

87

Rb

= 0.330

Rb

Set 1000 atoms for 85Rb and 330 atoms 87Rb or a total of 1330 atoms of Rb

Percent abundance of each isotope: 85Rb = (1000/1330)100% = 75.2 % 85Rb

87

Rb = (1000/1330)100% = 24.8 % 87Rb

current atom ratio is

85

av. mass Rb = 75.2 % (84.912 u ) + 24.8 % (86.909 u)

average atomic mass Rb = 63.85 u + 21.55 u = 85.4 u

(b)

Original Rb in rock?

Need to convert atom ratio isotope concentration in ppm.

85

Rb concentration in ppm

1000 atoms 85 Rb 1 atom Rb 84.912 u 85 Rb

=

85

1330 atoms Rb 85.4 u Rb 1 atom Rb

87

Rb concentration in ppm

330 atoms 87 Rb 1 atom Rb 86.909 u 87 Rb

=

87

1330 atoms Rb 85.4 u Rb 1 atom Rb

Currently 265.4 ppm (198.4 ppm 85Rb + 67.0 ppm 87 Rb)

Recall earlier calculations showed: %86Sr = 8.538 %;

%87Sr = 19.21 %;

%88Sr = 71.75 %;

%84Sr = 0.5 %

Consider 100,000 atoms of Sr. Calculate the concentration (in ppm) of 86Sr and 87Sr.

86

Sr concentration in ppm

8538 atoms 86Sr 1 atom Sr 85.909 u 86Sr

=

86

100,000 atoms Sr 87.5 u Sr

1 atom Sr

87

Sr concentration in ppm

19,210 atoms 87Sr 1 atom Sr 86.909 u 87Sr

=

87

100,000 atoms Sr 87.5 u Sr

1 atom Sr

87

Sr

Currently: 86 = 2.25 =

Sr

8,538 atoms 86Sr

87

Sr

= 0.700 or 87Sr = 86Sr 0.700 = 8,538 0.700 = 5,977 atoms 87Sr

Sr

87

Change in Sr = 19210 5977 = 13233 atoms 87Sr (per 100,000 Sr atoms)

Originally:

86

1217

Currently, 19210 per 100,000 atoms is 87Sr which represents 2.957 ppm.

A change of 13233 atoms represents (13233/19210)2.957 ppm = 2.037 ppm 87Sr

The source of 87Sr is radioactive decay from 87Rb (a 1:1 relation).

Change in the 87Rb (through radioactive decay) = change in 87Sr = 2.037 ppm

87

Rb

Isotope:

Current concentration 67.0 ppm

Change concentration +2.037 ppm

Original concentration 69.04 ppm

85

Rb

198.4 ppm

198.4 ppm

Total Rb

265.4 ppm

+2.037 ppm

267.44 ppm

(c)

2.037 ppm

% 87Rb decayed =

100% = 2.95 % (% 87Rb remaining = 97.05%)

69.04 ppm

(d)

ln(0.9705) = t

( =

0.693

0.693

10

4.8 10 y

t1/ 2

SELF-ASSESSMENT EXERCISES

75.

(E) (a) Alpha particles are the nuclei of helium-4 atoms, 42 He 2+ , ejected spontaneously

from the nuclei of certain radioactive atoms.

(b) - particles are electrons, but they are electrons that originate from the nuclei of atoms

in nuclear decay processes.

(c) + particle, also called a positron, has properties similar to the - particle, except that it

carries a positive charge.

(d) Gamma () rays are highly penetrating form of radiation that are undeflected by electric

and magnetic fields.

(e) t1/2 is the half-life of a reaction, i.e. a time required for the reaction to go to 50%

completion.

76.

(E) (a) All naturally occurring radioactive nuclides of high atomic number are members of

a radioactive decay series that originates with a long-lived isotope of high atomic number

and terminates with a stable isotope.

(b) A charged particle accelerator is a device that uses electric fields to propel charged

particles to high speeds and to contain them in well-defined beams.

(c) The stable nuclides of low atomic numbers have a neutron-to-proton ratio of one, or

nearly so. At higher atomic numbers, the neutron-to-proton ratios increase to about 1.5.

(d) The energy change accompanying a nuclear reaction can be described by using the

massenergy relationship derived by Albert Einstein: E=mc2.

1218

(e) All life exists against a background of naturally occurring ionizing radiation-cosmic

rays, ultraviolet light, and emanations from radioactive elements, such as uranium in rocks.

The level of this radiation varies from point to point on Earth, being greater, for instance,

at higher elevations.

77.

(E) (a) Electrons are negatively charged species, whereas positrons are positive.

(b) Half-life is the time taken for the activity of a given amount of a radioactive substance

to decay to half of its initial value. Decay constant () is the inverse of the mean lifetime.

(c) The difference between the unbound system calculated mass and experimentally

measured mass of nucleus is called mass defect. It is denoted by m. The amount of

energy required to break the nucleus of an atom into its isolated nucleons is called nuclear

binding energy.

(d) In nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is a nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of an

atom splits into smaller parts, often producing free neutrons and lighter nuclei. Nuclear

fusion, on the other hand, is the process by which multiple atomic nuclei join together to

form a single heavier nucleus. It is accompanied by the release or absorption of energy.

(e) The ionized electrons produced directly by the collisions of particles of radiation with

atoms are called primary electrons. These electrons may themselves possess sufficient

energies to cause secondary ionizations.

78.

(E)

(c)

79.

(E)

(b)

80.

(E)

(d)

81.

(E)

(c)

82.

(E)

(c)

83.

(E)

(d)

84.

(E)

(d)

85.

210

4

(M) (a) 214

88 Ra 86 Rn+ 2 He

205

0

(b) 205

85 At 84 Po+ +1 b

212

(c) 212

87 Fr+e 86 Rn

(d) 21 H+ 21 H 23 He+ 01 n

4

243

1

(e) 241

95 Am+ 2 He 97 Bk+2 0 n

1

(f) 23290Th+ 42 He 232

92 U+4 0 n

1219

86.

0.693

0.693 0.693

0.0608d -1

11.4d

t1/2

N

N

Then use the equation ln t t with t 0.01and solve for t:

N0

N0

4.605

76days

ln 0.01 0.0608t t

0.0608

87.

0.693

0.693 0.693

7.88 10 3 d -1

t1/2

87.9d

N

N

253 104

52

Then use the equation ln t t with t

,

, and

and solve for t:

N 0 1000 1000

1000

N0

253

1000 174days

ta

7.88 10 3

104

ln

1000 287days

tb

7.88 10 3

52

ln

1000 375days

tc

7.88 10 3

ln

88.

(M) (b)

89.

(M) (d)

90.

(M) (c)

91.

(M) (a)

92.

(M) (b)

1220

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