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The improvement of efficiency, total harmonic distortion (THD), and cogging torque in outer rotor permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is the main concern in this paper. The paper focuses on handling the parameters of design, i.e. the geometry of the stator, the polar arc percentage, the air gap, the skew angle in rotor poles, the pole length, and the core steel class. The modification of geometric parameters related to the stator’s inductance is nalyzed. Seventy-six cases are simulated, and results provide useful information for
designing this type of machines. The study is carried out in a 5 kW PMSG.

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Research Article

Javier de la Cruz, Juan M. Ramirez* and Luis Leyva

Rotor Permanent Magnet Generators to Improve

THD, Efficiency, and Cogging Torque

Abstract: The improvement of efficiency, total harmonic

distortion (THD), and cogging torque in outer rotor permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is the

main concern in this paper. The paper focuses on handling the parameters of design, i.e. the geometry of the

stator, the polar arc percentage, the air gap, the skew

angle in rotor poles, the pole length, and the core steel

class. The modification of geometric parameters related

to the stators inductance is analyzed. Seventy-six cases

are simulated, and results provide useful information for

designing this type of machines. The study is carried out

in a 5 kW PMSG.

Keywords: electrical machines, finite element method,

permanent magnet synchronous machines

DOI 10.1515/ijeeps-2014-0062

1 Introduction

The energy conversion efficiency of electrical machines is

an important parameter to quantify energy production in

terms of cost. Efficiency depends on the machines physical capacity; that is, it is expected that bigger the

machines, higher the efficiency. However, increasing

physical size of machines implies an increment in the

cost. Therefore, there is a trade-off between rating, cost,

and the reachable physical size.

There is not a standard related to the efficiency of

multi-pole permanent magnet machines. Thus, in this

*Corresponding author: Juan M. Ramirez, Department of Electrical

Engineering, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados, Av del

Bosque 1145 Col El Bajio, Zapopan, Jalisco 45019, Mexico, E-mail:

jramirez@gdl.cinvestav.mx

Javier de la Cruz, Department of Electrical Engineering, Cinvestav del

IPN, Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico, E-mail: jcruz@gdl.cinvestav.mx

Luis Leyva, Department of Electrical Engineering, Cinvestav, Jalisco,

Mexico, E-mail: Luis.Leyva@cts-design.com

5.5 kW, as indicated in IE2 high premium efficiency,

was taken as reference [1]. An efficiency of 89.2% for a

two-pole machine and 88.0% for a six-pole machine is

desirable. For the 5.5 kW induction motors, the NEMA

Premium standard [1] indicates an efficiency of 89.5%

for two-pole machines and 91.0% for six-pole machines.

The latter efficiency is used along this document as

reference.

Some authors have analyzed modification to the geometry of the permanent magnet synchronous generator

(PMSG) in order to improve its efficiency. For example,

Ducar and Ion [2] carried out a redesign of a PMSG. The

starting point is a commercial machine that has been

transformed from an induction machine to a permanent

magnet machine. They modify the machines length and

turns-per-coil, achieving an increment of efficiency from

89% to 90.2%. This machine also increases the output

power from 2,438 W to 2,616 W. In reference [3], the

geometric modification is made in a PMSG of 600 W.

The authors change the rotors length and diameter, the

polar arc percentage, and the pole length, and the efficiency value reaches 89.5%. An optimization problem to

design a PMSG is formulated in reference [4]; the aim is to

maximize the annual energy production and minimize

the permanent magnet volumes.

The main modified parameters are turns-per-coil,

wire gauge, the rotors diameter, polar arc percentage,

and the residual magnetic flux in a machine of 1,625 W.

The efficiency obtained becomes 93.4% with an output

power of 2,989 W. The authors proposed locate 1,152

wires-per-phase, and there is no evidence that this task

is possible. A parameterized design approach, which

combines analytical and finite element analysis (FEA),

is proposed in reference [5]. First, authors minimize the

losses and optimize the dimensions and flux density

distributions of the stator using an analytical model.

