Virtual Reality in Education: The Emerging

Innovative Technology for Delivery of Public
and Home Based Instructional Materials
BY

OLIVIA A. M. FREEMAN

O

perations Analysts has researched virtual
reality (VR) delivery systems for public and
home based instruction. Educators agree
learners need a method leading to ownership of
studied material. VR provides synthetic experiences
learners remember as their own. This paper provides the criteria for the VR system to deliver this
new paradigm. Guidelines and recommendations
to aid developers and instructional technology will
be presented and explained.

Introduction
In 1929 the first virtual reality system was made
to deliver flight simulations used in pilot training.
The advent of video cameras, mounted on the simulator, allowed pilots to see the ground move and
turn accordingly in “real-time.”
Military applications promoted virtual reality to the individual use
in a shared environment.
Microcomputers brought
the speed needed to recreate images from huge
mainframe computers to the desktop. Head mounted displays added the personal sensors needed to
create a sense of being “there” and a new industry
was born.
There are many things that make up virtual reality. This paper will discuss the components that
will allow its use in the classroom and provide
guidelines and recommendations for the academic
and home setting.
Teachers have had more and more piled on their
teaching day with nothing helping to add to the
knowledge base fast enough for the student to
make room for it. Virtual reality can put a user
“in” the scenario, such as piloting a boat. At the
bottom of the screen are the mathematical formulae of acceleration and vectors. The student navigates the boat across the river through a current.
The trajectory must be calculated to compensate
for the current. The user can change the speed of
the boat and watch the formulae change accordingly. As the learner “experiences” the changes,
learning takes place on many levels, several times
faster than hours or even days of lecturing does
because as the teacher talks, the learner does not
have the point of reference yet, not until his level

of experience decodes the description being heard.
Virtual reality gives pictures to words, thus decoding. This increases vocabulary and reading comprehension because now the user has an image to
go along with the word that the teacher knows is
accurate.
Predicting the future of virtual reality in education is like sculpting fog, but there are definite pressures that will bring virtual reality to education in
the near future. The conclusion of this paper is a
vision of that future.

Virtual Reality Systems
There are many types of virtual reality systems.
The typical reaction to what is virtual reality can
be summed up in the image of “immersion.” The
user of the system must have a feeling of being
somewhere else. The other types of altered realities include “cab simulators” which is generally reserved for flight, military, and entertainment use
where the user is enclosed in a platform which simulates a place, such as a fighter plane, that is fed
pictures that induces the user to think they are in
the simulation of flying or driving a tank. Projected displays are huge, wall to wall projections of
images in which the subject could be in a cab simulator watching so much visual input that is projected around him to include the periphery that he
feels he is in the simulation. Augmented reality
displays are displays, typically pilots can look
through, and see the real world augmented with
images hanging in thin air, such as targeting or
radar readouts. Telepresence reality systems have
been used in surgical applications to see 3D images inside the patient (Multimedia Systems, 1996).
At the top of the hierarchy is the immersion systems in which a user dons a head mounted display which senses movements of the head to redraw the visual images with each movement. Resolution is of paramount importance in the delivery
of a virtual reality system as it is this aspect that
creates images closest to reality. The higher the
number of pixels (the dots tiny squares that make
up a digital picture) the more realistic the picture
seems to the eye. Resolution near 1280 pixels by

