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A SEMINAR ON

NANOTECHNOLOGY

By :
Chayon Mondal
UG IV
Dept. of Met. and Mat.
Engg.
Jdavpur University

TOPICS OF INTEREST
Understanding
Nanotechnology

Applications

Introduction

Principles for manufacturing

A Brief History of
Nanotechnology

Major sectors

Working Science
Tools used

Special Applications

INTRODUCTION WHAT IS
NANOTECHNOLOGY?
Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the
molecular scale.
In its original sense, 'nanotechnology' refers to the projected ability to
construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being
developed today to make complete, high performance products.

Fig. 1 - With 15,342 atoms, this parallel-shaft


speed reducer gear is one of the largest
nanomechanical devices ever modeled in atomic
detail.

HOW SMALL IS NANO SMALL?

HOW SMALL IS NANO SMALL?

HOW SMALL IS NANO SMALL?

HOW SMALL IS NANO SMALL?

HOW SMALL IS NANO SMALL?

HOW SMALL IS NANO SMALL?

HOW SMALL IS NANO SMALL?

HOW SMALL IS NANO SMALL?

HOW SMALL IS NANO SMALL?

HOW SMALL IS NANO SMALL?

HOW SMALL IS NANO SMALL?

HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT
1936: Erwin Mller, working at Siemens Research Laboratory, invented the field
emission microscope, allowing near-atomic-resolution images of materials.

1959: Richard Feynman of the California Institute of Technology gave what is


considered to be the first lecture on technology and engineering at the atomic
scale, "There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom" at an American Physical
Society meeting at Caltech.

1974: Tokyo Science University Professor Norio Taniguchi coined the term
nanotechnology to describe precision machining of materials to within
atomic-scale dimensional tolerances.

1981: Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer at IBMs Zurich lab invented the scanning
tunneling microscope, allowing scientists to "see" (create direct spatial images of)
individual atoms for the first time. Binnig and Rohrer won the Nobel Prize for this
discovery in 1986.

1985: Rice University researchers Harold Kroto, Sean OBrien, Robert Curl, and Richard Smalley discovered
the Buckminsterfullerene (C60), more commonly known as thebuckyball, which is a molecule resembling a
soccerball in shape and composed entirely of carbon, as are graphite and diamond.

1989: Don Eigler and Erhard Schweizer at IBM's Almaden


Research Center manipulated 35 individual xenon atoms to
spell out the IBM logo. This demonstration of the ability to
precisely manipulate atoms ushered in the applied use of
nanotechnology. (Image at left.)

1991: Sumio Iijima of NEC is credited with


discovering the carbon nanotube (CNT), although
there were early observations of tubular carbon
structures by others as well.

1999-2000s: Consumer products making use of nanotechnology began appearing in the marketplace, including
lightweight nanotechnology-enabled automobile bumpers that resist denting and scratching, golf balls that fly
straighter, tennis rackets that are stiffer (therefore, the ball rebounds faster), baseball bats with better flex and
"kick," nano-silver antibacterial socks, clear sunscreens, wrinkle- and stain-resistant clothing, deep-penetrating
therapeutic cosmetics, scratch-resistant glass coatings, faster-recharging batteries for cordless electric tools, and
improved displays for televisions, cell phones, and digital cameras.

WHAT MAKES THE NANOSCALE WORKING SO


SPECIAL?
Scale at which Quantum Effects dominate Properties of Materials
- properties such as melting point, fluorescence, electrical conductivity,
magnetic permeability, and chemical reactivity change as a function
of the size of the particle
Tunability - by changing the size of the particle, a scientist can literally fine-tune a
material property of interest
Tunneling - a phenomenon that enables the scanning tunneling microscope and flash
memory for computing

WHAT MAKES THE NANOSCALE WORKING SO


SPECIAL?
Scale at which much of Biology in Nature occurs
hemoglobin, the protein that carries oxygen through the body, is 5.5 nanometers in
diameter
A strand of DNA, one of the building blocks of human life, is only about 2
nanometers in diameter
the bio-barcode assay, a relatively low-cost method of detecting disease-specific
biomarkers in the blood - attaches recognition particles and DNA amplifiers to
gold nanoparticles
Can also be used for energy copying the photosynthesis process
New fields of interest - biological principles of molecular self-assembly, selforganization, and quantum mechanics to create novel computing platforms

WHAT MAKES THE NANOSCALE WORKING SO


SPECIAL?

Scale at which Surfaces and Interfaces Play a Large Role in


Material Properties and Interactions

In other words, a single cubic centimeter of cubic nanoparticles has a


total surface area one-third larger than a football field!

TOOLS USED IN NANOTECHNOLOGY


Atomic Force Microscopy
The AFM was developed in the year
1986 by Binnig, Quate and Gerber at
the IBM Research Zurich and earned
them the Nobel Prize for Physics for the
same year.
device consists of a mechanical probe
that is used to sense the material that is
placed on the surface. A highly accurate
scanning procedure then takes place,
through which the corresponding
electronic signals are generated using
piezoelectric materials.

TOOLS USED IN NANOTECHNOLOGY


Scanning Tunneling Microscope
Invented in 1981 by
can be used in different modes like air,
water, high vacuum, liquid and gas.
Can also be used in very high and low
temperatures
Working - The tip of the device is moved
closer to the sample in a controlled
manner.
At the same time a voltage difference is
brought to the tip of the device. As soon
as
the tip reaches very close to the material,
the voltage difference turns it off.