Then they use FEA for modeling the Halbach array

with permanent magnets. In reference [6] an optimization algorithm is used to maximize the air gap power

Download Date | 9/4/14 6:01 PM

stators core. The modified parameters are the inner

and outer diameters of stator, length of stator, tooth

width, and tooth depth. A 3.5 kW PMSG constituted

by several three-phase systems is presented in [7].

Increasing the number of phases improves the efficiency

and yields fewer harmonic components in the voltage

waveform [7]. This strategy is suitable to design

large-scale direct-driven wind turbines.

Alternatively, in order to study and to improve the

PMSG efficiency, control schemes may be implemented

[814]. Authors focus the attention on the power converter control for improving the overall generators

efficiency.

One important issue in this paper is the harmonic

components in the induced voltage. This phenomenon

reduces the rotating machines efficiency and produces

heat in the stator core, noise, and distortions in the output voltage waveform. Thus, the voltage total harmonic

distortion (VTHD) should be maintained at the minimum

value [15].

Usually, the total harmonic distortion (THD) is used

as an index to quantify the waveforms distortions [16].

The IEEE-519 standard [17] defines the distortion in order

to quantify the non-fundamental frequency energy of the

signal. The standard defines

q

P

H

THD

h2

V1

Vh2

components contained in the signal under study.

The present study uses the first 19 components, H

19. In this paper, eq. (1) is used to calculate the VTHD.

The standard ANSY/NEMA MG 1-2003 [15] specifies a

VTHD fewer than 5% in the line-to-line open-circuit

voltage.

these applications because the precise physical parameters of materials are required, besides the correct

machines geometry and the ability to use FEA and CAD

software. In this paper, the strategy followed to design a

PMSG is summarized, emphasizing the more important

issues. A previous experience on a 100 W synchronous

machine indicates that the strategy becomes promising,

Figure 1 [18], where the prototype of an outer rotor PMSG

is coupled to an induction motor and to a vertical wind

turbine. Figure 2 shows simulation and actual results on

a two-phase prototype; the induced voltage is depicted.

The maximum error between actual and simulated results

is around 4%.

In the following, a methodology for designing outer

rotor electric generators suitable for small wind turbines

is proposed. Particularly, the main aim is to study the

VTHD, efficiency, cogging torque, and the output power

of the machine with respect to changes in the stators

geometry (slot bottom diameter, yoke length, slot depth,

teeths width, and outer opening of the slot) and the

rotors geometry (polar arc percentage, pole length, and

skew angle). The study uses four different silicon steel

types in the stator construction. Thus, in this study 76

cases are examined.

2 Specifications

Using conventional methods [19] and the previous experience [18, 20], an outer rotor generator for a wind turbine

application is designed. The prototypes specifications

are summarized in Table 1. Notice that the expected

efficiency is 92.7%, which is bigger than that specified

in the NEMA Premium standard [1].

PMSM

(a)

(b)

Figure 1 Outer rotor permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) prototype: (a) testing and (b) coupled to a vertical wind turbine

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Figure 2 Induced voltage on a 400 W PMSG two-phase prototype: actual and simulated results

Table 1

P

Nominal power

350 rpm

Poles

30 Structural elements Steel SCM35

Stator slots

72 Magnets

Neodymium N35

Phases

3 Core

Silicon steel, M19

Cogging torque 0.03 N m Efficiency

92.7%

illustrated in Figure 3. The stators geometry includes: (i)

slot bottom diameter t; (ii) yoke length y; (iii) slot depth

l; (iv) teeth width d; and (v) outer opening of the slot s.

The rotors geometry includes: (i) polar arc percentage p;

(ii) pole length i; and (iii) skew angle p. Figure 4 indicates the skew angle for the mounted magnets on the

rotor. The electric circuit implemented in the FEA software to estimate the devices efficiency is depicted in

Figure 5.

parameter are made individually; i.e. there is no combination in the modified parameters. Additionally, constraints

on physical dimensions are taken into account to prevent

non-pragmatic results, for instance, taking care of the

number of wires that is possible to allocate into the slot.

p

a

3 Methodology

l

d

t

main parameters affecting each issue (efficiency, VTHD,

inductance for the stator winding. With this purpose a

routine of the FEA program by JMAG is used. The coil

inductance is used to run a study under load conditions

through JMAG. From simulation, the input average torque and the average power delivered by the winding are

estimated in order to calculate the efficiency. The flowchart is displayed in Figure 6.

