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Teaching English as Foreign Language

PAPER
TEACHING ENGLISH as FOREIGN
LANGUAGE
-TEACHING OF SPEAKING-

Directed By The 1st Group


Name

: Laynatunnuur

Shovalina Helka

UNIVERSITAS BANTEN JAYA


(UNBAJA)
FAKULTAS KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN
Jl. Ciwaru II No. 73 Kota Serang-Banten Telp. (0254) 217066 Fax.(0254) 209583

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Teaching English as Foreign Language

TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD................................................................................................iii
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................1
A.Background ................................................................................................1
B.Overview.....................................................................................................1
CHAPTER II EXPLANATION..................................................................2
A. Definition of Speaking..............................................................................2
B. Historical Description in Learning and Teaching Speaking......................4
C. Types of Spoken Language........................................................................6
D. Characteristics of Spoken Language Related to Speaking........................8
E. Micro Skills of Speaking........................................................................9
F. Principles in Teaching Speaking.................................................................10
G. Technique of Teaching Speaking in Classroom.........................................12
CHAPTER III THE END............................................................................13
A.Conclussion................................................................................................13
B.References...................................................................................................14

FOREWORD

Assalamualaikum Wr. Wb

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Intended for use in collage classes particularly in the English education


department, this paper is designed in such a way that help students get both
theoretical and practical experiences on speaking activities in the context of Teaching
English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) in Indonesia. It is argued here that students
can learn best through exposure of knowledge and space for hands-on experience.
Here, it is our privilege and pleasure to say thank you and at the same time,
we gratefully acknowledge to Lia Amalia M.Pd, our beloved lecture, who has been
very supportive in completing this paper and all our beloved colleagues in English
Education Department of Banten Jaya University, for their invaluable sharing,
encouragement and support.

Wassalamu'alaikum Wr. Wb.

Serang,

March 2015

Writer

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
A. Background

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According to Hornby (1995: 37) teaching means giving the instruction to (a


person): give a person (knowledge skill, etc). While speaking means to make use of
words in an ordinary voice. So, teaching speaking is giving instruction to a person in
order to communicate.
Tarigan (1990: 3-4) defines that speaking is a language skill that is developed
in child life, which is preceded by listening skill, and at that period speaking skill is
learned. It means that speaking is the basic language. The goal of teaching speaking
skills is to communicate efficiency.
Teaching speaking, in my opinion, is the way for students to express their
emotions, communicative needs, interact to other person in any situation, and
influence the others. For this reason, in teaching speaking skill it is necessary to have
clear understanding involved in speech.
B. Overview
1. What is the Definition of Speaking?
2. How the Historical Description in Learning and Teaching Speaking?
3. What are Types of Spoken Language?
4. What are the Characteristics of Spoken Language Related to Speaking?
5. What is the Micro Skills of Speaking?
6. What are the Principles in Teaching Speaking?
7. How is the Technique of Teaching Speaking in Classroom?

CHAPTER 2
EXPLANATION
A. Definition of Speaking

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Tarigan (1990:3-4) defines that speaking is a language skill that is developed


in child life, which is produced by listening skill, and at that period speaking skill is
learned.
Based on Competence Based Curriculum speaking is one of the four basic
competences that the students should gain well. It has an important role in
communication. Speaking can find in spoken cycle especially in Joint Construction of
Text stage (Departmen Pendidikan Nasional, 2004). In carrying out speaking,
students face some difficulties one of them is about language its self. In fact, most of
students get difficulties to speak even though they have a lot of vocabularies and have
written them well. The problems are afraid for students to make mistakes.
Speaking is the productive skill. It could not be separated from listening.
When we speak we produce the text and it should be meaningful. In the nature of
communication, we can find the speaker, the listener, the message and the feedback.
Speaking could not be separated from pronunciation as it encourages learners to learn
the English sounds.
Harmer, (in Tarigan, 1990: 12) writes that when teaching speaking or producing skill,
we can apply three major stages, those are:

1) Introducing new language


2) Practice
3) Communicative activity.

