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This article is about Anthropology in the 20th and 21st centuries. For earlier d
evelopment, see History of anthropology. For other uses, see Anthropology (disam
human body Da Vinci-style
Outline History
Social Cultural
Research framework[show]
Key concepts[show]
Key theories[show]
Portal icon Anthropology portal
v t e
Anthropology is the study of humanity.[1][2][3] Its main subdivisions are social
and cultural anthropology,[1][2][3] which describes the workings of societies a
round the world, linguistic anthropology, which investigates the influence of la
nguage in social life, and biological or physical anthropology,[1][2][3] which c
oncerns long-term development of the human organism. Archaeology, which studies
past human cultures through investigation of physical evidence, is thought of as
a branch of anthropology in the United States,[4] although in Europe, it is vie
wed as a discipline in its own right, or grouped under related disciplines such
as history. Eric R. Wolf states "Ideas about race, culture and peoplehood or eth
nicity have long served to orient anthropology's inquiries ..."[5]
Contents [hide]
Origin and development of the term
Through the 19th century
20th and 21st centuries
Key topics by field: sociocultural
Art, media, music, dance and film
3.1.1 Art
3.1.2 Media
3.1.3 Music
3.1.4 Visual
Economic, political economic, applied and development
3.2.1 Economic
3.2.2 Political economy
3.2.3 Applied
3.2.4 Development
Kinship, feminism, gender and sexuality
3.3.1 Kinship
3.3.2 Feminist
Medical, nutritional, psychological, cognitive and transpersonal
3.4.1 Medical
3.4.2 Nutritional
3.4.3 Psychological
3.4.4 Cognitive

3.4.5 Transpersonal
Political and legal
3.5.1 Political
3.5.2 Legal
3.5.3 Public
Nature, science and technology
3.6.1 Cyborg
3.6.2 Digital
3.6.3 Ecological
3.6.4 Environmental
Key topics by field: archaeological and biological
List of major organizations
Controversial ethical stances
Ethics of cultural relativism
Ethical stance to military involvement
PostWorld War II developments
Basic trends
Commonalities between fields
See also
Further reading
Dictionaries and encyclopedias
Fieldnotes and memoirs
Textbooks and key theoretical works
External links
Origin and development of the term[edit]
Main article: History of anthropology
The abstract noun anthropology is first attested in reference to history.[6][n 1
] Its present use first appeared in Renaissance Germany in the works of Magnus H
undt and Otto Casmann.[7] Their New Latin anthropologia derived from the combini
ng forms of the Greek words nthrpos (, "huma ") a d lgs (, "study").[6] (Its
eaed i the ks f Aisttle.)[6] It bega t be used i E glish, ssibly v
ia Fe ch a thlgie, by the ealy 18th ce tuy.[6][ 2]
Thugh the 19th ce tuy[edit]
I 1647, the Bathli s, fu des f the U ivesity f Ce hage , defi ed l'a t
hlgie as flls:[8]
A thlgy, that is t say the scie ce that teats f ma , is divided di ai
ly a d ith eas i t A atmy, hich c sides the bdy a d the ats, a d Psy
chlgy, hich seaks f the sul.[ 3]
Sadic use f the tem f sme f the subject matte ccued subseue tly, s
uch as the use by tie e Sees i 1838 t descibe the atual histy,  ale
tlgy, f ma , based  cmaative a atmy, a d the ceati f a chai i a
thlgy a d eth gahy i 1850 at the Nati al Museum f Natual Histy (F
a ce) by Jea Luis Ama d de Quatefages de Bau. Vaius sht-lived ga izati
 s f a thlgists had aleady bee fmed. The Scit Eth lgiue de Pais, t
he fist t use Eth lgy, as fmed i 1839. Its membes ee imaily a ti-s

lavey activists. Whe slavey as ablished i Fa ce i 1848 the Scit as aba d
Mea hile, the Eth lgical Sciety f Ne Yk, cue tly the Ameica Eth lg
ical Sciety, as fu ded  its mdel i 1842, as ell as the Eth lgical Sci
ety f L d i 1843, a beak-aay gu f the Abigi es' Ptecti Sciety.
[9] These a thlgists f the times ee libeal, a ti-slavey, a d -huma
-ights activists. They mai tai ed i te ati al c ecti s.
A thlgy a d ma y the cue t fields ae the i tellectual esults f the c
maative methds develed i the ealie 19th ce tuy. Theists i such dive
se fields as a atmy, li guistics, a d Eth lgy, maki g featue-by-featue cm
ais s f thei subject mattes, ee begi i g t susect that similaities b
etee a imals, la guages, a d flkays ee the esult f cesses  las u k
 t them the .[10] F them, the ublicati f Chales Dai 's O the Oig
i f Secies as the eiha y f eveythi g they had begu t susect. Dai h
imself aived at his c clusi s thugh cmais f secies he had see i a
g my a d i the ild.
Dai a d Wallace u veiled evluti i the late 1850s. Thee as a immediate
ush t bi g it i t the scial scie ces. Paul Bca i Pais as i the ces
s f beaki g aay fm the Scit de bilgie t fm the fist f the exlicitly
a thlgical scieties, the Scit d'A thlgie de Pais, meeti g f the fi
st time i Pais i 1859.[11][ 4] Whe he ead Dai he became a immediate c
vet t Ta sfmisme, as the Fe ch called evluti ism.[12] His defi iti

 became "the study f the huma gu, c sideed as a hle, i its details, a
d i elati t the est f atue".[13]
Bca, bei g hat tday uld be called a eusuge , had take a i teest i
the athlgy f seech. He a ted t lcalize the diffee ce betee ma a d t
he the a imals, hich aeaed t eside i seech. He discveed the seech c
e te f the huma bai , tday called Bca's aea afte him. His i teest as
mai ly i Bilgical a thlgy, but a Gema hilshe secializi g i syc
hlgy, Thed Waitz, tk u the theme f ge eal a d scial a thlgy i h
is six-vlume k, e titled Die A thlgie de Natuvlke, 18591864. The title
as s ta slated as "The A thlgy f Pimitive Peles". The last t v
lumes ee ublished sthumusly.
Waitz defi ed a thlgy as "the scie ce f the atue f ma ". By atue he m
ea t matte a imated by "the Divi e beath";[14] i.e., he as a a imist. Fll
i g Bca's lead, Waitz i ts ut that a thlgy is a e field, hich uld
gathe mateial fm the fields, but uld diffe fm them i the use f cm
aative a atmy, hysilgy, a d sychlgy t diffee tiate ma fm "the a im
als eaest t him". He stesses that the data f cmais must be emiical,
gatheed by exeime tati .[15] The histy f civilizati as ell as eth lg
y ae t be bught i t the cmais . It is t be esumed fu dame tally that
the secies, ma , is a u ity, a d that "the same las f thught ae alicable
t all me ".[16]
Waitz as i flue tial am g the Bitish eth lgists. I 1863 the exle Richa
d Fa cis But a d the seech theaist James Hu t bke aay fm the Eth l
gical Sciety f L d t fm the A thlgical Sciety f L d , hich he
cefad uld fll the ath f the e a thlgy athe tha just eth l
gy. It as the 2 d sciety dedicated t ge eal a thlgy i existe ce. Re
ese tatives fm the Fe ch Scit ee ese t, thugh t Bca. I his key te a
ddess, i ted i the fist vlume f its e ublicati , The A thlgical
Revie, Hu t stessed the k f Waitz, adti g his defi iti s as a sta dad.
[17][ 5] Am g the fist assciates ee the yu g Edad Bu ett Tyl, i ve t
 f cultual a thlgy, a d his bthe Alfed Tyl, a gelgist. Pevius
ly Edad had efeed t himself as a eth lgist; subseue tly, a a thl

