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Performance testing guideline


for centrifugal compressors

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HerearethevariablestomeaSurean(lnecessaryinstrumentation..E. WEtCOX, Chevror-r Energy Technology Company, Houstcn, Texas


etailed performance analysis of centrifugal compressors
in the field is essential to evaluare their existing condi-

. I)ata should only be taken during steady-state condirions.


This is usually specified by requiring the discharge remperarLire

ffion# ,o,.,. Current perform-agcq-qf e qompressor crr, ,lso be a


val,rable tool in evaluaiint i,r'lUility. a.L.._rre in comprytlg.f
performance can be an excellent indication of internal *e'iij'i'
[ouling, which, il-allor,ed to conrinue, may result i,n,u_nschedrrled
ourages or reduced thiou'ghpur, In conrrasr, perci:lvd prFormance problems may be a result of a compressor operating far

to remain constant over a 15-minute inteval.


' RTDs should be used instead of themocouples, if possible,
due to improved accuracy.
. Test points at different flowrates or speeds are incredibly

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from its original design. However, obtaining accurare per[ormance data in the field can be very challenging.
This aticle wiil explain the relarive importance that different process variables have in performance calculations, as ,.yeil
as specify the necessary instrumentation to obtain process data
with an acceptable uncertainty. Since original design conditions almost neve match actual operaring conditions, how to
. , compare actual field data to design data usingn-ondimeqpional
head and efficiency will be demonstated. Likewise','the limits
on these comparisons wiil be tiilined fo users. Several example
fiel{ performance evaluations are discussed with some common
' ' pitfalls that can be avoided. Examples of the effects of inaccurate
process data are also included

in the

discussion.

Obtaining accurate fieltl data.

Accurate centrifugal compressor performance measurement depends on the quality o[the


field data. In general, testing should follow the conditions set forth
in ASIvIE PTC rc-D97. However, most petrochemical plants don't
have the instumentation specified in this test code. Compressor
piping should be designecl to accommodate flowmeter runs ancl to
meet location requirements for pressure and temperature as weli.
Small inaccuracies (in certain areas) can make a large difference
between the measured versus actual conditions.
The field data required for an accurate performance evalu-

valuable. Inaccuracies in flow, pressure or temperature may be


difficult to determine with only one test point. Bur a map ol
pointr; wili usually reveal the problem.
Flowrate. The flowrate reported by the plant DCS is usually
not absolutely correct. The meter facor, K, which is used to convert the measured differential pessure into a flowate, is always a
function of the gas pressure, temperature and molecular weight
(Eq. l). The flowrate reported by the meter must be corrected for
the actual process conditions. However, the corection depends
on che type offlow units. The correction equations fo standard
volume, mass and actual volume flows are given in Eqs. 2,3 an
4, respectiveiy. It is cornmon for flowmeters to be "compensated"
in the DCS for the actual pressure and temperature. However, it
is rare fo the compensation to include the gas moiecular weighr,
since this requires an online gas aoalyzer. The flowmeter design

and location should meet the requirements of the guidelines


established by ASME PTC-10.

Q=
e\
o

ation are:

. Suction and discharge prssures


. Suction and discharge ternperatures 'I
. Ivf ass flowrate \.' '
:

. Gas composition
. Rotational speed
. Dliver load.
.'

are:

Pressure and temperature transmitters shouid be locaced


a few feet of the compressor case at least 10 pipe diametes
from any valve, tee, elbow or other obstruction.

within

. Transmitters (both pressure and temperature) should be


calibrated prior to the test.

'i: i. ,'r,a , , ',,.

where

=e.tr"lr-w.
-\ P, T^ Z^ Mw^

: f (p,T,Mw)
forstd. vorume

(l)

flow

h, = ,t.trW" Y,
^ ! Po Tn Z^ Mut,

f,or nrass

o.=o[ut"z"**.
\ -\ P^To Zo Mtan

for actual volume

flow

12)

(3)

0ow

(4)

Example-inclrrect floameter. An incorrect flow measure-

The most important factors in obtaining accurare field data

: ,

KJtr

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ment rvill cause the compressor to appear either low or high in


head because the operating point is marked incorrectly on the
performance map. The best method to determine if a flow measurement is incorect is co obtain several data points to compare
against the entire cuve. As can be seen in Fig. 1, tf.re r-raximurn
head should emain the same. The curve is just shifted to the
right or left.
Gas composition. The gas composition is the most important data required to evaluate a compressor's performance.

