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UDPFI Standards for Urban Area

Submitted by
Nivetha jayaraman

Introduction
Planning is a continuous process & planning system should be
such that it ensures continuity.
Earlier town planning was a piecemeal process but after
Independence the city planning experienced tremendous growth &
challenges for resettlement due to political changes.
Several resettlement, new Industrial base towns & urban centers
were under process of planning & masters & town planners
conclude that land use plans are needed to guide development of
urban centers to promote orderly development & healthy living
environment.
For this purpose the ministry of Urban affairs & employment,
governing of India organized a national workshop on master plan
approach during February 24-25, 1995. The research study of this
workshop awarded as UDPFI Urban development plans
formulation and implementation guidelines.

The Need of guidelines:


The study of UDPFI norms and standards is needed to evolve:
System that is dynamic, flexible and efficient.
Process that is less time consuming.
Innovative ideas of land assembly and fiscal resource mobilization
Simple & effective form of laws, rules and regulations.

Urban Development Planning system


It consist of
a.

Perspective plan:
20-25 years duration .
Includes Maps & Diagrams .
State governments goal, policies, strategies of urban local
authority regarding spatio-economic development.

b. Development plan :
Conceived within Frame work of approved Perspective
plan.
Medium Duration for 5 years.
Proposals for socio-economic & spatial development of
urban centers Including land use.

c. Annual plan:
Conceived within the frame work of Development plan.
Details of new & ongoing projects for local authority
to implement in financial year
Necessary fiscal resources mobilization.

d. Plan of Projects/schemes:
Conceived within the frame work of approved
development Plan.
Includes detailed working layouts with cost of
development, source of Finance & recovery instruments
for Execution by a public or private agency.

Norms and standards


Distribution of
land use

Infrastructure

Developed area
average densities
Work force

Proposed land use


structure of urban
centers in plain area

Commercial
facilities

Traffic and
Recreational
Transportation
facilities

Urban center classification


Population based

Settlement type

Population
Plain areas

Hill areas

Small town

Less than 50,000

Less than 20,000

Medium town

50,000- 5lakh

20,000 less than 80,000

Large cities

More than 5 lakh

80,000 and more

Distribution of Land Use


Developed area average densities:Settlement type

Persons per Hectare(pph) in

Plain areas

Hill areas

Small town

75-125

45-75

Medium town

100-150

60-90

Large cities

100-150

60-90

Metro cities

125-175

Inference

The Densities of medium town & large cities are considered


similar for sustainability.
The density of 125 pph is max. factor for small town &
average for medium town & large cities & minimum for Metro
cities for their identification & survival.

Work Force:-

Work force participation

33% of total population

Industrial workers (%) of total work force


Small and medium town

20 %

Large cities

25 %

Workers Density

100 to 125 pph

Inference

Due to more population in Large cities the Industrial worker


Population is 25%
In current scenario The industrial worker population Is more
than 30% due to set back in agricultural production.

Proposed Land use structure of Urban Centers


Land use category

Percentage of developed area


Small

Medium

Large cities

Metro cities

Residential

45-50

40-45

35-40

35-40

commercial

2-3

3-4

4-5

4-5

Industrial

8-10

8-10

10-12

12-14

Pub& Semi-Public

6-8

10-12

12-14

14-16

Recreational

12-14

18-20

18-20

20-25

Transport &
Communication

10-12

12-14

12-14

15-18

Agriculture & Water bodies balance

balance

balance

balance

Inference

Land use structure of urban center depends upon its function and size. Due
to higher density in metros the land use for residential purpose is less
compared to smaller areas with less density.
Land use distribution for industrial, commercial and recreational purpose
increases as we move from small town to metro cities.

Norms and standards


Distribution of
land use

Infrastructure

Physical infrastructure

Commercial
facilities

Social infrastructure

Water Supply

Educational facilities

Water Requirements
for institutional
buildings

Health care facilities

Sewage
Drainage
Electricity

Solid waste Disposal

Recreational
facilities

Socio- Cultural facilities


Distribution services
Police
Fire

Traffic and
Transportation

Infrastructure
Basic requirement of urban life.
Innovative efforts to ensure wide coverage & equitable distribution.

Physical Infrastructure:Water Supply:


Size of town
Aspect

Small

Medium

Large and Metro

Domestic
1.
Absolute Min.
2.
desirable

70 lpcd
100 lpcd

70-100 lpcd
135-150 lpcd

135 lpcd
135-150 lpcd

1% of total demand
10-15 lpcd

20-25 lpcd

30-35 lpcd

Non- Domestic
Fire fighting
Public purpose

Inference

The 135 lpcd of water consumption Includes the need for fire fighting.