Simila ga izati s i the cu ties flled: The Ameica A thlgical
Assciati i 1902, the A thlgical Sciety f Madid (1865), the A thl
gical Sciety f Vie a (1870), the Italia Sciety f A thlgy a d Eth l
gy (1871), a d ma y thes subseue tly. The majity f these ee evluti ist
. O e table exceti as the Beli Sciety f A thlgy (1869) fu ded by
Rudlh Vich, k  f his vitueative attacks  the evluti ists. Nt 
eligius himself, he i sisted that Dai 's c clusi s lacked emiical fu dat
i .
Dui g the last thee decades f the 19th ce tuy a lifeati f a thlg
ical scieties a d assciati s ccued, mst i dee de t, mst ublishi g thei
  ju als, a d all i te ati al i membeshi a d assciati . The maj t
heists bel ged t these ga izati s. They suted the gadual smsis f
a thlgy cuicula i t the maj i stituti s f highe lea i g. By 1898 t
he Ameica Assciati f the Adva ceme t f Scie ce as able t et that 4
8 educati al i stituti s i 13 cu ties had sme cuiculum i a thlgy.
N e f the 75 faculty membes ee u de a deatme t amed a thlgy.[18]
20th a d 21st ce tuies[edit]
This meage statistic exa ded i the 20th ce tuy t cmise a thlgy dea
tme ts i the majity f the ld's highe educati al i stituti s, ma y th
usa ds i umbe. A thlgy has divesified fm a fe maj subdivisi s t
dze s me. Pactical a thlgy, the use f a thlgical k ledge a d te
ch iue t slve secific blems, has aived; f examle, the ese ce f bu
ied victims might stimulate the use f a fe sic achaelgist t eceate the
fi al sce e. Oga izati has eached glbal level. F examle, the Wld Cu
cil f A thlgical Assciati s (WCAA), "a etk f ati al, egi al a d
i te ati al assciati s that aims t mte ldide cmmu icati a d c
eati i a thlgy", cue tly c tai s membes fm abut thee dze at
i s.[19]
Si ce the k f Fa z Bas a d B isa Mali ski i the late 19th a d ealy 2
0th ce tuies, scial a thlgy i Geat Bitai a d cultual a thlgy i
the US have bee disti guished fm the scial scie ces by its emhasis  c
ss-cultual cmais s, l g-tem i -deth exami ati f c text, a d the im
ta ce it laces  aticia t-bsevati  exeie tial immesi i the a
ea f eseach. Cultual a thlgy i aticula has emhasized cultual ela
tivism, hlism, a d the use f fi di gs t fame cultual citiues.[20] This ha
s bee aticulaly mi e t i the U ited States, fm Bas' agume ts agai st
19th-ce tuy acial idelgy, thugh Magaet Mead's advcacy f ge de eual
ity a d sexual libeati , t cue t citicisms f st-cl ial essi a d
mti f multicultualism. Eth gahy is  e f its imay eseach desig
s as ell as the text that is ge eated fm a thlgical fieldk.[21][22]
I Geat Bitai a d the Cmm ealth cu ties, the Bitish taditi f scial
a thlgy te ds t dmi ate. I the U ited States, a thlgy has taditi
ally bee divided i t the fu field aach develed by Fa z Bas i the e
aly 20th ce tuy: bilgical  hysical a thlgy; scial, cultual,  sc
icultual a thlgy; a d achaelgy; lus a thlgical li guistics. Thes
e fields feue tly vela, but te d t use diffee t methdlgies a d tech i
Euea cu ties ith veseas cl ies te ded t actice me eth lgy (a t
em ci ed a d defi ed by Adam F. Kll i 1783). I
 -cl ial Euea cu t
ies, scial a thlgy is  defi ed as the study f scial ga izati i
 -state scieties. It is smetimes efeed t as scicultual a thlgy i
the ats f the ld that ee i flue ced by the Euea taditi .[24]

Futhe i fmati : Ameica a thlgy
A thlgy is a glbal discili e hee huma ities, scial, a d atual scie c
es ae fced t c f t  e a the. A thlgy builds u k ledge fm
atual scie ces, i cludi g the discveies abut the igi a d evluti f Hm
 saie s, huma hysical taits, huma behavi, the vaiati s am g diffee t
gus f huma s, h the evluti ay ast f Hm saie s has i flue ced its
scial ga izati a d cultue, a d fm scial scie ces, i cludi g the ga iz
ati f huma scial a d cultual elati s, i stituti s, scial c flicts, et
c.[25][26] Ealy a thlgy igi ated i Classical Geece a d Pesia a d stud
ied a d tied t u desta d bsevable cultual divesity.[27][28] As such, a th
lgy has bee ce tal i the develme t f seveal e (late 20th ce tuy)
i tediscili ay fields such as cg itive scie ce,[29] glbal studies, a d vai
us eth ic studies.
Accdi g t Cliffd Geetz,
"a thlgy is ehas the last f the geat i etee th-ce tuy c glmeate d
iscili es still f the mst at ga izati ally i tact. L g afte atual h
isty, mal hilshy, hillgy, a d litical ec my have disslved i t t
hei secialized successs, it has emai ed a diffuse assemblage f eth lgy,
huma bilgy, cmaative li guistics, a d ehisty, held tgethe mai ly by
the vested i teests, su k csts, a d admi istative habits f academia, a d by
a ma tic image f cmehe sive schlashi."[30]
Scicultual a thlgy has bee heavily i flue ced by stuctualist a d st
mde theies, as ell as a shift tad the a alysis f mde scieties. Du
i g the 1970s a d 1990s, thee as a eistemlgical shift aay fm the siti
vist taditi s that had lagely i fmed the discili e.[31][age eeded] Dui
g this shift, e dui g uesti s abut the atue a d ducti f k ledge ca
me t ccuy a ce tal lace i cultual a d scial a thlgy. I c tast, a
chaelgy a d bilgical a thlgy emai ed lagely sitivist. Due t this
diffee ce i eistemlgy, the fu sub-fields f a thlgy have lacked che
si ve the last seveal decades.
Mai aticles: Cultual a thlgy, Scial a thlgy a d Scicultual a th
Scicultual a thlgy das tgethe the i cile axes f cultual a th
lgy a d scial a thlgy. Cultual a thlgy is the cmaative study f
the ma ifld ays i hich ele make se se f the ld au d them, hile s
cial a thlgy is the study f the elati shis am g es s a d gus.[32
] Cultual a thlgy is me elated t hilshy, liteatue a d the ats (
h  e's cultue affects exeie ce f self a d gu, c tibuti g t me c
mlete u desta di g f the ele's k ledge, custms, a d i stituti s), hil
e scial a thlgy is me elated t scilgy a d histy.[32] i that it h
els devel u desta di g f scial stuctues, tyically f thes a d the 
ulati s (such as mi ities, subgus, disside ts, etc.).[33][34] Thee is
 had-a d-fast disti cti betee them, a d these categies vela t a c s
ideable degee.
I uiy i scicultual a thlgy is guided i at by cultual elativism,
the attemt t u desta d the scieties i tems f thei  cultual symbls
a d values.[21] Acceti g the cultues i thei  tems mdeates educti
ism i css-cultual cmais .[35] This ject is fte accmmdated i the
field f eth gahy. Eth gahy ca efe t bth a methdlgy a d the duc
t f eth gahic eseach, i.e. a eth gahic m gah. As methdlgy, eth
gahy is based u l g-tem fieldk ithi a cmmu ity  the eseach s
ite. Paticia t bsevati is  e f the fu dati al methds f scial a d cu
ltual a thlgy.[36] Eth lgy i vlves the systematic cmais f diffee