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free-flowing arrangement (Ftg.2 shows two exarlpies). An

insertion probe should bS qq.d, ifpossibie, to obtain the gas


sample instead of a wall t'p. Samples obtained fon.r r.,all
taps u.i11 generally be ieae? in the higher molecular r,",eight
components due to the boundar layer effect. The sample
bomb should be heated to the process temperature before it
is analyzed. This is to pevent any condensation of liquids
that could alter the gas composition. Obviously, this is niuch
more important for higher molecular lveight services such as
FCC wet gas compared to reformer or hydrocracker recycle

Flow too low

f,iTA-T

Liken,ise, in a wet ga.s application, an accurate gas compusition ir; also the most difficult piece of tesr data to obcain. r\t
least two gas samples should be taken during the performance
test. lfwo samples are required to vaiidate the gas analysis
(for comparison) as well as when one of the samples is iosr or
invalid (i,e.,. qirhout the gas composition, the other process
dara are wUrthlei$, fhe sample should be obtained using a

Actual curve

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hydro1en.
As an example, a sample taken from the discharge of a cokcr
wet gas compressor was analyzed at the lab ambient ternperature
(approximately 7 5"F) and at 27 5"F (sample temperature, Table 1).

As can be seen, the incoect gas composition has a pronounced


effect on the calculatecl gas horsepower. This eflect is magnified
because the molecular.veight is used to calculate the head as u,eli
as correct the flo.'.
Thc gas composition should be reviewed to determine if it is
feasible. One of the most common methods used to cletermine
the gas sample composition is a gas chromatograph. A gas chromatogr:aph detemines the components by burning them in the
presence ofa carier gas. For this reason, a gas chromatograph
will not show any water vapor (i.e., water will not burn). Horvever, it is very common for process gases to be saturated with
water. For rhis reason,.the mEasured gas composition mu:r b.
adjusrcd if ir is ihdeed saturated wirh water. The mole fra. r ion
of any constituent in a mixed gas stream is defined b1, Eq. 5.
Since the gas stream temperature .is known, the water vapor
partial pressure is equal ro its saturation pressure at the given
temperature, Afte the water vapor mole fraction is found, the
normalized gas composition must be adjusted so that the toral
mole fraction equals 1.0.

constituent Parlial Pressure

,he gas composi,ion


ur..,*u., ,",
^^::::,::,::;:,,"r,
k:ane as liquids are condensed out ir the
will rypically become
intersection knockouts. If the gas samples clo not re [iect this.
there is usualiy a problem. Also, certain components (i.c., F{2 or
I-i25) are normally noncondensabie. The mass fractions of hese
comporlents should actually increase as the heavier liqr-iids are
removed fiom the gas srream.

Y&ffiLE " Effects olf incorrect gas composition on

TAffiB.E '8. Effects of incorrect gas composition on


corrected flow and calculated horsepower
Correct gas sample,

275'F

lncorrect gas sample, 75"F

Molecular weight

Flow MMscfd

27.4

32, s

Shaft horsepower, hp

5,77s

7,036

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Example-inclrrect gas cornposition. ]f the measured gas composition is lower than the actual gas composition in the compressor, it will have the most pronounced effect on borh the correcred
flowrate and calculated polytropic head. An incorrect low molecular weight will cause the corrected flowrate (if it is measured
in standard cubic feet) to be higher (Eq. 2). Likewise, the low
molecular weight will cause the calculared polytropic head to
be higher than it actually is for the given compression ratio. A
molecula weight that is coo low wll al^so.,pause the calculated
tl(4f
polytropic .ffi..,.y to be higher,
as pronounced.
"o, lower
Additionall the lower molecular weight will
rhe calculated mass flow, which will in tun lower
the calculated horsepower. Note, these are
the effects produced by an incorrect gas
composition being used as the input for
a field test. These are not the results of a
compressor that is operaring in a gas that
is actually lower in molecula weight than
its design. If the measured gas composition
is too high, the results are just the inverse
of the above (i.e., the flow, head and efficiency are all lower). A summary is shown
in Table 2.

