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WAVES & SOUND

Integer answer type questions:


1. A stretched string of length l is excited by plucking the string at right angles to
its length at a point which is a distance of

' l'
from one end and stopping the
4

vibration at the centre of the string with a finger. Find the number of antinodes
for the vibration corresponding to the first overtone.
2. Two pulses are created on the rope at points A & B respectively as shown in the
diagram

The rope is rotating about end A where as end B is free. If S A & S B are the
distances covered by pulse A & pulse B respectively in rope frame before they
cross each other. If

k=

SA
SB

k 1
, find the value of

3. A source emitting sound of frequency 180 Hz is placed in front of a wall at a


distance of 2m from it. Find the minimum distance (in m) between the source
and the detector for which the detector detects a maximum of sound. Speed of
sound in air 360 m/s
4.

At a distance of 20 m from a point source, the loudness is 30 dB. After a


minimum distance of x(50 10) meter the sound is inaudible. Value of x is
Q
P
5. As shown in figure string PQR is stretched by
force
F = (3 10 kt) N, where k is a constant and t is
L=1m
R
time in second. At time t = 0, a pulse is
F = ( 3 -K (1 0 )t)N
generated at the end P of the string. For the
value of K (in N/s) if the value of force become
zero as the pulse reaches point Q.
6. A uniform horizontal rod of length 40 cm and mass 1.2 kg is supported by two
identical wires as shown in fig. A mass of 4.8 kg is placed on the rod so that the
same tuning fork may excite the wire on left into its fundamental vibrations and
that on right into its first overtone? The distance of the mass from the left end of
2
the rod in cm is Take g 10 m s

Page No 1

7. A uniform rope with length L and mass m is held at one end and whirled in a
horizontal circle with angular velocity .You can ignore the force of gravity on the
rope. The time required for a transverse wave to travel from one end of the rope to

the other is
, then value of n is
n
8. A piston of mass m 0.005 kg and area of cross section S 0.1 m 2 is placed near
one end of open organ pipe of length L = 5 m and area of cross section S. At the
other end a tuning fork of frequency f produces a traveling sound wave of
displacement amplitude A, which excites the pipe in to second overtone. The
coefficient of friction between piston and ground is 0.1 . Find the value of A
(in micrometer) at which the piston is about to shift towards left from the pipe.
Given bulk modulus of medium in the pipe is 104 N / m2 .

9. An uniform string of length l is fixed at both ends such that tension T is


produced in it. The string is excited to vibrate with maximum displacement A0 .
Find the ratio of maximum kinetic energy of the string for its fundamental tone
to first overtone.
10.

x
sin t
L
is formed between the

y 2 A sin

A standing wave given by the equation


points x L and x L . The separation between two such particles, which have
their
maximum velocity equal to half the maximum velocity of the antinodes and
L
which are closest to the particle present at x 0 , is k then find the value of k.

11. There is a source of sound (a tuning fork) moving towards a reflecting wall will a
speed of 30 m/s. The velocity of the sound in air is 330 m/s and the frequency
of the tuning fork is 600Hz. The observer is between the source and the wall
and is moving with some velocity V1 towards the wall. The beat frequency heard
by the observer is 4Hz. If the tuning fork is waxed, the frequency beats heard by
man becomes 3Hz. If new frequency of tuning fork is x 100 y 10 then find x y .

Page No 2

12. Two pulses traveling on the same string are describes by the function y1 and
y 2 generated from points A and B is in meter respectively
2
y2
2
x 4t 2

y1

x 2t

, where x (in metre) and t (in sec) are in the distance between A &
B is 1.5m, if the position where these two pulses will meet. (Shape of the pulse
does not
change) is x 10

m . Find x

13. The equation of a stationary wave along a stretched string is given by


x
y 5 sin
cos 40 t then the separation between two adjacent nodes is.
3
14. A siren placed at a railway platform is emitting sound of frequency 5 kHz. A
passenger sitting in a moving train A records a frequency of 5.5 kHz. While
the train approaches the siren. During his return journey in a different train
B be records a frequency of 6.0 kHz while approaches the same siren. The
ratio of the velocity of train B to that train A is
15. The speed of a transverse wave, going on a wire having a length 50 cm and
mass 5.0 gm, is 80 m/s. The area of cross-section of the wire is 1.0 mm 2 and
its Youngs modulus is 16 109 N/m2. Find the extension (in mm) of the wire
over its natural length.
16. For a sound source of intensity W/m 2 , corresponding sound level is

B 0 decibel. If the intensity is increased to 4 , new sound level

17.

becomes (B 0 + N)decibel. Find the value of N


A sound source emits two sinusoidal sound waves, both of wavelength
, along paths A and B as shown in fi gure. The sound travelling along
path B is refl ected from four rigid surfaces as shown and then
interferes at point Q, producing minimum intensity at that point. The

minimum value of d in terms of is


, fi nd the value of N:
N

Page No 3

18.