t cultues. The cess f aticia t-bsevati ca be esecially helful t

u desta di g a cultue fm a emic (c cetual, vs. etic,  tech ical) i t
f vie.
The study f ki shi a d scial ga izati is a ce tal fcus f scicultual
a thlgy, as ki shi is a huma u ivesal. Scicultual a thlgy als
cves ec mic a d litical ga izati , la a d c flict esluti , atte
s f c sumti a d excha ge, mateial cultue, tech lgy, i fastuctue, ge
de elati s, eth icity, childeai g a d scializati , eligi , myth, symbl
s, values, etiuette, ldvie, sts, music, utiti , eceati , games, f
d, festivals, a d la guage (hich is als the bject f study i li guistic a t
Cmais acss cultues is a key eleme t f methd i scicultual a thl
gy, i cludi g the i dustialized (a d de-i dustialized) West. Cultues i the
Sta dad Css-Cultual Samle (SCCS)[37] f ld scieties ae:
Afica Afica sccs cultues.jg
Nama (Htte tt) Ku g (Sa ) Th ga Lzi Mbu du Suku Bemba Nyakyusa (Ng de) Hadz
a Luguu Kikuyu Ga da Mbuti (Pygmies) Nku d (M g) Ba e Tiv Igb F Asha ti
(Ti) Me de Bambaa Talle si Massa Aza de Ot Nuba Shilluk Ma Maasai
Cicum-Meditea ea Cicum-meditea ea sccs cultues.jg
Wlf S ghai Wdaabe Fula i Hausa Fu Kaffa K s Smali Amhaa Bg Ke uzi Nub
ia Teda Tuaeg Riffia s Egytia s (Fellah) Hebes Babyl ia s Rala Bedui Tu
ks Gheg (Alba ia s) Rma s Basues Iish Sami (Las) Russia s Gegia (Ibeia
) Abkhaz Ame ia s Kud
East Euasia East euasia sccs cultues.jg
Yuak (Samyed) Bassei West Pu jabi G d Tda Sa tal Utta Padesh Buush Kaza
k Gujaati Be gali Khalka M gls Ll Lecha Ga Lakhe Bumese Lamet Viet ame
se Rhade Khme Siamese Sema g Nicbaese A dama ese Vedda Ta ala Negei Sembila
Atayal Chi ese Ma chu Kea s Jaa ese Ai u Gilyak Yukaghi
I sula Pacific I sula acific.jg
Java ese (Mia) Bali ese Iba Badjau Taja Tbelese Alese Tii Aa da Oka
iva Kimam Kaauku Kma Ma us Ne Iela d Tbia des Siuai Tikia Pe tecst M
bau Fijia s Ajie Mai Mauesa s Weste Sama s Gilbetese Mashallese Tukese
Yaese Palaua s Ifuga Chukchi
Nth Ameica Nth ameica sccs cultues.jg
I galik Aleut Ce Eskim M tag ais Mi'kma Saulteaux (Ojiba) Slave Kaska (N
aha e) Eyak Haida Bellacla Ta a Yuk Pm Ykuts Paiute (Nthe ) Klamath K
ute ai Gs Ve tes Hidatsa Pa ee Omaha (Dhegiha) Hu Ceek Natchez Cma che
Chiicahua Zu i Havasuai Th  O'dham Huichl Aztec Pluca
Suth Ameica Suth ameica SCCS cultues.jg
Quich Miskit (Msuit) Bibi (Talama ca) Cu a Gaji Haitia s Cali ag Waau
(Waa) Ya mam Caib Saamacca Mu duuku Cube (Tuca ) Cayaa Jiva Amahuac
a I ca Aymaa Sii  Nambicuaa Tumai Timbia Tui amba Btcud Shava te Aei
kma Cayua (Guaa i) Le gua Abi Mauche Tehuelche Yagha
See als: List f i dige us eles
Mai aticle: Bilgical a thlgy
Fe sic a thlgists ca hel ide tify skelet ized huma emai s, such as t
hese fu d lyi g i scub i Weste Austalia, c. 19001910.
Bilgical A thlgy a d Physical A thlgy ae sy  ymus tems t desci
be a thlgical eseach fcused  the study f huma s a d  -huma imate
s i thei bilgical, evluti ay, a d demgahic dime si s. It exami es the
bilgical a d scial facts that have affected the evluti f huma s a d t
he imates, a d that ge eate, mai tai  cha ge c temay ge etic a d hy
silgical vaiati .[38]

Mai aticle: Achaelgy

Excavati s at the 3800-yea-ld Edgeate Pak Site, Ia
Achaelgy is the study f the huma ast thugh its mateial emai s. Atifac
ts, fau al emai s, a d huma alteed la dscaes ae evide ce f the cultual a
d mateial lives f ast scieties. Achaelgists exami e these mateial emai
s i de t deduce atte s f ast huma behavi a d cultual actices. Eth
achaelgy is a tye f achaelgy that studies the actices a d mateial 
emai s f livi g huma gus i de t gai a bette u desta di g f the evi
de ce left behi d by ast huma gus, h ae esumed t have lived i simila
Li guistic[edit]
Mai aticle: Li guistic a thlgy
Li guistic a thlgy (als called a thlgical li guistics) seeks t u de
sta d the cesses f huma cmmu icati s, vebal a d  -vebal, vaiati i
la guage acss time a d sace, the scial uses f la guage, a d the elati sh
i betee la guage a d cultue. It is the ba ch f a thlgy that bi gs li
guistic methds t bea  a thlgical blems, li ki g the a alysis f li
guistic fms a d cesses t the i teetati f scicultual cesses. L
i guistic a thlgists fte da  elated fields i cludi g scili guistic
s, agmatics, cg itive li guistics, semitics, discuse a alysis, a d aati
ve a alysis.[40]
Key tics by field: scicultual[edit]
At, media, music, da ce a d film[edit]
Pat f a seies  the
A thlgy f at,
media, music, da ce
a d film
'David' by Michela gel JBU16.JPG
Basic c cets[sh]
Case studies[sh]
Related aticles[sh]
Maj theists[sh]
Scial a d cultual a thlgy
v t e
Mai aticle: A thlgy f at
O e f the ce tal blems i the a thlgy f at c ce s the u ivesality
f 'at' as a cultual he me  . Seveal a thlgists have ted that the
Weste categies f 'ai ti g', 'scultue',  'liteatue', c ceived as i d
ee de t atistic activities, d t exist,  exist i a sig ifica tly diffee
t fm, i mst  -Weste c texts.[41] T sumu t this difficulty, a thl
gists f at have fcused  fmal featues i bjects hich, ithut exclusiv
ely bei g 'atistic', have cetai evide t 'aesthetic' ualities. Bas' Pimitiv
e At, Claude Lvi-Stauss' The Way f the Masks (1982)  Geetz's 'At as Cultu
al System' (1983) ae sme examles i this te d t ta sfm the a thlgy
f 'at' i t a a thlgy f cultually secific 'aesthetics'.
Mai aticle: Media a thlgy
A Pu u tibe mask. Gab Ce tal Afica
Media a thlgy (als k  as a thlgy f media  mass media) emhasize
s eth gahic studies as a mea s f u desta di g duces, audie ces, a d th
e cultual a d scial asects f mass media. The tyes f eth gahic c texts
exled a ge fm c texts f media ducti (e.g., eth gahies f es
ms i esaes, ju alists i the field, film ducti ) t c texts f med