STRATEGIES TO USE NANOTECHNOLOGY

MANUFACTURING AT NANOSCALE
The key is to be able to both see and manipulate nanomaterials in order to take
advantage of their special properties.

Top-down approach
reduces large pieces of materials all the way down
to the nanoscale, like someone carving a model
airplane out of a block of wood

requires larger amounts of materials and can lead


to waste if excess material is discarded.

Bottom-up approach
creates products by building them up from atomicand molecular-scale components

can be time-consuming
Materiaks and devices are constructed from
components of their own chemically reassemble
themselves.

MANUFACTURING PROCESSES IN
NANOTECHNOLOGY
Chemical vapor deposition is a process in which
chemicals react to produce very pure, high-performance
films
Molecular beam epitaxy is one method for depositing
highly controlled thin films
Atomic layer epitaxy is a process for depositing oneatom-thick layers on a surface
Dip pen lithography is a process in which the tip of an
atomic force microscope is "dipped" into a chemical fluid
and then used to "write" on a surface, like an old
fashioned ink pen onto paper
Nanoimprint lithography is a process for creating
nanoscale features by "stamping" or "printing" them onto a
surface
Roll-to-roll processing is a high-volume process to
produce nanoscale devices on a roll of ultrathin plastic or
metal
Self-assembly describes the process in which a group of
components come together to form an ordered structure
without outside direction

A product of nanomanufacturing: A 16
gauge wire (above), approximately
1.3 millimeters in diameter, made
from carbon nanotubes that were spun
into thread. And the same wire on a
150 ply spool (below.) Courtesy of
Nanocomp.

APPLICATIONS : ADVANCED MATERIALS

Advanced materials, such as metallic glasses, nanomaterials,


biomaterials, smart materials, semiconductors, nanocomposites etc., are
used in different industrial, medical, electronic, and many other sectors
are preparedby wide variety of materials.

APPLICATIONS : EVERYDAY MATERIALS


Nano-engineered materials in automotive products include
high-power rechargeable battery systems; thermoelectric
materials for temperature control; lower-rolling-resistance
tires; high-efficiency/low-cost sensors and electronics; thin-film
smart solar panels; and fuel additives and improved catalytic
converters for cleaner exhaust and extended range.
Nanoscale thin films on eyeglasses, computer and camera
displays, windows, and other surfaces can make them waterrepellent, antireflective, self-cleaning, resistant to ultraviolet or
infrared light, antifog, antimicrobial, scratch-resistant, or
electrically conductive.
Nano-engineered materials in the food industry include
nanocomposites in food containers to minimize carbon dioxide
leakage out of carbonated beverages, or reduce oxygen
inflow, moisture outflow, or the growth of bacteria in order to
keep food fresher and safer, longer. Nanosensors built into
plastic packaging can warn against spoiled food.
Nanosensors are being developed to detect salmonella,
pesticides, and other contaminates on food before packaging
and distribution.
Nanoparticles are used increasingly in catalysis to boost
chemical reactions. This reduces the quantity of catalytic
materials necessary to produce desired results, saving money
and reducing pollutants. Two big applications are in
petroleum refining and in automotive catalytic converters.

Fig. High-resolution image of a


polymer-silicate nanocomposite. This
material has improved thermal,
mechanical, and barrier properties
and can be used in food and
beverage containers, fuel storage
tanks for aircraft and automobiles,
and in aerospace components.
(Image courtesy of NASA.)

APPLICATION : CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS


Self-healing concrete or Bio-concrete : Lime producing
bacteria mixed with concrete, which lie dormant, but when
water and sunlight seeps through cracks, become active
secreting lime and repairing the concrete. Similar to
osteoplast cells in the body.
Addition on nano-silica particles to concrete stabilizes
the Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate bond from Calcium leaching,
as well as increases compressive strength.
Addition of TiO2 in paint coatings on buildings breaks
down organic pollutants by catalytic reactions. TiO2 is also
hydrophilic, thus provides self-cleaning properties.

APPLICATIONS : SUSTAINABLE ENERGY


Prototype perovskite solar panels incorporating
nanotechnology are more efficient than standard designs in
converting sunlight to electricity, promising inexpensive solar
power in the future. The efficiency limit of perovskite solar cells
is about 31%, which approaches the ShockleyQueisser limit of
gallium arsenide (33%).
Nanostructured materials are being pursued to greatly
improve hydrogen membrane and storage materials and the
catalysts needed to realize fuel cells for alternative
transportation technologies at reduced cost. Researchers are
also working to develop a safe, lightweight hydrogen fuel tank
Prototypes of Li-ion batteries grouped with viruses (Fig.) that
have same capacity but greater efficiebcy than Li-ion batteries.
The viruses recognize and bind specifically to certain materials
(carbon nanotubes in this case), each iron phosphate nanowire
can be electrically "wired" to conducting carbon nanotube
networks. Electrons can travel along the carbon nanotube
networks, percolating throughout the electrodes to the iron
phosphate and transferring energy in a very short time.

REFERENCES :
http://www.nano.gov/
http://news.mit.edu/2009/virus-battery-0402
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/innovation/with-this-self-healingconcrete-buildings-repair-themselves-180955474/?no-ist
Mechanical Alloying M. Sherif El-Eskandarany
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=kwjGAgAAQBAJ&printsec=front
cover#v=onepage&q&f=false
Wikipedia

http://www.circuitstoday.com/nanotechnology-tools-and-instruments

THANK YOU.