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Applying the first law of thermodynamics to the control volume around the compressor is shown in Fig. 3.

rtiP

Shp

(*, - *r,)(h, - h,)* e* ,


+ hP

hp*,

2.545

(6)

uecu

h?ueca, h?wcn = hput+

(7)

bpuz

'I'he radiant heat loss,


Q, is normally negligible, but it can be
approximated by dividing the compressor case into axial secrions
and approximating the heat tansfer from each section.. Likei,r,ise,
: .'\':

'.

Calculating and evaluating


performance parameters.

Once

rhe field performance data are obtained,


tlre correct performance parameters must

be accurateiy calcuiated and evaluated


ro ensufe thar rhe field data are realistic. The most critical step in calculating
performance parameters is determining

the inlet and outlet density, enthalpy


and entropy. For hydrocarbon gas mix-

tures, performance programs that use


equations of state, such as Lee-Kesler,
Iledlich-Kwong or Peng-Robinson, wiil
provide much better results than approxi-

mations from Mollie diagrams or ideal


gas relationships. Process simulators can
be used as well. Once the gas properties

are calculated, the corect parameters


must be selected to adequately evaluate
the compressor performance. Evaluating
the results ofthese calculations should be
made to determine the validity of both
rhe calculatioeq -and,the field data (see
Schultz) fo, t[li"'j:airhe equations for

"

these parameters).

. Shaft horsepower-lf a torque meter


is avaiiable, the shaft horsepower may be
calculated directly. However, since this is
not commonly the case, the horsepower
can be calculated by the heat balance
method, as given in ASME PTC-10 and
compared to the calcuiated driver horsepower. This comparison between driver
and driven power is the mosr imporrant
indicator of accuracy of a performance test
(i.e., if the two values are not close, somerhing is wrong with the test data).

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include effects such as friction and pressure losses in the


impeller:s and diffusers. For the purpose of this article , aerodynamic losses are included in rhe impeller efficiencies and not
discussed.
Mechanical losses. i\4echanical losses ae mostly a function
ofsize and speed. Larget: bearings and seals at higher speeds dissipate rnore power. Mechanical losses are simply added ro the
calculated gas horseporver. These losses can be approximated
losses

Wo seal losses

Wseal losses

----7

P2

Loss in
pressure due

to higher f7

lncrease in
volume flow
due to higher
11 and leakage

from:

' IVleasuring the florvrate and lube oil temperature increase


and using Eq. 8. This rnay be difficult due to many differenr
iube oil return lines and pressure controllers that spill back to

the reservoir.

. OF,M-supplied curves for diffeent bearings and

.
en lrn atri-f',rrc'

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horsepower losses as well.


. Tables based on compresso gas horseporver (T'able 3).
Approximate gearbox efficiencies are given in Table 4.

the seai leakage on the inlet is normally less than 170, but it can
be easily calculated at the orifice in the ventrofF'the sealipoti.
Note, the internal seal losses (i.e., balance piston and impller

thc^LT.,
t. _o,t

labyrinth

seals) do not affecr the calculated shaft horsepower.


However, they do affect the calculated head and efficienc which
in turn affects the discharge pressure and temperature, The
effects ofseal losses wiil be discussed later.
. Polytropic head--This value is limired to approximately
10,000 -12,000 ft-lbf/lbm per impeller for most closed impellers. The maximum is set by the impeller tip speed which is limited by the gas sonic velocity as well as the impeller yield stress.