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Design parameters

Modify design

Estimation of coil

inductance:

Run simulation under

load conditions

Torque and winding power estimation:

and

of the generator is estimated. With this purpose the FEA

program from JMAG is used. The induced voltage signal

is handled by a MatLab FFT routine for calculating all

the frequency components contained in the voltage signal. With such information and eq. (1), the VTHD is

estimated; Figure 7 shows the corresponding flowchart.

Efficiency calculation:

Yes

Change

No

END

Figure 6 The flowchart for the efficiency calculation

defined as the torque due to the magnetic attraction

between the rotor magnet and the stator teeth [21]. This

can be expressed in terms of the rate of change of reluctance related to the rotor position [21],

X2p 1 dR

Tcog

2t

2

1

2

d

where t is the total flux in the air gap, R is the

reluctance of the flux path, p is the number of pole

pairs, and is the rotor position in mechanical

degrees.

Table 2 presents the values of the modified physical parameters. Case 1 corresponds to the machine with the original

designed parameters. Cases 2 and 3 correspond to the

modifications on the diameter of the bottom slot, t. Cases

4 and 5 correspond to the modifications on the yoke length,

y. Cases 6 and 7 correspond to the modifications on the

polar arc percentage p. The polar arc percentage is

achieved by modifying the rotors diameter. This modification forces to change the slot depth l for maintaining the

original air gap. Cases 8 and 9 are related to variations on

the teeth width d. Cases 10 and 11 stand for the modifications on the air gap a. This is achieved by changing the

outer diameter of the stator. Cases 12 and 13 correspond to

modifications on the number of electrical wires-per-slot S.

For each modification, change of the wire gauge G to use

the available area-per-slot is required. Case 14 tests the

variation on the enlargement of slot depth l. Cases 15

and 16 correspond to modifications on the skew angle at

the poles p. Finally, cases 1719 find out about the reductions in the pole length i.

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Figure 9 shows the stators coil inductance for the 76 case

studies.

Notice that only cases 12, 13, and 19 exhibit changes

higher than 20% in the stators inductance with respect to

the base case (case 1). In case 12 the number of wires-perslot changes from 33 to 29. In case 13 wires-per-slot

increases from 33 to 37. If the number of wires-per-slot

changes, the winding inductance is modified in relation

of the squared number of phase wires S [22],

Design parameters

Modify design

Estimation of induced voltage:

Yes

No

END

3.5

materials for the stator core. Figure 8 depicts the properties of the used materials [22].

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

2.5

2

M14

M19

M27

M43

1.5

1

0.5

1

3

4

5

6

Magnetic field intensity (H)

9

10 5

Millimeters

Case

Case

Case

Case

Case

Case

Case

Case

Case

Case

Case

Case

Case

Case

Case

Case

Case

Case

Case

0 0

according to the strategy above described. Each case is

Table 2

Changes?