FALL 1997 Journal of INSTRUCTION DELIVERY SYSTEMS

19

1024 will produce pictures that approach movie
quality (Bestor, 1997). Polygons are the geometric
mesh that texels are put in to create texture (roughness -smoothness) of an object.
The above are just ways to get the image to the
user. The image must be generated or drawn by a
computer. In recent years texture maps have been
able to give depth of picture that is more natural
which leads to an increasing sense of the reality of
the object generated. If the computer system that
generates the pictures are on a desktop, there is
almost instant interaction with the software that
creates the image and the speed at which the pictures are generated according to the movements of
the user is almost instantaneous. However if the
picture is generated from a remote site, the picture size has an effect on the speed at which the
computer can detect movement, send the detect
signal to the computer, and have the computer redraw the picture according to the changes in the
picture from the last one sent and sending the new
picture. This lag is related to the quality of the
picture as well as how many times the signal is
generated between the user and the original computer generating the picture.
Sound is a relatively inexpensive enhancement
to virtual reality systems that derive the most depth
without increasing the visual display. When systems are embellished with rich sounds, such as
race car simulations where the user can hear the
engine of the approaching car, hear it go by, then
hear the roaring of the crowd as he passes, the
picture can be just better than marginal yet the
experience will be greater due to the richness of
the sensory stimulation.
Tactile sensors such as gloves are often associated with virtual reality systems. But for the purposes of academic applications, it is my view that
such expense is not warranted. Instead, a simple
navigation device, such as a pointer or two pointers, would bring about the ability to open, close,
start events, grasp and pour items, just as well as
expensive haptic devices.
Home virtual reality systems are the same as
the academic models, built for fewer users. Once
software is generated for academic use, home users could interact with schools and become a part
of the total environment engaged in the “Battle of
Vicksburg” for instance.

The Needs of Educators
One hundred teachers answered a survey whose
purpose was to determine that the pedagogic learning model of the shared experience and the immersion leads to better understanding and recall of
the material. In teaching, the semester or year is
broken up into segments. Each segment may have

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Journal of INSTRUCTION DELIVERY SYSTEMS

several themes that expose the curriculum to students systematically. An interdisciplinary approach
to teaching has proven to give the student a better
understanding of the situation, the participants,
the vocabulary and relationships thereof. An enhancement of that idea is to include the shared
experience where small groups of students uncover thoughts and ideas about the material for themselves. This leads to a much richer understanding
(Walmsley, 1994).
Many modern classrooms are broken up into
centers, each one with its own theme. Each can
be thought of as its own neighborhood with unique
dimensions (Walmsley, 1994).
Virtual reality is
the medium that could transform a classroom into
any environment appropriate to the task, due to
its very nature of created world architecture. Exploration and uncovering in the virtual environment
is not limited to the realm of the possible. The best
part of education is learning from mistakes. In the
virtual environment, mistakes are not harmful and
experiences can be repeated.
Teachers must appreciate the fact that virtual
environments teach content and processes in the
same theme. While the current flight simulation
technology used with professional airline pilots does
not teach one to fly, it is used to ensure the integration of new sequences, thus new patterns and
situations are understood.
In this manner, educators could place the virtual reality simulations
either in the beginning of the lecture to build on
current vocabulary skills, with sequential data to
understand dynamic functions and relational information to take back to the classroom where the
teacher could begin to manipulate what was learned
in the virtual environment. Conversely, the teacher may wish to lecture first, then offer the virtual
environment to take the student where it may not
be possible to go. One system, designed by a group
of researchers at Georgia Tech University, lets students learn about the gorilla habitat first in class,
then enter the virtual world as an adolescent gorilla.
It is important to remember that this technology was first designed for instruction and should be
used as a tool to the educator not to dictate content to the educator.

The Synthetic Experience
Virtual reality systems actually deliver a synthetic experience that leads to a memory just as real
life does.
Although how human memory actually
takes place is largely unknown, what is known is
that when people use multiple senses to record an
event, they are more likely to recognize it and recall it with greater detail. Virtual reality uses sight
and sound to create the environment while allow-