ia eceti , flli g audie ces i thei eveyday es ses t media. Othe ty
es i clude cybe a thlgy, a elatively e aea f i te et eseach, as 
ell as eth gahies f the aeas f eseach hich hae t i vlve media, s
uch as develme t k, scial mveme ts,  health educati . This is i addit
i t ma y classic eth gahic c texts, hee media such as adi, the ess,
e media a d televisi have stated t make thei ese ces felt si ce the ea
ly 1990s.[42][43]
Mai aticle: Eth musiclgy
Eth musiclgy is a academic field e cmassi g vaius aaches t the stud
y f music (badly defi ed), that emhasize its cultual, scial, mateial, cg
itive, bilgical, a d the dime si s  c texts i stead f  i additi t
 its islated su d cm e t  a y aticula eetie.
Mai aticle: Visual a thlgy
Visual a thlgy is c ce ed, i at, ith the study a d ducti f eth
gahic htgahy, film a d, si ce the mid-1990s, e media. While the tem i
s smetimes used i techa geably ith eth gahic film, visual a thlgy als
 e cmasses the a thlgical study f visual eese tati , i cludi g aea
s such as efma ce, museums, at, a d the ducti a d eceti f mass me
dia. Visual eese tati s fm all cultues, such as sa dai ti gs, tatts, s
cultues a d eliefs, cave ai ti gs, scimsha, jeely, hieglyhics, ai ti
gs a d htgahs ae i cluded i the fcus f visual a thlgy.
Ec mic, litical ec mic, alied a d develme t[edit]
Pat f a seies 
Ec mic, alied, a d develme t
a thlgy
Basic c cets[sh]
Pvisi i g systems[sh]
Case studies[sh]
Related aticles[sh]
Maj theists[sh]
Scial a d cultual a thlgy
v t e
Ec mic[edit]
Mai aticle: Ec mic a thlgy
Ec mic a thlgy attemts t exlai huma ec mic behavi i its idest
histic, gegahic a d cultual sce. It has a cmlex elati shi ith the
discili e f ec mics, f hich it is highly citical. Its igi s as a sub-fi
eld f a thlgy begi ith the Plish-Bitish fu de f A thlgy, B i
sla Mali ski, a d his Fe ch cmatit, Macel Mauss,  the atue f giftgivi g excha ge ( ecicity) as a alte ative t maket excha ge. Ec mic
A thlgy emai s, f the mst at, fcused u excha ge. The schl f th
ught deived fm Max a d k  as Plitical Ec my fcuses  ducti , i
c tast.[44] Ec mic A thlgists have aba d ed the imitivist iche the
y ee elegated t by ec mists, a d have  tu ed t exami e cati s,
ba ks, a d the glbal fi a cial system fm a a thlgical esective.
Plitical ec my[edit]
Mai aticle: Plitical ec my i a thlgy
Plitical ec my i a thlgy is the alicati f the theies a d methds
f Histical Mateialism t the taditi al c ce s f a thlgy, i cludi
g, but t limited t,  -caitalist scieties. Plitical Ec my i tduced u
esti s f histy a d cl ialism t ahistical a thlgical theies f s
cial stuctue a d cultue. Thee mai aeas f i teest aidly develed. The
fist f these aeas as c ce ed ith the "e-caitalist" scieties that ee
subject t evluti ay "tibal" steetyes. Sahli s k  Hu te-gathees

as the 'igi al afflue t sciety' did much t dissiate that image. The sec d
aea as c ce ed ith the vast majity f the ld's ulati at the time,
the easa ty, ma y f hm ee i vlved i cmlex evluti ay as such as
i Viet am. The thid aea as  cl ialism, imeialism, a d the ceati f
the caitalist ld-system.[45] Me ece tly, these Plitical Ec mists have
me diectly addessed issues f i dustial (a d st-i dustial) caitalism a
u d the ld.
Mai aticle: Alied a thlgy
Alied A thlgy efes t the alicati f the methd a d they f a th
lgy t the a alysis a d sluti f actical blems. It is a, "cmlex f
elated, eseach-based, i stume tal methds hich duce cha ge  stability
i secific cultual systems thugh the visi f data, i itiati f diec
t acti , a d/ the fmulati f licy".[46] Me simly, alied a thl
gy is the actical side f a thlgical eseach; it i cludes eseache i v
lveme t a d activism ithi the aticiati g cmmu ity. It is clsely elated
t Develme t a thlgy (disti ct fm the me citical A thlgy f dev
elme t).
Develme t[edit]
Mai aticle: a thlgy f develme t
A thlgy f develme t te ds t vie develme t fm a citical esectiv
e. The ki d f issues addessed a d imlicati s f the aach simly i vlve
 dei g hy, if a key develme t gal is t alleviate vety, is vety i
ceasi g? Why is thee such a ga betee la s a d utcmes? Why ae thse k
i g i develme t s illi g t disegad histy a d the less s it might ffe
? Why is develme t s exte ally dive athe tha havi g a i te al basis?
I sht hy des s much la ed develme t fail?
Ki shi, femi ism, ge de a d sexuality[edit]
Pat f a seies  the
A thlgy f ki shi
Basic c cets[sh]
Temi lgy[sh]
Case studies[sh]
Maj theists[sh]
Related aticles[sh]
Scial a thlgy
Cultual a thlgy
v t e
Ki shi[edit]
Mai aticle: Ki shi
Ki shi ca efe bth t the study f the atte s f scial elati shis i 
e  me huma cultues,  it ca efe t the atte s f scial elati shi
s themselves. Ove its histy, a thlgy has develed a umbe f elated
c cets a d tems, such as "desce t", "desce t gus", "li eages", "affi es",
"cg ates", a d eve "fictive ki shi". Badly, ki shi atte s may be c side
ed t i clude ele elated bth by desce t ( e's scial elati s dui g dev
elme t), a d als elatives by maiage.
Femi ist[edit]
Mai aticle: Femi ist a thlgy
Femi ist a thlgy is a fu field aach t a thlgy (achelgical, b
ilgical, cultual, li guistic) that seeks t educe male bias i eseach fi d
i gs, a thlgical hii g actices, a d the schlaly ducti f k ledg
e. A thlgy e gages fte ith femi ists fm  -Weste taditi s, hse
esectives a d exeie ces ca diffe fm thse f hite Euea a d Ameica
femi ists. Histically, such 'eiheal' esectives have smetimes bee ma
gi alized a d egaded as less valid  imta t tha k ledge fm the este

 ld. Femi ist a thlgists have claimed that thei eseach hels t c
ect this systematic bias i mai steam femi ist they. Femi ist a thlgist
s ae ce tally c ce ed ith the c stucti f ge de acss scieties. Femi
ist a thlgy is i clusive f bith a thlgy as a secializati .
Medical, utiti al, sychlgical, cg itive a d ta ses al[edit]
Pat f a seies 
Medical a d sychlgical
a thlgy
Basic c cets[sh]
Case studies[sh]
Related aticles[sh]
Maj theists[sh]
Ju als[sh]
Scial a d cultual a thlgy
v t e
Mai aticle: Medical a thlgy
Medical a thlgy is a i tediscili ay field hich studies "huma health a
d disease, health cae systems, a d bicultual adatati ".[47] Cue tly, es
each i medical a thlgy is  e f the mai gth aeas i the field f a
thlgy as a hle. It fcuses  the flli g six basic fields:[citati
the develme t f systems f medical k ledge a d medical cae
the atie t-hysicia elati shi
the i tegati f alte ative medical systems i cultually divese e vi me t
the i teacti f scial, e vi me tal a d bilgical facts hich i flue ce
health a d ill ess bth i the i dividual a d the cmmu ity as a hle
the citical a alysis f i teacti betee sychiatic sevices a d miga t 
ulati s ("citical eth sychiaty": Be educe 2004, 2007)
the imact f bimedici e a d bimedical tech lgies i
 -Weste setti gs
Othe subjects that have becme ce tal t medical a thlgy ldide ae vi
le ce a d scial suffei g (Fame, 1999, 2003; Be educe, 2010) as ell as the
 issues that i vlve hysical a d sychlgical ham a d suffei g that ae t
a esult f ill ess. O the the ha d, thee ae fields that i tesect ith me
dical a thlgy i tems f eseach methdlgy a d theetical ducti ,
such as cultual sychiaty a d ta scultual sychiaty  eth sychiaty.
Nutiti al[edit]
Mai aticle: Nutiti al a thlgy
Nutiti al a thlgy is a sy thetic c cet that deals ith the i telay be
tee ec mic systems, utiti al status a d fd secuity, a d h cha ges i
the fme affect the latte. If ec mic a d e vi me tal cha ges i a cmmu
ity affect access t fd, fd secuity, a d dietay health, the this i tela
y betee cultue a d bilgy is i tu c ected t bade histical a d ec
mic te ds assciated ith glbalizati . Nutiti al status affects veall h
ealth status, k efma ce te tial, a d the veall te tial f ec mic
develme t (eithe i tems f huma develme t  taditi al este mdels
) f a y give gu f ele.
Mai aticle: Psychlgical a thlgy
Psychlgical a thlgy is a i tediscili ay subfield f a thlgy that
studies the i teacti f cultual a d me tal cesses. This subfield te ds t
 fcus  ays i hich huma s' develme t a d e cultuati ithi a aticul
a cultual guith its  histy, la guage, actices, a d c cetual categ
iesshae cesses f huma cg iti , emti , eceti , mtivati , a d me t
al health. It als exami es h the u desta di g f cg iti , emti , mtivat