S2

<

5.98

5.98

5.98

7.00

5.00

5.98

5.98

5.98

5.98

5.98

5.98

5.98

5.98

5.98

5.98

5.98

5.98

5.98

5.98

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.0

2.0

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

1.5

26.6

26.6

26.6

26.6

26.6

29.9

23.9

26.6

26.6

26.6

26.6

26.6

26.6

28.4

26.6

26.6

26.6

26.6

26.6

1.70

1.70

1.70

1.70

1.70

1.70

1.70

1.85

2.00

1.70

1.70

1.70

1.70

1.70

1.70

1.70

1.70

1.70

1.70

4.0

3.6

4.4

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

12.7

12.7

12.7

12.7

12.7

12.7

12.7

12.7

12.7

12.7

12.7

12.7

12.7

12.7

12.7

12.7

9.5

6.3

3.2

p %

Core

55

55

55

55

55

50

60

55

55

55

55

55

55

55

55

55

55

55

55

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

33

29

37

33

33

33

33

33

33

14

14

14

14

14

14

14

14

14

14

14

13

15

14

14

14

14

14

14

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

6

0

0

0

Download Date | 9/4/14 6:01 PM

1.80 T, this gives rise to 60% of reluctance decrement,

Figure 10 [23]. Thus, according to eq. (3), the reluctance

decrement produces an increment of the inductance value,

having the same number of turns-per-coil.

For the case studies, Figure 11 illustrates the attained

efficiency. Most of the cases exhibit efficiencies near to

92%. Case 12 presents 94%, and case 13 a value of 89%.

Case 12 is associated with the smaller value of resistanceper-phase (0.85 ), with 310 W of winding losses. Case 13

has 1.73 of resistance-per-phase with 600 W of winding

losses. The remaining cases exhibit 1.18 of resistanceper-phase. The winding losses for cases 111 and 1417

become 430 W. For cases 18 and 19, the winding losses

become 330 W and 180 W, respectively. Cases 18 and 19

yield an output power lower than cases 117, Figure 12.

Figure 12. For the output power of a PMSG, three parameters have major influence. The first one is the air gap

(a). In case 10, it is modified from 1.5 mm to 1.0 mm,

producing an increment of 17% in the output power. The

second is the pole length. In cases 1719, the pole length

is decreased 25%, 50%, and 75%, respectively. These

variations originate output power decrements of 7%,

24%, and 58%, respectively. The third relevant parameter

is the slot bottom diameter (t). In case 3 the output

power is reduced 7.5% when t is increased 10%. The

rest of the case studies have changes for around 5% in

the output power.

In order to estimate the output power curve of the

PMSG, five simulations are made in six different velocity

steps; Figure 13 presents these results.

104

5

4.5

M14

M19

M27

M43

Reluctance (H1)

3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

Magnetic flux density (B)

1.9

Download Date | 9/4/14 6:01 PM

6,000

5,500

Output

100 rpm

150 rpm

200 rpm

250 rpm

300 rpm

350 rpm

5,000

4,500

4,000

3,500

3,000

2,500

2,000

1,500

1,000

500

0

0

100

150

200

250

Angular velocity (rpm)

300

350

Download Date | 9/4/14 6:01 PM

3.5 VTHD

magnetic flux density reaches 1.97 T. Saturation modifies

the distortion of the induced voltage waveform.

For cases 15 and 16 the modification of the skew

angle creates a reduction of the output voltage up to

10%. That is, it decreases from 140.4 V to 126.4 V; however, there is a reduction in the VTHD. Cases 1719 are

quite important; the pole length is decreased (25%, 50%,

and 75%). Considering case 1 (100%) as the base case, for

case 17 the output voltage magnitude remains constant

while the VTHD is reduced 27%. Similarly, for case 18 the

output voltage magnitude remains constant while the

VTHD is reduced 78%. For case 19 the output voltage

waveform becomes triangular, its magnitude is reduced

and its VTHD is increased 102%. Figure 16 depicts the

output voltage waveforms for cases 1 and 1719.

are carried out by following the method detailed in Section

3.3 (see Figure 7). Figure 14 shows the VTHD for the 76 case

studies. Notice that the proposed modifications vary the

VTHD in the output voltage with respect to case 1.

Materials also influence the VTHD. Figure 14 shows

that material M14 produces the best performance in

almost all cases. On the other hand, material M27 yields

the worst performance for almost all the case studies, due

to the fact that this material generates the smallest magnetic flux density. However, in case 6 (polar arc percentage modification) the material M27 presents better

performance than material M14. This happens because

the material M14 exhibits magnetic flux density

0.12

M14

M19

M27

M43

0.1

VTHD (%)

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Case of study

2.2

2.1

2

Saturation M14

1.9

1.8

M14

M19

M27

M43

1.7

1.6

1.5

1

3

4

5

Magnetic field intensity (H)

7

104

Download Date | 9/4/14 6:01 PM

130

Case 1

Case 17

Case 18

Case 19

Voltage (V)

90

50

10

30

70

110

0

0.004

0.008

Time (s)

0.01

0.016

Figure 16 Output voltage waveforms for cases 1 and 1719 decreasing the pole length (steel M14)

the material M14 is used in the construction of the stator.