S1 and S2 are two coherent sources of plane


100.25 , where is the wave length. S 1 leads
are two points on the line joining S 1 and S2 as

waves separated by distance


S2 in phase by /2. A and B
shown in figure. The ratio of

amplitudes of source S1 and S2 are in ratio 1:2. Find the ratio of intensity at
B
.
A

B to that at A,

(The direction of propagation of plane waves is along the line AB)

19.

A string of length 1.5 m with its two ends clamped is vibrating in


fundamental mode. Amplitude at the centre of the string is 4 mm.
Find the seperatation between the two points having amplitude 2
mm.Express your answer in metre

20.

Two organ pipes A and B are arraged as shown in fi gure. A small


sound source kept in between the pipes excites both the pipes at
their respective second lowest resonant frequencies. If I f LA 1.5m . find
length of the pipe B ( LB ) in metre. (Neglect end
Correction)

21.

A string sustains a standing wave. The points A, B, C, D and E are such that
each have displacement amplitude = 2 mm as shown in figure.
If x B x A x C x B x D x c x E x D = 15mm, Find maximum
displacement amplitude (in mm)

22.

In a car race, sound signals emitted by the two cars are detected by the
detector on the straight track at the end point of the race. Frequencies
Page No 4

23.

observed are 330Hz and 360 Hz and the original frequency of both the cars is
300 Hz. The race ends with the separation of 100 m between the cars.
Assume that both the cars move with constant velocities and that velocity of
sound is 330m/s. Find the time taken (in s) by the winning car.
An ant sitting on a string can pull the string with a maximum force up to
three times of its own weight. A sine wave of amplitude A

24.

25.

10
in vertical plane
2

is generated in the string. Find the minimum time period of oscillations of


string so that ant will not fall from the string. (Neglect the variation of tension
2
in the string due to weight of the ant g 10m / s ).
The average power transmitted across a cross-section by two sound waves
moving in the same direction and in the same medium is equal. The wave
lengths of two sound waves are in the ratio of 1:2, then find the ratio of their
pressure amplitudes.
String -1 is connected with string -2, the mass per unit length in string -1 is
1 and the mass per unit length in string -2 is 4 1 , the tension in the strings

4
2
1

is T. A travelling wave is coming from the left string. If fraction

x
of the energy
9

in the incident wave goes into string-2 then find x


incident

26.

The string fixed at both ends has standing wave nodes for which distance
between adjacent nodes is x1. The same string has another standing wave
nodes for which distance between adjacent nodes is x2. If l is the length of
x2

the string, then x l 2 x . What is the difference in number of the loops in

1
1
27.

28.

the two cases?


A simple harmonic wave of amplitude 2mm is travelling along positive x-axis.
At a given instant, displacement for two different particles on the wave is 1
mm and 2 mm along positive Y direction. If wavelength of wave is 48 mm
then find minimum separation between mean positions of the particles (in
mm)
A closed organ pipe vibrates in its first overtone mode. The pressure variation
is maximum at 0.40m from open end. If the length of pipe is

29.

2.4
m then x=
x

-----A string of length 0.40m and mass 10-2 kg is tightly clamped at its ends. The
tension in the string is 1.6 N. Identical wave pulses are produced at one end
at equal intervals of time t , minimum value of t (in sec) which allows
constructive interference between successive pulses is

Page No 5

x
seconds. Then x is
10

30.

The successive resonance frequencies are 425 Hz, 595 Hz and 765 Hz for a
certain organ pipe. The speed of sound in air is 340 m/sec. Find the length of
the pipe (in m).

31 Two instruments having stretched strings are being played in unison. When the
tension of one of the instruments is increased by

, 3 beats are produced in 2

seconds. The initial frequency of vibration of each wire is

Page No 6

Find n.

WAVES & SOUND KEY SHEET


Integer
1
7
13
19
25
31

Answers
6
2
2
8
3
14
1
20
8
26
6

2
5
2
2
2

3
9
15
21
27

3
4
2
2
2

4
10
16
22
28

4
3
6
4
2,6

5
11
17
23
29

2
9
8
1
1

6
12
18
24
30

5
8
9
1
1

WAVES & SOUND SOLUTIONS

Integer solutions
1.

At from end we have antinode &


and for first overtone 6 loop

node.

for fundamental we have two loops

2. At any distance

But

in rope frame
pulse will be meeting at a distance

3. Let the minimum distance be

4.

L 10 log10

I
I0

30 10log10

I
I
(x 2 ) 2

1000
I0
I0
(20) 2

400
1000
x 20 1000 200 10 m .
x

Page No 7

from A.

5.

3 (10K)t dx

3 102
dt
L

dx
0

10
3 10kt dt
30

6. Conceptual
7.
8.

9.

energy in first overtone


energy in fundamental tone
10.