FALL 1997

ing the user to navigate “inside” an environment
much the way we do naturally with much greater
recall than simply reading or passively watching.
As stated previously, the virtual environments
were created by pilot training endeavors. Today
pilots are required to recall thousands of sequences leading to hundreds of events without being
permitted any mistakes in real life execution of
those duties. In this setting, the cost is not an
issue. For military training missions, this is not
the case. In light of tremendous budget cuts, the
level of readiness must be high while keeping the
cost to a minimum.
Training transfer (exactly how well the learner
understands) has not been quantified by the military nor the airline industry due to the extreme
cost of the simulators coupled with the almost constant use of the machines (Baker, 1997). It is intuitive, however, that due to the accuracy of the
recreation of reality, such as visual and motion
cueing, the pilots are able to “feel” they are “in”
the simulation and therefore interact with it as
though it were reality. The system works because
the image generators are of such high quality to
recreate with such startling detail all the cues needed to create a feeling of total immersion by the user.
The costs of these systems are near astronomical in terms of education software and hardware
systems. The cost of virtual reality systems has
declined exponentially while the sales of systems
has climbed quickly. In 1991 the cost of a virtual
reality mid-range headset, hardware to generate the
image and one simulation to interact with cost
$200,000 (Kaiser, 1992). The very next year it was
one half that cost. The cost at the 1997 meeting of
the Electronic Entertainment Exposition in Los
Angeles, CA showed the price of a similar head
mounted display to be in the $500-$800 range. Top
graphic simulations today, in the form of games
which cost in the range of $40 to $60 each for virtual reality home systems, are plentiful.
The arcade models of virtual reality games, generally in
the form of cab simulations which cost in the range
of $100,000 to produce, will come down in price in
the near future due to a new computer chip due to
be released this November by Intel. This would
greatly speed up the time an image generator can
recreate the picture in addition to allowing multiple players on a single platform.

The New Paradigm
Many people are experiencing the Kumon method of teaching mathematics which espouses finding a comfortable starting place, Kaizan (improvements in small increments), and hundreds of drill
and practices until the student has mastered the

concept (Russell, 1993). In the thematic approach
it is generally best to “create subject-as content
using subject-as-process as a component of doing
a theme. For instance, frogs as a theme with making a hypothesis incorporated into it is easier than
exploring hypothesis and putting the theme of frog
into it” (Walmsley, 1994). Using virtual reality as a
delivery system for this approach is the idea behind the video games which have most children
transfixed by the hour. The user is “inside” the
environment, exploring the many items, manipulating them, and coming up with ideas to get to
the reward. This tension built into the video game,
coupled with a journey, is the most motivating aspect of gaming.
At the 1997 Electronic Entertainment Exposition in Los Angeles, CA, hundreds of video games
were reviewed by users and were rated by how many
were purchased as well as how well the games performed.
Thousands of users responded electronically and in person as well as by other means (Next
Generation, 1997). A pattern emerged.
Those
with the richest pictures and most realistic motions were the favorites. Those with the most to
gain from winning were highly prized and those
with the better sound effects were favored above
all the other types tried. This is no surprise to
educators. Psychologists for flight simulators agree
that pilots remember the richer experiences, enhanced with sound, motion, and self-directed navigation through the environment (Booth, 1997).
In addition to the need of educators to present
the information in a personal situation to the student, the experience is enhanced when it can be
shared with others. The shared experience tends
to engage new ideas and questions brought about
by collaborative investigation. The military has
used this paradigm in the SIMNET system for years,
where several individuals are immersed in the same
battlefield scene, each with a mission. The interaction is not only with the simulation, but with
each other as well. The outcome is a richer experience than being there alone. The game DOOM does
the same thing for its users. There, the situation
is a space station where the user is in a “kill or be
killed” situation. The realism is extraordinary due
to the depth of texture of your surroundings, and
the sense of movement. When others are in the
simulation together, groups naturally form and a
collective mind is conjured where the group has a
knowledge of where items are, what pitfalls to avoid,
etc. DOOM and other video games are played in
virtual environments as well as on the flat screen.
Users unanimously agree that the experience is
most like real life in the virtual environment.

