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BRASOV ORADEA MOTORWAY

SECTION 1 BRASOV TARGU MURES

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY

4. SOURCES OF POLLUTANTS OF THE OBJECTIVE


A general scheme of the environment pollution caused by the transport, explained for the road
transport (figure 4.- 1.), takes into evidence the direct or indirect action of the environment on the 3
components of this transport category:
-

The transport way;


The traffic;
The merchandises that are transported, and as result of an accident can affect the environment
factors.
ROAD TRANSPORT
GENERAL DIAGRAM OF POLLUTION

COMMODITIES

VEHICLES

TRANSPORT
WAY

TRAFFIC

EXECUTION

ACCIDENTAL
POLLUTION

CHRONIC
POLLUTION
WATER
ATMOSPHERE

FLORA
FAUNA

SOCIAL

EARTH

HUMAN
FACTOR

CULTURAL
HERITAGE

ECONOMIC
CONOMIC

POLITIC

Fig.4. 1.- General Diagram of pollution caused by the road transport

4.1. TYPES OF POLLUTION CHARACTERISTIC TO THE ROADS


Depending on its intensity and duration, the pollution specific to roads and traffic is of the following
types:
pollution generated during the highway construction works. This type of pollution is
temporary and reaches high values during the service periods of production bases at their maximum
capacity. The pollution sources that characterize the execution period include:
linear sources represented by the daily traffic at the production bases on site,
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ASSESSMENT STUDY
surface sources represented by the operation of the equipment on sites,
point sources represented by the operation of production bases, respectively of asphalt,
concrete, coarse crushing stations within them.
Chronic pollution generated during the operational period of the motorway, due to daily
traffic. This type of pollution is chronic, and the pollution level may reach different levels, depending
on the amount and characteristics of the traffic;
Accidental pollution, as a result of traffic accidents involving vehicles that transport liquid
hydrocarbons or other toxic or corrosive products. These substances, by their rapid dispersion into
the environment may damage the aquatic layers, may change the quality of lakes, ponds or even
streamy waters;
Seasonal pollution, as a result of the works executed in order to preserve the traffic during
winter time, on the roads with glazed frost and ice.

4.2. THE CONSTRUCTION PERIOD


According to the Order of the Ministry of Water, Forest and Environment Protection no. 860/2002,
the evaluation study of the environmental impact must assess the environmental pollution level and
the measures to diminish it both during the motorway construction period, and also during its service.
The Contractor will establish the work technologies; job management, temporary works of traffic
diversion (in the area of road interchanges, bridges and passageways) or the development of
technological processes, and has the obligation to obtain all the necessary notices and approvals for
the work development, according to the current legislation. Consequently, the contractor will request
the necessary approvals (including those from the environment authorities) for temporary works
which are his exclusive responsibility.
The works for the motorway construction are, mainly, the following: road system, water drainage
system, intersections and road interchanges, art works (passageways, bridges), signaling and marking
etc.
During the execution period, the main pollution sources are: the execution of works, traffic on site,
concrete and asphalt mixtures stations and job management.
The execution of works requires the removal from the agricultural or forest circuit of some areas,
both for the location of the highway, and also for the job management, the equipment stock, material
and fuels warehouses, asphalt and concrete station. The areas that are temporarily occupied by the
site organizations will be released to the natural circuit after the completion of construction works.

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Various vehicles will circulate within the site (concrete mixer, material and equipment transporters,
vehicles for the transport of workers, etc.). The afferent traffic will temporarily release toxic gas into
the air, and will also increase the noise level which may be a discomfort for the inhabitants of the
region or for those that run their activity near the site.
The impact of these works upon the environment, including human environment, and the measures to
prevent and limit the negative impact will be discussed in chapters 5 and 6.

4.2.1. SITE ORGANIZATIONS


The site organizations is an assembly of necessary elements for the motorway construction. Here part
of the personnel working for the motorway construction will run their activity.
According to the proposal of the highway Contractor, along the section Brasov Targu Mures, there
will be three lay-outs of construction works, located approximately in the area of the localities of
Persani (the village of Sinca, county of Brasov), Movile (village of Iacobeni, county of Sibiu) and
Suplac (county of Mures).
Generally, the site organization includes:
-

Spaces for offices;


Laboratory;
Canteen;
Parking lots;
Accommodation spaces (if necessary);
Water supply and distribution systems;
Sewage system and waste water purifying station;
Gas supply station;
Power conversion station;
Heating station;
Containers for solid waste disposal;
Telecommunications system;
Enclosure;
Door keeper cabin.

The production bases that supply construction and half-finished materials (concrete and asphalt
mixtures) for the work sites are located as close to the sources of raw material (ballast, pits) or to the
railway network as possible. A production base may include the following:
-

Raw material warehouses (aggregates, chipping, ballast, cement, lime, filer, bitumen etc.);
Asphalt mixture station;
Concrete preparation station;
U-beams production station, necessary for the construction of art works;
Stabilized ballast station;
Machine shop;
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- Metal workshop;
- Fuel distribution station to supply the vehicles employed for the transport of materials and
works to their working sites, as well as the equipment employed for the highway
construction;
- Power conversion station;
- Water supply system and water distribution system;
- Sewage system and waste water purifying station;
- Telecommunications system;
- Warehouse for solid waste disposal;
- Equipment yard;
- Door keeper cabin
- Concreted parking platform, etc.

4.2.2. BORROW PITS


The completion of motorway works requires relocations of earthworks, and borrow pits are
necessary if there is a lack of material or some earth deposits in case of a surplus of material resulted
from excavations.
Borrow pits are surfaces where excavations are being carried out in order to obtain some large
amounts of earth necessary to complete earthworks.
Depending on the possibilities, we recommend to use of the earth dug from the cutting areas for the
execution of earthworks in the filling areas, so that the quantity necessary to fill in with earth from
other areas or the amount of surplus materials deposits may be minimal.

The areas affected by these types of works must be restored from the point of view of their stability
and landscape.
The impact of these works upon the environment, including the human one, and measures to prevent
and restrict the negative impact will be discussed in chapters 5 and 6.

4.3.

WATER

POLLUTION

SOURCES

AND

POLLUTANT

EMISSIONS
4.3.1.

WATER POLLUTION SOURCES AND POLLUTANT EMISSIONS DURING THE

CONSTRUCTION PERIOD

During the execution period of the motorway, the possible sources of water pollution may be:
Execution of works;
The earthworks determine the carrying away of some fine earth particles that may reach the surface
waters.

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The handling and placing of construction materials (concrete, bitumen, aggregates, etc.) generate
emissions characteristic to each type of material and to each operation of construction.
Traffic on site, resulted from the traffic of heavy vehicles of transport of materials and
personnel to the working sites, equipment;
The heavy traffic, characteristic to the site, generates different emissions of polluting substances into
the air, due to the combustion inside the engines of the vehicles (NOx, CO, SOx, COV, suspended
particles etc). On the other hand, heavy traffic is the source of depositing particles due to the
entrainment of dust particles on unpaved roads. Also, during the work execution period, particles are
generated by the friction processes of the carriageway and the wear of the tyres.
The lay-outs of construction works include: asphalt and concrete stations, maintenance
stations of the equipment and transport vehicles, canteens, accommodation spaces, offices, etc.
According to the proposal of the motorway builder, along the section Brasov Targu Mures, there
will be three lay-outs of construction works, located approximately in the area of the localities of
Persani (Sinca village, county of Brasov), Movile (Iacobeni village, county of Sibiu) and Suplac
(county of Mures).
Near these localities, we have the rivers of Hartibaciu (approximately at Km 80+395, the region of
the Iacobeni village) and Tarnava Mica (approximately at Km 130+080, the region of the Suplac
village).

If the asphalt and concrete stations are located near a water stream, they may represent polluting
sources of the surface waters due to the rain water that washes the specific pollutants in the air or on
the soil.
Fuel reservoirs may also be a source of pollution in case they are not sealed.
The equipment and transport vehicles maintenance stations release oils, fuels and waste water.
The layouts of construction works generate waste water from the canteen and toilet spaces.
According to the assessments of the Contractor, the number of employees within each site
organizations will be of approx. 650 750.

4.3.2.

WATER POLLUTION SOURCES AND EMISSIONS OF POLLUTANTS DURING


THE OPERATION PERIOD

The water pollution sources are the rain waters which wash the highway motorway and the waste
waters discharged by the constructions afferent to the activity of highway operation (short-term
parking, service spaces, motorway maintenance and coordination centers).
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a) Rain waters that wash the highway motorway

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY

As a consequence of the intense traffic that runs on the highway, rain waters that wash the pollutants
deposited on the motorway are polluting waters which must be purified before being drained into an
outlet or on the surrounding lands.
The types of pollutants of different chemical nature, depending on their various origin are:
waste generated by combustion of fuels: hydrocarbons, lead;
waste generated by the wear of vehicle tyres: macromolecular hydrocarbon substances, zinc,
cadmium;
metal waste caused by the corrosion of vehicles: iron, chrome, nickel, copper, cadmium and
from the electroplated guardrails: zinc;
oils and mineral greases;
waste determined by the wear of the road surfacing: solid materials.
The count was performed for a highway section with a length of 500 m, for half of the motorway.
The quantities of pollutant were calculated for the traffic forecast for the year 2020.
The concentration of polluting substances in the water: C = K/V (mg/l), where:
K quantity of pollutant washed by rain water,
V water volume containing it.
The water volume was calculated as follows:
V = S x I x (m3), where:
S the surface of the basin where water is collected from (m2),
i the height of the average count rain (mm),
drain coefficient for paved lands = 0,9.
The period of pollutant accumulation on the motorway, namely the interval between two successive
rainfalls, was considered as of 10 days, the area of the highway route being characterized by frequent
rainfalls.
Table no. 4.3. 1. Volume of water
Section
Codlea - Fagaras
Fagaras - Sighisoara
Sighisoara Targu Mures

Volume (l)
76050
70200
70200

The quantities of pollutants that are washed by rain water were assessed starting from the
recommendations of CETUR (Centre dEtudes des Transports Urbains), from 1986, being more
recent than the methodology SETRA - Protection des eaux contre la pollution dorigine routiere,
which recommends certain values, established according to some studies performed in 1977 - 1978.
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CETUR mentions that the loads presented in SETRA represent the maximum measured values.
Under these circumstances, we assessed that these values do not characterize the traffic in 2020, at a
distance of approximately 50 years since they have been determined.
We considered that a part of the emissions are dispersed, and are not deposited on the roadway
(approx. 10%).
Table no. 4.3. 2. Quantities of pollutants washed by the rain water, on a 500 m long section
(Kg/500 m) 2020 year
Total solid
materials

Section

CCO

Codlea - Fagaras
41,95
20,98
Fagaras
Sighisoara
26,74
13,37
Sighisoara Targu
25,06
12,53
Mures
As we explained in chapter 2.4., the design of the works

Pb

Zn

Hydrocarbons

0,06

0,12

7,30

0,04

0,08

4,65

0,04

0,07

4,36

provided for the environmental protection

was done for the traffic forecast for 2020 year. If the traffic forecast for 2030 will come true, the
necessity to provide supplementary environmental protection works will be studied.

Table no. 4.3. 3. Quantities of pollutants washed by the rain water, on a 500 m long section
(Kg/500 m) 2030 year
Section
Codlea - Fagaras
Fagaras
Sighisoara
Sighisoara Targu
Mures
b) Highway fittings

Total solid
materials

CCO

Pb

Zn

Hydrocarbons

72,93

36,47

0,11

0,21

12,69

52,27

26,13

0,08

0,15

9,09

48,99

24,49

0,07

0,14

8,52

The second source of pollution consists of waste domestic and rain water coming from the
constructions afferent to the activity of highway operation: parking, toll stations, maintenance
centers.
The service spaces include: parking lots for cars, trucks and buses, fuel stations, auto-service,
restaurants, motels.
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In this project phase we shall not detail the service space development.
The domestic waste water shall be discharged to the sewer network. Here, it will be introduced
through a mechanic-biological treatment station or through a septic tank, wherefrom it will be
transported into the nearest outlet.
The rainwater collected from the services areas platforms are to be collected into the sewer networks
and then introduced in the hydrocarbon separators.

4.4.

SOURCES

OF

AIR

POLLUTION

AND

POLLUTANT

EMISSIONS
4.4.1.

AIR POLLUTION SOURCES AND POLLUTANT EMISSIONS DURING THE


CONSTRUCTION PERIOD

The execution of motorway construction works represents, on the one hand, a source of dust
emissions, due to the heavy traffic, and on the other hand, the source of pollutant emissions specific
to fossil fuels combustion (distilled oil products) both inside the vehicle engines, and also of the
employed transport means. Additionally, during the works execution period we must consider the
impact upon the environment generated by the operation of asphalt mixture and concrete stations.
In this respect, for the evaluation of the impact upon the environment during highway construction
works we have analyzed separately the emissions of polluting substances released into the air by:

Linear sources, consisting of the daily road traffic from the Lay-outs of construction works to
the working sites;
Surface sources, consisting of the operation of the equipment in the area of working sites;
Point sources, consisting of Lay-outs of construction works: asphalt, concrete and stabilized
sand stations.
A) Linear sources
The emissions of polluting substances released into the air are the result of the traffic of transport of
materials, prefabs, personnel etc.
The traffic of transport means represents an important source of environmental pollution on
construction sites in the area of working sites.
The pollution characterizing vehicle traffic is assessed by:
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Fuel consumption (polluting substances: NOx, CO, COVNM, particles, materials resulted
from the fuel combustion, etc.)

and the respective distances (polluting substances: material particles on the road surface
suspended by the vehicle traffic).

We assume that the air pollution during the activities of fuel supply, maintenance and repairs of the
transport means is small and irrelevant.
The site traffic is determined by the traffic of heavy vehicles from the material discharge points
(railway station) to the production bases and from there to the working sites.
The following types of raw materials and materials will be transported within the site:
earth,
asphalt,
stabilized ballast,
ballast and sand,
aggregates for asphalt,
concrete.
B) Surface sources
The emissions of polluting substances released into the air are determined by the operation of the
equipment at working sites.
The Contractor has estimated that the following equipment will be necessary for the construction of a
50 Km long section:

Earthworks
dozers (Cat D8/D9/D10): 17 pc.;
backhoes: 3 pc:
excavators: 17 pc.;
loaders: 9 pc.;
articulated dump-trucks 35 40 t: 20 pc.;
off highway dump trucks 50 t: 10 pc.;
highway dump trucks 12 m3: 50 pc.;
hydraulic drills: 5 pc.;
hydraulic hammers: 2 pc.;
road graders: 3 pc.;
scrapers: 5 pc.;
water wagons: 3 pc.;
light plants: 33;
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rollers/compactors: 17 pc.;

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY

walk behind compactors: 3 pc.;


farm tractors: 8 pc.;
lime spreader: 1 pc.;
stabilizer mixers: 1 pc.
Structures
flight augers: 5 pc.;
crawler cranes: 1 pc.;
truck mounted cranes: 2 pc.;
mobile cranes: 22 pc.;
tower cranes: 9 pc.;
concrete pumps: 5 pc.;
boom trucks: 17 pc.;
elephantine: 5 pc.;
tractor trailer: 10 pc.;
concrete trucks: 27 pc.;
light plants: 22 pc..
Road structure
dump trucks: 170 pc.;
road reclaimer: 1 pc.;
graders: 7 pc.;
power brooms: 2 pc.;
vibrator compactors 15 t: 5 pc.;
dozer with spreader box: 1 pc.;
paver: 2 pc.;
bitumen spray trucks: 5 pc.
The activity of the equipment mainly includes the removal and disposal of vegetal soil, cutting and
filling of earth and ballast in the roadbed, manipulation of materials at the railway station and at the
production bases to prepare the concrete and asphalt, etc.
The quantities of pollutants released by the equipment into the air depend mostly on the following
factors: technological level of the engine, power of the engine, the consumption of fuel per unit of
power, capacity of the equipment, age of the engine/equipment, the provision with devices to reduce
the pollution.
It is obvious the fact that the polluting emissions if the engine performances are more advanced, the
tendency being to produce engines with consumptions as low as possible per power unit and a more
restrictive control of the emissions.
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The specific pollution of the activity of the equipment is appreciated by the consumption of fuels
(polluting substances NOx, CO, COVNM, material particles caused by burnt fuels etc.) and the
development area of these activities (the polluting substances are: suspended and settling material
particles).
We assume that the pollution specific to the fuel supply, maintenance and repairs activity of the
equipment is reduced.
Operation of the equipment in the area of working sites
The emissions of suspended particles varies from one day to another depending on the specific of the
operations as well on the weather conditions.
The pollution specific to the equipment is assessed depending on the area where these activities are
developed (the polluting substances are: suspended and settling material particles) and on the fuel
consumption (polluting substances NOx, CO, COVNM, material particles caused by fuel
combustion, etc.).
According to the methodology AP 42, the slurry emissions resulted from the activity of the
construction equipment, during the development of works, will be assessed to 2,69 t/ha/month.
The quantity of suspended particles is proportional to the area of the surface where works are
developed.

Considering that the construction works are developed on a 40 m wide and approx. 0,5 km long strip
(for a working site), the monthly particles emissions on this sector are of 2 ha x 2,69 t / ha = 5,38 t /
month, respectively 5,38 t / 0,5 km / month, which corresponds to 269 kg / km / day.
The impact of suspended particle emissions upon the environmental factors is maximum in
unfavorable weather conditions (wind at a speed equal or smaller than 1 m/s).
Suspended particles generated by the activity of the equipment join those generated by the transport
means, on the sections where either activity is developed.
By cumulative effects on these areas, the concentrations may reach values above the maximum
accepted values under the above mentioned weather conditions, however for short intervals.