Waveforms are arranged starting with case study 7, which

produces the biggest VTHD, up to case 18, which

achieves the smallest VTHD.

Figure 18(a) and (b) presents the harmonic components

of the generated voltage waveforms for the worst (10.34%,

case 7) and best (0.80%, case 18) cases. Nineteen harmonics are depicted. Notice that for case 7, the third harmonic

exhibits the largest contribution to the VTHD, while in case

18 the large contribution to the VTHD stems from the fifth

and ninth harmonics. Case 18 with 0.80% fulfills the VTHD

required by the ANSY/NEMA MG1-2003 standard, which

requires a maximum of 5% [1].

Cogging torque is produced by the interaction of the

magnet poles and the stator core. For a PMSG the starting

torque has an increment of 33% with respect to the cogging torque [24]. The cogging torque of a typical 5 kW

commercial machines ranges between 2 N m and 3 N m

[2426]. Figure 19 shows the cogging torque for all case

studies in Table 2.

The cogging torque increases from four to five times

for the following modifications:

Polar arc percentage reduction from 55% to 50%.

Air gap reduction from 1.5 mm to 1.0 mm.

Slot depth increase from 26.6 mm to 28.4 mm.

On the other hand, increasing the air gap from 1.5 mm to

2.0 mm, the cogging torque decreases about 50%. The

cogging torque gradually decreases when a skew angle in

the magnetic poles is applied.

Making a correlation of the results of the last sections, it is possible to claim that,

it is not appropriate to reduce the pole length (cases

1719) to reduce the VTHD because the output power

will decrease until 58%.

Download Date | 9/4/14 6:01 PM

10

12

10

Case 7 M14

8

6

4

2

0

9

11

13

Harmonic order

(a)

15

17

19

10

0.8

Case 18 M14

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

1

9

11

13

Harmonic order

(b)

15

17

19

Figure 18 (a) Harmonics of voltage with steel type M14, case 7 and (b) harmonics of voltage with steel type M14, case 2

0.4

M14

M19

M27

M43

0.35

Torque (N m)

0.3

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

0

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Case of studies

Download Date | 9/4/14 6:01 PM

output power will increase without modifying the

VTHD. However, the cogging torque will increase

and the designer must verify that its torque value is

as low as possible.

if designer wishes to reduce the VTHD and the cogging torque without modifying the efficiency and

output power of machine, a good strategy is to

apply a skew angle to the magnetic poles.

there are parameters that improve some objective function while worst some other(s). In this application, it is

evident that some parameters improve some objectives,

for instance output power. However, the same parameters

may negatively affect the VTHD or some other objective.

Thus, the designer must make decisions to attain the best

global solution. Thus, the case studies are aimed to highlight the main factors that affect the performance of a

PMSG, in order to reach an improved design with respect

to harmonic content, efficiency, and output power. With

respect to reference [20], the main differences are: (i)

studies are carried out under load conditions (Figure 5);

(ii) the starting torque is included; and (iii) the inductances are calculated for each case. Figure 20 shows the

resulting prototype.

4 Conclusions

The aim of this research was to find some practical rules

to improve designs of outer rotor PMSMs, to reach an

11

and the cogging torque.

It is assumed that an original device that fulfills the

functional requirements in terms of output power is available. Once a functional design is available, it is recommended to run a set of simulations where geometries are

varied. It is necessary to modify the geometries around

the original ones, then run the simulations and analyze

the results. From these, select the better candidates (geometries), to be modified, and execute new studies. This

process gives rise to the better reachable dimensions, in

terms of efficiency and output power.

