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International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems 2014; aop

Research Article
Javier de la Cruz, Juan M. Ramirez* and Luis Leyva

Modification of Geometric Parameters in Outer


Rotor Permanent Magnet Generators to Improve
THD, Efficiency, and Cogging Torque
Abstract: The improvement of efficiency, total harmonic
distortion (THD), and cogging torque in outer rotor permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is the
main concern in this paper. The paper focuses on handling the parameters of design, i.e. the geometry of the
stator, the polar arc percentage, the air gap, the skew
angle in rotor poles, the pole length, and the core steel
class. The modification of geometric parameters related
to the stators inductance is analyzed. Seventy-six cases
are simulated, and results provide useful information for
designing this type of machines. The study is carried out
in a 5 kW PMSG.
Keywords: electrical machines, finite element method,
permanent magnet synchronous machines
DOI 10.1515/ijeeps-2014-0062

1 Introduction
The energy conversion efficiency of electrical machines is
an important parameter to quantify energy production in
terms of cost. Efficiency depends on the machines physical capacity; that is, it is expected that bigger the
machines, higher the efficiency. However, increasing
physical size of machines implies an increment in the
cost. Therefore, there is a trade-off between rating, cost,
and the reachable physical size.
There is not a standard related to the efficiency of
multi-pole permanent magnet machines. Thus, in this
*Corresponding author: Juan M. Ramirez, Department of Electrical
Engineering, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados, Av del
Bosque 1145 Col El Bajio, Zapopan, Jalisco 45019, Mexico, E-mail:
jramirez@gdl.cinvestav.mx
Javier de la Cruz, Department of Electrical Engineering, Cinvestav del
IPN, Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico, E-mail: jcruz@gdl.cinvestav.mx
Luis Leyva, Department of Electrical Engineering, Cinvestav, Jalisco,
Mexico, E-mail: Luis.Leyva@cts-design.com

paper the efficiency value for induction motors of


5.5 kW, as indicated in IE2 high premium efficiency,
was taken as reference [1]. An efficiency of 89.2% for a
two-pole machine and 88.0% for a six-pole machine is
desirable. For the 5.5 kW induction motors, the NEMA
Premium standard [1] indicates an efficiency of 89.5%
for two-pole machines and 91.0% for six-pole machines.
The latter efficiency is used along this document as
reference.
Some authors have analyzed modification to the geometry of the permanent magnet synchronous generator
(PMSG) in order to improve its efficiency. For example,
Ducar and Ion [2] carried out a redesign of a PMSG. The
starting point is a commercial machine that has been
transformed from an induction machine to a permanent
magnet machine. They modify the machines length and
turns-per-coil, achieving an increment of efficiency from
89% to 90.2%. This machine also increases the output
power from 2,438 W to 2,616 W. In reference [3], the
geometric modification is made in a PMSG of 600 W.
The authors change the rotors length and diameter, the
polar arc percentage, and the pole length, and the efficiency value reaches 89.5%. An optimization problem to
design a PMSG is formulated in reference [4]; the aim is to
maximize the annual energy production and minimize
the permanent magnet volumes.
The main modified parameters are turns-per-coil,
wire gauge, the rotors diameter, polar arc percentage,
and the residual magnetic flux in a machine of 1,625 W.
The efficiency obtained becomes 93.4% with an output
power of 2,989 W. The authors proposed locate 1,152
wires-per-phase, and there is no evidence that this task
is possible. A parameterized design approach, which
combines analytical and finite element analysis (FEA),
is proposed in reference [5]. First, authors minimize the
losses and optimize the dimensions and flux density
distributions of the stator using an analytical model.
Then they use FEA for modeling the Halbach array
with permanent magnets. In reference [6] an optimization algorithm is used to maximize the air gap power