i , a d simila sychlgical cesses i fm  c stai

al a d scial cesses.[48][49]

u mdels f cultu

Cg itive[edit]
Mai aticle: Cg itive a thlgy
Cg itive a thlgy seeks t exlai atte s f shaed k ledge, cultual i
vati , a d ta smissi ve time a d sace usi g the methds a d theies 
f the cg itive scie ces (esecially exeime tal sychlgy a d evluti ay bi
lgy) fte thugh clse cllabati ith histia s, eth gahes, achae
lgists, li guists, musiclgists a d the secialists e gaged i the desciti
 a d i teetati f cultual fms. Cg itive a thlgy is c ce ed it
h hat ele fm diffee t gus k  a d h that imlicit k ledge cha ges
the ay ele eceive a d elate t the ld au d them.[50]
Ta ses al[edit]
Mai aticle: Ta ses al a thlgy
Ta ses al a thlgy studies the elati shi betee alteed states f c
scius ess a d cultue. As ith ta ses al sychlgy, the field is much c
ce ed ith alteed states f c scius ess (ASC) a d ta ses al exeie ce.
Heve, the field diffes fm mai steam ta ses al sychlgy i taki g m
e cg iza ce f css-cultual issuesf i sta ce, the les f myth, itual, di
et, a d texts i evki g a d i teeti g extadi ay exeie ces (Yu g a d G
ulet 1994).
Plitical a d legal[edit]
Pat f a seies 
Plitical a d
legal a thlgy
Basic c cets[sh]
Case studies[sh]
Related aticles[sh]
Maj theists[sh]
Scial a d cultual a thlgy
v t e
Mai aticle: Plitical a thlgy
Plitical a thlgy c ce s the stuctue f litical systems, lked at f
m the basis f the stuctue f scieties. Plitical a thlgy develed as
a discili e c ce ed imaily ith litics i stateless scieties, a e dev
elme t stated fm the 1960s, a d is still u fldi g: a thlgists stated
i ceasi gly t study me "cmlex" scial setti gs i hich the ese ce f s
tates, bueaucacies a d makets e teed bth eth gahic accu ts a d a alysis
f lcal he me a. The tu tads cmlex scieties mea t that litical the
mes ee take u at t mai levels. Fist f all, a thlgists c ti ued t
study litical ga izati a d litical he me a that lay utside the state
-egulated shee (as i at -clie t elati s  tibal litical ga izati
). Sec d f all, a thlgists slly stated t devel a discili ay c c
e ith states a d thei i stituti s (a d f cuse  the elati shi betee
fmal a d i fmal litical i stituti s). A a thlgy f the state deve
led, a d it is a mst thivi g field tday. Geetz' cmaative k  "Nega
a", the Bali ese state is a ealy, famus examle.
Mai aticle: Legal a thlgy
Legal a thlgy  a thlgy f la secializes i "the css-cultual stu
dy f scial dei g".[51] Ealie legal a thlgical eseach fte fcused
me aly  c flict ma ageme t, cime, sa cti s,  fmal egulati . M
e ece t alicati s i clude issues such as huma ights, legal lualism,[52
] a d litical uisi gs.

Mai aticle: Public a thlgy
Public A thlgy as ceated by Rbet Bfsky, a fess at Haaii Pacifi
c U ivesity, t "dem state the ability f a thlgy a d a thlgists t
effectively addess blems bey d the discili e - illumi ati g lage scial
issues f u times as ell as e cuagi g bad, ublic c vesati s abut th
em ith the exlicit gal f fstei g scial cha ge" (Bfsky 2004).
Natue, scie ce a d tech lgy[edit]
Pat f a seies 
A thlgy f atue,
scie ce a d tech lgy
Basic c cets[sh]
Related aticles[sh]
Maj theists[sh]
Scial a d cultual a thlgy
v t e
Mai aticle: Cybg a thlgy
Cybg a thlgy igi ated as a sub-fcus gu ithi the Ameica A th
lgical Assciati 's a ual meeti g i 1993. The sub-gu as vey clsely el
ated t STS a d the Sciety f the Scial Studies f Scie ce.[53] D a Haaay
's 1985 Cybg Ma ifest culd be c sideed the fu di g dcume t f cybg a t
hlgy by fist exli g the hilshical a d scilgical amificati s f
the tem. Cybg a thlgy studies huma ki d a d its elati s ith the tech
lgical systems it has built, secifically mde tech lgical systems that h
ave eflexively shaed ti s f hat it mea s t be huma bei gs.
Mai aticle: Digital a thlgy
Digital a thlgy is the study f the elati shi betee huma s a d digital
-ea tech lgy, a d exte ds t vaius aeas hee a thlgy a d tech lgy
i tesect. It is smetimes gued ith scicultual a thlgy, a d smetime
s c sideed at f mateial cultue. The field is e, a d thus has a vaiety
f ames ith a vaiety f emhases. These i clude tech -a thlgy,[54] digi
tal eth gahy, cybea thlgy,[55] a d vitual a thlgy.[56]
Mai aticle: Eclgical a thlgy
Eclgical a thlgy is defi ed as the "study f cultual adatati s t e vi
 me ts".[57] The sub-field is als defi ed as, "the study f elati shis bet
ee a ulati f huma s a d thei bihysical e vi me t".[58] The fcus f
its eseach c ce s "h cultual beliefs a d actices heled huma ulati
 s adat t thei e vi me ts, a d h ele used eleme ts f thei cultue t
 mai tai thei ecsystems."[57]
E vi me tal[edit]
Mai aticle: E vi me tal a thlgy
E vi me tal a thlgy is a sub-secialty ithi the field f a thlgy t
hat takes a active le i exami i g the elati shis betee huma s a d thei
e vi me t acss sace a d time.[59] The c temay esective f e vi m
e tal a thlgy, a d aguably at least the backd, if t the fcus f mst
f the eth gahies a d cultual fieldks f tday, is litical eclgy. Ma
y chaacteize this e esective as me i fmed ith cultue, litics a d
e, glbalizati , lcalized issues, a d me.[60] The fcus a d data i te
etati is fte used f agume ts f/agai st  ceati f licy, a d t 
eve t cate exlitati a d damage f la d. Ofte , the bseve has becme
a active at f the stuggle eithe diectly (ga izi g, aticiati )  i
diectly (aticles, dcume taies, bks, eth gahies). Such is the case ith
e vi me tal justice advcate Melissa Checke a d he elati shi ith the e

le f Hyde Pak.[61]