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21

In the context of the new paradigm, the shared
experience is just a part of the total where it is
necessary to “weave in and out of content and process together,” (Wamsley, 12) keeping the themes
fairly concrete (Wamsley, 5).
Virtual reality delivery systems can be created
to represent any situation desired. Preteaching can
occur in the classroom in preparation for the virtual experience. One teacher was taking the class
to a nearby fish hatchery. Two weeks before the
trip the class began to discuss fish: “what is a
fish, what isn’t, different types of fish, etc.. They
could have just as easily gone on a virtual field
trip. In the real field trip “they visited autofeeders,” which were most important because they discussed it before they went on the field trip.” “The
follow-up included drawing life cycles of the fish,
doing lab experiments. Older students were given
the opportunity to dissect fish” (Fabian, 105). The
value of this experience was learning that the preteaching had a large impact on the outcome of the
experience. Virtual reality can be used for preteaching the field trip or for remediation.
Employers today constantly complain that many
recent graduates are not trained in problem solving skills.
This new paradigm of learning through
experience assures that the student, if given the
proper immersion in the problem, will learn problem solving skills just as with airline pilots and
military missions. There are several types of drills
that build these skills:
• simple translations using math concepts.
• complex translations using more than one translation operation.
• process problems where students develop strategies to solve problems then evaluate the solution.
• applied problems, when they pull all their skills
together of math, processes, concepts and facts.
• puzzles which encourage flexible ways to attack
a problem. (Lester, 1982).
The paradigm here is not new but could be used
successfully in the virtual environment due to the
nature of drill and practice being easily pretested,
instructed, post-tested, and remediated. Charles
Lester teaches that the following strategies are best
to instill problem solving skills: “solve problems in
small groups, encourage them to use manipulatives, models, pictures, diagrams, charts, tables,
graphs and other aids ” (Lester, 10). It is my contention that virtual reality delivery systems allows
students a plethora of such aids which can be used
in an immeasurable variety of ways for this purpose.

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Teachers are also looking for delivery systems
that illustrate:





basic attributes
examples and non-examples
relational identities
classification theory
definition
summation

This idea is intended to give direction and stability to students learning how to think. With these
skills they can examine their world. The inquiry
process can also be enhanced when ideas can be
layered upon until they reach the ability to formulate a model. Lester delineates the process as:










formulate model
experiment
formulate questions & hypotheses
make operational definitions
interpret data
communicate
measure
predict
infer
classify
observe

This model is taught from the bottom up. Observation is the first thing the student does, then
he classifies the observations into groups, etc. (Lester, 20). The game industry has integrated all these
attributes and students learn what is required to
win the game and live to fight another day.

The Criteria for Delivery
The “box” that delivers virtual reality systems is
very complex. It first depends on what is desired
as an outcome. Some topics rely on detail more
than other, therefore their resolution need not be
the greatest. But when the resolution is limited,
the problem of VR sickness can become apparent.
The general etiology is sensory mismatch. The
human brain sees images and where there are missing parts due to low resolution of the picture, it
will put in the missing pieces. But often the items
have no place to go and are rejected causing disorientation. The more mismatches that occur the
more likely the user is to experience the sickness.
The cure is to ensure that the simulation is rich
with resolution that emulates that of real life. Pieces of a room, for instance should not float in space
and items that are normally connected, such as
doors, walls, items on a table, must be consistent
with reality. Even the end of a simulation should
not halt abruptly, but be brought back to the reality station, where you entered to ensure that when
the user reenters reality, there is an instant connection with real life.

FALL 1997

The hardware that makes virtual reality possible is extremely complicated in that many configurations are possible, just as with a desktop configuration. It depends on how many users are in the
simulation, if the signal goes from the computer
straight to the user, or if it be sent over a network.
Additionally, signals can be transmitted over the
Internet which require special adaptations and signals can even be microwaved such as with television signals.
The typical classroom configuration should consist of a platform fitted with multiprocessors, one
for each user. Each processor has its own video
and sound card attached to mathematically generate the images. The systems for home use can
be as simple as a family personal computer or as
elaborate as a computer to perform high-speed calculations such as a computer aided design system.
The configuration is the same: one processor, video and sound card.
The microprocessors are linked together with
intricate lattices of parallel port connections. In
some cases, each user is running his own piece of
software to offer him a personal experience in the
virtual environment. In other cases, the software
is running on the network and users are linked to
the network, each getting his view of the environment with other people in it with him.
High end computer hardware systems run at very
fast speeds and process millions of calculations per
second and are at the upper end of the spectrum
of $100,000 or more each. Mid-range systems are
currently extremely fast personal computer configurations which create enough high quality images to be suitable for education purposes at under $10,000 each. Low end systems are generally
house quality systems and can be bought for under $2000 each. The quality of these systems is
not much lower than that of mid-range systems
due to the speeds that most desktop units run at
and the mass storage capacities of the compact disc
which is standard in these units.
The software is specific to the platform in the
simulation just as it is on the type of desktop one
chooses to run. The question of which one should
be considered is decided by what outcomes are expected.
For general academic purposes the software should be considered after the hardware is
decided due to the need to link with the network to
create a system that is, perhaps, a stand alone one.
There may be considerations that require transmission of a signal which would change the basic
configuration of the hardware. Once that has been
established, the software that runs on that system
can be sought. Software currently takes 200 hours
to prepare one 20 minute segment. Each segment
consists of walls, floor, ceilings, tables, and light-

