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Dr Matthew Scase H22 HG2

School of Civil Engineering


Problem Sheet 2
Solutions

Environmental Fluid Mechanics

(Q1) Using the data in the figure below determine Q.

35 mm

105 mm

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0.6 m

Oil s.g. = 0.83

Q m3 s1

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0.43 m

Water

1 Bottom, 2 Top.
For manometer system
p2 + 0.6o g + 0.43w g = p1 + 0.43o g
u2
u2
p1
p2
+ 1 =
+ 2 + z2
o g 2g o g 2g

p1 p2 = 0.6o g + 0.43 (w o ) g.
 2

u2
u12
p1 p2 =

+ z2 o g
2g 2g

Conservation of mass (continuity) implies


A1 u1 = A2 u2

u2 =

105
35

2

u1 = 9u1 .

Therefore

u12
0.6 0.83 + 0.43 0.17 =
(81 1) + 0.6 0.83
2 9.81


u1 = 0.147 m s1 ,

Q = 0.147 0.1052/4 = 1.27 103 m3 s1


1

(Q2) A rectangular swimming bath is 1m deep at one end and increases uniformly in depth to 2.6 m
at the other end. The bath is 8 m wide and 32 m long and is emptied through an orifice of 0.2 m2
at its lowest point. Assuming there are no losses at the orifice, find the time taken for:
(a) the depth to fall by 1 m;
(b) the bath to empty completely.
(a) We Denote the approximately vertical, slow velocity of a fluid parcel on the surface of the
pool by u, and the large velocity of the fluid draining through the orifice by U. When surface
height, z, is above 1.6 m
u2
U2
+z =
by Bernoulli.
2g
2g
Conservation of mass (continuity) tells us that
W L u = A U,
where we have pool width W , pool length L, and orifice area A. Since the height of the
surface z satisfies u = dz/dt it follows that
dz
AU
A

=
=
dt
WL WL

u 2 + 2gz

A p
2gz,
WL

under the assumtion that u U. Solving this separable ordinary differential equation
Z 1.6
Z T1
1
A p
dz =
2g dt
WL
z
2.6
0
h
i2.6 Ap2g
0.2
1/2

2z
T1 =
=
2 9.81T1
WL
8 32
1.6
T1 = 201 s.

(b) As above U

p
2gz, denoting the length of the pool at a given height z by x(z), where

x = Lz/1.6. Conservation of mass implies


W x u = AU

dz
AU
A 1.6 p
=u=
=
2gz
dt
Wx WL z

Again, this is a separable ordinary differential equation giving


Z 0
Z T2
p

z dz =
1.6 2g dt
WL
1.6
0

2
0.2
1.63/2 =
1.6 2 9.81 T2
3
8 32

T2 = 243 s

Total time to empty = T1 + T2 = 201 + 243 = 444 s


2

(Q3) A sprinkler system consists of a cylindrical drum that rotates about its own axis, with six nozzles
attached to the curved surface from which water issues at an angle of 45 to the vertical, and
also at an angle of 45 to the direction of the drum radius, i.e. the water is directed upwards
and away from the drum. These nozzles are equally spaced around the drum, 0.3 m away from
the axis, and are each 0.02 m in diameter. The bearing torque resisting rotation is 0.5 where
is the angular velocity of the system. Assuming that fluid friction losses in the system may be
ignored, find:
(a) the pressure (in metres of water) in the central drum if a total flow rate of 9 litres per second
is to be delivered;
(b) the speed of rotation of the system in this case (in rev s1 ).
(a) Total discharge 9 ltr s1 = 9 103 m3 s1
Discharge/Nozzle = 1.5 103 m3 s1

Velocity at nozzle = 1.5 103 / 0.012 = 4.77 m s1

Total head in drum = Total head at nozzle = 4.772 / (2 9.81) metres of water
= 1.16 m

(b) Total torque = 6 0.3 (cos 45 )2 103 0.012 4.772
= 0.5 2 n

n = 2.05 rev s1
(Q4) An oil-over-water manometer with limbs of unequal diameters is connected to a pitot-static tube
which is being used to measure the speed of an air flow as shown diagrammatically in Figure 2. It
is found that when the pitot-static tube is mounted in the air flow the level of the water surface
X in the smaller-diameter limb of the manometer rises by 50 mm. Using the data given in Figure
2, find the speed, u, of the air.

ps

ps

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h2
h1

ps + 12 a u 2

ps

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50 mm
h3

h4

The figure above shows the manometer with no flow (on the left) and with air flowing at velocity
u (on the right). The static pressure is denoted ps , the air has density a . First consider the
manometer on the left. Since it is in equilibrium, we can say the pressure above the common level
C are equal, hence
ps + h1 w g = ps + h2 o g,
where w is the density of water, and o is the density of oil. Since the specific gravity of oil is
0.83, i.e. o = 0.83w , it follows from the previous equation (by cancelling the static pressure
and diving through by g) that h1 = 0.83h2.
We now consider the manometer on the right. Since the water in the left hand limb rises 50 mm,
the oil in the right hand limb must descend 50 mm. This lowers the common level at which
the pressure must balance. By continuity, using the diameters of the left hand limb and the oil
reservoir, we can calculate the distance d .
0.0052
0.0252
0.05 =
d
4
4

d = 0.002.

So we have that h3 = h1 + 0.05 + 0.05 = 0.83h2 + 0.05 + 0.05 and that h4 = h2 + 0.05 d =
h2 + 0.05 0.002. Therefore we can balance the pressures above the new lower common level
using ps + h3 w g = ps + 12 a u 2 + h4 o g which gives
(0.83h2 + 0.05 + 0.05) w g =

0.83h2 w g + 0.1w g =

1
a u 2 + (h2 + 0.05 0.002) o g.
2

1
a u 2 + 0.83h2 w g + 0.048 0.83w g
2

1
a u 2 = (0.1 0.048 0.83) w g
2
4

u = 32.8 m s1