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On the other hand, speaking can be called as oral communication and


speaking is one of skills in English learning. This become one important subject that
teacher should given. That is why the teachers have big challenge to enable their
students to master English well, especially speaking English in class or out of the
class.
Speaking ability is the students ability in expressing their ideas orally which
is represented by the scores of speaking. Speaking is only an oral trail of abilities that
it got from structure and vocabulary, Freeman (in Risnadedi, 2001: 56-57) stated that
speaking ability more complex and difficult than people assume, and speaking study
like study other cases in study of language, naturalize many case to language
teachers.
Brown (2003:141) states as with all effective tests, designing appropriate
assessment tasks in speaking begins with the specification of objective or criteria.
Those objectives may be classified in term of several types of speaking performance:
1. Imitative
At one end of a continuum of types of speaking performance is the ability to simply
parrot back (imitate) a word or phrase or possibly a sentence. While this is purely
phonetic level of oral production, a number of prosodic, lexical and grammatical
properties of language may be conclude in the criterion performance.
2. Intensive
A second type of speaking frequently employed in assessment contexts is the
production of short stretches of oral language designed to demonstrate competence in

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a narrow band of grammatical, phrasal, lexical of phonological relationship (such as


prosodic element-intonation, stress, rhythm, juncture). Examples of extensive
assessment tasks include directed response tasks, reading aloud, sentence and
dialogue completion limited picture-cued task including simple sequences and
relationship up to the simple sentence level.
3. Responsive
Responsive assessment tasks included interaction and test comprehension but at the
somewhat limited level of very short conversations, standard greetings and a small
talk, simple request and comments and the like.
B. Historical Description in Learning and Teaching Speaking
Historical Background: History of Foreign Language Education 6.1.1 Ancient
to Mediaeval period Although the need to learn foreign languages is almost as old as
human history itself, the origins of modern language education are in the study and
teaching of Latin in the 17thcentury. Latin had for many centuries been the dominant
language of education, commerce, religion, and government in much of the Western
world, but it was displaced by French, Italian, and English by the end of the 16th
century. John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) was one of many people who tried to
reverse this trend. He composed a complete course for learning Latin, covering the
entire school curriculum, culminating in his Opera Didactica Omnia, (1657).
In this work, Comenius also outlined his theory of language acquisition. He is
one of the first theorists to write systematically about how languages are learnt and
about pedagogical methodology for language acquisition. He held that language
acquisition must be allied with sensation and experience.

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Teaching must be oral. The schoolroom should have models of things, and
failing that, pictures of them. As a result, he also published the world's first illustrated
children's book, Orbis Sensualium Pictus (The Visible World in Pictures, 1658). The
study of Latin diminished from the study of a living language to be used in the real
world to a subject in the school curriculum. Such decline brought about a new
justification for its study. It was then claimed that its study developed intellectual
abilities, and the study of Latin grammar became an end in and for itself.
1. 18thcentury The study of modern languages did not become part of the
curriculum of European schools until the 18th century. Based on the purely
academic study of Latin, students of modern languages did much of the same
exercises, studying grammatical rules and translating abstract sentences. Oral
work was minimal, and students were instead required to memorise
grammatical rules and apply these to decode written texts in the target
language. This tradition-inspired method became known as the 'GrammarTranslation Method' (Richards, Rodgers, Theodore, 2001: 3
2. 19th-20th century Innovation in foreign language teaching began in the 19th
century and became very rapid in the 20th century. It led to a number of
different and sometimes conflicting methods, each trying to be a major
improvement over the previous or contemporary methods. The earliest applied
linguists included Jean Manesca (1778?-1838), Heinrich Gottfried Ollendorff
(1803-1865), Henry Sweet (1845-1912), Otto Jespersen (1860-1943), and
Harold Palmer (1877-1949). They worked on setting language teaching

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principles and approaches based on linguistic and psychological theories, but


they left many of the specific practical details for others to devise.
C. Types of Spoken Language
Heres a pneumonic to help you remember each type: Interactional,
referential, expressive, transactional, phatic = IRETP = I Read Even Tricky Pages I
admit its not a great link to the subject or a particularly great pneumonic so if you can
think of a better one leave it in the comment section.
1. Interactional
Social function, the language of informal speech. Its purpose is to develop
relationships between speakers.
2. Refential
Provides the listener with information. Refers to objects or abstract concepts.
The speaker assumes knowledge from the listener-the listener has to know the
context before they can understand the references.