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The emissions of polluting substances released into the air due to the fuel combustion inside the
engines of the engines depend on the number and type of the equipment that operates simultaneously
at a working site.
For the activity of the equipment, the environmental pollution, especially of the air, is assessed by
means of the diesel consumption (for the emissions of pollutants specific to fuel combustion: NOx,
CO, SO2, particles) and by means of the characteristic activity (for the emissions of suspended and
settling material particles).
Important polluting emissions are generated during the discharge of asphalt at working sites.
According to the methodology AP 42, total organic carbon emissions in the first 8 minutes after
loading / discharging of asphalt can be estimated with an emission factor of 0.00055 kg/t of loaded /
discharged asphalt. A discharge represents maximum 16 t, respectively the capacity of a heavy
transport vehicle. Under these circumstances, the emission of total organic carbon for the discharge is
of approx. 0,0088 kg / vehicle.
Similarly, the emissions of carbon monoxide were assessed by multiplying the emission factor
specific to total organic carbon with a value of 0,32, resulting a value of approx. 0,0028 kg/t of
discharged asphalt.
Lately, at working sites, the solution of the mixture bitumen + cutback solvent type was replaced
by the solution of a cationic type emulsion. This one uses bitumen mixed with water and emulsifier,
for which reason the emissions of volatile substances during placing in a working site (specific to the
solvent contained in the mixture type cutback) are excluded.

C) Point sources
The Production Bases are considered to be the point sources of air pollution during the highway
execution works. Basically, production bases will include: asphalt stations, concrete stations and
aggregate crushing stations.
Operation of the Asphalt Station
The quantities of asphalt mixtures to be placed depend on the solution to be adopted for the
superstructure.

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The Contractor assumes that the mixture stations on the section Brasov Targu Mures will be
located at: Km 30, Km 70, Km 110 and Km 145. These locations have been selected so that the
distance between the station and the site may be of approx. 20 25 Km.
Asphalt stations will have an hourly production of 270 t.
The emissions generated by the asphalt stations are of two types:
fugitive emissions specific to the activity previous to the preparation of the mixture and to
some operations during the production of mixtures,
directional emissions - specific to the production process.
The dust emissions previous to the phase of asphalt mixture preparation are associated to the vehicle
traffic developed on the roads within the site organizations (whether paved or not), and also to the
manipulation of the aggregates. Fugitive dust emissions include particles with dimensions between
0,1 300 m.
Fugitive emissions that occur during the production process of asphalt mixtures consist of
combinations of gas pollutants and material particles and are associated to the following operations:
discharge of the asphalt from the transport means generating organic vapors and aerosols,
bitumen storage.
The directional emissions specific to the production process are collected and evicted into the air in a
controlled manner by chimneys. The main sources of directional emissions are:
drier generating material particles, combustion outputs: CO2, NOx and SOx, carbon
monoxide and small quantities of different types of compounds: COV, CH4 generated by the
incomplete fuel combustion;
bitumen melter generating material particles, combustion outputs: CO2, NOx and SOx,
carbon monoxide.

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ASSESSMENT STUDY

POLLUTION SOURCES SPECIFIC TO THE PRODUCTION PROCESS


OF ASPHALT MIXTURE
Aggregates

PRE-DOSING OF
AIR:
CO, CO2,
NOx,
SO2,
powders

Bitume
n

AGGREGATES

CLU

MELTING OF BITUMEN

SOIL:
CLU
bitumen

DRYING OF
AGGREGATES

SOIL:
CLU

AIR:
CO, CO2,
NOx,
SO2,
powders

Filler
Melted bitumen

MIXING

SOIL:
Asphalt
mixture

LOADING
OF BIN WITH
MIXTURE

TRANSPORT OF
ASPHALT MIXTURE
TO WORK LOCATIONS

Figure no. 4.4. 1 Sources of pollution specific to the production process of the asphalt mixture
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- Fugitive emissions resulted from the production process
The fugitive emissions generated by the Asphalt stations were evaluated based on the emission
factors presented by the methodology AP 42, depending on their source:
Table 4.4. - 1 Emissions generated by the storage of bitumen
Hourly flow of polluting substance
Pollutant
(kg/h)
Total material particles
0,073764
Organic material particles
0,014472
Total organic carbon
1,389528
Carbon oxide
0,134541
Table 4.4. - 2 Emissions generated by the discharge of asphalt into the transport means
Hourly flow of polluting substance
(kg/h)
Total material particles
0,442584
Organic material particles
0,086832
Total organic carbon
8,337168
Carbon oxide
0,807246
The emission factors were evaluated per ton of asphalt. We assumed that an Asphalt Station produces
Pollutant

an average quantity of 270 t/h, respectively 1620 t/day.


-

Directional emissions generated by the production process

For the evaluation of polluting emissions generated by the production activity we assumed that the
Asphalt Stations will be fitted with filters.
According to the methodology AP - 42 , the emission factors and the mass flows of polluting
substances have the values in table no. 4.4. - 3.
Table no. 4.4.- 3 Flows of polluting substances for the asphalt mixture station
Flows of polluting substances (kg)
Nature of the pollutant
Hourly
Daily
(k g/ 270 t/ h)
(kg / 1620 t / day)
CO
54
324
NOx
16,2
97,2
COV
1,107
6,642
SO2
13,068
78,405
CH4
1
6
Total Particles (allowing filtering +
5,67
34,02
condensation)
In case of the asphalt mixture station, the particle emissions released on the burnt gas chimney are
concentrated emissions. In order to meet the Romanian regulations for emissions (CMA - 50
mg/Nmc), the asphalt station must be fitted with filters of textile bags. The observance of the

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concentrations of particles for emissions of max. 50 mg/Nmc must be regularly checked by
measurements.
Operation of the Concrete Station
The pollution specific to this activity refers exclusively to the fabrication of concrete.
The concrete preparation formula consists of a mixture of water, cement, sand and aggregates. The
concrete preparation station provides the storage, transport (on belt carrier), weighing and
discharging of the constituents into transport vehicles to the working site.
Starting from the concrete production process, the only interesting polluting emissions are the
material particles (cement particles, aggregates and sand). The pollutant emissions are of two types:
fugitive emissions and point emissions.
Fugitive emissions are generated by: the transfer of sand and aggregates, loading of transport
vehicles, loading of mixer, heavy traffic, the erosion of wind in the storage area of sand and
aggregates.
Point emissions occur in one single area, namely the transfer of cement into silos. The emissions may
also occur if the Concrete Station is not fitted with sealing gaskets or when these are worn.
For the construction of art works (bridges, passageways, viaducts), we shall use U type beams. The
total quantity of concrete estimated to be necessary for this section is of 99700 m 3. We assume a
concrete station will be necessary, with a production of 50 m3/hour.
The location of the station has not been established yet.
Table no. 4.4.- 4 - The emissions of material particles generated by the concrete stations were
assessed based on the emission factors presented by the methodology AP 42:
Flows of polluting substances (kg)
Polluting sources
Hourly
Daily
3
(kg/50 m /h)
(kg/400 m3/zi)
Transfer of sand and aggregates to the elevator silo
1,75
14
Pneumatic discharge of cement into silos
16,22
129,76
Loading of the scale
1,25
10
Loading of mixer
2,5
20
Traffic of vehicles on unpaved roads
562
4496
Wind erosion in the areas of sand and aggregate storage
487
3896
In order to evaluate the quantities of pollutants released into the air, we have considered a concrete
station fitted with dust filters.

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Emissions generated by the manipulations operation of aggregates and the wind erosion in the
storage areas
Additionally, particle emissions occur within the Production Bases due to the manipulation of
aggregates and to their storage in areas that are called paddocks. The quantity of emissions generated
by the operation of manipulation depends on the amount of aggregates which is stored. The
emissions also depend on a series of parameters specific to the storage conditions such as: moisture
contents and the percentage of fine aggregates. Lately, we have adopted the solution of covering the
fine aggregates such as sand (especially fine aggregates for asphalt), with dimensions smaller than 3
mm, due to the property of retaining the moisture on long periods of time. The emissions of particles
are larger during the first days after the storage of aggregates.
The dust emissions due to the manipulation of aggregates appear mainly in the discharge area of the
aggregates into paddocks.
The quantity of particles generated by the aggregate manipulation operations was assessed based on
the formula recommended by the methodology AP-42:

E k 0,0016

2,2

1, 3

1, 4

(kg/t),

where:
E = emission factor
K = multiplication factor for the dimensions of the particles, k = 0,74 for d < 30 m
U = wind speed (m/s), we selected U = 6,7 m/s
M = moisture content (%), we selected m = 0,25
The maximum quantities of dust emissions from the aggregate storage paddocks are generated under
conditions of dry and windy weather.
E 0,74 * 0,0016 *

1, 3

6,7

2,2
0,25

1, 4

= 0,093 kg/t

The emission factor was calculated per ton of stored aggregates.


The aggregates are used within the Production Bases in order to produce asphalt, concrete and
stabilized ballast.
The total emission resulted from loading the aggregate storage paddocks for the preparation of
asphalt, concrete and stabilized ballast is of approx. 275 kg/day.

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Additionally, dust emissions occur due to the wind erosion in the aggregate storage areas. For the
evaluation of the emissions, we assumed a number of 13 paddocks distributed per sorts and specific
production (5 paddocks for the storage of aggregates for asphalt, 4 for concrete and 4 for stabilized
ballast). The maximum capacity of a paddock was considered for 200 m3, with a surface of 0,02 ha.
The emission factor was selected according to the methodology AP-42: E = 3,9 kg/ha/day.
Given these premises, the total emission of dust particles, with the dimension of < 30 m, generated
by the wind erosion in the aggregate storage areas, is appreciated to approx. 1,01 kg/day.

4.4.2. AIR

POLLUTION SOURCES AND POLLUTING EMISSIONS DURING THE

OPERATION PERIOD

The main source of air pollution during the motorway operational period is generated by the fuel
combustion inside the vehicle engines. As a consequence of this process, a series of toxic substances
are released into the air. The main pollutants from the combustion gas are: carbon oxides (CO and
CO2), azote oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SOx in case of diesel vehicles), non-burnt
hydrocarbons, lead and lead compounds (due to the gasoline additives), as well as aerosols (smoke
due to incomplete burning of diesel).
The nature and level of the emissions of polluting substances released into the air by a vehicle
depend on a series of factors among which we mention: fuel characteristics, physical properties of
the fuel mixture, the operation regime and the level of controls, the constructive parts of the engine,
the fuel supply system particularities. Some pollutants are specific to the type of fuel: lead (for
gasoline) and sulphur dioxide (for diesel).
For the evaluation of the emissions specific to the road traffic, we have employed the methodology
COPERT III, which sets the emission factors (g /Km) for vehicles. The estimations were made for a
traffic flow corresponding to the year 2030.
The methodology considers the type of vehicles (cars, trucks, motorcycles, tractors, etc.), type of fuel
(gasoline, gas or liquid gas), traffic speed, traffic characteristics, technical status of vehicles
(progressive improvements of the engines). Concerning the estimate premises, we make the
following specifications:
We assumed that all the heavy vehicles run on diesel, and the light ones on gasoline;
The count was performed separately for heavy and light vehicles,
For the evaluation of the emissions of polluting substances generated by road traffic, we
employed a distribution of the car stock corresponding to 2010 (since for 2030 there is no data

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available concerning the evolution of the car stock in Romania). Under these circumstances, in 2030,
due to the improvements of the engines of the car stock, the emissions of polluting substances into
the air will be smaller than the estimations.
Table no. 4.4.- 5 presents the emissions of polluting substances (g/s) on specific sections released
into the air as a consequence of the road traffic that runs on the Brasov Targu Mures highway, on
the premises of year 2030.
Table no. 4.4. 5 Emissions of polluting substances (g/s) characteristic to the traffic on the
motorway year 2030
Section
MP (g/s) NOx (g/s) SO2 (g/s)
Pb (g/s)
CO (g/s) COV(g/s)
6,984
287,409
32,620
0,487
450,988
33,387
Codlea Fagaras
7,169
137,745
18,638
0,339
370,467
36,239
Fagaras - Sighisoara
3,397
137,062
16,201
0,246
232,371
16,970
Sighisoara Targu Mures
Where: MP material particles
Table no. 4.4. 5 Emissions of polluting substances (g/s) characteristic to the traffic on the
motorway year 2020
Section
MP (g/s) NOx (g/s) SO2 (g/s)
Pb (g/s)
CO (g/s) COV(g/s)
4,3480
189,7118
21,0252
0,2748
245,3279
18,4292
Codlea Fagaras
4,7264
82,1300
12,7604
0,1885
212,7055
22,6515
Fagaras - Sighisoara
3,3520
59,1621
8,9985
0,1369
153,9646
16,1571
Sighisoara Targu Mures
The Brasov Targu Mures highway, objective of national importance, will undertake part of the
traffic that currently runs on the national roads:
DN 1,
DN 13.
Under these circumstances, the impact study evaluated analogically (COPERT III) also the emissions
of the two above mentioned national roads in the two versions, with and without highway.
Tables no. 4.4.-6 and 4.4.- 7 present the emissions of polluting substances released into the air (g/s)
due to the fuel combustion inside the engines of the vehicles concerning the traffic on the national
road DN 1, the prognosis for 2030 in the version with and without motorway.
Table no. 4.4. 6 Emissions of polluting substances (g/s) year 2030, DN 1 - alternative without
motorway
Section
Codlea
Codlea - Persani
Persani - Mandra
Mandra - Fagaras

MP (g/s)
0,250
1,393
0,436
0,121

NOx (g/s)
7,169
39,343
12,099
3,347

SO2 (g/s)
0,977
5,422
1,808
0,500

Pb (g/s) CO (g/s)
0,022
23,773
0,124 134,340
0,033
36,835
0,009
10,188

COV (g/s)
3,242
18,297
5,068
1,402

Table no. 4.4.- 7 - Emissions of polluting substances (g/s) year 2030, DN 1 - alternative with
motorway
Section
Codlea
Codlea - Persani
Persani - Mandra

MP (g/s)
0,023
0,128
0,032

NOx (g/s) SO2 (g/s)


0,670
0,100
3,753
0,557
0,913
0,139
150

Pb (g/s)
0,002
0,009
0,002

CO (g/s)
COV (g/s)
1,832
0,253
10,006
1,382
2,655
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Section
MP (g/s) NOx (g/s) SO2 (g/s)
Mandra - Fagaras
0,117
3,261
0,490

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY
Pb (g/s)
CO (g/s)
COV (g/s)
0,009
9,844
1,356

Figure no. 4.4. 2 Reduction of emissions of polluting substances on DN 1


Tables no. 4.4. - 8 and 4.4. - 9 present the emissions of polluting substances released into the air (g/s)
due to fuel combustion inside the engines of the vehicles concerning the traffic on the national road
DN 13 prognosis for 2030 the version withy and without motorway.
Table no. 4.4. 8 - Emissions of polluting substances, year 2030, DN 13 alternative without
motorway
Pb
Section
MP (g/s) NOx (g/s) SO2 (g/s)
(g/s)
CO (g/s) COV (g/s)
Brasov Feldioara (1)
0,474
12,818
2,117
0,028
32,031
4,511
Feldioara Maerus (2)
0,998
27,031
4,446
0,059
66,782
9,401
Maerus Hoghiz (3)
1,228
33,252
5,489
0,073
82,849
11,669
Hoghiz Rupea (4)
0,530
11,930
1,441
0,038
42,727
6,159
Rupea Bunesti (5)
0,652
15,147
1,769
0,052
57,424
8,136
Bunesti Vanatori (6)
0,941
21,858
2,553
0,075
82,870
11,741
Vanatori Sighisoara (7)
0,520
12,067
1,409
0,041
45,752
6,482
Sighisoara Balauseri (8)
1,062
24,753
2,892
0,085
93,770
13,287
Balauseri Targu Mures (9)
0,840
19,847
2,273
0,070
77,381
10,891

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Table no. 4.4. 9 - Emissions of polluting substances year 2030, DN 13 - alternative with motorway
Section
Brasov Feldioara (1)
Feldioara Maerus (2)
Maerus Hoghiz (3)
Hoghiz Rupea (4)
Rupea Bunesti (5)
Bunesti Vanatori (6)
Vanatori Sighisoara (7)
Sighisoara Balauseri (8)
Balauseri Targu Mures (9)

MP (g/s)
0,063
0,144
0,163
0,060
0,014
0,021
0,012
0,045
0,184

NOx (g/s)
1,657
3,843
4,339
1,070
0,359
0,518
0,289
1,101
4,472

SO2 (g/s)
0,344
0,761
0,894
0,168
0,036
0,052
0,029
0,115
0,496

Pb
(g/s)
0,001
0,002
0,003
0,001
0,002
0,002
0,001
0,004
0,017

CO (g/s)
1,498
3,338
3,777
1,838
1,685
2,431
1,360
4,811
18,199

COV (g/s)
0,259
0,566
0,658
0,352
0,225
0,325
0,182
0,665
2,543

Figure no. 4.4. 3 Reduction of the emissions of polluting substances on DN 13

4.5. SOIL AND SUB-SOIL POLLUTION SOURCES


4.5.1. SOURCES

OF SOIL AND SUBSOIL POLLUTION AND EMISSIONS OF

POLUTANTS DURING THE CONSTRUCTION PERIOD

During the period of motorway execution works, the soil pollution sources are of three types, similar
to the pollution of air:
Linear sources, represented by the traffic of heavy vehicles and equipment that runs from the
production bases to the working sites. The emissions of polluting substances released into the air by

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the fuel combustion (CO, NOx, SO2), both those caused by the traffic, and also by the operation of
the equipment in the area of working sites (powders, CO, NOx, SO2, Pb, Hc), settle on the soil and
may lead to the temporary modification of the natural properties of the soil. The dust quantities
released into the air during the motorway execution works may be significant. The pollution
manifests during a limited time duration (during construction work), and on a limited area.
Surface sources, represented by the operation of the equipment in the area of working sites.
Additionally, here we face the risk of accidental leakage of oil or fuel as a consequence of some
technical malfunctions of the equipment.
Point sources, represented by the site organizations. Within the site organizations, the
potential sources of soil pollution are:
Asphalt station, due to the following operations: heating of aggregates (source: the light
liquid fuel employed), bitumen melting (sources: light liquid fuel used in order to heat the
bitumen and the bitumen), loading of the asphalt mixtures into vehicles (source: asphalt
mixture);
The activities developed within the Production Base require the manipulation of some
significant quantities of substances potentially polluting for the soil. This category
includes: paints, solvents, fuels, etc;
Fuel storage, caused by leakage, in case the walls or the bottom of tanks are not sealed;
The fuel supply operations for the equipment or the transport means;
The waste generated by the Production bases. The waste may be domestic, generated by
the activity of the personnel, and those generated by the technological processes. The last
category includes, for example: the slime generated by the concrete production process or
the slimes generated by the fuel storage tanks: liquid waste, solid sediments imbibed with
fuel, oil products accidentally spilled on concreted platforms;
Waste domestic water and technological water generated on the locations of Production
Bases.