Mai aticle: Eth histy
See als: Histical a thlgy
Eth histy is the study f eth gahic cultues a d i dige us custms by exa
mi i g histical ecds. It is als the study f the histy f vaius eth ic
gus that may  may t exist tday. Eth histy uses bth histical a d e
th gahic data as its fu dati . Its histical methds a d mateials g bey
d the sta dad use f dcume ts a d ma uscits. Pactiti es ecg ize the ut
ility f such suce mateial as mas, music, ai ti gs, htgahy, flkle,
al taditi , site exlati , achaelgical mateials, museum cllecti s,
e dui g custms, la guage, a d lace ames.[62]
Religi [edit]
Pat f a seies 
A thlgy f eligi
Basic c cets[sh]
Case studies[sh]
Related aticles[sh]
Maj theists[sh]
Ju als[sh]
Religi s[sh]
Scial a d cultual a thlgy
v t e
Mai aticle: A thlgy f eligi
The a thlgy f eligi i vlves the study f eligius i stituti s i el
ati t the scial i stituti s, a d the cmais f eligius beliefs a d
actices acss cultues. Mde a thlgy assumes that thee is cmlete c
ti uity betee magical thi ki g a d eligi ,[63][ 6] a d that evey eligi
is a cultual duct, ceated by the huma cmmu ity that shis it.[64]
Uba [edit]
Mai aticle: Uba a thlgy
Uba a thlgy is c ce ed ith issues f uba izati , vety, a d elib
ealism. Ulf Ha ez utes a 1960s emak that taditi al a thlgists ee
"a tiusly agahbic lt, a ti-uba by defi iti ". Vaius scial ce
sses i the Weste Wld as ell as i the "Thid Wld" (the latte bei g the
habitual fcus f atte ti f a thlgists) bught the atte ti f "secia
lists i 'the cultues'" clse t thei hmes.[65] Thee ae t i cile a
aches i uba a thlgy: by exami i g the tyes f cities  exami i g th
e scial issues ithi the cities. These t methds ae velai g a d dee de
t f each the. By defi i g diffee t tyes f cities,  e uld use scial fa
cts as ell as ec mic a d litical facts t categize the cities. By di
ectly lki g at the diffee t scial issues,  e uld als be studyi g h the
y affect the dy amic f the city.[66]
Key tics by field: achaelgical a d bilgical[edit]
Mai aticles: Achaelgical a d Bilgical a thlgy
A thzlgy[edit]
Mai aticle: A thzlgy
A thzlgy (als k  as "huma a imal studies") is the study f i teacti b
etee livi g thi gs. It is a buge i g i tediscili ay field that velas 
ith a umbe f the discili es, i cludi g a thlgy, ethlgy, medici e, 
sychlgy, vetei ay medici e a d zlgy. A maj fcus f a thzlgic ese
ach is the ua tifyi g f the sitive effects f huma -a imal elati shis 
eithe aty a d the study f thei i teacti s.[67] It i cludes schlas fm
a divese a ge f fields, i cludi g a thlgy, scilgy, bilgy, a d hil
shy.[68][69][ 7]

Mai aticle: Bicultual a thlgy
Bicultual a thlgy is the scie tific exlati f the elati shis bet
ee huma bilgy a d cultue. Physical a thlgists thughut the fist hal
f f the 20th ce tuy vieed this elati shi fm a acial esective; that i
s, fm the assumti that tylgical huma bilgical diffee ces lead t cul
tual diffee ces.[70] Afte Wld Wa II the emhasis bega t shift tad a
efft t exle the le cultue lays i shai g huma bilgy.
Evluti ay[edit]
Mai aticle: Evluti ay a thlgy
Evluti ay a thlgy is the i tediscili ay study f the evluti f hum
a hysilgy a d huma behaviu a d the elati betee hmi i s a d  -hmi
i imates. Evluti ay a thlgy is based i atual scie ce a d scial s
cie ce, cmbi i g the huma develme t ith sciec mic facts. Evluti ay
a thlgy is c ce ed ith bth bilgical a d cultual evluti f huma s
, ast a d ese t. It is based  a scie tific aach, a d bi gs tgethe fi
elds such as achaelgy, behavial eclgy, sychlgy, imatlgy, a d ge et
ics. It is a dy amic a d i tediscili ay field, dai g  ma y li es f evide
ce t u desta d the huma exeie ce, ast a d ese t.
Fe sic[edit]
Mai aticle: Fe sic a thlgy
Fe sic a thlgy is the alicati f the scie ce f hysical a thlgy
a d huma stelgy i a legal setti g, mst fte i cimi al cases hee the
victim's emai s ae i the adva ced stages f decmsiti . A fe sic a th
lgist ca assist i the ide tificati f deceased i dividuals hse emai s a
e decmsed, bu ed, mutilated  theise u ecg izable. The adjective "f
e sic" efes t the alicati f this subfield f scie ce t a cut f la.
Palaea thlgy[edit]
Mai aticle: Palaea thlgy
Palea thlgy cmbi es the discili es f ale tlgy a d hysical a th
lgy. It is the study f a cie t huma s, as fu d i fssil hmi id evide ce suc
h as etifacted b es a d fti ts.
Oga izati s[edit]
C temay a thlgy is a established scie ce ith academic deatme ts at
mst u ivesities a d clleges. The si gle lagest ga izati f A thlgi
sts is the Ameica A thlgical Assciati (AAA), hich as fu ded i 1903
.[71] Membeshi is made u f a thlgists fm au d the glbe.[72]
I 1989, a gu f Euea a d Ameica schlas i the field f a thlgy
established the Euea Assciati f Scial A thlgists (EASA) hich sev
es as a maj fessi al ga izati f a thlgists ki g i Eue. T
he EASA seeks t adva ce the status f a thlgy i Eue a d t i cease vi
sibility f magi alized a thlgical taditi s a d theeby c tibute t th
e ject f a glbal a thlgy  ld a thlgy.
Hu deds f the ga izati s exist i the vaius sub-fields f a thlgy,
smetimes divided u by ati  egi , a d ma y a thlgists k ith c
llabats i the discili es, such as gelgy, hysics, zlgy, ale tlg
y, a atmy, music they, at histy, scilgy a d s  , bel gi g t fess
i al scieties i thse discili es as ell.[73]
List f maj ga izati s[edit]
Mai categy: A thlgy ga izati s
Ameica A thlgical Assciati
Ameica Eth lgical Sciety
Asciaci de A tlgs Ibeameica s e


Mvi g A thlgy Stude t Netk

A thlgical Sciety f L d
Ce te f Wld I dige us Studies
Eth lgical Sciety f L d
I stitute f A thlgy a d Eth gahy
Max Pla ck I stitute f Evluti ay A thlgy
Netk f C ce ed A thlgists
N. N. Miklukh-Maklai I stitute f Eth lgy a d A thlgy
Radical A thlgy Gu
Ryal A thlgical I stitute f Geat Bitai a d Iela d
Sciety f a thlgical scie ces
Sciety f Alied A thlgy
USC Ce te f Visual A thlgy
C tvesial ethical sta ces[edit]
A thlgists, like the eseaches (esecially histia s a d scie tists e
gaged i field eseach), have ve time assisted state licies a d jects, e
secially cl ialism.[74][75]
Sme cmme tats have c te ded:
That the discili e ge ut f cl ialism, ehas as i league ith it, a d
deived sme f its key ti s fm it, c sciusly  t. (See, f examle,
Gugh, Pels a d Salemi k, but cf. Leis 2004).[76]
That eth gahic k as fte ahistical, iti g abut ele as if they e
e "ut f time" i a "eth gahic ese t" (Jha es Fabia , Time a d Its Oth
Ethics f cultual elativism[edit]
As at f thei uest f scie tific bjectivity, ese t-day a thlgists t
yically uge cultual elativism, hich has a i flue ce  all the sub-fields
f a thlgy.[21] This is the ti that cultues shuld t be judged by a
the's values  viei ts, but be exami ed disassi ately  thei  tems
. Thee shuld be  ti s, i gd a thlgy, f  e cultue bei g bette
 se tha a the cultue.[77]
Ethical cmmitme ts i a thlgy i clude tici g a d dcume ti g ge cide, i
fa ticide, acism, mutilati (i cludi g cicumcisi a d subi cisi ), a d t
tue. Tics like acism, slavey, a d huma sacifice attact a thlgical a
tte ti a d theies a gi g fm utiti al deficie cies[78] t ge es[79] t
accultuati have bee sed, t t me ti theies f cl ialism a d ma
y thes as t causes f Ma 's i huma ity t ma . T illustate the deth f a
a thlgical aach,  e ca take just  e f these tics, such as "aci
sm" a d fi d thusa ds f a thlgical efee ces, stetchi g acss all the
maj a d mi  sub-fields.[80][81]
Ethical sta ce t militay i vlveme t[edit]
A thlgists' i vlveme t ith the U.S. gve me t, i aticula, has caused
bitte c tvesy ithi the discili e. Fa z Bas ublicly bjected t US a
ticiati i Wld Wa I, a d afte the a he ublished a bief exse a d c
dem ati f the aticiati f seveal Ameica achaelgists i esi age
i Mexic u de thei cve as scie tists.
But by the 1940s, ma y f Bas' a thlgist c temaies ee active i the
allied a efft agai st the "Axis" (Nazi Gema y, Fascist Italy, a d Imeial
Jaa ). Ma y seved i the amed fces, hile thes ked i i tellige ce (f
 examle, Office f Stategic Sevices a d the Office f Wa I fmati ). At
the same time, David H. Pice's k  Ameica a thlgy dui g the Cld Wa
 vides detailed accu ts f the usuit a d dismissal f seveal a thlg
ists fm thei jbs f cmmu ist symathies.
Attemts t accuse a thlgists f cmlicity ith the CIA a d gve me t i t