3. Expressive
The speakers emotions feeling and attitudes. Shows the speakers
judgements/feelings about a person, event or situation.
4. Transactional
Getting information or making a deal. It has specific purpose and is driven by
needs and wants rather than sociability.
5. Phatic
Small talk. Used social purpose.

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D. Characteristics of Spoken Language Related to Speaking


Some courses fail the learners in that they fail to distinguish between spoken
and written language. The litmus test for this assertion is to ask whether the
syllabus/curriculum treats spoken language as something distinct from written
language with its own grammar, syntax and lexicon. If productive skills work is a
vehicle for the teaching of structures rather than training for skill and sub-skill
acquisition then the course would probably have to be described as a grammar based
course, no matter how communicative it is hyped up to be.
Here then, are some of the features of spoken language as I have identified them.

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Sentence boundaries are at best unclear though intonation and pause divide
long discourse into more manageable chunks.

Participants are usually face-to-face and so can rely on feedback (extralinguistic cues to aid meaning). The lexicon of speech is usually
characteristically vague using words which refer specifically to the situation.
Deictic (see: deixis) expressions are very commonly used, for example: that
one, in here, right now.

Spoken language makes greater use of shared knowledge than written


language.

Many words and constructions are characteristic of, especially informal,


speech. Lengthy co-ordinate sentences (joining sentences with co-ordinates
such as and are normal and are often of considerable complexity. Nonsense
vocabulary is often not written and may have no standard spelling
(whatchamacallit). Obscenity may be replaced with graphic euphemism (S*D
*T).

Speech is very suited to social (phatic i.e. chewing the fat) functions, such
as passing the time of day or creating an atmosphere or any situation where
unplanned and casual discourse is desirable. It is also good at expressing
social relationships, opinions, and attitudes in part due to the vast range of
nuances, which can be expressed by prosody and accompanying non-verbal
features.

There is an opportunity to rethink an utterance whilst it is in progress.


However, errors once spoken cannot be undone. As such, the interlocutor must
live with the consequences.

Negotiation of meaning is common and often a large part of any conversation.

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Interruptions and overlapping are normal and are generally very common.

Frequently displays ellipsis.

Speech makes use of many formulaic expressions.

Speech acts are usually considered ungrammatical in terms of traditional


Latin-based grammars. Modern grammars, namely socio-linguistic analysis of
natural language, take an entirely different view however.

Negotiation of topic is also very important: yes but, anyway, right


then,

Interlocutors give and receive immediate feedback.

It has many routines and this can make it very predictable. For example you
never say, Give me a banana in a bread shop. But, each situation has its own
discourse which have been historically and socially defined.

E. Micro Skills of Speaking


Here are some of the micro-skills involved in speaking. The speaker has to:
1. pronounce the distinctive sounds of a language clearly enough so that people
can distinguish them. This includes making tonal distinctions.
2. use stress and rhythmic patterns, and intonation patterns of the language
clearly enough so that people can understand what is said.
3. use the correct forms of words. This may mean, for example, changes in the
tense, case, or gender.
4. put words together in correct word order.
5. use vocabulary appropriately.