4.5.2. SOURCES

OF SOIL AND SUBSOIL POLLUTION AND POLLUTING EMISSIONS

DURING THE OPERATION PERIOD

During the operational period of the motorway, the soil pollution sources are:
The polluting emissions resulted as a consequence of road traffic. The main pollutants
released by means of exhaust gas of the vehicles are: carbon monoxide (CO), azote oxides (NOx),
paraffin and aromatic hydrocarbons (Hc), sulphur oxides (SO, SO 2), particles (smoke), lead and its
compounds. These pollutants have both singular, and also synergist effect. Under certain climate
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conditions these pollutants can be transferred into the other environment factors (surface and
underground water, soil, vegetation, fauna);
Rain water which washes the pollutants settled on the highway platform. The pollutants can
reach the soil, and by percolation enter the underground water layer, modifying the characteristics of
the water bed;
Solid waste and/or the waste water coming from the service spaces;
Accidental pollution caused by the occurrence of car crushes, generating losses of toxic
substances, oil products, etc;
Season pollution, occurring for a limited time duration (approx. 4 months - winter), however,
it may have a longer term influence. The salts used for defrost (in solid condition (NaCl, CaCl 2) or as
a solution) represent a direct or indirect soil polluting source.
The impact of these sources upon the environment, including the human one, and the measures of
prevention and limiting the negative impact will be discussed in chapters 5 and 6.

4.6. SOURCES OF FLORA AND FAUNA POLLUTION


4.6.1. SOURCES

OF FLORA AND FAUNA POLLUTION AND EMISSIONS OF

POLLUTANTS DURING THE CONSTRUCTION PERIOD

The flora and fauna pollution sources specific to the motorway construction period are:
emissions of pollutants and noise generated by the site traffic: heavy vehicles transporting
earth for earthworks, asphalt, ballast, fuels, concrete, prefabs, workers to the work locations, etc;
emissions of pollutants and noise generated by the activity of the construction equipment in
the area of working sites: bulldozers, loaders, rammers, distributors, etc;
emissions pollutants and noise generated by the activity developed within the lay-outs of
construction works: asphalt stations, concrete stations, manipulation of construction materials, etc.

4.6.2. FLORA

AND

FAUNA

POLLUTION

SOURCES

AND

EMISSIONS

OF

POLLUTANTS DURING THE OPERATION PERIOD

The road traffic represents the pollution source acting directly upon the flora and fauna in the area.
The flora may be influenced by the emissions of polluting substances that may settle on plants or
may enter their body by settling on the soil and percolating together with the rain water.
On the other hand, the motorway may represent a physical barrier for the fauna, changing its habitat.
The fauna may also by influenced by the noise generated by the road traffic or by the lights at night.

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4.7. ACOUSTIC AND VIBRATING POLLUTION SOURCES


4.7.1. ACOUSTIC

AND

VIBRATING

POLLUTION

SOURCES

DURING

THE

CONSTRUCTION PERIOD

The motorway construction works involve 4 sources of noise and vibrations:


The technological processes of road execution, due to the operation of some groups of
machines having corresponding functions. These machines at work represent just as many
noise sources.
The traffic of transport means from the Production Bases to the working sites.
The operation of installations and equipment within the Production Base.
The operation of installations within the Sorting coarse crushing station.
The acoustic level depends mostly on the following factors:
Weather events, namely: the wind speed and direction, the gradient of temperature and
wind;
The soil absorption of acoustic waves, a phenomenon called soil effect;
The air absorption, depending on pressure, temperature, relative humidity, the spectral
composition of noise;
The land topography;
The vegetation.
The main source of noise and vibrations is represented by the operation of the machines.
Bellow, we have a list of the types of machines employed and their associated acoustic power:
dozers

Lw 115 dB(A);

Wolla loaders

Lw 112 dB(A);

excavators

Lw 117 dB(A);

auto-graders

Lw 112 dB(A);

rammers

Lw 105 dB(A);

road finisher

Lw 115 dB(A);

dumper

Lw 107 dB(A).

Besides the acoustic impact, the construction equipment, characterized by large own weights, due to
their traveling and to the activity developed at the work locations, are sources of vibrations.
The second noise and vibration source on site is the traffic of transport means.
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For the transport of materials (earth, ballast, prefabs, concrete, asphalt, etc.) we suppose that heavy
vehicle are to be used, with a load between few tons and over 40 tons. For the assessment of
emissions, we have considered an average of 16 t for heavy vehicles.
The evolution of the acoustic level depends on the evolution of works and the relocation of working
sites.
The localities crossed by the heavy traffic afferent to the Lay-out of the construction works are
influenced by noise and vibrations. At this moment, we do not now the number and position of Layouts of construction works, which is to be established by the contractor.
From the expert literature and the observations carried out on site in time, we may say that, when the
site dumpers cross a locality, the equivalent acoustic levels that may be reached, for the reference
periods of 24 h, are over 50 dB(A), if the number of passages exceeds 20. The equivalent acoustic
levels are of 60 - 62 dB(A) in case of more than 100 of passages, and over 65 dB(A) in case of
approx. 200 passages. It is obvious that the average site traffic cannot be directed through localities.
The third noise source is the operation of the installations and equipment within the Production
Bases.
The location of the Production Bases is to be chosen by the contractor. It is likely that they are
located nearby railway stations.
In case of the asphalt mixture preparation station, the acoustic levels are generated mostly by
operation:
Burners,
Compressors,
Ventilators,
Electric generator,
Engines.
The fourth source of noise consists of the operation of service equipment afferent to the sorting
coarse crushing station:
Machines of aggregate operation: dragline, loaders, bulldozers,
Machines of the sorting washing coarse crushing installation,
Transport means, dumpers.

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4.7.2. ACOUSTIC AND VIBRATING POLLUTION SOURCES DURING THE OPERATION


PERIOD

An important aspect of the works impact upon the human environment consists of the evolution of
the noise level in the areas crossed by the highway.
Bellow, we will present an estimation of the noise level along the highway route.
For the assessment of the equivalent sound level (Leq) stage 2020, we used the count methodology
according to The Acoustic Guide of Ground Transport - CETUR (Centre dEtudes des Transports
Urbains), Departament Environnement et Nuisances for the open field, which was affected by the
reduction coefficients due to the soil effect, distance between the source and receiver and to height.
The methodology considered:
the intensity of hourly traffic (no. of light vehicles, respectively heavy vehicles / h);
factor of acoustic equivalence between heavy and light vehicles, depending on the highway
slope. The noise produced by light vehicles is less influenced by the road slope. However,
the acoustic power released by the heavy vehicles is very much influenced by the slope;
distance of the receiver from the edge of the carriageway (m);
traffic speed (Km / h) we considered the speed separately on characteristic sections;
width of the roadway (m).
For the noise evaluations, we considered the traffic values of 2020, presented in chapter no. 2.4. The
counts were performed for the average traffic values (the average hour per day) on specific highway
sections. Figures no. 4.7. 1, 4.7. 2 and 4.7. - 3 and Appendix no. 8 present the average daily
values of the acoustic level at different distances from the motorway (the edge of the platform - 450
m).

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Fig. 4.7.-1 Codlea Fagaras Section The equivalent acoustic level

Fig. 4.7.-2 Fagaras - Sighisoara Section - The equivalent acoustic level

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Fig. 4.7.-3 Sighisoara Targu Mures Section - The equivalent acoustic level
According to STAS 10009-88, the motorway Bucuresti Brasov is considered as a main road, the
equivalent noise level being Lech = 75 - 85 dB. As we may notice, the noise level generated by the
traffic running on the motorway, counted at the edge of the motorway territory observes the
acceptable limits.
However, the maximum acceptable limit at a distance of 2 m from the building facades, respectively
50 dB(A), is reached at a distance of approx. 450 m from the highway.
Also, we estimated the sound level in certain points where the highway traffic overlaps other existing
sources, nearby some inhabited areas.
For the count of the acoustic level along the motorway route, we have considered the following:
vulnerable areas nearby buildings;
areas where the sound level generated by the motorway traffic is added to the sound level of
the railway, and also to the sound level generated by the traffic developed on other roads it
intersects or passes by at small distances.
Along the motorway, the route runs parallel and at small distances or intersects national roads DN 1
and DN 14 and the railway 200 Bucuresti Brasov and CF 300 Bucuresti - Oradea.
For the evaluation of the cumulated noise level, we have considered the following specific sections
(table no. 4.7.- 1):
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Table no. 4.7. - 1 Characteristic sections


Characteristic
sections
Km 14+500
Km 30+000
Km 103+000
Km 103+500
Km 104+000
For the evaluation

Objective

Noise sources

Equivalent noise
level - cumulated
(dB (A))

- Highway: 54,28 dB(A)


- DN 1: 58,26 dB(A)
62,46
- CF 200: 59,09 dB(A)
- Highway: 59,89 dB(A)
Houses of
- DN 1: 60,02 dB(A)
65,24
Persani
- CF 200: 59,09 dB(A)
- Highway: 55,05 dB(A)
Houses of Danes
67,92
- CF 300: 67,42 dB(A)
- Highway: 55,05dB(A)
Houses of Danes
- DN 14: 61,70 dB(A)
76,85
- CF 300: 76,35 dB(A)
- Highway: 55,05dB(A)
Houses of Danes
- DN 14: 61,70 dB(A)
78,13
- CF 300: 77,63 dB(A)
of the noise level cumulated on the above mentioned characteristic sections, we
Houses of
Vladeni

have considered the noise levels additionally induced on the motorway, as well as those generated by
the already existing sources (railway, national roads). The cumulated noise level was assessed for the
houses which are the nearest to the highway.
For the railway, the evaluation was based on the number of passenger trains and cargo trains that
circulate on a period of 12 h, between 8 20h.
The maximum sound level Lmax generated by a train, was assessed according to the methodology
The Acoustic Guide for Ground Transport - CETUR (Centre dEtudes des Transports Urbains),
Departament Environnement et Nuisances
The methodology considers the following elements:
The reference sound level generated by a certain type of train circulating at a speed v 0
(dB(A));
Multiplication coefficient depending on the train length;
distance between receiver and the railway axis (m);
train speed (Km/h);
exposure time (s).
In order to determine the equivalent sound level generated by the railway traffic between 8 20 h,
we have used the passenger train and cargo trains flow according to the analyzed period of time.

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The equivalent sound level was obtained by cumulating the sound level of passenger trains sound
level of cargo trains
The motorway construction will have a benefic influence upon human dwellings along national roads
DN 1 and DN 13, by attracting one part of the traffic that runs currently through the respective
localities.
In order to evaluate the reduction of the noise level inside localities, on the two arteries, the count
was performed for the two versions, namely with and without motorway, for the prognosis for 2030,
using the count methodology according to The Acoustic Guide for Ground Transport - CETUR
(Centre dEtudes des Transports Urbains), Departament Environnement et Nuisances for U
streets, namely those that are bordered on both sides by buildings.
The methodology considered the following elements:
intensity of hourly traffic (no. of light vehicles, respectively heavy vehicles/ h);
acoustic equivalence factor between heavy and light vehicles, depending on the highway
slope. The noise produced by light vehicles is less influenced by the road slope. However,
the acoustic power released by heavy vehicles is very much influenced by the slope;
the height correction, depending on the height of the receiver from the road;
speed correction;
correction depending on the road slope.
Applying this methodology, we obtain the noise level for the building facade.
In our situation, we have operated the count considering the distance between buildings of 20, 25
and 30 m.
Tables no. 4.7.- 2 and 4.7. - 3 present the values of the acoustic level in stage 2020 on national
roads DN 1 and DN 13 given the two versions (with and without motorway).
Table. 4.7. - 2 Average daily values of the equivalent average acoustic level Leq (year 2020)
on DN 1 given the two versions with and without motorway
Distance
between
buildings (m)
20

Equivalent acoustic level at the faade


Section

of the buildings (dB(A))


Without motorway
With motorway

Codlea
Codlea - Persani
Persani - Mandra

77,35
77,19
78,20
161

67,28
67,01
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Distance
Section
between
buildings (m)

25

30

Mandra - Fagaras
Codlea
Codlea - Persani
Persani - Mandra
Mandra - Fagaras
Codlea
Codlea - Persani
Persani - Mandra
Mandra - Fagaras

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY
Equivalent acoustic level at the faade
of the buildings (dB(A))
Without motorway
With motorway
78,20
78,07
76,38
66,31
76,22
66,05
77,23
65,67
77,23
77,10
75,59
65,52
75,42
65,25
76,43
64,88
76,43
76,31

Fig. 4.7. 4 Reducing the noise level on DN 1 by constructing the motorway


Table. 4.7. 3 Average daily values of the equivalent acoustic level Leq average (year 2020)
on DN 13 given the two versions without and with motorway
Distance
between
buildings (m)
20

Equivalent acoustic level at the facade of


Section
Brasov Feldioara
Feldioara Maerus

buildings (dB(A))
Without motorway

With motorway

79,02
79,24

70,31
71,73

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Distance
Section
between
buildings (m)

25

30

Maerus Hoghiz
Hoghiz Rupea
Rupea Bunesti
Bunesti Vanatori
Vanatori Sighisoara
Sighisoara Balauseri
Balauseri Targu
Mures
Brasov Feldioara
Feldioara Maerus
Maerus Hoghiz
Hoghiz Rupea
Rupea Bunesti
Bunesti Vanatori
Vanatori Sighisoara
Sighisoara Balauseri
Balauseri Targu
Mures
Brasov Feldioara
Feldioara Maerus
Maerus Hoghiz
Hoghiz Rupea
Rupea Bunesti
Bunesti Vanatori
Vanatori Sighisoara
Sighisoara Balauseri
Balauseri Targu
Mures

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY
Equivalent acoustic level at the facade of
buildings (dB(A))
Without motorway
79,04
78,99
78,43
78,43
78,43
78,26

With motorway
70,48
70,10
60,34
60,34
60,38
62,85

78,80
78,05
78,27
78,07
78,02
77,46
77,46
77,46
77,29

71,59
69,34
70,76
69,51
69,13
59,37
59,37
59,41
61,88

77,83
77,26
77,48
77,28
77,23
76,67
76,67
76,67
76,50

70,62
68,55
69,97
68,72
68,34
58,58
58,58
58,62
61,09

77,04

69,83

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Fig. 4.7. 5 Decrease of the noise level on DN 1A due to the motorway construction
As we explained in chapter 2.4., the design of the works provided for the environmental protection
was done for the traffic forecast for 2020 year. If the traffic forecast for 2030 will come true, the
necessity to provide supplementary environmental protection works will be studied.
Figures no. 4.7. 6, 4.7. 7 and 4.7. - 8 present the forecast of the noise level produced by the traffic
for 2030 year.

Fig. 4.7.-6 - Codlea Fagaras Section The equivalent acoustic level

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Fig. 4.7.-7 - Fagaras Sighisoara Section The equivalent acoustic level

Fig. 4.7.-8 - Fagaras Sighisoara Section The equivalent acoustic level

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4.8. WASTE MANAGEMENT


4.8.1. WASTE MANAGEMENT DURING THE CONSTRUCTION PERIOD
According to the Governmental Decision no. 155 of March 1999 concerning the Introduction of the
waste management and of the European Waste Catalogue, the contractor, as a waste generator, is
obliged to keep a monthly evidence of the production, temporary storage, treatment and transport,
recycling and final disposal of waste. The contractor will conclude a contract with a specialized
company which will transport and dispose the waste at the developed ramps.
Annex 1 of the above mentioned decision is presented in the Internal record of waste management.
Construction and demolition waste (including road constructions) are classified according to the
European Waste Catalogue code 17 00 00 in annex 2 of the respective decision. The waste amounts
may be globally assessed by means of the work quantities lists.
Sources of waste
Besides the waste generated by the technological processes for the motorway construction, specific
waste will gather within the equipment bases and at the asphalt and concrete stations. Important
quantities of engine oil will be generated due to the maintenance of the equipment, metal parts (spare
parts from equipment repairs), tyres, remainders of concrete and asphalt, etc.
The site organizations will generate domestic waste, however the quantities of domestic waste are
much under those generated by the construction activity. Domestic waste must be collected in
standard bins and regularly collected by the salubrity services in the area.
The waste generated as residues by the fuel storage tanks are combustible and have no sulphur,
which allows their collection, packed into plastic bags and burnt.
Waste water generated by site organizations will be collected and purified within purifying
settlements. The sludge resulted after purification must be regularly collected and transported to the
nearest town purifying station.
Waste recycling
The current tendency is to reduce the consumption of materials, including waste recovery, recycling
and reuse actions. Part of the resulted waste due to construction works can be reused. The waste
reuse has a positive impact upon the environment due to:
reducing the necessary of stone materials extracted from pits;
reduction of the production of construction material factories and, implicitly, the decrease of
the pollution caused by the technologies they use;
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decrease of the power consumption for the production of construction materials;


decrease of the volume of waste dumps, which occupy important land areas and represent
chemical pollution sources of the air, soil, water, and also contribute to the landscape damage.