ing effects, just as in the real world. Here, these
must act just like those in the real world and move
according to how the user moves through the simulation. Each of these objects must be given certain properties in order for the mind to perceive
them as plausible.
Most standard gameware of today is written for
the basic personal computer application. “Hooks”
are created by software developers to allow the system to recognize the head-mounted-display and
navigation tool. Although these “hooks” are extremely specialized to the version of headset, the
task is to write the appropriate code to get the system to run.

Guidelines to Aid Developers
A system should be designed in
search and development model:

the basic re-

1. Build a team to manage the project to include
teachers, technical consultant, and a programmer.
2. Chart the intended outcomes to include wishes and desires of teachers and users.
3. Develop training transfer evaluation model.
Get the requirements from the teachers who will
be the recipients of the student users. Include a
focus group of student users early in the design of
the system.
The basic education model to be developed by
the team should look like this:

Goal

Pre test

Instructions

Remediate

Post test

Finish

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23

The basic hardware model for a classroom should
look like this:

Classroom Configuration

Chemistry
Biology
Physics
Math
History

Users

A typical system set up in each school library
assures that the appropriate personnel would maintain the system. The librarian would schedule
class rotation to maximize usage of the system according to the needs of the teachers. This would
allow teachers to use the tool before their lecture
or after it, at their discretion.
The home unit is simply a standard desktop computer with a head mounted display attached.
Schedules of multiple user programming could be
downloaded periodically to ensure maximum participation of the home schooler or distance learner
with interaction with a school activity.
Before attempting to create any new courseware,
play many games to understand where to place
graphic user interfaces naturally in the virtual environment. The games that do the best job of
holding the attention of the user are equipped with
a guide. In the educational setting, this could be
as simple as providing the user with a “teacher in
your pocket” to get tips from, or as elaborate as a
contextual leader explaining what the user is about
to see. He would let them see it, and explain what
was just seen, just as is done in conventional movie
making (Gaskill, 1960).
Keep user's orientation relative to the ground
as natural as possible. This will decrease the likelihood of becoming disoriented. Persons with disabilities can benefit from virtual reality delivery
systems because their physical condition is not a

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limitation in the synthetic experience (Huber, 1994).
Mentally handicapped persons may also benefit
because the system could remediate them for a
specified time giving them more hands-on experience with the information. Be aware of blinking
lights in the simulation as certain combinations of
signals anywhere could induce seizures.

Recommendations
The first item to remember in building a system
of this nature is that each configuration will be different due to the needs of the education staff being different. The variables in these systems are
the number of processor/headset systems needed,
the amount of software development required, and
the level of sophistication necessary to deliver the
quality of virtual environment desired.
The first components researched were the head
mounted displays. There is quite a shakedown of
this manufacturing segment at the moment. Many
have gone out of business this year alone. Virtual
Reality Incorporated is committed to providing
wholesale to the education market. The product
line is mid-range and more than adequate for home
or classroom use. The price is less than $800 each
and systems are extremely durable.
Forte Technologies has a headset that is comparable at the
same price. They are entering the education market with a new product that is less bulky than the
conventional headset which allows the choice of
immersion or not.
The hardware needed to run school systems is
extremely complex and needs to be developed
school by school to ensure the needs of that facility are met. Software, on the other hand, may be
created almost generically as is done with textbooks. In fact, it is an extremely good idea to make
as many recyclable parts of the curriculum to cut
down creation times. Software houses use this
technique and Sonalyst is excellent at doing so.
When designing software, in accordance with the
wishes of the educator, it may be desirable to build
in an editor that allows student to create their own
documentaries to be the repository of what they
have learned (Aimtech, 1997).
In general Qubix has an excellent system and
is sold per unit as well as in bulk and they offer
significant discounts to educators.
A typical Qubix system is currently under $85,000 each for
over 30 users.
Educators have very special needs and are the
providers of the tax payers of tomorrow and deserve the very best virtual reality systems offered.
As such, the systems that are designed must be:
a) in line with legacy systems of today and b) must
be so far reaching as not to be obsolete by the time
they arrive at the school and the boxes are opened.