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6. use the register or language variety that is appropriate to the situation and the
relationship to the conversation partner.
7. make clear to the listener the main sentence constituents, such as subject,
verb, object, by whatever means the language uses.
8. make the main ideas stand out from supporting ideas or information.
9. make the discourse hang together so that people can follow what you are
saying.
F. Principles in Teaching Speaking
1.
Focus on both fluency and accuracy, depending on your objectives
Accuracy is the extent to which students speech matches what
peopleactually say when they use the target language. Fluency is the exte
nt towhich speakers use the language quickly and confidently, with few hesitat
ions or unnatural pauses, false starts, word searches, etc.
2.
Provide intrinsically motivating techniques
Try at all times to appeal to students ultimate goals and interests, to their
need for knowledge, for status, for achieving competence and autonomy, and
for being all that they can be. Even in those techniques that dont send
students into ecstasy, help them to see how the activity will benefit them. Often
students dont know why we ask them to do certain things, it usually pays to
tell them.

3.
Encourage the use of authentic language in meaningful contexts
This theme has been played time and again. It is not easy to keep coming up
with meaningful interaction. We all succumb to the temptation to do, say,
disconnected little grammar exercises where we go around the room calling
on students one by one to pick the right answer. It takes energy and creativity

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to devise authentic contexts and meaningful interaction, but with the help of a
storehouse of teacher resource material, it can be done.
4.
Provide appropriate feedback and correction
In most EFL situations, students are totally dependent on the teacher for
useful linguistic feedback. In ESL situations, they may get such feedback out
there beyond the classroom, but even then you are in a position to be of great
benefit. It is important that you take advantage of your knowledge of English
to inject the kinds of corrective feedback that are appropriate for the moment.
5.
Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listening
Many interactive techniques that involve speaking will also of course include
listening. Dont lose out on opportunities to integrate these two skills. As you
are perhaps focusing on speaking goals, listening goals may naturally
coincide, and the two skills can reinforce each other. Skills in producing
language are often initiated through comprehension.
6.
Give students opportunities to initiate oral communication
A good deal of typical classroom interaction is characterized by teacher
initiation of language. We ask questions, give directions, and provide
information and students have been conditioned only to speak when spoken
to. Part of oral communication competence is the ability to initiate
conversation, to nominate topics, to ask questions, to control conversations,
and to change the subject. As you design and use speaking technique, ask
yourself if you have allowed students to initiate language.
7.
Encourage the development of speaking strategies.
The concept of strategic competence (see Chapter 16:PLLT, chapters 5 and 8)
is one that few beginning language students are aware of. They simply have
not thought about developing their own personal strategies for accomplishing
oral communicative purposes. Your classroom can be done in which students
become aware of, and have a chance to practice.
G. Technique of Teaching Speaking in Classroom

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Harmer (in Tarigan, 1990: 13) writes that when teaching speaking or
producing skill, we can apply three major stage, those are:
1. introducing new language
2. practice
3. communicative activities.
When introducing new language, the teacher should find out the genre or the
text, which is meaningful. In this stage teacher can ask students to pronounce
the unfamiliar words, find out the meaning of the expression used in the text.
Other technique used for teaching speaking:
1. information gap by using pictures
2. by using photographs
3. by using song
4. by using mysterious thing

CHAPTER 3
THE END
A. CONCLUSSION
Speaking is a productive skill. Theoritically, according to OGrady (1996) , it
is a mental process. This means that it is a psychological process by which a speaker
puts a mental concept into some linguistic form, such as word, phrases, and sentences
used to convey a message to a listener. So the speech production is the process by
which the speakers turn their mental concept into their spoken utterences to convey a
message to their listeners in the communicative interaction.

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And speaking is the skill that the students will be judged upon most in reallife situations. It is an important part of everyday interaction and most often the first
impression of a person is based on his/her ability to speak fluently and
comprehensively. So, as teachers, we have a responsibility to prepare the students as
much as possible to be able to speak in English in the real world outside the
classroom.

B. REFERENCES
Brown, H. Douglas. 2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Addison
Wesley Longman, Inc: New York.

Harmer, Jeremy. 2002. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Malaysia:


Pearson Education Limited.
http://11mk2.blogspot.com/2012/07/macro-skills-of-speaking-hereare.html

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http://surianyade.blogspot.com/2012/11/principles-for-teachingspeaking.html
http://miguelbengoa.com/elt/?p=60

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