4.8.2. WASTE MANAGEMENT DURING THE OPERATION PERIOD


During the motorway operation period, waste will be generated by the service spaces, by the other
activities running along the motorway, of cleaning the constructions provided to purify the rain water
that washes the highway platform.
The waste is of the following types:
domestic (from the public food units, motels);
decanted sludge and separated greases from the waste water collected and purified, generated
by the above mentioned units;
oils, hydrocarbons (deposits from the waste water collection plants in the fuel stations);
sludge and separated greases in the purifying stations of the rain water that washes the
pollutants settled on the highway.
The resulted waste quantities depend on the number of persons that use the utilities within service
spaces. Contracts will be concluded with specialized salubrity units which will collect, transport and
dispose the waste.
The motorway administrator will have the obligation to maintain the purifying plants of the rain
water collected from the motorway, to regularly collect the sludge and transport it to the nearest
purifying stations.

4.9. TOXIC AND DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES MANAGEMENT


4.9.1. THE MANAGEMENT OF TOXIC AND DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES DURING THE
CONSTRUCTION PERIOD

According to the European Waste Catalogue - CED the main waste generated by road construction
activities, except for insulating materials, do not meet the requirements for the dangerous waste
category.
The category of municipal waste and the waste that can be reintegrated into trade, industry etc
includes as dangerous waste the paints, inks, adhesives and resins, solvents, fluorescent tubes and
other waste containing mercury. All these illuminating substances and objects will be used on site, in

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significant amounts. We may also use, in small amounts, other toxic or dangerous substances and
materials.
The toxic and dangerous substances management will be performed by observance of the current
legal provisions.
The contractor is obliged to store and use these substances in safety. The contractor will also have to
keep a strict evidence of these materials. The generated waste, as well as the packages of toxic or
dangerous substances, will be safely stored and delivered to the specialized units for final disposal,
recycling or burning.

4.9.2. MANAGEMENT

OF TOXIC AND DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES DURING THE

OPERATION PERIOD

During the operation period, toxic and dangerous substances may be generated only as a
consequence of car accidents involving vehicles that transport such substances.
The transportation of toxic and dangerous substances is regulated and must be observed by the
transporters.

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5. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
5.1. THE IMPACT ON THE WATERS
5.1.1. THE IMPACT ON THE WATERS DURING CONSTRUCTION WORKS
Works Execution
The earthworks determine the entrainment of fine particulates of earth that may get into the surface
waters. The deposits of solid particulates in water courses modify the granulometry of the riverbed
bottom and may affect the water flora and fauna.
The handling and placement of the construction materials (concrete, bitumen, aggregates etc)
determine emissions specific to every type of material and construction operations. In case that the
works are carried out in the vicinity of the water courses, all these represent sources of direct
pollution of waters. Also, rainfall washing the site platform can entrain deposits and thus, indirectly,
they reach the water courses, and the ground water table as well.
Improper handling, near water courses, of vehicles transporting various types of materials or
machinery represents potential sources of pollution as a result of accidental discharges of materials,
fuels and oils.
Site Traffic
Heavy traffic, specific top site activities, produce different emissions of pollutant substances into the
atmosphere resulted from fuel combustion in car engines (NO x, CO, SOx, COV, suspension
particulates, etc). On the other hand, some of the heavy traffic is a source of sedimentary particulates
as they entrain dust particulates from unpaved roads. Also, during the execution works, there are also
particulates resulting from the friction of the rolling tracks and the wearing of the tires. The
atmosphere is washed by the rain, so that air pollutants are transferred to the other environmental
factors (surface and ground waters, the soil etc).
Site organizations
If the asphalt and concrete stations are located in the vicinity of a water course, they may constitute
sources of pollution by washing specific pollutants from the atmosphere or from the soil by
rainwater. Special care should also be given to the areas where the level of the water table is raised,
as here is the place where pollution could take place due to losses of fuel or bitumen.
Fuel reservoirs may constitute a source of pollution if they are not tight.
From the maintenance stations for transporting equipment and machines there could result oils, fuels
and waste waters from machine washing.

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At Site Organizations there are domestic waste waters resulting from the canteen and the toilettes.
Generally, these waters have a normal biologic charge. The rain waters at the location of the Site
Organizations are considered to be conventionally clean waters. There are also process waters
resulting from the location of the Production Bases. For these it is necessary a local pre-purification.

5.1.2. THE IMPACT ON THE WATERS DURING OPERATION


The calculus was carries out for a 500 m long motorway section, for half of the motorway pavement.
The quantities of pollutants were calculated for the traffic corresponding for the prognosis of the year
2010.
The concentration of pollutant substances in water: C = K/V (mg/l), where:
K the quantity of pollutant washed by rainwater,
V the volume of water where it can be found.
Table no. 5.1.2. 1. Concentrations of pollutants in rainwater washing the motorway platform
(mg/l) 2020 year
Section

Total solid
matters

CCO

Pb

Zn

Hydrocarbons

Codlea - Fagaras
551,64
275,82
0,83
1,59
95,98
Fagaras
380,89
190,44
0,57
1,10
66,27
Sighisoara
Sighisoara Targu
356,94
178,47
0,54
1,03
62,11
Mures
Water changed with pollutants washed from the motorway are collected in ditches and then
discharged into a water course or from the surrounding lands.
NTPA 001 / 2002 Technical norms regarding the collection, purification and discharge of urban
waste water states limit values for pollutant charges in waste waters disposed in natural receivers:
MTS: 60 mg/l,
CCO: 125 mg/l,
Pb:

0,2 mg/l,

Zn:

1,0 mg/l,

Hydrocarbons: 20,0 mg/l.


It has been found that the all the indices exceed the admissible limits.
Thus, rainwater purification id required to reduce the pollutant concentrations until they are
complaint with the above mentioned norms.
In cases of waters discharged into the surrounding lands it is recommended to observe the limits set
in STAS 9450-1988 Technical Quality Conditions of irrigating waters for the agricultural fields.
Among studies pollutants, the normative sets the limit only for lead and zinc:
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Pb: 2 mg/l,
Zn: 2 mg/l.
For reducing the pollutants concentrations it is recommended to build settling tanks, followed by oil
separators (see chapter 6.5.). In settling tanks a coarse decantation takes place. In the oil separators,
greases are separated through flotation (substances lighter than water), but some of the colloidal
suspensions will sediment too.
When the cleaned water are discharged onto the terrain, dispersion tanks will be provided in order to
avoid the erosion of the soil.

Settling tank

Oil separator

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ASSESSMENT STUDY
A n ro ca m e n t

S e p a ra to r d e g r a s im i

A n ro c a m e n t b e to n a t

Dispersion tank
The efficiency of these constructions is thought to be approximately 90% for retention of
suspensions, lead, zinc and hydrocarbons and approximately 60% for retention of organic matters
(CCO).
e = (ci ce) x 100 / ci,
ci = pollutant concentration in influent
ce= pollutant concentration in effluent
Applying these efficiencies at the concentration values, the values of the polluting concentrations in
the purified water are:
Table no. 5.1.2. 2. Concentrations of pollutants in purified water 2020 year
Section
Codlea - Fagaras
Fagaras
Sighisoara
Sighisoara Targu
Mures

Total solid
matters

CCO

Pb

Zn

Hydrocarbons

55,16

110,33

0,08

0,16

0,57

38,09

76,18

0,06

0,11

0,39

35,69

71,39

0,05

0,10

0,37

It has been noted that after purification, the pollutant concentrations are below the limits set by the
above mentioned normative.
As we explained in chapter 2.4., the design of the works provided for the environmental protection
was done for the traffic forecast for 2020 year. If the traffic forecast for 2030 will come true, the
necessity to provide supplementary environmental protection works will be studied.
We present the values of the concentrations of the polluting substances in the pluvial water and in the
purified water for 2030 traffic forecast.
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Table no. 5.1.2. 3. Concentrations of pollutants in rainwater washing the motorway platform
(mg/l) 2030 year
Section
Codlea - Fagaras
Fagaras
Sighisoara
Sighisoara Targu
Mures

Total solid
matters

CCO

Pb

Zn

Hydrocarbons

958,97

479,49

1,44

2,76

166,86

618,52

309,26

0,93

1,78

107,62

628,07

314,03

0,94

1,81

109,28

Table no. 5.1.2. 4. Concentrations of pollutants in purified water 2030 year


Section
Codlea - Fagaras
Fagaras
Sighisoara
Sighisoara Targu
Mures

Total solid
matters

CCO

Pb

Zn

Hydrocarbons

95,90

191,79

0,14

0,28

33,37

61,85

123,70

0,09

0,18

21,52

62,81

125,61

0,09

0,18

21,86

5.2. THE IMPACT ON THE AIR


5.2.1. THE IMPACT ON THE AIR DURING CONSTRUCTION WORKS
The execution of construction works represents, on one hand, a source for dust emissions and, on the
other hand, a source of pollutant emissions specific for fossil fuel combustion (distilled oil products)
both in machinery and transport means engines.
Construction works could have, temporarily (during execution), a significant local impact on the
quality of the air. The impact on the air is significant within the Site Organizations due to the
operation of asphalt and concrete stations and heavy vehicle traffic.
The action of air pollutants on the peoples health is manifest when they exceed a maximum level of
concentrations, called the harmful threshold. The harmful effect is dependent on their concentration,
and the duration of the exposure as well. Their effects on peoples health are the following:
carbon monoxide (CO): inhaling it may lead to intoxications, causing sight disorders,
headaches, dizziness, fatigue, palpitations and even death, when 66% of the hemoglobin
existing in the blood is transformed in carboxihemoglobin;
nitric oxide (NOx): in certain concentrations can cause serious intoxications (chronic
respiratory diseases and inflammatory injuries);

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hydrocarbons (Hc): especially the aromatic monocyclic (benzene) and polycyclic


(benzopirene) ones are hemato and neurotoxic, having carcinogenic effects;
sooth particulates (smoke): smoke can contain lead particulates and polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons causing respiratory disorders and carcinogenic effects at the level of the
larynx, bronchia and the lung;
lead and lead compounds: may enter the body through the lungs, the digestive system and
through skin, its toxic action being caused by the disruption of hemoglobin biosynthesis, the
central nervous system and it may cause anemia as well or have an adverse effect on
intellectual abilities;
sulphur oxides (SOx): have an irritating effect au on the respiratory system.
The impact on the air during the construction works may be significant. However, it is manifest
throughout a limited and relatively short period of time. In general, the site will not be located in the
vicinity of localities; however there are some isolated areas where the motorway route will come
near groups of houses:
- the locality of Persani, Km 30+450 Km 30+650 and Km 31+100 Km 31+150, distance ~
50-80 m;
- the locality of Danes, Km 103+800 Km 104+150, distance ~ 100 m;
- the locality of Tirimioara, Km 138+050 Km 138+150, distance ~ 120 -160 m;
- the locality of Valea Izvoarelor, Km 152+725 Km 152+850, distance ~ 30-50 m.
Thus, it is estimated that the residential population will not be affected.

5.2.2. THE

IMPACT ON THE AIR DURING OPERATION

Air pollution in case of road traffic is a result of fuel combustion inside engines, on one hand, and the
result of wear by friction of contact surfaces materials, on the other hand.
This type of pollution is a result of:
releasing combustion products into the air,

producing different kinds of powders resulting from the wear of the rolling track and tyres,
brake and clutch devices and other body units.
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With petrol engines, pollutants resulting from the combustion of the fuel mixture are: CO 2, CO, nitric
oxides (NOx), burnt and unburnt hydrocarbons (HC) and SO2. Their ratios are dependent on the
air/fuel ratio. In case of vehicles with diesel engines, the emissions are less than 10 times for CO, 3-4
times for HC, and 2-3 times for NOx.
Escape fumes contain, depending on the type of fuel: lead particulates in case of petrol (with
additives) and fume particulates in case of diesel oil.
Pollution with CO
Air pollution with CO is influenced by a series of factors, among them:
fuel type: petrol or diesel oil. It has been shown that in case of petrol, the CO emission is
much higher.
traffic speed: in case of petrol, minimum emissions are recorded se with speed values of
approximately 80 km/h. for very low speeds, 10 km/h or greater, 120 km/h the value of the
emissions may raise to up to 5 times the normal value.
traffic conditions: when accelerating or braking, emissions increases of up to 1.5 - 2 times,
whereas with idle running the increase could be up to 25 times.
Traffic intensity: CO emission increases proportionally with the increase of the number of
vehicles per given section;
Ramp traffic: CO emission increases by 15 % for each increase of ramp by 2 percents.
One of the aspects related to CO pollution is the long time of retention into the air, varying between 1
to 2 months.
Pollution with NOx
According to researches carried out to date, the following basic factors have been identified, which
are influencing the degree of pollution with NOx:
The type of fuel. It as been found out that in case of petrol, the NOx emission is 2-3 times
greater than in case of diesel oil engines.
Traffic speed: an increase in vehicles speed to over 60 km/h leads to an increase in NOx
emissions, the more powerful are the engines, the greater the emissions.
Ramp traffic: NOx emissions increase by 35% for each 2% increase in the ramp.

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Pollution with hydrocarbons

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY

Air pollution with hydrocarbons is influenced by a series of factors, among them:


Traffic speed: the minimum values of the hydrocarbon emission concentration is reported at
constant traffic speeds of 80100 km/h, but it is 5-6 times greater with a speed of 10 km/h,
Traffic conditions: hydrocarbon emission concentration is minimum at constant speed,
slightly increasing by acceleration, and increasing by 20 times with idle running and up to 50
times when braking.
To emphasize the contribution brought in by opening the traffic on Brasov Targu Mures motorway
to the general pollution background, it has been carried out a theoretical evaluation of the
concentration fields. For such purposes, a dispersion pattern was used for linear emission sources,
based on the Gaussian solution (Johnson and others, 1976) for calculating the concentration for a
linear source (Hanna, OMM-Geneva, 1982). The pattern can generate both an average concentration
in the long run (yearly average) as well as concentrations in the short run (maximum concentrations
per 30 minutes). The average concentration in a receiver placed at a distance

x and positioned at the

height of the linear source oriented in winds direction, is given by the formula:

2
2

Ql
1

(z

H)
(z

H)
exp

C(x, z)
exp
2
2

2 u(sin ) z
2 z
2 z
where:
u = wind speed

= the angle between the linear source and the direction of the wind
H= the emission height
The yearly average concentration is calculated using a function of weather conditions scattering
triplets (the direction of the wind, wind speed and stability class) motorway section, therefore, there
were used triplets associated to the regions Brasov and Targu Mures. This way, as the mathematical
patterning includes the use of a statistical function of the weather conditions specific to the region,
the results obtained have a good statistical validity, containing data associated to all possible weather
conditions.
Required data to be entered in the pattern are as follows:
Emission rate per each road section, for each pollutant,
A map containing the configuration of the motorway,
The characteristics of the region (urban/ rural),

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The coordinates of the road sections and subsections extremities defined as distinct linear
sources,
Calculation grid,
Frequency of weather conditions occurrence triplets for each section.
The patter was run for each motorway section chosen for the following pollutants: CO, NO x, PM 10,
volatile organic compounds (COV), SO2 and Pb.
The use of such dispersion pattern made possible the representation of the isobars of equal
concentration for each section. The results are summarized in the tables below, following the values
of the concentrations for each pollutant at various distances from the main axis of the motorway
section and comparing with the limits imposed by Order no. 592/2002 regarding the establishment
of limit values, threshold values and criteria and methodology for assessing sulphur dioxide, nitric
dioxide and nitric oxides, suspended powders, lead, benzene, carbon monoxide and the ozone in the
surrounding air.
Table No.5 .2-1 Results of dispersion calculations for Codlea Fagaras section
Distance to
motorway axis

Yearly average concentration


(g/m3)
CO

NOX

PM 10

COV

SO2

Pb

< 50 m

130

85

2,2

11

11

0,15

50 100 m

100

65

1,7

8,5

8,5

0,115

100 250 m

70

45

1,2

0,08

250 500 m

40

25

0,7

3,5

3,5

0,045

> 500 m

10

0,2

0,01

Limit values acc to


Ord. no. 592/2002

40*/30**

40*

20**

0,5*

*- limit value for peoples health protection


** - limit value for the protection of ecosystems
Analyzing the results presented in table no. 5.2-1 and the corresponding dispersion map, it was found
that the pollution levels at different distances to the main axis of Codlea Fagaras section, for the
analyzed pollutants are within the limits stated in Order no. 592/2002, without exceeding the limit
values. NOx is the exception. The value exceeds maximum allowable concentration at distances less
than 250 m from the axle of the motorway (both limits). Until this distance, there are 11 buildings
(railway stations, pump stations, poultry farms), but no houses.
For 2020 traffic forecast emissions, the NOx concentration exceeds the limit value until 100 m
distance (limit value for peoples health protection), respectively 250 m (limit value for the
protection of ecosystems)
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Table No. 5.2-2. Results of dispersion calculations for Fagaras Sighisoara section
Distance to
motorway axis
< 50 m
50 100 m
100 250 m
250 500 m
> 500 m
Limit values acc. to
Ord. nr. 592/2002

CO
150
115
80
45
10
-

Yearly average concentration (g/m3)


NOX
PM 10
COV
SO2
53
2,6
13
7,3
41
2
10
5,6
29
1,4
7
3,9
17
0,8
4
2,2
5
0,2
1
0,5
40*/30**
40*
20**

Pb
0,13
0,1
0,07
0,04
0,01
0,5*

Analyzing the results presented in table no. 5.2-2 and the corresponding dispersion maps, it was
found that the pollution levels at different distances to the main axis of Fagaras Sighisoara section,
for the analyzed pollutants are within the limits stated in Order no. 592/2002, without exceeding the
limit values. NOx is the exception, the value exceeds maximum allowable concentration at distances
less than 100 m from the axle of the motorway. Until this distance, there is one building (livestock
farm), no houses.
For 2020 traffic forecast emissions, the NOx concentration does not exceed the limit value for
peoples health protection, but it exceeds the limit value for the protection of ecosystems, until 100 m
distance.
Table no. 5.2-3. Results of dispersion calculations for Sighisoara Targu Mures section
Yearly average concentration (g/m3)

Distance to
motorway axis

CO

NOX

PM 10

COV

SO2

Pb

< 50 m

85

45

1,1

5,7

5,3

0,085

50 100 m

65

35

0,85

4,4

4,1

0,065

100 250 m

45

25

0,6

3,1

2,9

0,045

250 500 m

25

15

0,35

1,8

1,7

0,025

> 500 m

0,1

0,5

0,5

0,005

Limit values acc. to


Ord. nr. 592/2002

40*/30**

40*

20**

0,5*

Analyzing the results presented in table no.. 5.2-3 and the corresponding dispersion maps, it was
found that the pollution levels at different distances to the main axis of Sighisoara Targu Mures
section, for the analyzed pollutants are within the limits stated in Order no. 592/2002, without
exceeding the limit values. NOx is the exception; the value exceeds maximum allowable
concentration at distances less than 50 m from the axle of the motorway (limit value for peoples
health protection) and until 100 m (limit value for the protection of ecosystems). Until these
distances, there are 7, respectively 12 objectives (dyke maintenance construction, courtyards, court
of the railway block station), but no houses.
For 2020 traffic forecast emissions, the NOx concentration does not exceed the limit values.
The assessment was carried out for maximum traffic values, in 2030, but for a configuration of the
car fleet in the year 2010, as there are no data available for 2030. In these conditions, the pollutant
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concentrations will be less than estimated, if we are to consider the improvements to be brought in
time to vehicles and fuels, improvements that will lead to a reduction in the pollutant emissions.