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J. de la Cruz et al.: Modification of Geometric Parameters in Outer Rotor PMSGs

transferred under tangential stress constraint in the


stators core. The modified parameters are the inner
and outer diameters of stator, length of stator, tooth
width, and tooth depth. A 3.5 kW PMSG constituted
by several three-phase systems is presented in [7].
Increasing the number of phases improves the efficiency
and yields fewer harmonic components in the voltage
waveform [7]. This strategy is suitable to design
large-scale direct-driven wind turbines.
Alternatively, in order to study and to improve the
PMSG efficiency, control schemes may be implemented
[814]. Authors focus the attention on the power converter control for improving the overall generators
efficiency.
One important issue in this paper is the harmonic
components in the induced voltage. This phenomenon
reduces the rotating machines efficiency and produces
heat in the stator core, noise, and distortions in the output voltage waveform. Thus, the voltage total harmonic
distortion (VTHD) should be maintained at the minimum
value [15].
Usually, the total harmonic distortion (THD) is used
as an index to quantify the waveforms distortions [16].
The IEEE-519 standard [17] defines the distortion in order
to quantify the non-fundamental frequency energy of the
signal. The standard defines
q
P
H

THD

h2

V1

Vh2

where h is the index numbering the different harmonic


components contained in the signal under study.
The present study uses the first 19 components, H
19. In this paper, eq. (1) is used to calculate the VTHD.
The standard ANSY/NEMA MG 1-2003 [15] specifies a
VTHD fewer than 5% in the line-to-line open-circuit
voltage.

It is a complicated task to reach enough precision in


these applications because the precise physical parameters of materials are required, besides the correct
machines geometry and the ability to use FEA and CAD
software. In this paper, the strategy followed to design a
PMSG is summarized, emphasizing the more important
issues. A previous experience on a 100 W synchronous
machine indicates that the strategy becomes promising,
Figure 1 [18], where the prototype of an outer rotor PMSG
is coupled to an induction motor and to a vertical wind
turbine. Figure 2 shows simulation and actual results on
a two-phase prototype; the induced voltage is depicted.
The maximum error between actual and simulated results
is around 4%.
In the following, a methodology for designing outer
rotor electric generators suitable for small wind turbines
is proposed. Particularly, the main aim is to study the
VTHD, efficiency, cogging torque, and the output power
of the machine with respect to changes in the stators
geometry (slot bottom diameter, yoke length, slot depth,
teeths width, and outer opening of the slot) and the
rotors geometry (polar arc percentage, pole length, and
skew angle). The study uses four different silicon steel
types in the stator construction. Thus, in this study 76
cases are examined.

2 Specifications
Using conventional methods [19] and the previous experience [18, 20], an outer rotor generator for a wind turbine
application is designed. The prototypes specifications
are summarized in Table 1. Notice that the expected
efficiency is 92.7%, which is bigger than that specified
in the NEMA Premium standard [1].

PMSM

(a)

(b)

Figure 1 Outer rotor permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) prototype: (a) testing and (b) coupled to a vertical wind turbine

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J. de la Cruz et al.: Modification of Geometric Parameters in Outer Rotor PMSGs

Figure 2 Induced voltage on a 400 W PMSG two-phase prototype: actual and simulated results

Table 1

Expected parameters on the 5.0 kW prototype

P
Nominal power

5.0 kW Rated speed

350 rpm

Poles
30 Structural elements Steel SCM35
Stator slots
72 Magnets
Neodymium N35
Phases
3 Core
Silicon steel, M19
Cogging torque 0.03 N m Efficiency
92.7%

The main physical parameters of the stator and rotor are


illustrated in Figure 3. The stators geometry includes: (i)
slot bottom diameter t; (ii) yoke length y; (iii) slot depth
l; (iv) teeth width d; and (v) outer opening of the slot s.
The rotors geometry includes: (i) polar arc percentage p;
(ii) pole length i; and (iii) skew angle p. Figure 4 indicates the skew angle for the mounted magnets on the
rotor. The electric circuit implemented in the FEA software to estimate the devices efficiency is depicted in
Figure 5.

Figure 4 Skew angle p for the magnetic poles

cogging torque, and output power), variations on each


parameter are made individually; i.e. there is no combination in the modified parameters. Additionally, constraints
on physical dimensions are taken into account to prevent
non-pragmatic results, for instance, taking care of the
number of wires that is possible to allocate into the slot.

p
a

3 Methodology

3.1 Efficiency and output power analysis

l
d
t

Figure 3 Main geometric parameters of an outer rotor PMSG

In this study, in order to obtain the information about the


main parameters affecting each issue (efficiency, VTHD,

The analysis begins through the estimation of the coils


inductance for the stator winding. With this purpose a
routine of the FEA program by JMAG is used. The coil
inductance is used to run a study under load conditions
through JMAG. From simulation, the input average torque and the average power delivered by the winding are
estimated in order to calculate the efficiency. The flowchart is displayed in Figure 6.