FALL 1997

It is therefore recommended that persons wishing
to build a system first consult the National Technology Transfer Center in Washington, D.C. (See
Appendix.) This center will search current research
for work in the field of virtual reality, networking,
software design, transmission, computer hardware
etc. and, for a fee search hundreds of databases
looking for the latest information on these topics.
The most important recommendation that can
be made to the educator is to get a development
consultant early in the process. The consultant
will save the school time and money from the first
day (Panzitta, 1996). Without a consultant, teachers will have to evaluate head mounted displays,
learn how to program for the virtual reality simulation, decide which software packages are best for
which hardware platforms and what is the latest
and greatest configurations and so on. It is also
financially dangerous to buy a system from a vendor that only sells one brand. The situation is akin
to buying insurance from a provider that carries
only one line. He can offer you only one brand. A
development consultant will search for the provider that has what you, the individual educator, desires.
Periodically, test the system for outdated content.
Maintenance on the virtual reality delivery
system is the same for any computer system. Your
provider must be able to service what is sold due
to the volatility of the industry.
A simulation should be a journey as specified
earlier with many processes included. We looked
at software providers and chose Sonalysts for overall ability to provide the psychological ramifications
of what should be included in the virtual reality
simulation. Paradigm Simulations does an excellent job in providing high end, high resolution software applications. Qubix has the ability to build a
hardware system from the ground up and for this
reason is the best choice for academic applications.
The headset provided by Virtual Reality Incorporated is the best value for schools or home use because it is durable and has a good maintenance
record.
Do not depart too far from the current personal
computer technology (Baker, 1997), as this type of
system outnumbers all others many times over,
globally. To enhance the quality of the immersion
experience, texture capacity must be over 3 texels
and pixel fill rate must be over 200M per second.
The polygon capacity should be above 1000K per
second. Enhancements are delivered daily, to make
them rum better, faster, and with more computing
power.

Conclusion
I knew 30 years ago that children would benefit
tremendously from flight simulator technology. It
was too big, too expensive, and not even virtual
reality then. I watched the literature, the demonstrations, the expositions. I enticed developers to
go ahead and dream big so school teachers could
one day reap the benefits of this technology that
could put the student anywhere in time and space,
to explore, uncover and document. The virtual reality delivery system was designed for teachers to
use as their tool. This instructional aid will deliver
material consistently, with real-time interaction, to
provide students the opportunity to master vocabulary, and relational and sequential information using the paradigm teachers are most comfortable
with. When the student emerges from the simulation, he or she will have the appropriate points of
reference to discuss the topic as though he was
there… because he had a synthetic experience of
being there. The technique of learning using this
synthetic experience may be 40 years old but only
now has technology been able to bring it to the
classroom, not in the near future, but today.
When building a system it is important to get a
design of what outcomes are desired by the educator as well as what is engaging for the user.
Enlist the talents of a development consultant and
programmer to complete the team and create that
virtual reality environment, complete with pretests,
instruction, post-tests, and remediation. Each simulation should be a journey, rich with experience,
just as life is with decisions and consequences.
The virtual reality delivery system is made of
many items that are highly integrated. Software is
by far the most complicated part due to the depth
of information needed to create the simulation.
After the hardware needs have been established,
software development can be accomplished.
The
decision as to what head mounted display to use
varies by what the teacher designed in the software with respect to resolution needs. These are
simply several devices to deliver those parameters.
The system then becomes an integrated unit, created by teachers for teachers.
National Curriculum Standards are coming
(Elmore, 1994). My vision for the future is that
virtual reality systems can fulfill the promise of
delivering these standards in a manner that is consistent with the highest levels of proficiency. Currently virtual reality is instructing airline pilots in
very similar situations where they must learn every permutation of every situation they may encounter, know what to do and have experiences in