A significant positive impact is represented by the reduction in pollutant emissions resulting from
road traffic taking place on the national roads. This is a consequence of the decreasing traffic on
these roads.
Subchapter no. 4.4. presents a comparison of the emission values in the variants with operational and
non-operational motorway.
This way, polluting substances emissions will decrease as follows:
-

DN 1:
- Material particles (PM): ~90% Codlea Mandra and ~2,8% Mandra Fagaras;
- NOx: ~90 92% Codlea Mandra and ~2,8% Mandra Fagaras;
- SO2: ~90 92% Codlea Mandra and ~2% Mandra Fagaras;
- Pb: ~92% Codlea Mandra and ~3,35% Mandra Fagaras;
- CO: ~92% Codlea Mandra and ~3,4% Mandra Fagaras;
- COV: ~92% Codlea Mandra and ~3,3% Mandra Fagaras.
DN 13 between Brasov and Targu Mures:
- Material particles (PM): ~78 97%;
- NOx: ~77 97%;
- SO2: ~78 97%;
- Pb: ~76 - 97%;
- CO: ~76 - 97%;
- COV: ~76 - 97%.

5.3. THE IMPACT ON THE SOIL AND SUBSOIL


5.3.1. THE IMPACT

ON THE SOIL AND SUBSOIL DURING THE CONSTRUCTION

WORKS

The main impact on the soil during the construction of the motorway is represented by the temporary
occupation of the land for: site organizations, temporary roads, platforms, supply and production
bases, site organization, waste dumps. The ecologic reconstruction of the area after the completion of
the works represents a compulsory measure.

During the execution of the motorway large areas of land will be taken for the location of the
production bases and the site organizations. The number, the location and the areas taken by the
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production bases and the site organizations will be established by the constructor, according to the
necessities and the adopted technologies.
This way, for the construction of the motorway between Brasov and Targu Mures, the constructor has
made estimation, revealing the following:
Site organisations: n=3, located in the area of the localities of: Persani (Sinca commune
Brasov county), Movile (Iacobeni commune Sibiu county) and Suplac (Mures county);
Asphalt stations: n=4, located at Km 30, Km 70, Km 110 and Km 145 (having a hourly
output of 270 t per installation);
Concrete stations: n=1 pcs. This is necessary for manufacturing U beams and other
prefabricated items necessary for the engineering works. The total quantity of concrete
required will be approximately 99700 m3. The Constructor has not established yet its location;
Fixed stations for crushing aggregates: n=2 pcs., at Km 40;
Mobile washing and crushing stations: n = 1 pcs., located in the area of Ghimbav locality,
approximately Km 5.
Also, the constructor ahs identified some areas where material sources could be exploited for the
construction of the motorway:
Table no. 5.3.-1 Sources of materials
Location

Distance to the
motorway route
(Km)

Approximate
kilometer position
along the motorway

Ghimbav

Vladeni

18

Hoghiz / Valea
Bogatii

30

40

Fagaras (Sud)

20

40

Raul Tarnava Mare 5


104
Suseni
30
135
Raul Tarnava Mica 5
135
Raul Mures
20 - 25
145
The constructors estimates have shown that

Exploited material

Estimated
area (ha)

Sand
and
gravel
70
(Pleistocene deposit)
Sand
and
gravel
12
(Pleistocene deposit)
Basalt
1,5
Sand
and
gravel
> 25
(Pleistocene deposit)
Sand and gravel
> 12
Andesite
Sand and gravel
> 12
Sand and gravel
> 16
the necessary quantity of aggregates is approximately

9,920,000 tones for the construction of the Brasov Targu Mures section.

The constructor has also conducted an estimation of the necessary areas to be occupied for the
location of the crushing, asphalt and concrete stations:
Table no. 5.3.-2 Areas necessary for the location of crushing, asphalt and concrete stations
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Installations
Dimension in plane/ unit (m2/pcs)
Area (m2)
Quarry, crushing station, deposits
300 x 600
180000
Asphalt, concrete and stabilized
200 x 400
80000
ballast station
Mobile crushing and sorting station
100 x 150
15000
The performances of the motorway works require earthworks, as borrowing pits or earth deposits are
necessary in case there are excessive materials. The amount of earth will be estimated by the
designer. The works executed within the borrowing pits will have a significant impact on the soil.
The achievement of such works requires excavations of large amounts of earth over relatively large
areas. The earth excavation works can have a significant impact on the soil in areas of high
vulnerability, as a result of erosion phenomena. This phenomenon however is local and can be
avoided by applying some protection measures throughout the execution of the works.
The impact of the traffic taking place from the Production Bases to the working sites is temporary
and is exerted by entraining pollutants resulted from fuel combustion by the rain waters. These
waters infiltrate in the upper layers of the soil.
The impact determined by fuel or oil loss de because of the faulty functioning of equipment is
significant. It is also manifested on restricted areas. The de-polluting of areas polluted with oil
products is money and time consuming.
The impact on the soil caused by improper deposits of waste is so much more intense as the stored
substances are more aggressive. The rain water washing the waste deposits carrying along mainly
organic substances. A significant matter in the case of uncontrolled deposits is represented by the
lixiviation resulted from decomposing organic substances. There are characterized by a reduced flow,
but carry a very high change of organic substances, which makes them very difficult to purify.
Domestic and process used waters resulted on the location of the Production Bases easily infiltrate in
the soils in case that there are no concreted platforms or drainage, collection and treatment systems
for used waters.

5.3.2 THE IMPACT ON THE SOIL AND SUBSOIL DURING OPERATION


The sources of soil pollution during motorway operation are as follows:
Pollutant emissions resulting due to traffic,
Pluvial waters washing pollutants deposited on the road platform,
Solid waste and/or used waters resulting from service areas.

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The main pollutants eliminated through the exhaust gases of vehicles are: carbon monoxide (CO),
nitric oxides (NOx), paraffinic and aromatic hydrocarbons (Hc), sulphur oxides (SO, SO2),
particulates (smoke), lead and its compounds.
Another issue is that of the lead emissions specific to road traffic that are responsible for the increase
in its concentrations on the surrounding lands (especially the agricultural fields).
Along with the direct effect of such pollutants on the environment, there are also indirect effects. The
air is washed with rain, and thus the pollutants in the air are transferred to the other environmental
factors (surface and ground waters, soil, vegetation, fauna) and eventually come to affect people and
animals health. The results of the measurements taken to determine soil quality show that, at present,
the soil is not polluted.
Chapter 5.2. present the results of the dispersion of the pollutants produced by road traffic. They
have indicated values, in the vicinity of the motorway platform, below the maximum admissible
concentrations, given the fluent traffic conditions, without significant variations in speed. Thus, it is
estimated that there will not be any aspects that would require restrictions regarding the cultivation of
the nearby agricultural fields. Mention should be made that the pollutant emissions produced by road
traffic were calculated for the traffic in the year 2030 (the most unfavorable situation), while as far as
the traffic component is concerned (the degree of endowment with anti-pollution devices) it has been
estimated for the year 2010. Thus, it can be estimated that the real values will be below those
resulting from the calculation.
The motorway will determine a decrease in traffic on the national roads within its route and will
improve traffic conditions on such roads. This will also lead to a drop ion the emissions of pollutants
on these roads, which are crossing numerous localities.
The execution of the motorway affects the soil by its permanently occupying land surfaces. It is
considered that an effective width of approximately 40 m will be occupied by the road, which results
in a total area of around 629 ha, to which it is added the areas intended for short time parking lots,
service areas, maintenance bases, supporting points for them, interchanges, toll stations.
At this value we must to add the surface which will be occupied by the services area, parking areas,
maintenance centers.

5.4. THE IMPACT ON THE FLORA AND THE FAUNA


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5.4.1. THE

IMPACT

ON

THE

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY
FLORA

AND

THE

FAUNA

DURING

THE

CONSTRUCTION WORKS

The site, on the whole, has a negative complex impact on the vegetation. The temporary occupation
of lands, the possible pollution of the soil, the waste dumps etc, all these have a negative effect on
the vegetation in the sense of reducing vegetal areas and sometimes the loss of the initial qualities.
Given the rather great length of the motorway, it is estimated that one of the most important impacts
will be the occupation of land areas, which at present have other uses.
The estimation of the types of areas to be occupied was shown in subchapter 5.3.1 and is presented
in detail, for each locality, in Appendix no. 3. In such conditions, in certain areas, the construction
works will require land clearing and tree cutting. There are also areas where the motorway
construction will need clearing works for reduced forest areas.
If form a chemical point of view, air pollution will not be harmful for the vegetation, suspended
particulates pollution (dust) however might have negative effects. These are manifest mainly in the
droughty periods, lacking rainfall and on limited areas. Dust is deposited on leaves and reduces the
intensity pf the photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration processes. Plants do not develop in a
normal way, and the outputs are reduced. The effect on the forests is less visible. However, the high
concentrations of dust in the air are showing for limited periods of time.
The international norms elaborated by the International Union of the Organisations for Forest
Research (Uniunea Internationala a Organizatiilor pentru Cercetarea Padurilor) recommend the
following concentrations as guiding values for the protection of the plants:

SO2
- yearly average:

50 g/m3 of air to maintain the entire output,


25 g/m3 of air to maintain the entire output and to protect the
environment.

- average per 30 minutes: 150 g/m3 of air to maintain the entire output,
25 g/m3 of air to maintain the entire output and to protect the
environment.

NOx
- tentative value for protection for an interval of 4 hours: 95 g/m3 of air.
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There are other impacts specific to construction sites having a negative effect on the fauna, they are
noise, the traffic of machinery and transport means, access blocks in certain areas etc.

5.4.2. THE IMPACT ON THE FLORA AND THE FAUNA DURING OPERATION
Road traffic represents a source of pollution acting differently on the flora and the fauna in the area.
Flora can be affected by the emissions of pollutant substances which are deposited on the plants or
which can get into their body by depositing on the soil and infiltrating with the pluvial waters. On the
other hand, the motorway can be a physical barrier for the fauna, modifying their habitat. The fauna
can also be affected by noise or nights lights.
The main impact on the vegetation generated by the motorway construction is represented by the
reduction of the forestry fund by cutting forest. According to the information obtained from the
representatives of Brasov, Mures and Sibiu Forest Administration, in the motorway impact area there
are no regions with special protection regime of the reservation type and no rare species will be
affected.
Forest areas to be occupied are the following:
Table no. 5.4.- 1 Forest areas occupied in Brasov, Sibiu and Mures counties
No.

County

1.

BRASOV

Commune
Codlea
Dumbravita
Sinca Veche
Sercaia
Mandra
Fagaras
Soars

TOTAL
2.

SIBIU

Iacobeni
Laslea
Hoghilag
Dumbraveni

TOTAL

3.

MURES

Danes
Sighisoara
Viisoara
Bahnea
Suplac
Coroisanmartin
Craciunesti
Gheorghe Doja
Ungheni
Sinpaul
Ogra

TOTAL
184

Forest areas (ha)


3,98
3,58
20,13
1,09
2,28
4,29
14,88
50,24
3,15
0,00
13,69
7,63
24,47
30,83
6,76
6,65
2,92
0,00
4,20
22,73
0,00
0,00
0,86
0,00
74,96

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SECTION 1 BRASOV TARGU MURES
No.
County
GENERAL TOTAL

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY
Commune
Forest areas (ha)
149,67

As shown in the previous chapters, the concentrations of pollutant substances in the air will be below
the maximum admissible ones, estimating that the vegetation in the vicinity of the motorway will not
be considerably affected.
By providing fencing for the motorway animals access from one side to the other will be limited,
thus disrupting their migration routes. To meet their vital needs, wild mammals use an area with
rigorous traditional boundaries which are not crosses unless under the pressure of constraints. This
vital area is not used uniformly throughout the entire year. Certain sections are frequented nearly
regularly either under the action of factors related to the biology of the species (e.g. the stags belling
place), or under the action of environmental factors (e.g. the place of hibernation at the bottom of a
dale during the snowy season).
- in forest areas: H = 2,60 m

- in areas without forests: H = 1,50 m

The fragmentation of the habitat is a specific effect of the linear infrastructure on the natural and
human factors, but also the landscape. The fragmentation effect can be permanent as a separation of
the ca o habitat into smaller and isolated units. This effect is exerted on: natural habitats,
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hydrographic basins, human factor, and the landscaped through its modifications brought into the
natural environment.
Such aspects will be given special attention within the European cooperation framework, on one
hand as a result of research and the results obtained in this field and, on the other hand, due to the
ever growing awareness in relation to the importance of the biotic factor for the wellbeing of the
environment.
The effect of the linear infrastructure on the natural and human factors can be:
- direct by dividing the physical environment,
- indirect through the barrier and pollution effects generated by traffic.
The pollution is manifest on short distances with air pollution and sound pollution or on large
distances in case of acid rains and the acidification and eutrofization phenomena. It has been
estimated that road traffic has a reduced weight compared to the industrial sources.
The fragmentation effect along the motorway is dependant on the specific features of the areas
crossed.
In order to have a real assessment of the effect produced by the fragmentation of the habitats,
consideration should be given to:
- the impact on natural factors, that is the changes occurring at the level of the hydrographic
basins, as well as the natural habitats;
- the impact on human environment;
- changes of the natural landscape.
The effect of the habitats was analyzed for forest areas, which hold the most important role in the
conservation of biodiversity. Within the trophy chain the conservation of biodiversity refers mainly
to large animal species that require a certain size of the territory. The limiting of the compact forest
areas by land occupation, separation, barrier effect or intrusion into the quite areas is followed by the
regrouping of the species by the withdrawal of the large ones, or the most sensitive to new stress
elements
The fragmentation effect is manifest by the withdrawal of the habitats and the reduction of their
functionality. The impact of linear infrastructure on the flora and the fauna can result in the isolation
of the fauna on one side and the area of the route. The effect consists in restricting animals access to

seasonal areas for feed and mating. Where the motorway is not provided with fencing, the field
literature The Manual regarding roads and the environment drawn up by the World Bank
emphasize the death rate of animals moving slowly which reaches up to 1/10.

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This is why, where required to ensure the continuity of the natural space in order to preserve wild
life, it is highly necessary to complete the road facilities with passageways allowing an overhead
crossing of the road.

Culvert for animals crossing


The impact on the flora is manifest, in some cases, by the replacement of valuable species by less
important ones, but more resistant. The most severe impact is apparent in forest areas where there is s
strong interaction between the components of the system: water soil vegetation - fauna.

5.5.

THE

IMPACT

ON

HUMAN

FACTOR

AND

OTHER

OBJECTIVES
5.5.1. THE

IMPACT ON THE HUMAN FACTOR AND OTHER OBJECTIVES DURING

THE CONSTRUCTION WORKS

The impact of noise and vibration during the construction works will be temporary. The location of
the Production Bases must be in the extravillan of localities so that the impact on the residents should
be minimum.
Within the Production Bases, the high noise level could affect the personnel, thus requiring special
sound protection measures.
The level of the noise generated by the heavy vehicle traffic going from the Production Bases to the
working sites represent a stress factor not only for the human factor, but also for wild animals, by
disturbing their natural habitat. This is sensed particularly in the areas where the motorway route is to
cross forest areas. In such areas special protection measures must be taken.

Based on data regarding the acoustic strength of the noise sources, and the data presented by the field
literature, it is estimated that in the area of the working sites noise levels reach la 90 dB(A), for
certain time intervals.
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During construction works, in the working sites and for certain sections, for limited periods of time,
the noise level reaches significant values, without exceeding 90 dB(A) expressed as Leq for periods
of maximum 10 hours. This estimation is valid for other asphalt and/or cement concrete stations as
well. Measurements carried out by specialized institutions at several aggregate sorting and asphalt
mixture and/or cement concrete stations have revealed Leq equivalent noise levels nearing 90 dB(A)
in the vicinity of the installations. Such levels are within the acceptable limits provided by the labour
safety norms.
Noise exposure level is important due to the effects on the human factor by decreasing work ability,
accuracy, motion efficiency etc. noise is an important cause for increased frequency of labour
accidents by reducing the ability to perceive sound signs, decreasing and distracting attention,
balance disorders and sights disorders.
Another issue could be the reduction of traffic safety on the roads in the vicinity of localities. This is
because the site will determine the traffic of a diversified fleet of vehicles and machinery.
Another negative impact that may occur during construction works is the impact on archaeological
sites. The archaeological sites identified so far have been given in subchapter 3.6.1. Human
settlements, cultural inheritance. During the works execution it is possible that other sites are
revealed, unknown to date.