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J. de la Cruz et al.: Modification of Geometric Parameters in Outer Rotor PMSGs

Figure 5 An electric circuit for designing purposes

3.2 VTHD analysis

Design parameters
Modify design
Estimation of coil
inductance:
Run simulation under
load conditions
Torque and winding power estimation:
and

In this case, the induced voltage in the winding terminals


of the generator is estimated. With this purpose the FEA
program from JMAG is used. The induced voltage signal
is handled by a MatLab FFT routine for calculating all
the frequency components contained in the voltage signal. With such information and eq. (1), the VTHD is
estimated; Figure 7 shows the corresponding flowchart.

3.3 Case studies


Efficiency calculation:
Yes
Change
No
END
Figure 6 The flowchart for the efficiency calculation

For permanent magnet machines, the cogging torque is


defined as the torque due to the magnetic attraction
between the rotor magnet and the stator teeth [21]. This
can be expressed in terms of the rate of change of reluctance related to the rotor position [21],
X2p  1 dR
Tcog
 2t
2
1
2
d
where t is the total flux in the air gap, R is the
reluctance of the flux path, p is the number of pole
pairs, and is the rotor position in mechanical
degrees.

Table 2 presents the values of the modified physical parameters. Case 1 corresponds to the machine with the original
designed parameters. Cases 2 and 3 correspond to the
modifications on the diameter of the bottom slot, t. Cases
4 and 5 correspond to the modifications on the yoke length,
y. Cases 6 and 7 correspond to the modifications on the
polar arc percentage p. The polar arc percentage is
achieved by modifying the rotors diameter. This modification forces to change the slot depth l for maintaining the
original air gap. Cases 8 and 9 are related to variations on
the teeth width d. Cases 10 and 11 stand for the modifications on the air gap a. This is achieved by changing the
outer diameter of the stator. Cases 12 and 13 correspond to
modifications on the number of electrical wires-per-slot S.
For each modification, change of the wire gauge G to use
the available area-per-slot is required. Case 14 tests the
variation on the enlargement of slot depth l. Cases 15
and 16 correspond to modifications on the skew angle at
the poles p. Finally, cases 1719 find out about the reductions in the pole length i.

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J. de la Cruz et al.: Modification of Geometric Parameters in Outer Rotor PMSGs

simulated with four different steels for the stator core.


Figure 9 shows the stators coil inductance for the 76 case
studies.
Notice that only cases 12, 13, and 19 exhibit changes
higher than 20% in the stators inductance with respect to
the base case (case 1). In case 12 the number of wires-perslot changes from 33 to 29. In case 13 wires-per-slot
increases from 33 to 37. If the number of wires-per-slot
changes, the winding inductance is modified in relation
of the squared number of phase wires S [22],

Design parameters
Modify design
Estimation of induced voltage:

Frequency components calculation: FFT

VTHD calculation: THD

Cogging torque estimation

Yes

No
END

3.5

Figure 7 The flowchart for the VTHD calculation

Each case is simulated using four different silicon steel


materials for the stator core. Figure 8 depicts the properties of the used materials [22].

3.4 Efficiency and output power

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

2.5
2

M14
M19
M27
M43

1.5
1
0.5
1

3
4
5
6
Magnetic field intensity (H)

9
10 5

Figure 8 Magnetization curves used for the stator core

Summary of case studies


Millimeters

Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case
Case

0 0

Table 2 summarizes the case studies, which are carried out


according to the strategy above described. Each case is

Table 2

where L is the inductance in Henry, and < is the reluctance in A-turns/weber.

Magnetic f lux density (B)

Changes?