ellige ce activities dui g the Viet am Wa yeas have tu ed u suisi gly li
ttle (althugh a thlgist Hug Nuti i as active i the stillb Pject Ca
melt).[82] Ma y a thlgists (stude ts a d teaches) ee active i the a ti
a mveme t. Numeus esluti s c dem i g the a i all its asects ee a
ssed vehelmi gly at the a ual meeti gs f the Ameica A thlgical Assc
iati (AAA).
Pfessi al a thlgical bdies fte bject t the use f a thlgy f
the be efit f the state. Thei cdes f ethics  stateme ts may scibe a th
lgists fm givi g secet biefi gs. The Assciati f Scial A thlgi
sts f the UK a d Cmm ealth (ASA) has called cetai schlashi ethically da
geus. The AAA's cue t 'Stateme t f Pfessi al Res sibility' clealy st
ates that "i elati ith thei  gve me t a d ith hst gve me ts ...
 secet eseach,  secet ets  debiefi gs f a y ki d shuld be ageed
t  give ."
A thlgists, al g ith the scial scie tists, ae ki g ith the US mil
itay as at f the US Amy's stategy i Afgha ista .[83] The Chistia Scie c
e M it ets that "Cu tei suge cy effts fcus  bette gasi g a d m
eeti g lcal eeds" i Afgha ista , u de the Huma Teai System (HTS) gam
; i additi , HTS teams ae ki g ith the US militay i Ia.[84] I 2009,
the Ameica A thlgical Assciati 's Cmmissi  the E gageme t f A th
lgy ith the US Secuity a d I tellige ce Cmmu ities eleased its fi al e
t c cludi g, i at, that, "Whe eth gahic i vestigati is detemi ed by
militay missi s, t subject t exte al evie, hee data cllecti ccus
i the c text f a, i tegated i t the gals f cu tei suge cy, a d i a
te tially cecive e vi me t all chaacteistic facts f the HTS c cet
a d its alicati it ca  l ge be c sideed a legitimate fessi al exe
cise f a thlgy. I summay, hile e stess that c stuctive e gageme t
betee a thlgy a d the militay is ssible, CEAUSSIC suggests that the AA
A emhasize the i cmatibility f HTS ith discili ay ethics a d actice f
jb seekes a d that it futhe ecg ize the blem f alli g HTS t defi e
the mea i g f "a thlgy" ithi DD."[85]
PstWld Wa II develme ts[edit]
Befe WWII Bitish 'scial a thlgy' a d Ameica 'cultual a thlgy' 
ee still disti ct taditi s. Afte the a, e ugh Bitish a d Ameica a th
lgists bed ideas a d methdlgical aaches fm  e a the that sm
e bega t seak f them cllectively as 'scicultual' a thlgy.
Basic te ds[edit]
Thee ae seveal chaacteistics that te d t u ite a thlgical k. O e 
f the ce tal chaacteistics is that a thlgy te ds t vide a cmaativ
ely me hlistic accu t f he me a a d te ds t be highly emiical.[20] The
uest f hlism leads mst a thlgists t study a aticula lace, ble
m  he me  i detail, usi g a vaiety f methds, ve a me exte sive e
mal i ma y ats f academia.
id tha
I the 1990s a d 2000s (decade), calls f claificati f hat c stitutes a c
ultue, f h a bseve k s hee his  he  cultue e ds a d a the b
egi s, a d the cucial tics i iti g a thlgy ee head. These dy ami
c elati shis, betee hat ca be bseved  the gu d, as sed t hat
ca be bseved by cmili g ma y lcal bsevati s emai fu dame tal i a y k
i d f a thlgy, hethe cultual, bilgical, li guistic  achaelgical.
Bilgical a thlgists ae i teested i bth huma vaiati [87] a d i the
ssibility f huma u ivesals (behavis, ideas  c cets shaed by vitual
ly all huma cultues).[88] They use ma y diffee t methds f study, but mde
ulati ge etics, aticia t bsevati a d the tech iues fte take a

thlgists "i t the field," hich mea s taveli g t a cmmu ity i its 
setti g, t d smethi g called "fieldk." O the bilgical  hysical side,
huma measueme ts, ge etic samles, utiti al data may be gatheed a d ubli
shed as aticles  m gahs.
Al g ith dividi g u thei ject by theetical emhasis, a thlgists ty
ically divide the ld u i t eleva t time eids a d gegahic egi s. H
uma time  Eath is divided u i t eleva t cultual taditi s based  mate
ial, such as the Palelithic a d the Nelithic, f aticula use i achaelg
eeded] Futhe cultual subdivisi s accdi g t tl tyes, such
as Oldua  Musteia  Levallisia hel achaelgists a d the a thl
gists i u desta di g maj te ds i the huma ast.[citati
eeded] A th
lgists a d gegahes shae aaches t Cultue egi s as ell, si ce ma
i g cultues is ce tal t bth scie ces. By maki g cmais s acss cultual
taditi s (time-based) a d cultual egi s (sace-based), a thlgists have
develed vaius ki ds f cmaative methd, a ce tal at f thei scie ce.
Cmm alities betee fields[edit]
Because a thlgy develed fm s ma y diffee t e teises (see Histy 
f A thlgy), i cludi g but t limited t fssil-hu ti g, exli g, dcume
tay film-maki g, ale tlgy, imatlgy, a tiuity deali gs a d cuatshi,
hillgy, etymlgy, ge etics, egi al a alysis, eth lgy, histy, hils
hy, a d eligius studies,[89][90] it is difficult t chaacteize the e tie fi
eld i a bief aticle, althugh attemts t ite histies f the e tie field
have bee made.[91]
Sme auths ague that a thlgy igi ated a d develed as the study f "
the cultues", bth i tems f time (ast scieties) a d sace (  -Euea /
 -Weste scieties).[92] F examle, the classic f uba a thlgy, Ulf H
a ez i the i tducti t his semi al Exli g the City: I uiies Tad a
Uba A thlgy me ti s that the "Thid Wld" had habitually eceived ms
t f atte ti ; a thlgists h taditi ally secialized i "the cultues
" lked f them fa aay a d stated t lk "acss the tacks"  ly i late
N thee exist ma y ks fcusi g  eles a d tics vey clse t the auth
's "hme".[94] It is als agued that the fields f study, like Histy a d
Scilgy,  the c tay fcus disti ately  the West.[95]
I Fa ce, the study f Weste scieties has bee taditi ally left t scil
gists, but this is i ceasi gly cha gi g,[96] stati g i the 1970s fm schla
s like Isac Chiva a d ju als like Teai ("fieldk"), a d develi g ith t
he ce te fu ded by Mac Aug (Le Ce te d'a thlgie des m des c temai s
, the A thlgical Reseach Ce te f C temay Scieties).
Si ce the 1980s it has becme cmm f scial a d cultual a thlgists t
set eth gahic eseach i the Nth Atla tic egi , feue tly exami i g the
c ecti s betee lcati s athe tha limiti g eseach t a si gle lcale.
Thee has als bee a elated shift tad bade i g the fcus bey d the dail
y life f di ay ele; i ceasi gly, eseach is set i setti gs such as sci
e tific labaties, scial mveme ts, gve me tal a d  gve me tal ga iz
ati s a d busi esses.[97]
See als[edit]
Bk ic
Bk: A thlgy
Mai aticle: Outli e f a thlgy
A thlgical I dex O li e (AIO)
A thlgical scie ce ficti
E gaged they