Water requirements for institutional buildings


Institutions

Litres per head per day

Hospital
a.
No. of beds exceeding 100
b.
No. of beds not exceeding 100

450 per bed


340 per bed

Hotels

180 per bed

Hostels

135

Boarding schools/ colleges

135

Restaurants

70 per seat

Airports & Sea ports

70

Junctions stations & intermediate stations

70

Terminal Stations & Intermediate stations

45

Day schools/ colleges

45

Offices & factories

45

Cinema, concert halls and theatres

15

Inference

Water is an important Resource Hence Rain water harvesting should be


encouraged in Institutional buildings as well as residential zones especially in
medium towns & cities.

Sewerage & Drainage


The drainage system for any city/town is governed mainly by natural
course and topography. The discharge is calculated that guides the
requirements for provision of additional drain as well as up gradation of
existing drains.
The treatment of sewerage is essential to provide hygienic conditions.
The sewerage is estimated at the rate of 80% of the water supply demand.
The large & metro cities shall be provided with regular sewerage treatment
facilities at zonal/city level.
The newly developed areas shall have community level septic tanks based
on economic & environmental considerations.
The squatter settlements may be provided with a facility of 1 toilet for 4
to 5 families based on the concept of low cost and low water consumption.

Inference
In case of developing cities the Treatment plant shall be planned with possible
future expansion including biogas plant ,energy conservation &environment
considerations .

Electricity
Power supply consumption works out to be about 2 KW per household at
the city level including domestic, commercial, industrial and other
requirements.
1 electric substation of 11 KV for a population of 15,000 is recommended
for towns/ cities.
Inference
Solar power System Shall be emphasized in residential as well as
Institutional Areas.
Bio-gas Plants Shall be Initiated in small & medium Towns.

Solid waste Disposal


The garbage is removed and dumped at the sanitary landfill or in some
cases it is converted to compost especially in small towns.
The generation of waste varies from a quarter of Kg in small towns to
about half a kg per capita in large and metro cities.
Inference
Garbage separation of Dry , wet garbage & recyclable material to
achieve efficient method of disposal shall be encouraged by educating
people.

Social Infrastructure
These facilities shall be provided with 25% additional population.
Incase of metro cities, these facilities serves the regional demand
Incase of small & medium towns ,the villages & surrounding areas depends
on them

Educational facilities:Pre-primary to Secondary Education

Pre primary, nursery school 1 for 2500 population


Senior secondary school 1 for 7500 population

Technical Education centre

1 such centre provided for every 10 lakh pop. Include 1 industrial


training institute and 1 polytechnic institute.

College

1 for 1.25 lacs population


No of student 1000 to 1500
Area 1.80 Ha.
University Campus with Area of 10 ha.shall be provided.
Inference These are found to be sufficient but location of these facilities are more
important for development.

Health care Facilities :


a)

General hospital
Hospital for 2.5 lakh population capacity
Initially the provision may be for 300 beds
Area for hospital
Area for residential accommodation
Total area

500 beds
4 ha
2 ha
6 ha

b) Intermediate hospital
1 hospital for 1 lakh population capacity
Area for hospital
Area for residential accommodation
Total area

2.70 ha
1 ha
3.70 ha

c) Nursing home, child welfare and maternity center


1 for 0.45 to 1 lakh population
Capacity
Area

25 to 30 beds
0.20 to 0.30 ha

d) Dispensary
1 for 0.15 lakh population
Area

0.08 to 0.12 ha

Inference
The ratio of Dispensary is very less as due to polluted environment &
life style of urban areas & accidents occurring everyday these needs to be
improved/modified for metro cities.

Socio-Cultural facilities
a) Community room
1 for 5,000 population area

660 Sq..m

b) Community hall and library


1 for 15,000 population area

2000 sq.m

c) Recreational club
1 for 1 lakh population area

10,000 sq.m

d) Music, dance and drama centre


1 for 1 lakh population - area

1,000 sq.m

e) Meditation and spiritual centre


1 for 1 lakh population area

5000 sq.m

f) Socio-cultural centre
1 for 10 lakh population area

15 ha

Inference
These need to be improved in Metro cities as Music, dance & drama
Centers are Not only Cultural Oriented but its a part Of Industry.
These facilities can be clubbed with Commercial Activity.

Distribution services
a) Petrol pump
One petrol pump for 150 ha of gross residential areas in residential zone
One petrol pump for 40 ha of gross industrial area
Two petrol pumps in each district centre
One petrol pump in each community centre
Inference
These are sufficient & adequate.
b) Milk distribution
One milk booth for 5,000 population.
Inference
These are sufficient & adequate.
c) LPG Godown
One gas Godown for 40-50 thousand population is sufficient for any size of town.
The major concern for its storage and distribution is the location which shall be away
from the residential areas.