S2
<

5.98
5.98
5.98
7.00
5.00
5.98
5.98
5.98
5.98
5.98
5.98
5.98
5.98
5.98
5.98
5.98
5.98
5.98
5.98

1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.0
2.0
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5

26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6
29.9
23.9
26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6
28.4
26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6
26.6

1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.85
2.00
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70
1.70

4.0
3.6
4.4
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0

12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
12.7
9.5
6.3
3.2

p %

Core

55
55
55
55
55
50
60
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55
55

33
33
33
33
33
33
33
33
33
33
33
29
37
33
33
33
33
33
33

14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
13
15
14
14
14
14
14
14

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
6
0
0
0

M14, M19, M27, and M43

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J. de la Cruz et al.: Modification of Geometric Parameters in Outer Rotor PMSGs

Figure 9 Stators inductance for all case studies

In case 19, the magnetic flux density drops from 1.92 T to


1.80 T, this gives rise to 60% of reluctance decrement,
Figure 10 [23]. Thus, according to eq. (3), the reluctance
decrement produces an increment of the inductance value,
having the same number of turns-per-coil.
For the case studies, Figure 11 illustrates the attained
efficiency. Most of the cases exhibit efficiencies near to
92%. Case 12 presents 94%, and case 13 a value of 89%.
Case 12 is associated with the smaller value of resistanceper-phase (0.85 ), with 310 W of winding losses. Case 13
has 1.73 of resistance-per-phase with 600 W of winding
losses. The remaining cases exhibit 1.18 of resistanceper-phase. The winding losses for cases 111 and 1417
become 430 W. For cases 18 and 19, the winding losses
become 330 W and 180 W, respectively. Cases 18 and 19
yield an output power lower than cases 117, Figure 12.

The output power for each case study is shown in


Figure 12. For the output power of a PMSG, three parameters have major influence. The first one is the air gap
(a). In case 10, it is modified from 1.5 mm to 1.0 mm,
producing an increment of 17% in the output power. The
second is the pole length. In cases 1719, the pole length
is decreased 25%, 50%, and 75%, respectively. These
variations originate output power decrements of 7%,
24%, and 58%, respectively. The third relevant parameter
is the slot bottom diameter (t). In case 3 the output
power is reduced 7.5% when t is increased 10%. The
rest of the case studies have changes for around 5% in
the output power.
In order to estimate the output power curve of the
PMSG, five simulations are made in six different velocity
steps; Figure 13 presents these results.

104
5
4.5
M14
M19
M27
M43

Reluctance (H1)

3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7
1.8
Magnetic flux density (B)

1.9

Figure 10 Reluctance versus magnetic flux density

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J. de la Cruz et al.: Modification of Geometric Parameters in Outer Rotor PMSGs

Figure 11 Efficiency for the case studies.

Figure 12 Output power

6,000
5,500

Output
100 rpm
150 rpm
200 rpm
250 rpm
300 rpm
350 rpm

Output power (W)

5,000
4,500
4,000
3,500
3,000
2,500
2,000
1,500
1,000
500
0
0

100

150

200
250
Angular velocity (rpm)

300

350

Figure 13 Output power versus angular velocity

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J. de la Cruz et al.: Modification of Geometric Parameters in Outer Rotor PMSGs

3.5 VTHD

saturation beyond 1.9 T, see Figure 15. For case 6, the


magnetic flux density reaches 1.97 T. Saturation modifies
the distortion of the induced voltage waveform.
For cases 15 and 16 the modification of the skew
angle creates a reduction of the output voltage up to
10%. That is, it decreases from 140.4 V to 126.4 V; however, there is a reduction in the VTHD. Cases 1719 are
quite important; the pole length is decreased (25%, 50%,
and 75%). Considering case 1 (100%) as the base case, for
case 17 the output voltage magnitude remains constant
while the VTHD is reduced 27%. Similarly, for case 18 the
output voltage magnitude remains constant while the
VTHD is reduced 78%. For case 19 the output voltage
waveform becomes triangular, its magnitude is reduced
and its VTHD is increased 102%. Figure 16 depicts the
output voltage waveforms for cases 1 and 1719.