5.5.2. THE

IMPACT ON HUMAN FACTOR AND OTHER OBJECTIVES DURING

OPERATION

An important impact is the evolution of the noise level.


Traffic taking place on the motorway represents a new noise source for the areas crossed by it.
As shown in subchapter 4.7. Sources of noise pollution and vibrations, the noise level produced by
the traffic taking place on the motorway, calculated at the edge of the motorway is within the
admissible limits (75 85 dB(A).
However, the maximum acceptable limit at a distance of 2 m from the front of the buildings, that is
50 dB(A), is reached at approximately 450 m from the motorway. Thus, in all areas where there are
buildings at distances below 450 m, measures should be adopted to reduce noise level down to the
maximum acceptable limit.

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Noise barrier
On the other hand, the motorway is to draw part of the traffic currently taking place on the national
and county roads crossing localities. A reduction in traffic will entail a decrease in the noise level in
such localities. Subchapter 4.7. presents the evolution of the noise level in the localities crossed by
two of the main national roads from which the motorway is to draw traffic. The reduction of the
noise level is considerable, reaching 10.17 dB(A) on DN 1 (Codlea Persani section) and even down
to 18.09 dB(A) on DN 13 (Rupea Vanatori).
The construction of the motorway will have a positive effect for the human factor from the following
points of view as well:
- it will ensure traffic conditions at an European level, fluency, this having direct effect on
people as it is saving time and fuel;
- it will create new hobs, mainly for residents, during the execution of the motorway, but also
after their completion and following the development of activities to take place at the edge
of the motorway (fuel filling stations and car service, restaurants, motels etc.);
- it will ensure the safety of the users by placing along the motorway a signalling and marking
system for direction and warning, in keeping with the Romanian and the international
norms.

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ASSESSMENT STUDY

5.6. THE ASSESSMENT OF THE

RISK

OF PRODUCING

ACCIDENTS OR DAMAGES HAVING MAJOR IMPACT ON


PEOPLES HEALTH AND THE ENVIRONMENT
5.6.1. THE

ASSESSMENT OF THE RISK OF PRODUCING ACCIDENTS OR DAMAGES

HAVING A MAJOR IMPACT DURING CONSTRUCTION WORKS

The risk of producing accidents or damages nearing a major impact on the environment is
determined by:
- handling of potentially polluting substances for the soil (paints, solvents, fuels);
- supply and handling of machinery and transport facilities with fuel;
- possible fuel losses in the deposits area in case that the tank walls or foundations are not
tight.
Such potential sources of accidental pollution, in case of producing ecologic accidents, will affect
limited areas and will determine local depreciation of the soil, surface waters and ground water
quality. Taking into account the location of such sources of pollution and the migration means of
pollutants, we believe that the impact on the targets (soil, surface and ground water) will not be a
significant one.
In order to prevent accidental pollution during construction works, a plan is to be drawn up for
prevention and emergency in case of accidental pollution.

5.6.2. THE

ASSESSMENT THE RISK OF PRODUCING ACCIDENTS OR DAMAGES

HAVING A MAJOR IMPACT DURING OPERATION

Accidental pollution is a result of discharges of pollutants as a result of producing an accident


involving vehicles transporting toxic or harmful substances.
Harmful substances are defined as those substances that may represent a hazard during transport, on
one hand, in point of safety, and on the other hand, public hygiene. This category includes: liquid
hydrocarbons, chemical products transported in tanks, gas in bottles or tanks, packaged chemical
products, bitumen, explosives and radio-active materials.
The risk of accidental pollution rises with an increase in traffic, impact on the environmental factors:
ground and surface waters, soil depending on vulnerability as well as the quantity and the quantity
and the nature of the discharged products.

The Water
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In case of severe accidents, when vehicles overturn, liquid hydrocarbons, construction materials,
other toxic or corrosive products can be discharged on the platform or the surrounding lands.
Most accidents are produced by improper signaling or failure to adjust speed to road conditions (wet
surface, with glaze or ice, pot holes etc). The risk of producing accidental pollution rises with
increases in traffic.
Statistics in other countries show that 80% of the accidents are produced in zone crowded areas, and
more rarely on motorways.
The likelihood of producing spillages of harmful materials can be estimated starting from the yearly
average number of accidents involving hazardous materials as well as the national traffic weighed
with hazardous materials. The accident is defined as a random phenomena subject to Poisson law:
Prob (K) = e-K * mK/K! probability to have K scattering for a year over a given section,
where: m the yearly average number of scatterings/ Km
The information supplied by the SETRA Study regarding Water protection against traffic pollution
was considered as hypotheses and basic data for estimating the probability of harmful materials
discharges for the reference route.
The simplifying hypotheses taken into calculation were as follows:
- a yearly average number of accidents involving hazardous substances of approximately
250 / year;
- traffic weighed with hazardous substances: 12 x 109 t / km / an;
- average daily traffic heavy vehicles: N (VF/day);
- the average loading of for a heavy vehicle: 15 t;
- hazardous material transport: approx. 13% of the transported tonnage (national average).
Tp traffic weighed with hazardous substances (t / Km / year):
Tp = N (VF/day) x 15 t / vehicle x 13% x 300 days / year
m average yearly number of scattering / km, was considered as one in two accidents entail
discharges of hazardous materials:
m = (250 / 12 x 109) x Tp x 0,5
The calculation was made for an optimistic forecast for the year 2030.

Table no. 5.6.2.-1 Average yearly number of scatterings - Km


Section
Brasov (Codlea) - Fagaras

N (VF/day)
19038
191

Tp (t / Km /

m (yearly no. of

year)
11137230

scatterings / Km)
0,1160

BRASOV ORADEA MOTORWAY


SECTION 1 BRASOV TARGU MURES
Fagaras - Sighisoara (Danes)

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY
12654

7402590

0,0771

Sighisoara (Danes) - Targu Mures

12012
7027020
0,0731
The effects on the receiver depend on the discharged product and the nature of the receiver.
Specialty studies show that there are three categories of hazardous materials:
A Category substance determining a change in the water pH (acid or basic);
B Category substances of low toxicity, but making water improper for consumption
purposes due to the modification of the organoleptic characteristic;
C Category products of high toxicity.
The effect of accidental pollution is manifest through a quick dispersion in the environment of the
hazardous substances transported. The impact is sensed at the level of the aquifer layers, the lakes,
the ponds or the fresh waters in the area. The impact depends both on the quantity of substances
discharged reaching the receiver and its self-purifying capacity.
The effects on ground water
If the accident took place in an area where ground water is to be found in alluvial soils, the advance
time of the water is long enough to avoid the risk of distributing polluted water. Depolluting is a
difficult process, but there can be established polluted areas.
The effect of toxic or hazardous spillages on ground water depend on:
the level of the water table,
the general direction of the water flow,
filtration degree.
Along the motorway route, the levels of water table, where pollutants could accumulate most easily,
vary between 2 - 6 m in Brasov County, 1 10 m in Sibiu County and 1 7 m in Mures County.
In Brasov County, in the area of Codlea locality, the aquifer layer is currently polluted due to
discharges from industrial facilities. In such areas accidental pollution may be a supplementary
aggression factor.

The effects on surface waters

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If sudden spillages take place in water courses and are incompatible with its self-purifying capacity,
it could result in a total or partial destruction of the flora and the fauna on a section of a length which
could be significant (thousands of Km), according to the downstream confluences.
If the product is soluble or miscible with water, the effect could be significant but for a short time, as
the organisms could recolonize the areas, the pollutant being transported downstream.
In case of spillages in still waters, all forms of pollution are harmful and the restoration of water
quality is slow.
The soil
The impact on the soil caused by accidental toxic or harmful spillages depend on the sensitivity of
the area and the type and quantity of the products spilt.
According to field literature, the following elements should be considered:
there are no soils impermeable to hydrocarbons; penetration and migration can only be limited;
with soils with interstitial porosity, the advance speed of the oily phase depends on its viscosity:
as hydrocarbons are lighter than water they accumulate at the surface of the aquifer where the
existing superficial tension at the contact between the two liquids considerably slows down
the advance of the water-oil complex.
The effects on the soil depend on their type, alluvial soils being able to slow down the filtering of
pollutants towards much deeper layers.
Sodium is quickly fixed in the superficial layers and the accumulated quantity also depends on the
type of soil.

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6. POSSIBILITIES TO REDUCE OR ELIMINATE THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT


6.1. SITE ORGANIZATION MANAGEMENT
No.
1

Activity/Action
Site organization management
According

to

the

Proposed mitigation measures


The site organization will be placed at enough distance of the inhabited areas (minimum
motorway 1000 m) and will avoid the sensitive areas (in the vicinity catchments from the of the

constructors proposal, there will be underground water or from surface water courses, areas of historical importance - with
three site organizations along the route archeological sites and historical monuments).
It is recommended to avoid placing Site Organizations near water courses (Bradeni Lake,
of Brasov Targu Mures section,
Olt, Mures, Tarnava Mare, Tarnava Mica and Hartibaciu Rivers, as well as their tributaries
located near the locality of Persani
and valleys).
(Sinca commune, Brasov County),
The location of the site organizations and the production bases are recommended to be so as
Movile (Iacobeni commune, Sibiu
to reduce the distances traveled by the construction equipment
County) and Suplac (Mures County).
The space occupied with the site setting up will be limited to the necessary area and will be
surrounded to ensure the area security.
Ensuring the required utilities for a proper progress of works (drinking water source, places
for having lunch, sanitary facilities, containers for waste disposal).
It will be considered the auto and railway access.
The material deposits will be well delimited and protected against the spreading due to the
wind of rain.
The fuel deposits will be correspondingly arranged from the environmental protection and
PSI point of view. It is recommended the building of an over ground construction, located
in a concrete tub capable of retaining at least 50% of the storage capacity.
The depositing of the dangerous substances will be made in special places. The laquers and
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Proposed mitigation measures
paintings will be deposited in warehouses from the site setting up, away from fire sources.
The warehouse will have the possibility of airing. The sulphuric acid necessary to the
batteries will be deposited in glass recipients located in baskets with protection and will be
handled only by special personnel.
The selective collection of the waste of any type the organization of the spaces for the
temporary depositing, in safety conditions, of the waste up to their transport to the final
depositing ramps or to their utilization.
The selective collection of the waste of any type the organization of the spaces for the
temporary depositing, in safety conditions, of the waste up to their transport to the final
depositing ramps or to their utilization.
The site platform should be designed so that rainwater is also collected through a system of
lined ditches and drainage channels, where sedimentation is to take place before discharge,
or box culverts could be provided, wherefrom water is to enter the modular purification
station provided for domestic waters
After the execution of the works, the constructor will return the terrain to its original use,
without being degraded.

6.2. WORKS LOCATION MANAGEMENT


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1.
Works location management

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY
Proposed mitigation measures
The location of the site organizations and the production bases are recommended to be so as

The Constructor estimates that the to reduce the distances traveled by the construction equipment between these and the works
execution of the works for Brasov places.
The constructor provided the location of the asphalt stations at distances of approximately
Targu Mures section is to be done as
20 25 Km. Also, with few exceptions, material sources (sand and gravel) were chosen at
follows:
small distances, of approximately 2 5 Km, from the motorway route,.
Section 1C (Km 0 Km 53, Brasov
Marking the cadastral limits of the site in order to respect the perimeter assigned to the
Fagaras): January 1, 2007 construction
December 31, 2010;

The appropriate setting-up of access roads to the working places in order to not affect the

Sections 1 A and 1B (Km 53 Km activities of the people from the area.


Signaling the works before the site area with warning panels and intermittent light
161, Fagaras - Iernut): January 1,
semaphores, compelling the drivers to reduce speed and to pay special attention to the area
2009 December 31, 2012.
circulation.
For each section more than one working Elaboration of plans and work schedules which take into account the running and
sites are likely to be set up placement times of coverage materials (asphalt, asphalt mixture) correlating the working
simultaneously.

programs of production bases with those of working site equipment. It will be also taken
into consideration the weather forecast for the respective area in order to eliminate the
possibility of the rejection of already prepared material charges as a result of its discharge,
without using it in due time.
Ensuring security of the equipment from the site.
Technological processes which produce a lot of dust, as for instance earth fills, will be
reduced during strong wind periods, or surfaces will be more intensely watered.
Site roads will permanently be maintained by leveling and water sprinkle in order to reduce
dust. As far as possible, in the case of earth transportation, routes running over filling body
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will be provided, so as to obtain additional compaction and to restrain the dust and exhaust
discharge gas emissions areas.
At the end of a work week, cleaning of the working lines will be done, when wastes will be

2.

Material management

3.

Mechanizing the materials handling

4.

Ecological reconstruction

disposed, materials stocked and equipment aligned.


Specific measurements for avoiding degradations by covering or unfitted deposit.
Measures to avoid theft by keeping evidence and records especially for the route between
the railway station and site organization/production bases.
In order to assure a correct and intensive mechanizing of the handling will be used only
specific equipment: autoloaders, cranes, etc (see chapter no. 4.4).
The terrains occupied by the material deposits will be restored to their original destination
or will be rearranged.

6.3. LAND PREPARATION


No.
1.

2.

Activity/Action
The stripping of overburden of the

Proposed mitigation measures


The preparation of the land is to be done by clearing the vegetation, proceeding to the

vegetal soil

stripping of overburden of the vegetal soil. It will be made as necessary on about 30 m

Temporary deposits

thickness.
The terrain occupied with the temporary deposits will also be reduced to the strictly
necessary. The locations will be established having the approval of the local authorities,
including environmental protection authorities.
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3.
Ecological reconstruction

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY
Proposed mitigation measures
Upon the completion of the construction works, the vegetal layer will be laid on slopes and
used for the reconstruction of the landscape in the area. In case there is excessive vegetal
soil, this could serve for the improvement of the productive characteristics of the degraded
lands in the area.
If the trees will be cut, the mitigation measures proposed by the forestry administration will
be applied (replanting of the trees in the places indicated by them or material rewards).

6.4. EXPLOITATION OF THE BORROW PITS


No.
1.

Activity/Action
Choosing the location

Proposed mitigation measures


The location of the borrow pits shall be chosen by the Contractor so that the environmental
impact should be minimum. The location will be set according to the authorization of the
local environmental protection authorities.
The location of the borrow pits will be made so that the impact of the excavations on the
environment should be minimum and so that the distance between borrow pits and site

2.

The arrangement of the borrow pits

should be minimum.
Protection measures will be applied, as follows: fencing for avoiding illegal storing of
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3.

Air pollution

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY
Proposed mitigation measures
waste in the borrow pits, guard ditches around so as to avoid the collection of the rain water
in the borrow pit.
At the borrow pits exit, there will be installed portal-type structures which will spray water
on the earth that pass below, in order to form a crust that would prevent earths driving by
wind or by the air currents occurred during transportation.
In the case of using public roads for the transportation of earth there will be provided
manual or mechanical cleaning points of tires out of mud or other site or borrow pits

4.

Ecological reconstruction

residues.
Her are three types of borrowing pits depending on land configuration.
a) The first is intended for excavations below the 0 ground level, in which case, after the
exploitation of a certain volume of earth, the remaining area shall be filled with noncorresponding earth resulting from the earthworks; reaching finally the initial level (if there
are is not other requests on the part of the owner).
b) The second type of exploitation is intended for excavations of a ground elevation to be
evened out down to the zero level of the ground in the respective area, in which case no
fillings are required, but the vegetal layer should be re-placed on the ground.
c) The third type of exploitation of the borrow pits refers to excavations in the slope, which
require preventive measures against slips by geometrical, physical or hydrological methods.

6.5. MEASURES FOR WATER PROTECTION


6.5.1. MEASURES FOR WATER PROTECTION DURING CONSTRUCTION WORKS
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The location of the site organizations,
production bases

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY
Proposed mitigation measures
It is recommend to avoid placing site organizations near surface waters within the
motorway route (Dumbravita Lake, Rivers Olt, Tarnava Mica, Tarnava Mare and Mures, as
well as their tributaries and valleys).
Norms shall be observed for the protection of the water supply sources of ground or surface

2.

The treatment of the domestic waters

waters.
For Site Organizations and Production Bases it is recommended to design a sewerage,

and

purification and discharge system for both domestic waters, resulting from the canteen and

pluvial

waters

from

site

organization

toilets, and for rain water washing the platform of the site organization.
Depending on the number of persons to use water for domestic purposes, a solution with
one or more septic tanks is to be adopted, which should be emptied periodically, or a onepiece purification station, which is to ensure the required degree of purification. In the latter

3.

The treatment of the technological


waters and waters resulted from the
cleaning of the equipments, vehicles

4.

The storage of the fuels and chemical


products

case, purified water can be discharged into an emissary or the surrounding lands.
Process waters resulted from the preparation of construction materials require a local prepurification in the settler type plants.
Waters resulted from the washing of vehicles and machinery should be collected and
purified before being discharged.
Storage of the fuels and chemical products in sealed tanks in order to avoid the accidental
loss.
The collection of used-up oils into an appropriately tank should be carried out, from where
they will be periodically removed in a special tank-truck owned by an authorized

5.

Accidental pollutions

contractor.
In order to reduce the risk to have accidental pollutions, the construction materials will be
transported in covered vehicles.
Announcement of the Olt or/and Mures Water Directorate in case of accidental water
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Proposed mitigation measures
pollution, as well as the water users potentially affected.
Devising, according to the legislation [84- see Appendix no. 1], of a Prevention Plan of
accidental pollution and naming a responsible with the protection of the environmental
factors from the site setting up, as well as the works site.
Showing in visible places of the intervention teams in case of accidental pollution of the

6.