FALL 1997 Journal of INSTRUCTION DELIVERY SYSTEMS

25

doing it to the highest level of proficiency so that
they do not make mistakes in the real world. Millions of people rely on these systems each day. The
future of the global economy is at stake. Virtual
realty delivery systems can do the same thing, allowing students to have synthetic experiences that
may not be possible in the real world but are nonetheless necessary to help them understand the
problems they will one day face. They will have to
recognize, recall, and react according to what they
have learned in the simulation and in the classroom.
For the first time in history, students can learn
from doing things in the classroom that were never possible before in a safe, nurturing environment.
With budget cuts in education, there will be the
need to offer equity and proficiency at lower and
lower costs. Virtual reality costs are coming into
the range of current technology. No longer can
educators rely on any other method to give students a sense of understanding without a sense of
ownership. It is the ability to go and do that creates ownership. Virtual reality gives back to teachers the world as a classroom for students to explore, uncover, and document, for this is the mission of the teacher. Our very existence may depend on how well we accomplish it. We have come
full circle, back to the day of the lyceum where the
teacher chose the topic, gave the framework, sent
the learner out to explore. Upon his return, the
teacher had the time to do the exciting part of teaching, to discover what the student had learned of
his world, to help him make sense of what he had
learned, to be a part of what he had learned, to
one day turn that student loose on the world to
make use of what he had learned.

Works Cited
Aimtech, CBT Express, Nashua, NH: Aimtech Corporation, 1997.
Baker, Bruce (Personal Communication). Servos &
Simulations, Inc. Orlando, FL 1997.
Bestor, T. From “Real-Time Globe.” Wired Magazine, March 1996, 44.
Booth, Ed (Personal Communication), Independent
Consultant. Atlanta, GA, 1997.
Cardone, Martin (Personal Communication). Virtual Reality, Inc. New York, 1997.
Fabian,Gaddy, Wertime. The Fish Hatchery: A First
Grade Theme is Fish Hatchery, excerpt, Children
Exploring Their World: Theme Teaching in Elementary Schools. Portsmouth, NY:
Heinemann,
1994.

26

Journal of INSTRUCTION DELIVERY SYSTEMS

Forte Technologies. Comdex Literature 1993. Rochester, NY, 1993.
Gaskill, Arthur, L., & Englander, David
A. How
to Shoot a Movie Story. New York: Morgan Morgan, 1960.
Horst, Margaret (Personal Communication). Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, GA. 1997.
Huber, P. From “Virtually There” University of Dayton Quarterly, Winter 1994-95, Vol 4, Number
2, 32.
Langridge, Tom. (Personal Communication). Training Transfer. Atlanta, GA, 1997.
Lund, Robert, (Personal Communication), Cincinnati, OH, 1991, 1994, 1997.
Lester, Charles, R. Teaching Problem Solving: What,
Why and How. Palo Alto, CA: Dale Seymour,
1982.
Multimedia Medical Systems. Comdex Literature
Bedford, NH, 1996 .
Panzitta, Michael, J. from “Low-Cost Visual Simulation”, Modern Simulation and Training, The International Training Journal, June. 1996,4-12.
Russell, David W. Every Child an Achiever. New
York: Intercultural Group 1993.
Staff Editors From “E3 Coverage”, Next Generation
Video Game Magazine. June, Vol. 4 Issue 7 1997,
16-31.
Walmsley, Sean, Children Exploring Their World:
Theme Teaching in Elementary Schools., Portsmouth, NY: Heinemann, 1994.
Elmore, Richard & Fuhrman, Susan, editors “The
Governance of Curriculum 1994 Yearbook of the
Association for Supervision and Curricular Development,” 1994, 43.

Appendix
National Technology Transfer Center, (800) 678NTTC.

Suggested Reading
Burdea, Grigore & Coiffet, Phillippe, Virtual Reality Technology. Wiley-Interscience Pub. 1994.
Loeffler, Carl E. & Anderson, Tim, Editors, The Virtual Reality Casebook. Van Nostrand Reinhold,
1994.
Pimentel, Ken & Teixeira, Kevin. Virtual Reality:
Through the New Looking Glass, Second Edition.
Mc Graw-Hill, Inc, 1995

FALL 1997

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