Eth lgy
Eth bilgy
Huma ethlgy
Huma evluti
Huma Relati s Aea Files
I ta gible Cultual Heitage
Oigi s f sciety
Pehistic medici e
Qualitative eseach
Thelgical a thlgy, a sub-field f thelgy
Philshical a thlgy, a sub-field f hilshy
A thlgy i Ti bege 's fu uesti s
Jum u ^ Richad Havey's 1593 Philadelhus, a defe se f the lege d f Butus
i Bitish histy, i cludes the assage "Ge ealgy  issue hich they had, At
es hich they studied, Actes hich they did. This at f Histy is amed A th
Jum u ^ Jh Kesey's 1706 editi f The Ne Wld f E glish Wds i cludes
the defi iti "A thlgy, a Discuse  Desciti f Ma ,  f a Ma 's B
Jum u ^ I Fe ch: L'A thlgie, c'est die la scie ce ui taite de l'hmm
e, est divise di aime t & avec ais e l'A atmie, ui c sidee le cs &
les aties, et e la Psychlgie, ui ale de l'Ame.[8]
Jum u ^ As Fletche i ts ut, the Fe ch sciety as by  mea s the fist t
 i clude a thlgy  ats f it as its tic. Pevius ga izati s used
the ames. The Gema A thlgical Assciati f St. Petesbug, heve,
i fact met fist i 1861, but due t the death f its fu de eve met agai .[
Jum u ^ Hu t's chice f theists des t exclude the umeus the theis
ts that ee begi i g t ublish a lage vlume f a thlgical studies.[17]
Jum u ^ "It seems t be  e f the stulates f mde a thlgy that the
e is cmlete c ti uity betee magic a d eligi . [ te 35: See, f i sta ce
, RR Maett, Faith, He, a d Chaity i Pimitive Religi , the Giffd Lectue
s (Macmilla , 1932), Lectue II, . 21 ff.] ... We have  emiical evide ce a
t all that thee eve as a age f magic that has bee flled a d sueseded
by a age f eligi ."[63]
Jum u ^ Nte that a thzlgy shuld t be c fused ith "a imal studies",
hich fte efes t a imal testi g.
Refee ces[edit]
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Futhe eadi g[edit]
Mai aticle: Bibligahy f a thlgy
Dicti aies a d e cycledias[edit]
Ba ad, Ala ; Se ce, J atha , eds. (2010). The Rutledge E cycledia f Sc
ial a d Cultual A thlgy. L d : Rutledge.
Bafield, Thmas (1997). The dicti ay f a thlgy. Hbke : Wiley-Blackel
l Publishi g..
Jacks , Jh L. (2013). Oxfd Bibligahies: A thlgy. Oxfd: Oxfd U i
vesity Pess.
Levi s , David; Embe, Melvi , eds. (1996). E cycledia f Cultual A thl
gy. Vlumes 14. Ne Yk: He y Hlt.
Rat, Nigel; Ovei g, Ja a (2007). Scial a d Cultual A thlgy: The Ke
y C cets. Ne Yk: Rutledge.
Field tes a d memis[edit]
Baley, Nigel (1983). The i ce t a thlgist: tes fm a mud hut. L d :
Bitish Museum Publicati s.
Geetz, Cliffd (1995). Afte the fact: t cu ties, fu decades,  e a th
lgist. Cambidge, MA: Havad U ivesity Pess.
Lvi-Stauss, Claude (1967). Tistes tiues. Ta slated fm the Fe ch by Jh
Russell. Ne Yk: Athe eum.
Mali ski, B isa (1967). A diay i the stict se se f the tem. Ta slated
by Nbet Gutema . Ne Yk: Hacut, Bace & Wld.
Mead, Magaet (1972). Blackbey i te: my ealie yeas. Ne Yk: William Ma
(1977). Lettes fm the field, 19251975. Ne Yk: Hae & R.
Rabi , Paul (1977). Reflecti s  fieldk i Mcc. Qua tum Bks. Bekel
ey: U ivesity f Calif ia Pess.
Asad, Talal, ed. (1973). A thlgy & the Cl ial E cu te. Atla tic Highla
ds, NJ: Huma ities Pess.
Bath, Fedik; Gi gich, A de; Paki , Rbet (2005). O e Discili e, Fu Way
s: Bitish, Gema , Fe ch, a d Ameica a thlgy. Chicag: U ivesity f Ch
icag Pess.
D'A dade, R. (1999). "The Sad Sty f A thlgy: 19501999". I Ce i-L g,
E. L. A thlgical They i Nth Ameica. Westt: Bei & Gavey.
Da ell, Reg a. (2001). I visible Ge ealgies: A Histy f Ameica ist A th
lgy. Li cl , NE: U ivesity f Nebaska Pess.
Gisi, Lucas Mac (2007). Ei bildu gskaft u d Mythlgie. Die Vesch ku g v A
thlgie u d Geschichte im 18. Jahhu det. Beli ; Ne Yk: de Guyte.
Hais, Mavi . (2001) [1968]. The ise f a thlgical they: a histy f
theies f cultue. Wal ut Ceek, CA: AltaMia Pess.
Hu t, James (1863). "I tducty Addess  the Study f A thlgy". The A t
hlgical Revie (L d : Tb e & C.) I.
Kehe, Alice B. (1998). The La d f Pehisty: A Citical Histy f Ameica A
chaelgy. Ne Yk; L d : Rutledge.
Leis, H. S. (1998). "The Miseese tati f A thlgy a d Its C seue ces
". Ameica A thlgist 100 (3): 716731. di:10.1525/aa.1998.100.3.716.
(2004). "Imagi i g A thlgy's Histy". Revies i A thlgy. v. 33.
(2005). "A thlgy, the Cld Wa, a d I tellectual Histy". I Da ell, R.; G
leach, F.W. Histies f A thlgy A ual, Vl. I.
Pels, Pete; Salemi k, Osca, eds. (2000). Cl ial Subjects: Essays  the Pac

tical Histy f A thlgy. A Ab: U ivesity f Michiga Pess.

Pice, David (2004). Theate i g A thlgy: McCathyism a d the FBI's Suveil
la ce f Activist A thlgists. Duham: Duke U ivesity Pess..
Sea-Shia, Efam (2013). The Maki g f Bitish A thlgy, 18131871. Scie ce
a d Cultue i the Ni etee th Ce tuy, 18. L d ; Vem t: Pickei g a d Chatt
Schille, Fa cis (1979). Paul Bca, Fu de f Fe ch A thlgy, Exle 
f the Bai . Bekeley: U ivesity f Calif ia Pess.
Stcki g, Gege, J. (1968). Race, Cultue a d Evluti . Ne Yk: Fee Pess.
Te che, Susa (2000). Mied Images: Ameica A thlgy a d Ameica Cult
ue, 19601980. Westt, C .: Begi & Gavey.
Wlf, Eic (1982). Eue a d the Pele Withut Histy. Bekeley; Ls A geles:
Calif ia U ivesity Pess.
Textbks a d key theetical ks[edit]
Ca ei's cicumsciti they
Cliffd, James; Macus, Gege E. (1986). Witi g cultue: the etics a d li
tics f eth gahy. Bekeley: U ivesity f Calif ia Pess.
Geetz, Cliffd (1973). The I teetati f Cultues. Ne Yk: Basic Bks.
Hais, Mavi (1997). Cultue, Pele, Natue: A I tducti t Ge eal A th
lgy (7th ed.). Bst : Ally & Bac .
Salzma , Zde k (1993). La guage, cultue, a d sciety: a i tducti t li gui
stic a thlgy. Bulde, CO: Westvie Pess.
Shede, Richad A.; LeVi e, Rbet A., eds. (1984). Cultue They: essays  m
i d, self, a d emti . Cambidge, UK: Cambidge U ivesity Pess.
Waitz, Thed (1863). I tducti t A thlgy. Ta slated by J. Fedeick
Clli gd f the A thlgical Sciety f L d . L d : L gma , Gee , L
 gma , a d Rbets.
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