The location of the structures

waters.
When locating the structures (bridges, viaducts) one should avoid:
- Altering the water leaking dynamics by riverbed section reduction;

7.

Extracting the ballast truck products

- Interrupting the underground water leaking.


The extraction of the ballast products from the riverbeds and the shores according to the

from the riverbeds and the shores of the

technologies approved by the National Administration Romanian Waters so will be

watercourses

avoided:
- Modifying the flow speed and the water depth in pits or deposits of ballast and
construction materials on the riverbed;

8.

Operating the drilling for water supply

- The accidental pollution with oil products.


Avoiding the sandiness of the drillings by operating the underground water resource only in
the conditions of respecting the pumping graphs and the variations in level established by
the operation regulations of the drills.
Equipping the water pipelines with flow-meters in order to reduce the losses and the waste.

6.5.2. MEASURES FOR WATER PROTECTION DURING OPERATION


No.
1.

Activity/Action
The gathering and the purification of

Proposed mitigation measures


For reducing the pollutants concentrations it is recommended to build settling tanks,

the pluvial waters which wash the

followed by oil separators.


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motorway platform

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY
Proposed mitigation measures
In settling tanks a coarse decantation takes place.
In the oil separators, greases are separated through flotation (substances lighter than water),
but some of the colloidal suspensions will sediment too.
The dimensions of the constructions intended for the purification of the meteoric waters
have been set for the following classes of flows:
1) Q = 11.92 101 l/s, representing the flow rate of the water collected on half of the
motorway platform + the flow rate of the water collected from an embankment /fill
with heights of between 0 and 10 m;
2) Q = 101 142 l/s, representing the flow rate of the water collected on half of the
motorway platform + the flow rate of the water collected from an fill with heights of
between 11 and 20 m);
3) Q = 142 183.5 l/s, representing the flow rate of the water collected on half of the
motorway platform + the flow rate of the water collected from an embankment with
heights of between 21 and 30 m.
These flow rates represent the rate of flow collected from a 500 m long section.
- Settling tanks: are ditches lined with concrete, with a horizontal bottom, having the
following dimensions:
Type 1
- b = 0,5 m (tank width at the bottom side);
- h = 0,65 m (tank height);
- B = 1,8 m (tank width at the top side);
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Proposed mitigation measures
- L = 12 m (tank length).
Type 2
-

b = 1,0 m (tank width at the bottom side);


h = 0,65 m (tank height);
B = 2,3 m (tank width at the top side);
L = 13,5 m (tank length).

Type 3
- b = 1,0 m (tank width at the bottom side);
- h = 0,8 m (tank height);
- B = 2,6 m (tank width at the top side);
- L = 15,5 m (tank length).
Oil separators: are concrete constructions, with baffle walls, covered, of a rectangular
form. Grease flotation is carried out here, as well as the decantation of part of the
suspensions that were not retained in the settling basins.
Grease separators are to be placed after the settling basins.
The dimensions of the grease separators are the following:
Type 1
- B = 2,50 m (separator width);
- h = 2,0 m (separator height);
- L = 6,50 m (separator length).
Type 2
- B = 2,5 m (separator width);
- h = 2,0 m (separator height);
- L = 9,5 m (separator length).
Type 3
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Proposed mitigation measures
- B = 2,5 m (separator width);
- h = 2,0 m (separator height);
- L = 12,0 m (separator length).
- Dispersion tanks: are ditches lined with riprap or concreted riprap, wherefrom
previously purified water is discharged into the surrounding fields, thus reducing the
erosion of the soil. They are provided only when water is discharged on the surrounding

2.

The purification of the waste waters

fields.
It is recommended that the platforms where the services areas are to be located should be

from the services areas, parkings,

built with slopes so that rainwater can be collected. Then, water is to be introduced into a

maintenance centers

modulated construction for purification, where it is to take place the settlement of slurries
and the separation of oil substances, as well as mineral oils washed from the parking lots,
car service facilities etc.
It is also recommended that the sewage water is collected and introduced in the modulated
facilities for water purification, where the mechanic-biological purification shall be
ensured. Treated water is to be discharged then to the drain canals in the area or to the

3.

Accidental pollution

outlet.
Announcement of the Olt or/and Mures Water Directorate in case of accidental water
pollution, as well as the water users potentially affected.
Devising, according to the legislation [84- see Appendix no. 1], of a Prevention Plan of

4.

Maintaining the drainage system

accidental pollution.
Design and maintenance of the water leaking system so that it protects the road and the
adjacent fields. In case of humid areas, or areas close to water courses, specific works will
be executed to avoid water bogging.
Maintaining the functioning capacity of the ditches and gutters and of all the purifying
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The waste and materials management

5.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY
Proposed mitigation measures
devices of pluvial waters and domestic wastewaters.
The correct management of the wastes from the services areas and parking areas and of the
materials used for the motorway maintenance.

6.6. MEASURES FOR AIR PROTECTION


6.6.1. MEASURES FOR AIR PROTECTION DURING CONSTRUCTION WORKS
No.
1.

Activity/Action
Production bases (the working of the

Proposed mitigation measures


As a general measure, it is recommended to adopt less polluting technologies, using

asphalt mixture and concrete plants

concrete and asphalt mixture stations equipped with plants for the purification of released

etc)

gases and dust retention, so that the level of the concentrations should not exceed the limits
set by Order no. 592/2002 regarding the establishment of the limit values, threshold values
and the criteria and methods for assessing the content of sulphur dioxide, nitric dioxide and
nitric oxides, suspension powders, lead, benzene, carbon monoxide and ozone in the air.
In the case of asphalt mixture stations, the emissions of particulates through the exhaust gas
stack are concentrated emissions. For compliance with the Romanian regulations for
emissions Order 462/93 Technical Requirements regarding air protection. The norms for
limiting the pollutant emissions for burning plants, (CMA 50 mg/Nm 3) asphalt stations
should mandatory be provided with textile bag filters. The observance of the concentration
of particulates in emissions shall be checked periodically through measurements.
As far as the concrete stations are concerned, the highest emissions are those of cement
particulates. The provision of textile filters at silos for cement storage and the checking of
the pneumatic cement loading/unloading installation for tightness are obligatory for
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ASSESSMENT STUDY
Proposed mitigation measures
reducing cement losses and for compliance with legal provisions for concentration of
material particulates in the air.
The thermal stations and the asphalt mixture stations should use proper fuel (natural gas or
light liquid fuel LLF with sulphur content S maximum 1 %). Burning equipment
should be properly maintained and periodically checked to ensure maximum efficiencies in
fuel burning and compliance with the acceptable limits set for the pollutant substances

2.

Materials deposits

concentrations in burnt gases.


A temporary measure for emission reduction would be to periodically wet them, which
should be done only for aggregates used in preparing concrete and the stabilizer.
Fencing or covering yards not being used represents a measure for reducing wind erosion.

3.

The working of the equipments

Also, measures are taken for covering the storage yards for fine aggregates.
The equipments will be periodically checked from a technical in order to increase their
performance.
Other possibility for limiting pollutant emissions resulting from machinery consists in using
machinery and trucks of a recent generation, equipped with high performance systems for

4.

The transport of the materials

minimizing and retaining pollutants in the air.


For limiting the imminent discomfort which appears during construction period of a road
(particularly during summer time) there will be chosen optimal routes for the vehicles that
are used on site, especially for those which transport materials which can release fine
particles in the atmosphere. Also, the transport of these materials will be completed
covered, as much as possible. An efficient measure for the reduction of dust quantities
resulted from heavy vehicle traffic din on unpaved roads is periodical sprinkling them with
water.
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6.6.2. MEASURES FOR AIR PROTECTION DURING OPERATION


No.
1.

Activity/Action
The traffic along the national and

Proposed mitigation measures


The construction of the motorway will certainly have positive effects on the air quality

county roads from which the motorway

along the national and county roads from which the motorway is to draw traffic. This is to

is to draw traffic

be materialized in traffic fluency on these roads and, implicitly, will lead to a reduction in
pollutant emissions released in the air.
At present, the traffic on these roads is taking place with frequent braking and stopping.
The construction of the motorway will have a contribution in relieving traffic and

2.

The traffic along the motorway

improving traffic conditions.


The lowest values of the emission factors are indicated for the motorway type traffic. By
improving vehicles traffic fluency, adopting optimal speeds, ensuring good visibility
conditions and proper signaling, motorway traffic ensures a reduction by 25% in fuel
consumption, determining a corresponding reduction of pollution. The risk of accidental
pollution also decreases proportionally to the improvement of the traffic conditions.
Traffic control by:
- Planting traffic indicators
- Surrounding the motorway with a protecting fence that wont allow the animal to cross

3.

Parkings and services areas

- Ensuring a telephonic system for the announcement of the accidents and traffic jams
Avoiding the unpleasant smells from the parking spaces are by:
- Arranging the waste depositing spaces;
- Organizing the periodical collection and the transport to ecological deposits for their
definitive storage;
- Maintaining the drainage and purification system.
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6.7. MEASURES FOR SOIL AND SUBSOIL PROTECTION


6.7.1. MEASURES FOR SOIL AND SUBSOIL PROTECTION DURING THE CONSTRUCTION PERIOD
No.
1.

2.
3.

Activity/Action
The location of the site organizations,

Proposed mitigation measures


The correct delimitation of the road territory in order to avoid the occupancy of the

production bases, site

supplementary agricultural terrains.


Provisional storage of spoil is recommended to be done over reduced surfaces.
The platforms of the site organizations, production bases will be made of concrete and a

The erosion of the soil


Stabilizarea solului

system for gathering of the pluvial and waste waters will be provided.
Provisional measures will be applied during the execution work.
The main consolidation works are:
- The collected waters drainage from the versant and the road embankment;
- The high slope protection against erosions and ravines;
- Works for retaining the road platform;
- The stoppage of the capillarity effect in the main part of the road;
- The improvement of the bearing capacity and the decrease of the natural ground

4.

The storage of the fuels, raw materials

comprehensibility on which are done the height embankments.


Fuel, oil or raw material storage to be introduced in the asphalt mixture fabrication process

etc.

shall be done in tight tanks. To avoid accidents it is recommended to establish vehicles


access to fuel and concrete and asphalt mixture installations according to a previously

5.

The storage of the wastes

established process flow.


The waste resulted from daily activities carried out by the Production Bases personnel
should be collected in standard bins located in specially designed areas intended for such
purposes. The bins will be periodically processed by the sanitation services in the area,
based on a contract.
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ASSESSMENT STUDY
Proposed mitigation measures
Waste resulted from fuel storage tanks generally have a low sulphur content, < 2%, and
they could be collected, packed in plastic bags and destroy through incineration.
Waste resulted from accidental losses of oil products from the concrete platform could be
collected and discharged into a grease separator. In case that the Production Base should not
have a grease separator, oil products must be collected, periodically emptied and
transported to the nearest purification station able to take over these quantities and purify

6.

The gathering and the purification of

them.
Domestic waters resulted from sanitary activities generally have a normal biologic charge

the waste waters

thus they can be disposed into the existing sewerage network within the objectives
premises and then conducted to a septic tank.
A local pre-purification decantation basin is necessary for process waters before

7.

Accidental pollution

discharging in the sewage network of the production base.


For the terrain accidentally contaminated during execution is proposed the extraction of the
earth volume and its storage in the borrow pits on a concentration that would allow the

8.

Ecological reconstruction

natural decontamination processes.


Lands temporarily occupied by site organizations, temporary roads and platforms will be
reintegrated in the normal usage circuit after the completion of the construction works. In
case they are found to be deteriorated, measures for ecologic reconstruction will be applied.

6.7.2. MEASURES FOR SOIL AND SUBSOIL PROTECTION DURING OPERATION


No.
1.

Activity/Action
Waste management

Proposed mitigation measures


The waste resulting from the service areas will be collected and transported to the waste
dumps of the near by localities. Such activity will be regulated through operation
authorizations. Each parking lot will have bins for waste collection. It is the motorway
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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY
administrator who is responsible for waste management.
Sludge resulted from the purification of waste waters in service areas will be periodically
collected and transported to purification stations near by.
Sludge and separated grease in these constructions will be collected periodically and

2.

Waste waters

transported to the purification station.


The periodical check of the working of the devices provided for the gathering and the
purification of the waste waters. The devices will be maintened.

6.8. MEASURES FOR FLORA AND FAUNA PROTECTION


6.8.1. MEASURES FOR FLORA AND FAUNA PROTECTION DURING THE CONSTRUCTION WORKS
No.
1.

Activity/Action
The location of the site organizations,

Proposed mitigation measures


It is recommended to place physical barriers so as not to affect areas other than those

production bases, site

necessary for the construction.


In case that the contractors who will perform the works, will provide a fencing around the
motorway working route, will have to apply for the approval from the forestry authorities to
take all measures ensuring the continuity of the animals migration routes, if deemed
necessary.

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2.
Ecological reconstruction

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY
Proposed mitigation measures
After the completion of the motorway construction works, the contractor must take a series
of measures intended for the restoration of the affected environment. This category includes
borrowing pits that require ecologic measures. For such purpose, it is necessary to monitor
the environmental factors in the sense of observing the modifications taking place in
relation to the initial state.
Lands temporarily occupied by the site organizations or for other purposes restored to the
initial use and/or made available to the local authorities for other uses (fuel filling stations,
car repair shops, etc), with the observance of the legislation in force.

6.8.2. MEASURES FOR FLORA AND FAUNA PROTECTION DURING OPERATION


No.
1.

Activity/Action
Fauna protection

Proposed mitigation measures


In order to prevent wild animals access to the motorway fencing will be provided.
Fences reduce the risk of vehicles collision with animals. Their efficiency is sure but not
absolute, as they can be deformed or crossed, in certain situations.
For maximum efficiency, the fencing should meet the following criteria:
-

Grating (network) of the fence must have a mesh with such dimensions so as to prevent
animals passage and having the following characteristics:
- to ensure good visibility;
- wires should be tied or welded, with a diameter of >2.5 mm, made of
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ASSESSMENT STUDY
Proposed mitigation measures
galvanized or corrosion proofed metal;
- the netting shall have a mesh with progressive dimensions (smaller at the
lower area and greater and the upper area) or a fine mesh (coarse mesh may be
doubled with fine mesh on the first 70 cm of netting).
- The fencing height must be chosen so as not to be able to be crossed by animals. Thus,
according to the animals specific to the region, the fencing was established to have the
following heights (see table no. 6.8.-1):
- in forest areas: H = 2,60 m
- in areas without forests: H = 1,50 m
2.. Fencing continuity must be ensured in all places and the following requirements
regarding positioning must be observed:
- fencing is fitted up close on the ground, but so as to allow rainwater runoff;
- it is recommended that the fencing is fitted up on the slope;
- the wire netting is fitted up on poles (metallic, concrete or wooden) on the
forest side.
The fences interfere with the usual migration behavior of animals, creating an obstacle in
the way of the daily journey to seek food, a partner for reproduction and seasonal
migrations.
This is why, where required to ensure the continuity of the natural space in order to
preserve wild life, it is highly necessary to complete the road facilities with culverts
(underpasses) allowing an overhead crossing of the road.
The establishing of the position of such crossings was done in keeping with SETRA
recommendations stating that culverts should be set up a distances of 2 3 Km in dense
forest areas and approximately 10-15 Km rare forest areas.
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ASSESSMENT STUDY
Proposed mitigation measures
To this purpose, the establishment of the position of the crossings was done together with
the representatives of the Forest Administration responsible for the forests crossed.
Although there were repeated requests for information from the County Forest Departments
and the Forestry Administrations, we received some answers only partially. Codlea, Fagaras
and Sercaia Forestry Administrations offered answers in this sense.
In view of those mentioned above, 4 culverts were proposed to be set up in the following
positions: Km 22+950, Km 27+275, Km 113+700, Km 136+750.
Large animals can also use numerous viaducts provided for the crossing of valleys.
It ahs also been estimated that smaller animals can cross the motorway underneath culverts
for water drainage.
The dimensions of the crossings have been chosen in accordance with the provisions of the
documentation Passages pour la grande faune that is:
height: H = 5.50 m;
span: l = 12.0 m.
It is recommended that in the areas where culverts are provided, vegetation arrangements
be made to increase the chances of meeting the animals necessities and improving the
capacity to accept the crossings.
The planting should be done within a very short time, even during the construction of the
crossings so that they could become an attractive environment and to avoid situations when
animals, during the development period of the vegetation, permanently change the territory,
abandoning the crossing.
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6.9. MEASURES FOR PROTECTION OF ARCHEOLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL SITES


6.9.1. MEASURES FOR THE PROTECTION OF ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES DURING CONSTRUCTION WORKS
No.
1.

Activity/Action
The identification of the areas

Proposed mitigation measures


A first step was taken as early as the design stage, when all county museums were
requested to map the positions of the on plans. We have received a positive response from
the museums in Brasov and Mures, whereas Sibiu museum has sent only a list of the
discoveries made in the past in the area of the motorway route, without showing the area as
well on the plans.
National Administration of Roads will sign contracts with the county Museums for

2.

The monitoring of the construction

archaeological research.
The representatives of Sibiu museum have also requested the presence of a specialist from

works

their behalf to monitor the progress of the construction works, to prevent the destruction of
possible vestiges.
During construction period the unloading of the historical charge will be done.

6.9.2. MEASURES FOR THE PROTECTION OF ARCHEOLOGICAL SITES DURING OPERATION


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Not applicable.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY

6.10. MEASURES FOR THE PROTECTION FOR THE HUMAN FACTOR


6.10.1. MEASURES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE HUMAN FACTOR DURING THE CONSTRUCTION WORKS
No.
1.

Activity/Action
The location of the site organization,
production bases

2.