Police
Police station
1 for 90,000 population
Area inclusive of essential residential accommodation

1.5 ha

Police post
1 for 0.4 to 0.5 lakh population
Area inclusive of essential residential accommodation

0.16 ha

District office and battalion


1for 10 lakh population
Area for district office area for battalion
Total area

0.80 ha
4 ha
4.80 ha

Police line 1 for 20 lakh population

4 to 6 ha

District jail 1 for 10 lakh population - area

10 ha

Fire

1 fire station or sub fire station within 1 to 3 km to be provided


for 2 lakh population
Area for fire station with essential residential accommodation
Area for sub- fire-station with essential residential
accommodation

1 ha
0.60 ha

Inference
The disaster Management centers & rehabilitation shelters shall be
encouraged in Social Infrastructure.

Norms and standards


Distribution of
land use

Infrastructure

Commercial
facilities

Hierarchy of commercial
centers

Traffic and
Recreational
Transportation
facilities

Area of commercial
centers

Distribution of
shops

Commercial Activity
Hierarchy of commercial centers is a function of the hierarchy of planning
units in an urban center
Planning unit

Population Served

Hierarchy of commercial centre

Housing cluster

1000-4000

Cluster centre

Sector

5000-20000

Sector centre

Community

25000-100000

Community centre

district

125000-500000

District centre

Sub-city

25 lakh- 50 lakh

Sub- city centre

city

50 lakh +

City centre

Distribution of shops
Type of shops

district

community

sector

cluster

Formal shops(total)

1250

365

55

24

General retail

1200

295

35

16

Fruit & vegetables

Not specified

40

Service & Repairs

50

30

13

Informal shops

370

110

22

13

General retail

355

88

14

Area of Commercial Centers

Cluster Centre

Area Per 1000 No. of Shops


Persons
Sq.Mt.
220
1 for 110
Persons

Sector Centre

300

1 for 200
Persons

Community Centre

500

1 for 200
Persons

District Centre

880

1 for 300
Persons

Recreational Facilities
Planning unit
Housing cluster

3-4 local parks and playgrounds

sector

3-4 local park and playgrounds

community

2-3 community level park and open space

district

1 district level park and sports centre, maidan

Sub city centre

1 city level park, sports complex, botanical /zoological garden


, maidan

Overall town/ city level

10 sq.m- 12 sq.m per person

Type

Area in sq.mt.

Small Town

1 - 1.2 ha. / 1000 persons

Medium Town

1.4 - 1.6 ha. / 1000 persons

Large cities

1.2- 1.4 ha. /1000 persons

Miscellaneous Facilities
Cremation/ burial ground: Provision of at least 2 sites for 5 lakh
population and to provide one electric crematorium for large size towns.

Dhobi ghat: one site for 1 lakh population with appropriate arrangements
for water and drainage facilities.
Taxi stands/ Bus stops/ Rickshaw stands:-

- These should not be located near the road intersections


-The maximum distance of such facilities should not exceed
0.5 km from the farthest point in any residential area.

Norms and standards


Distribution of
land use

Infrastructure Commercial Recreational


facilities
facilities

Classification of
Urban roads

Traffic and
Transportation

Design
standards of
Urban roads
roads

Low Fsi
In India the Fsi ranges between 1.2 to 2% in large cities & 5 to
6 % in mega cities in special cases.
The low value of fsi tends to more consumption of land &
hence Shortage of land is faced for future development. These
affects the lower & middle income group households due to
Increased price of land.
In Asian countries the fsi Practiced is between 5 to 15.Hence
for affordability point of view, the fsi shall be increased to cater
the demand of land for future needs.
Educational Facilities
For safety Purpose the additional Space allocation for Peak Hour
traffic in front of any school, colleges & other Institutions shall
be provided.
Primary & secondary schools to be used in Double shifts with
Bigger intake for efficient use of land.
Educational & institutional Zones must be crated in Master plan.

Land Regulations
Land regulations shall be revised to reduce the difference between what
is allowed & what is Financially feasible.
These can be achieved by More compact cities, more efficient Land Use
& Primary Infra structure.
Increase in consumption of fsi.

Decrease in Trip length due to compact cities.


Urban population density will likely to stay Constant due to efficient
land use.

REFERENCES
Arthur B. Gallion, Simon Eisner, (1986), The Urban Pattern city

planning and design, CBS publishers, New Delhi, India.


Ar. Uttam K. Roy (2007), Changing scenario & emerging planning
norms for education infrastructures in planned township, unpublished
report, Institute of town planner, pp: 1-6
Chetan Vaidya, et al (2004), Model Municipal law of India, ITPI
journal, pp:50-51
D.S.Mesham (2004), Master plan of auroville universal township,
ITPI journal, pp: 1-13
ITPI, 1996. Urban Development Plan Formulation and Implementation
(UDPFI) Guidelines, Institute of Town Planners India, Ministry of
Urban Affairs and Poverty Alleviation, Government of India, New
Delhi.
Sundar Burra & Sheela Patel (2001), Norms & Standards In Urban
Development: The Experience of an Urban Alliance In India
Roy Uttam Kumar (April 2004), Development control Regulation,
journal of Indian institute of architects (JIIA)

Thank you