The simulations described in Table 2 for four different steels


are carried out by following the method detailed in Section
3.3 (see Figure 7). Figure 14 shows the VTHD for the 76 case
studies. Notice that the proposed modifications vary the
VTHD in the output voltage with respect to case 1.
Materials also influence the VTHD. Figure 14 shows
that material M14 produces the best performance in
almost all cases. On the other hand, material M27 yields
the worst performance for almost all the case studies, due
to the fact that this material generates the smallest magnetic flux density. However, in case 6 (polar arc percentage modification) the material M27 presents better
performance than material M14. This happens because
the material M14 exhibits magnetic flux density
0.12

M14
M19
M27
M43

0.1

VTHD (%)

0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Case of study

Figure 14 VTHD for all case studies

2.2

Magnetic f lux density (B)

2.1
2
Saturation M14
1.9
1.8
M14
M19
M27
M43

1.7
1.6
1.5
1

3
4
5
Magnetic field intensity (H)

7
104

Figure 15 Saturation of M14

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J. de la Cruz et al.: Modification of Geometric Parameters in Outer Rotor PMSGs

130
Case 1
Case 17
Case 18
Case 19

Voltage (V)

90
50
10
30
70
110
0

0.004

0.008
Time (s)

0.01

0.016

Figure 16 Output voltage waveforms for cases 1 and 1719 decreasing the pole length (steel M14)

Figure 17 Voltage waveforms using steel M14

Figure 17 illustrates the induced voltage waveforms when


the material M14 is used in the construction of the stator.
Waveforms are arranged starting with case study 7, which
produces the biggest VTHD, up to case 18, which
achieves the smallest VTHD.
Figure 18(a) and (b) presents the harmonic components
of the generated voltage waveforms for the worst (10.34%,
case 7) and best (0.80%, case 18) cases. Nineteen harmonics are depicted. Notice that for case 7, the third harmonic
exhibits the largest contribution to the VTHD, while in case
18 the large contribution to the VTHD stems from the fifth
and ninth harmonics. Case 18 with 0.80% fulfills the VTHD
required by the ANSY/NEMA MG1-2003 standard, which
requires a maximum of 5% [1].

3.6 Cogging torque


Cogging torque is produced by the interaction of the
magnet poles and the stator core. For a PMSG the starting

torque has an increment of 33% with respect to the cogging torque [24]. The cogging torque of a typical 5 kW
commercial machines ranges between 2 N m and 3 N m
[2426]. Figure 19 shows the cogging torque for all case
studies in Table 2.
The cogging torque increases from four to five times
for the following modifications:
Polar arc percentage reduction from 55% to 50%.
Air gap reduction from 1.5 mm to 1.0 mm.
Slot depth increase from 26.6 mm to 28.4 mm.
On the other hand, increasing the air gap from 1.5 mm to
2.0 mm, the cogging torque decreases about 50%. The
cogging torque gradually decreases when a skew angle in
the magnetic poles is applied.
Making a correlation of the results of the last sections, it is possible to claim that,
it is not appropriate to reduce the pole length (cases
1719) to reduce the VTHD because the output power
will decrease until 58%.

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J. de la Cruz et al.: Modification of Geometric Parameters in Outer Rotor PMSGs

Normalized amplitude (%)

12
10
Case 7 M14
8
6
4
2
0

9
11
13
Harmonic order
(a)

15

17

19

Normalized amplitude (%)

10
0.8
Case 18 M14
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
1

9
11
13
Harmonic order
(b)

15

17

19

Figure 18 (a) Harmonics of voltage with steel type M14, case 7 and (b) harmonics of voltage with steel type M14, case 2

0.4

M14
M19
M27
M43

0.35

Torque (N m)

0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Case of studies

Figure 19 Cogging torque for all case studies

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J. de la Cruz et al.: Modification of Geometric Parameters in Outer Rotor PMSGs

if the air gap of machine (case 10) is reduced, the


output power will increase without modifying the
VTHD. However, the cogging torque will increase
and the designer must verify that its torque value is
as low as possible.
if designer wishes to reduce the VTHD and the cogging torque without modifying the efficiency and
output power of machine, a good strategy is to
apply a skew angle to the magnetic poles.