Site traffic

Proposed mitigation measures


Site setting up will be located at a distance of minimum 1000 m to the locality.
In the site organization it is necessary to take all sound protection measures for the working
personnel.
Heavy traffic taking place on uneven roads may generate significant noise and vibration
levels, which is the reason why it is recommended that the routes of the transport facilities
should avoid the intravilllan of localities.
The site may be a source of insecurity. The Constructor will draw up documentation for
directing the traffic, establishing strict rules to ensure the fluency of traffic and prevent
collisions, using proper light signalling.
Site traffic will be directed so as to avoid traffic jams in the working areas.
In certain areas, where works will be required to make the connection with other access
ways, it is assumed that measures need to be taken for local deviation of traffic. Such
deviation will be temporary.
For the working machinery routes are to be established so as to ensure the simplest access
way to the site, with minimum disruptions.
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ASSESSMENT STUDY
Proposed mitigation measures
Site signalling shall be ensures by warning signs to urge the driver to reduce speed, in the
area of the works, and pay attention to traffic in order to avoid accidents involving roadside
residents travelling on the connection roads.
The contractor must ensure that the road is maintained clean during the execution of the

3.

The execution of the works

works.
Special care shall be given for handling machinery in the vicinity of the inhabited areas and
objectives carrying out their activity near the road.
The execution of the works will generate significant noise levels produced by the traffic of
construction machinery, concrete vibration, the beating of piles etc. In the area of the
working sites it is necessary to take all sound protection measures for the working

4.

Ecological reconstruction

personnel.
After the dismantling of the site, the land used temporarily for the site organization or for
other purposes, will be restored to its initial use /or made available for the local authorities
for other uses (fuel filling stations, car repair shops etc), with the observance of the
legislation in effect.

6.10.2. MEASURES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE HUMAN FACTOR DURING OPERATION
No.
1.

Activity/Action
Level of the noise

Proposed mitigation measures


Due to the commissioning of the motorway, the noise level in the area crossed by it is to
increase, compared to the present situation, as a result of ongoing road traffic.
As shown in subchapter 4.7. the maximum acceptable noise limit at a distance of 2 m from
the front of the buildings (50 dB(A)) is achieved at a distance of approximately 450 m from
the edge of the motorway. Thus, in all areas where there are buildings at distances below
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No.
Activity/Action

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY
Proposed mitigation measures
450 m measures should be adopted for the reduction of the noise level.
The estimation of the noise level was carried out for the maximum traffic forecast for the
year 2020. We recommend the implementation of the protection measure after the
commissioning of the motorway and the measurements of the noise level by means of a
sonometer.
At this phase we propose to put noise barrier in the areas presented in table no. 6.10.-1.
The height of the soundproofing panels was established depending on the receivers
position to the source (height, distance):
-

when distance between motorway and buildings is: d = 0 250 m, H noise barrier = 3,0
m;

2.

Traffic safety

when distance between motorway and buildings is: d = 250 450 m, H noise barrier =

2,50 m.
The motorway will be provided with fencing to avoid accidents produced by jaywalking
from one side of the motorway to the other. The two directions of traffic will be completely
separated by a central reserve so that ongoing traffic should not interfere.
For emergency interventions carried out by the road administrator side access ways have
been provided with gates in the fencing, and detachable parapets for the central reserve

3.

Access (severance)

every 5 Km.
The project also provides culverts to ensure peoples access with machinery and
agricultural facilities to the land parcels. For maximum efficiency, local authorities have
been requested to offer their support in stabilizing the positions where to place such
culverts. Mention should be made that only part of the Town halls have responded to such
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Activity/Action

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY
Proposed mitigation measures
appeal.

6.11. COMPENSATORIES MEASURES FOR POPULATION REMOVALS


Not applicable.

6.12. LANSCAPING
No.

Activity/Action

Proposed mitigation measures

2.

Landscaping

Grass will be sown along the motorway, and complex landscaping arrangement will be set
up in certain areas, such as: interchanges, service areas, maintenance and coordination
bases.
General requirements for the green areas:
-

to make up shields masking unaesthetic elements situated in the vicinity of the


motorway;

to act as background underlining valuable buildings in the vicinity of the motorway


route;

to contribute, through their presence in dull areas crossed by the motorway and,
through specific features of the vegetation used for such purposes, in creating optical
comfort for car drivers, which would lead to an increased traffic safety thus avoiding
accidents;

to act as screens against dust, exhaust gases and noise, by means of bushes planted in
groups or as hedge.

Criteria for selecting species to be used:


-

to have a high resistance to smoke, exhaust gases, dust etc.;

to have a rapid growth;


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ASSESSMENT STUDY
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-

to have a long life;

the period of time between foliation and defoliation should be the longest possible;

the root system should be deep and not superficial; in the safety area the species with
pivoting root resist better to the action of string winds and there is no danger of the
root extending superficially over a large area, disturbing the pavement;

to tolerate crown cutting, which are often necessary, either to obtain regular forms, or
to maintain the required height so as not to disturb eventual above-ground power,
telephone, etc. lines

the trunk of the alignment trees must be straight, with minimum heights of 2.50 m;

their crown must be pyramidal, conical or globular;

to avoid monotony, it is recommended not to plant the same species of trees along the
entire length of the section. Species may alternate every 1.50 2.00 km. A change in
the type of plantation can be done at intersections or where there is a change in the
traveling direction.

It is recommended to use local species, so as to ensure the organic integration of the new
vegetation by maintaining a connection with the surrounding vegetation.
In the case of the studied motorway section, it is recommended the use of species such as:
-

resinous trees: Juniperus Virginiana, black pine tree,

deciduous trees: black sycamore maple, red oak, willow, acacia tree, hag berry,

resinous shrubs: club moss,

deciduous shrubs: small acacia, cornel, white thorn, mallow, forsythia, box thorn,
lilac.

The vegetation proposed for landscaping are resinous trees and shrubs that are green all
year round and deciduous species as well with falling leaves, but presenting the advantage
of a chromatic variation according to season.
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ASSESSMENT STUDY
Proposed mitigation measures
The basic fund of the landscaping is the grass sowing. Covering embankment and fill
slopes, grass areas not only ensure the stabilization of the soils but provide the ground for
shrub vegetation. Horizontal areas within premises and parking lots are proposed to have
lawns with trees and shrubs.

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ASSESSMENT STUDY

Table no. 6.8.-1. Fencing


Fencing height (km)
Left
Section

h=1,50 m

Km 0+000 Km 9+700
Km 9+700 Km 10+000
Km 10+000 Km 10+500
Km 10+500 Km 11+000
Km 11+000 Km 12+000
Km 12+000Km 12+600
Km 12+600Km 22+200
Km 22+200Km 28+500
Km 28+500Km 51+900
Km 51+900Km 57+500
Km 57+500Km 63+000
Km 63+000Km 64+500
Km 64+500Km 68+500
Km 68+500Km 69+750
Km 69+750Km 85+500
Km 85+500Km 91+000
Km 91+000Km 95+300
Km 95+300Km 100+500
Km 100+500Km 103+100
Km 103+100Km 104+000
Km 104+000Km 105+250
Km 105+250Km 105+750
Km 105+750Km 110+500
Km 110+500Km 111+200
Km 111+200Km 112+250
Km 112+250Km 113+600
Km 113+600Km 116+200
Km 116+200Km 117+000
Km 117+000Km 117+900
Km 117+900Km 118+200
Km 118+200Km 120+300
Km 120+300Km 121+000
Km 121+000Km 134+000
Km 134+000Km 138+200
Km 138+200Km 157+352
TOTAL

9,7

h=2,60m
0,3

0,5
0,5
1,0
0,6
9,6
6,3
23,4
5,6
5,5
1,5
4,0
1,25
15,75
5,5
4,3
5,2
2,6
0,9
1,25
0,5
4,75
0,7
1,05
1,35
2,6
0,8
0,9
0,3
2,1
0,7
13

Section

Right
h=1,50 m

Km 0+000 Km 9+000
Km 9+000 Km 10+000
Km 10+000 Km 10+800
Km 10+800 Km 11+000
Km 11+000 Km 12+000
Km 12+000Km 12+600
Km 12+600Km 22+200
Km 22+200Km 28+500
Km 28+500Km 51+900
Km 51+900Km 57+500
Km 57+500Km 62+500
Km 62+500Km 64+500
Km 64+500Km 68+500
Km 68+500Km 71+000
Km 71+000Km 85+500
Km 85+500Km 91+000
Km 91+000Km 99+700
Km 99+700Km 100+500
Km 100+500Km 103+100
Km 103+100Km 104+000
Km 104+000Km 105+250
Km 105+250Km 105+750
Km 105+750Km 110+500
Km 110+500Km 114+400
Km 114+400Km 116+000
Km 116+000Km 117+000
Km 117+000Km 117+900
Km 117+900Km 118+200
Km 118+200Km 120+300
Km 120+300Km 121+000
Km 121+000Km 134+000
Km 134+000Km 136+800
Km 136+800Km 157+352

h=2,60m

9,0
1,0
0,8
0,2
1,0
0,6
9,6
6,3
23,4
5,6
5,0
2,0
4,0
2,5
14,5
5,5
8,7
0,8
2,6
0,9
1,25
0,5
4,75
3,9
1,6
1,0
0,9
0,3
2,1
0,7
13
2,8
20,552

4,2
19,152
121,152

36,2

122,752

34,6

It has to be mentioned that the fencing will be interrupted in the area with structure works , thus the
total length will be less than the above presented value.
The exact positions will be established at Technical Design Phase.
Table no. 6.10. 1 Noise barriers
Commune
(Village)

Distance in Kilometers

Length
(m)

Side of the
motorway

Distance from
the localities to
the motorway (m)

Codlea

Km 11+150 - Km 11+200

50 m
Total = 50m

left

230 - 250 m

Dumbravita
(Vladeni)

Km 13+970 Km 14+200
Km 14+750 Km 15+200

230 m
450 m

left
left

50 250 m
400 450 m

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Commune
(Village)

Distance in Kilometers

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY
Length
(m)

Side of the
motorway

Distance from
the localities to
the motorway (m)

left
left
left
left
left
left
left
left
left
left
left

200 210 m
200 m
250 275 m
100 125 m
50 80 m
90 150 m
100 180 m
50 m
90 150 m
175 225 m
120 175 m

right

180 120 m

right

360 375 m

left
left
left
left
left
left
left

120 160 m
50 m
125 150 m
175 225 m
260 275 m
310 320 m
60 235 m

Km 62+300 Km 62+600
Km 62+650 Km 62+700
Km 62+700 Km 63+000
Km 63+100 Km 63+200
Km 63+200 Km 63+250
Km 63+300 Km 63+550
Km 63+580 Km 63+650

Total = 680 m
175 m
120 m
125 m
200 m
200 m
150 m
300 m
50 m
250 m
400 m
200 m
Total = 2170 m
100 m
Total = 100 m
150 m
Total = 150 m
300 m
50 m
300 m
100 m
50 m
250 m
70 m

Km 66+670 Km 66+750
Km 66+750 Km 66+860

80 m
110 m

right
right

170 200 m
350 m

Soars
(Selistat)
Iacobeni
(Movile)
Iacobeni

Km 72+250 Km 72+550

300
Total = 1610 m
75 m

left

375 - 450

left

400 - 425 m

Km 79+150 Km 79+600
Km 80+700 Km 80+800

450 m
100 m
Total = 550 m

right
right

290 400 m
400 - 425 m

Danes
(Stejareni)

Km 92+850 Km 92+950
Km 93+200 Km 93+550
Km 93+550 Km 93+750

100 m
350 m
200 m

right
right
right

400 - 450 m
150 200 m
175 225 m

Danes (Danes)

Km 102+500 Km 103+900
Km 103+980 Km 104+150

left
left

250 m
100 m

Craciunesti
(Tirimioara)

Km 137+400 Km 137+600
Km 137+600 Km 137+900
Km 137+900 Km 138+050
Km 138+050 Km 138+150
Km 138+150 Km 138+220

1400 m
170 m
Total = 2220 m
200 m
300 m
150 m
100 m
70 m
Total = 820 m

right
right
right
right
right

150 225 m
200 m
180 230 m
120 160 m
160 175 m

Gheorghe
Doja

Km 143+500 Km 143+950
Km 143+950 Km 144+325
Km 144+450 Km 144+750

450 m
200 m
300 m

left
left
right

350 400 m
200 m
50 200 m

Sinca
(Persani)

Km 26+325 Km 26+500
Km 26+650 Km 26+770
Km 30+100 Km 30+225
Km 30+250 Km 30+450
Km 30+450 Km 30+650
Km 30+650 Km 30+800
Km 30+800 Km 31+100
Km 31+100 Km 31+150
Km 31+150 Km 31+400
Km 31+400 Km 31+800
Km 31+800 Km 32+000

Sercaia

Km 36+700 Km 36+800

Mandra
(Mandra)
Soars
(Soars)

Km 44+450 Km 44+600

Km 77+800 Km 77+875

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SECTION 1 BRASOV TARGU MURES
Commune
(Village)

Distance in Kilometers
Km 144+825 Km 144+975

Ungheni

Km 145+450 Km 145+650

Ungheni
(Recea)
Sanpaul
(Valea
Izvoarelor)

Km 149+250 Km 149+500

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
ASSESSMENT STUDY
Length
(m)
150 m
Total = 1100 m
200 m

250 m
Total = 450 m
Km 152+725 Km 152+850
125 m
Km 152+900 Km 152+950
50 m
Km 152+950 Km 153+050
100 m
Km 153+050 Km 153+150
100 m
Total = 375 m
TOTAL 10,275 Km

Side of the
motorway

Distance from
the localities to
the motorway (m)

right

250 - 350 m

right

350 m

right

350 400 m

right
right
right
right

30 - 50 m
60 m
120 - 180 m
140 175 m

The exact positions will be established at Technical Design Phase.

7. THE MONITORING PLAN


The monitoring has a crucial importance as it is this mechanism that allows the checking of the
efficiency of the measures which have been applied in order to reduce the infrastructures impact on
the environment.
A well - designed monitoring scheme will help to achieve several goals:
-

To detect failures in the construction, operation or maintenance of the mitigation measures;

To evaluate if the provided measures has as effect the diminishing of the negative impact.

Some of the measures provided for the environment protection which must be monitorized are:
-

The use of the culverts for animals crossing by the target species, the frequency of the use;

The identifying of the other problems such as fences which are not properly installed etc;

The verifying the noise reduction effect as a result of the noise barriers existence;

Checking of the efficiency of the works provided for water cleaning.

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ASSESSMENT STUDY

7.1. THE MONITORING PLAN DURING CONSTRUCTION


WORKS
During the execution of the motorway it is required a monitoring of the environmental factors to
follow the efficiency of the measures implemented and to establish corrective measures in case of
non-compliance with the applicable norms. For such purpose, the following measures need to be
taken by the Contractor with the assistance of the Environmental Protection Agencies of Brasov,
Sibiu and Mures counties:
The identification and monitoring of pollution sources: localization, specific emissions of
pollutants, as well as concentrations. The main sources of pollution are presented in chapter 4 of
this report;
The establishment of a program of measures for determining the noise level throughout the
execution of the works, both within the Production Bases as well as on the motorway route
being constructed;
The supervision of the operation of installations catering for the site (asphalt mixture, concrete
and stabilizing sand stations, quarries) to ensure maxim efficiencies. Especially, it is
recommended to take measurements for emissions of gases and powders resulted from the

asphalt stations. Main pollutants exhausted in the air when the station is operational are as
follows: CO, CO2, SO2 and NOx;
The supervision of the operation of the cleaning devices and the measures for their period
cleaning;
The periodic checking of the fleet of machinery for defects;
The periodic checking of fuel and toxic substances storage tanks for tightness, if need be;
Controlled management of waste resulted from the Production Bases, Site Organizations and
working sites;
The devising of an emergency program in case that the quality indices of the environmental
factors: the air, water, soil are not within the limits imposed by the legislation in force;
The devising of plan to prevent and fight accidental pollution: measures that need to be taken,
emergency teams, emergency equipment in case of accidents;
The organization of a system through public could inform the constructor on its dissatisfaction
in connection with pollution for the given period of time, traffic safety etc. Thus, it is proposed
to set up a telephone hotline inside the Site Organizations and to appoint one of the

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Constructors employees which to take down the opinions expressed by telephone, and then
formulate a reply, having analyzed the situation. The hotline number will be advertised in the
local press, and by notices at the town halls of the localities crossed by the motorway etc.
The monitoring of the environmental factors throughout the construction works and the
implementation of the measures proposed under chapters 6.5 6.10 are intended to ensure the
functionality of the site given a minimum impact on the natural habitat.

7.2. THE MONITORING PLAN DURING OPERATION


It is recommended that, after the commissioning of the motorway, a program for the monitoring of
the environmental factors is implemented.
Water
For the protection of the quality of water courses, in case that pluvial waters washing the
motorway platform are purified in settling tanks and/or oil separators, it is recommended to
monitor their operational efficiency. In case that the quality of purified water does not comply
with the legislative norms in force - NTPA 001/2002 and STAS 9450-1988 measure need to be
taken for compliance with the applicable norms.

Air
For the protection of air quality, measures are recommended to be taken, especially in areas
where the motorway passes near localities (Persani, Soars, Danes, Laslau Mare, Trimioara). The
specified polluting substances are: CO, NOx, SO2, Pb. The values must be lower than the values
provided by Order no. 592/2002.
Flora and fauna

The measures adopted for the protection of the fauna, by providing fencing and crossing
culverts, must be periodically monitored with the assistance of the relevant Forestry
Administrations representatives.

Noise
The monitoring of the noise levels reached during the operation of motorway is a measure
necessary to be applied especially for the supervision of the localities within less than 450 from
the motorway (see table no. 6.10-1). The values must be lower than the values provided by
STAS 10009/1988.

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The monitoring process shall aim at supervising the efficiency of the applied measures for the
protection of the environment and establishing objectives intended to resolve problems, if there are
any.

226