For the analyzed cases, only changes in coil turns

and wire gauge increase the machine efficiency from 92%

to 94%. Both values are higher than those recommended

in NEMA Premium standard (91%) for induction motors.

The analysis in output power becomes more important in this study because three geometric parameters

produce relevant changes in output power, from 7% to

58%. These parameters become (i) coil turns and wire

gauge, (ii) slot bottom diameter, and (iii) pole length.

Changes in turns of coils and wire gauge were modifications that yield output power increments. This is the

best way to improve the PMSG design, because the implementation cost becomes lower, compared with the other

proposed cases. In this research, it was found that the

optimal turns are 29 and the wire gauge becomes 13.

The proposed variations in slot bottom diameter and

pole length produce output power decrements; this happens because when the slot bottom diameter is increased,

the magnetic flux density is limited. Besides, when the

pole length is decreased, the magnetic energy (maximum

energy, J/m3) is decreased. Therefore output power drops

for cases 1719, where the pole length is reduced 25%,

50%, and 75%, respectively.

For the analyzed cases, four geometry modifications

give rise to a VTHD within the standard, i.e. lower than

5%: (i) pole length, (ii) slot bottom diameter, (iii) polar

arc percentage, and (iv) pole skew angle.

Notice that the pole length is an important parameter

to work with. The right commitment between the length,

magnitude, and the output voltage waveform renders the

best value for the VTHD.

It was found that the optimal relationship between

the slot bottom diameter and the teeth of the stator is

50%. That is, the total area fulfilled for the slot and the

teeth must be shared equally. However, in some cases

such modification requires the redesign of the stator and

consequently the rotors modification too. The designer

must be careful in executing this type of modification in

Download Date | 9/4/14 6:01 PM

12

winding.

For the case studies and the selected magnets, a

polar arc percentage of 50% gave the best results in

terms of the VTHD. For steel M19 and M27, an appropriate

polar arc percentage becomes 50%.

The modification of the pole skew angle gave good

results for the VTHD. However, it is important to assess

this modification with respect to output power, since

both parameters are closely related.

For silicon steel M14, the magnetic flux density in the

stator core must be lower than 1.9 T to render an acceptable VTHD value.

Nomenclature

p

i

a

s

t

y

l

d

S

Vn

FEA

B

N

I

A

f

H

p

FFT

t

cp

Cw

R

G

<

L

VTHD

PMSG

Pole length

Air gap

Outer opening of the slot

Slot bottom diameter

Yoke length

Slot depth

Teeth width

Conductors per phase (coil turns)

Magnitude of voltage for nth harmonic

Finite element analysis

Magnetic flux density

Material permeability

Signal samples

Current in the coil

Cross-sectional area of the core

Magnetic flux

Harmonic component

Skew angle in poles

Fast Fourier transform

Total flux in the air gap

Chord factor of winding

Winding constant

Reluctance of flux path

Rotor position in mechanical degrees

Gauge of wire

Reluctance

Inductance

Voltage total harmonic distortion

Permanent magnet synchronous generator

References

1. WEQ. Energy efficient programs. Available at: http://www.Weg.

Net/Green/_Files/Energy-Efficiency-Global-Directives_-_Presen

tation.Pdf, August 2013.

2. Ducar IM, Ion CP. Design of a PMSG for micro hydro power

plants, international conference on optimization of electrical

and electronic equipment (OPTIM). Brasov, Romania, 2426

May 2012.

low-speed permanent magnet synchronous generator. In:

International conference on electrical machines and systems,

Wuhan, China. 1720 Oct 2008.

4. Faiz J, Ebrahimi BM, Rajabi-Sebdani M, Khan A. Optimal design

of permanent magnet synchronous generator for wind energy

conversion considering annual energy input and magnet

volume. In: International conference on sustainable power

generation and supply, Nanjing, 67 Apr 2009.

5. Wang T, Wang Q. Optimization design of a permanent magnet

synchronous generator for a potential energy recovery system.

IEEE Trans Energy Conversion 2012;27(4):856863.

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