Page No 8

From the given condition

Hence separation =
11.
Apparent frequency of source

Apparent frequency of reflected sound


Beat frequency
The source moves with a velocity 1m/s towards the wall.
When the tuning fork is waxed let its frequency become n
Beat frequency
n = 450 Hz = new frequency of tuning fork.
12.

is travelling along positive x direction


is travelling along negative x direction.
Speed of wave

is = 2 m/s

Speed of wave is =
Suppose they meet at a distance x from A

from A.
13.
14.
15.

3
2
The linear mass density is

5 103
1.0 102 kg/m
50 102

The wave speed is


v

Page No 9

Thus, the tension is


T v 2
(1.0 102 ) 6400 64 N

The Youngs modulus is given by


Y

T/A
L / L

The extension is, therefore,


TL
AY
64 0.50

2 mm.
1.0 10 6 16 109
L

16.

Path diff erence = Path B Path A


= 7d 3d = 4d
[Note that there is no phase change in refl ections from mirror in case
of sound]
For being out of phase :
3
x = 4d = ; ;................
2

d =
2
8
The charge on the capacitor when current reaches 0
q0 = (0R).C1

For minimum d,
17.

4d =

When the switch is in position 2, this charge is shared with capacitor C 2 and
at steady state potential across C1 is equal to that across C 2. The energy lost
in this process
q
1 CC
U = . 1 2 0
2 C1 C2 C1

18.

C1C2

= 2 . C C (0R)2
1
2

For interference at A : S2 is behind of S1 by a distance of 100 + .(equal to


4

phase difference ). Further S2 lags S1 by . Hence the waves from S1 and


2
2

S2 interfere at A with a phase difference of

Hence the net amplitude at A is 2a a = a

For interference at B : S2 is ahead of S1 by a distance of 100 + .(equal to


4

phase difference ). Further S2 lags S1 by .


2
2

Hence waves from S1 and S2 interfere at B with a phase difference of 200.5

Hence the net amplitude at A is 2a + a = 3a

19.

2
A
1
a
Hence = =
9
3a
B

= 3m

Page No 10

Equation of standing wave


y = 2A sin kx cos t
y = A as amplitude is 2A.
A = 2A sin kx
2

1
x =

x1 = m

6
4
2

and
. x = +

x 2 = 1.25 m x 2 x 1 = 1m

2
3
20.

3V

For pipe A, second resonant frequency is third harmonic thus f = 4 L


A
For pipe B, second resonant frequency is second harmonic thus f =
2V
2 LB
3V

2V

Equating, 4 L = 2 L
A
B
L B =
21.

4
4
LA =
.(1.5) = 2m.
3
3

X E X A 4 15 60mm
taking n0de N as origin, we have
a A sin kx
2 2
here, a 2 mm , k

60
15
and x B ' N
2

2
so, 2 A sin
7.5 A sin
4
60

or A 2 mm

22.

Let the velocities of cars 1 and 2 be v1 m/s and v2 m/s respectively.


Apparent frequencies of sound emitted by car 1 and car 2 as detected at
end point are
V
V
, f 2 f0
V V1
V V2
330
330 300
,
330 V1
330
360=300 330 V
2
V1 30m / s and V2 55 m / s
f1 f 0

The distance between both the cars just when the 2 nd car reaches end point B
(as shown in figure ) is
100m V2t V2t t 4s

23.
At the highest point

Page No 11

mg 3mg m amax
4mg m 2 A
4g
2
A
2
T

1
P 2 A2 sV
2
1 f 2
Since 1 , 1 1
2 f 2 2 1
Since P1 P2 , 1 A1 2 A2 ,
A1 2 1

A2 1 2

24.

Pressure amplitude, p0 B0 Ak
A1 k1

A2 k2
A 2
1
A2 1

p0 1 / p0 2

1 2
1
2 1
2

25.

2v2
Et At

Ei Ai
v1 v2

26.

1
2 1

4
9

let no. of loops formed in first case =n


x1 n 1

Let no. of loops formed in second case = (n+k)


x2 n k l

x2
l

,k 2
x1 l kx1

On comparing we get k=2


27.

Page No 12

y
t X
sin 2
A
T ;
y1 1, A 2,
t x1
1
sin 1 rad
6
T
2

y1 2, A 2,

t x2
sin 1
T

rad
4
2

t x1 1

T 12
t x2 1

T 8
x x
1
substract 1 2
24

x1 x2
24

28.

29.

pressure variation will be maximum at displacement nodes. For first overtone


node, it is given,

0.4 m
4
1.6 m
3 3
But L 1.6 1.2m
4 4
102
m mass per unit length
0.4
2
2.5 10 kg / m

T
8 m / sec
m

For constructive interference,

t min
30.

2 L 2 0.4

0.10sec
v
8

ratio of resonance frequencies 5:7:9, hence pipe is closed. For a closed pipe
V

4 L

425 Hz 5
l 1m

31
Initially

Finally

Page No 13

Page No 14