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Seminar Report on


Laljibhai Chaturbhai Institute of Technology

Bhandu-384 120

Guided By

Presented By
Akshay.P.Shah (Roll No.13)

B.E. Semester V (Mechanical Engineering)

Sept, 2011

Mechanical Engineering Department,
L. C. Institute of Technology, Bhandu.
Ta: Visnagar, Dist.: Mehsana-384 120.

Types of Flame
Introduction to Flame
Flame is mostly found in Gas Welding type mainly in Oxy-Acetylene Welding (OAW).
Oxy-Acetylene Welding (OAW): It is a type of gas welding in which coalescence Is
produced by heat obtained from burning a mixture of oxygen and acetylene gas (Gas Flame)
with or without application of pressure and with or without use of filler material. In OAW O 2
and C2H2 are mixed and burnt to release heat.

C2H2 + 2.5O2 = CO2 + H2O + 1284.57 kJ/mol.

Why To Produce Flame in Oxy-Acetylene Welding?

In oxyacetylene welding, flame is the most important tool. All the welding equipment
simply serves to maintain and control the flame. The correct type of flame is essential for the
production of satisfactory welds. The flame must be of the proper size, shape and condition in
order to operate with maximum efficiency.

Types of Flame (or Oxy acetylene Flame settings)

1. Neutral Flame
2. Carburizing Flame
3. Oxidizing Flame

1. Neutral Flame
The neutral flame as shown in above figure is produced when the ratio of oxygen to
acetylene, in the mixture leaving the torch, is almost exactly one-to-one. Its termed"neutral
because it will usually have no chemical effect on the metal being welded. It will not oxidize the
weld metal; it will not cause an increase in the carbon content of the weld metal. As shown in
figure 1.

Figure 1: Neutral Flame

The neutral flame is commonly used for the welding of:
(i) Mild Steel
(ii) Stainless steel
(iii) Cast iron
(iv) Copper
(v) Aluminum

2. Carburizing (or Reducing) Flame

The Carburizing (or Reducing) Flame, is created when the proportion of acetylene in the
mixture is higher than that required to produce the neutral flame. A Carburizing flame has an
approximate temperature of 5500F (3038C).
A reducing flame can be recognized by acetylene feather which exists between the inner
cone and the outer envelope. The outer flame envelope is longer than that of the neutral flame
and is usually much brighter in color. As shown in figure 2.

Figure 2: Carburizing Flame

Use of Carburizing Flame:
With iron and steel it produces very hard, brittle substance known as iron carbide. This
chemical change makes the metal unfit for many applications in which the weld may need to be
bent or stretched.
Metals that tend to absorb carbon should not be welded with reducing flame.

3. Oxidizing Flame
The oxidizing flame results from burning a mixture which contains more oxygen than
required for a neutral flame. It will oxidize or burn some of the metal being welded.
The outer flame envelope is much shorter and tends to fan out at the end on the other
hand the neutral and carburizing envelopes tend to come to a sharp point.
An oxidizing flame tends to be hotter than the neutral flame. This is because of excess
oxygen and which causes the temperature to rise as high as 6300F.As shown in Figure 3.

Figure3: Oxidizing Flame

The Oxidizing Flame is commonly used for the welding of:

(i) Copper base metals
(ii) Zinc base metals
(iii) A few types of ferrous metals, such as manganese steel and cast iron

Comparison between All Three Flames:

Figure 4
Figure 4 shows the comparison between all three types of flame.


A Textbook of Production Technology by P.C.Sharma.