As it is common in engineering solutions, many times


there are parameters that improve some objective function while worst some other(s). In this application, it is
evident that some parameters improve some objectives,
for instance output power. However, the same parameters
may negatively affect the VTHD or some other objective.
Thus, the designer must make decisions to attain the best
global solution. Thus, the case studies are aimed to highlight the main factors that affect the performance of a
PMSG, in order to reach an improved design with respect
to harmonic content, efficiency, and output power. With
respect to reference [20], the main differences are: (i)
studies are carried out under load conditions (Figure 5);
(ii) the starting torque is included; and (iii) the inductances are calculated for each case. Figure 20 shows the
resulting prototype.

Figure 20 PMSG 5 kW prototype

4 Conclusions
The aim of this research was to find some practical rules
to improve designs of outer rotor PMSMs, to reach an

11

efficiency as high as possible, reducing both the VTHD


and the cogging torque.
It is assumed that an original device that fulfills the
functional requirements in terms of output power is available. Once a functional design is available, it is recommended to run a set of simulations where geometries are
varied. It is necessary to modify the geometries around
the original ones, then run the simulations and analyze
the results. From these, select the better candidates (geometries), to be modified, and execute new studies. This
process gives rise to the better reachable dimensions, in
terms of efficiency and output power.
For the analyzed cases, only changes in coil turns
and wire gauge increase the machine efficiency from 92%
to 94%. Both values are higher than those recommended
in NEMA Premium standard (91%) for induction motors.
The analysis in output power becomes more important in this study because three geometric parameters
produce relevant changes in output power, from 7% to
58%. These parameters become (i) coil turns and wire
gauge, (ii) slot bottom diameter, and (iii) pole length.
Changes in turns of coils and wire gauge were modifications that yield output power increments. This is the
best way to improve the PMSG design, because the implementation cost becomes lower, compared with the other
proposed cases. In this research, it was found that the
optimal turns are 29 and the wire gauge becomes 13.
The proposed variations in slot bottom diameter and
pole length produce output power decrements; this happens because when the slot bottom diameter is increased,
the magnetic flux density is limited. Besides, when the
pole length is decreased, the magnetic energy (maximum
energy, J/m3) is decreased. Therefore output power drops
for cases 1719, where the pole length is reduced 25%,
50%, and 75%, respectively.
For the analyzed cases, four geometry modifications
give rise to a VTHD within the standard, i.e. lower than
5%: (i) pole length, (ii) slot bottom diameter, (iii) polar
arc percentage, and (iv) pole skew angle.
Notice that the pole length is an important parameter
to work with. The right commitment between the length,
magnitude, and the output voltage waveform renders the
best value for the VTHD.
It was found that the optimal relationship between
the slot bottom diameter and the teeth of the stator is
50%. That is, the total area fulfilled for the slot and the
teeth must be shared equally. However, in some cases
such modification requires the redesign of the stator and
consequently the rotors modification too. The designer
must be careful in executing this type of modification in

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12

J. de la Cruz et al.: Modification of Geometric Parameters in Outer Rotor PMSGs

order to preserve the space in the slot for embedding the


winding.
For the case studies and the selected magnets, a
polar arc percentage of 50% gave the best results in
terms of the VTHD. For steel M19 and M27, an appropriate
polar arc percentage becomes 50%.
The modification of the pole skew angle gave good
results for the VTHD. However, it is important to assess
this modification with respect to output power, since
both parameters are closely related.
For silicon steel M14, the magnetic flux density in the
stator core must be lower than 1.9 T to render an acceptable VTHD value.

Nomenclature
p
i
a
s
t
y
l
d
S
Vn
FEA
B

N
I
A
f
H
p
FFT
t
cp
Cw
R

G
<
L
VTHD
PMSG

Polar arc percentage


Pole length
Air gap
Outer opening of the slot
Slot bottom diameter
Yoke length
Slot depth
Teeth width
Conductors per phase (coil turns)
Magnitude of voltage for nth harmonic
Finite element analysis
Magnetic flux density
Material permeability
Signal samples
Current in the coil
Cross-sectional area of the core
Magnetic flux
Harmonic component
Skew angle in poles
Fast Fourier transform
Total flux in the air gap
Chord factor of winding
Winding constant
Reluctance of flux path
Rotor position in mechanical degrees
Gauge of wire
Reluctance
Inductance
Voltage total harmonic distortion
Permanent magnet synchronous generator

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