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done on a compressor and the calculared head per impeller is


20,000 fclbf/lbm, chen either the rneasured compression ratio
is roo high or the measured molecula weight is too low.
. Polytropic efficiency-The maximum value depends on
the impeller specific speed, but is limited to approximately
75-78o/o for oider 2D impellers with vaneless diffuses and
80-85o/o for newer 3D impellers with vaned diffuses.. _ ., i, f :\'

p.rfor-".r..

data'lirmr-,J"t'Jst'ii'

,t.

(g)

33,000

Seal losses. Balance piston or division wall leakage is the


only seal loss evaiuated in rhis discussion since rhey are usua.lly
much larger than impeller labyrinth seal leakage. Seal losses are

Impellers designed to operate in highly corrosive processes


(H2S, CO2) often require a maximum yield suess of 90 kpsi
and Rockwell C of less than22,which limirs them ro approximately y,0OO ft-tUgtbm. For example, if a performance rest is

The most important

seals.

Bearing rotordynamic computer models that calculate

"

driver and driven power comparison. If the difference between


the driver and driven power is low, and the calculated head
and efficiency are low, then the data are probably good and
the compressor has a performance problem. If the head and/
or efficiency is off, but the porver does not agree, this typically
indicates bad test data.

much moe difficult to estimate than mechanical losses because


they are not just added to the calculated gas horsepower. Leakage through the balance piston seal to the compressor suction
increases the volume flow through the impellers as well as
increases the inlet temperarure, both of which decrease the
compressor discharge pi.rrr,.. (Fig.4). Balance piston leakage
causes the measured head and efficiency to decrease, but dces
not increase the calculaced gas horsepower. This does not mean
that increased balance piston seal leakage does not affect compressor power. In the operating rvorld, compressors have to 1>ut
up a re<uired discharge pressure to pump forward. As the balance piston seal leakage increases, either the compressor speed
or suction pressure must be increased to maintain the desired
discharge pressure and flow. This causes the power consumed
by the compressor to increase.
A feel for the amount of balance piston leakage can be established by measuring the differential.pressure across the balance
piston line. Most OElvls design for this to be less than 2 or 3
psid. Anything above this usually means that a balance piston
seal is leaking excessively. A differential pessure gauge is almost
always required to make th.is measu,:ment due to the small

Losses. Losses are generally grouped into three distinct areas:


mechanical, seal and aerodynamic. Mechanical losses include
power dissipated through bearings, oil or gas seals, shaft-driven
lube oil pumps and gearboxes. Seal losses are the decrease in the
amount ofenergy available to conver! into pressure head due
to internal recirculation inside the compressor. Aerodynamic

Seal leakage rate can be estimated by using a leakage equation,


Eq. 9 applies for adjacent'teeth)in the l:Lbyrinth. This is used to
iteratively solve for the labyrinth cavity ,s5sues and seal leakage
rate. If the flow is chbkd, Eq. 10 is used for the last labyrinth.

T'AE-E 3. Mechanical losses

YABL 4"

Gas power requirement ,


0

-3,000

differential.

Gearbox efficiencies

Mechanical losses,%

Gear type

Etficiency, %

3.0

Helical

97-99

- 6,000

2.5

Herringbone

6-99

6,000- 1 0,000

2.0

Straight bevel

95-98

I0,000 +

1.5

Spiral bevel

96-98

3,000

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polytropic head and efficiency calculations. Adding in the model


fo the balance piston seal leakage allows us to see why the compressol efficiency is not as designed.

Comparing measured field performance to shop


test or predicted performance. Since field conditions
lnlet flange flow,

m P

T1,

hi+

= nl1 *

ric

= otH

lmpeller flow,
lfl6p Ptu Tt',

IIll 't

h1

never exactly match the original design, certain nondimensional parametes must be calculated so that the field performance can be compared to the OEM shop test or predicted
performance data.''7hile these nondimensional parameters
will enable "apple-to-apple" comparisons for different conditions, they have very real limitations based on the aerodynamic characteristics of the impellers. These nondimensional
parameters includei
Polyrropic head coefficient, p7

ht'

hoo

fltp

P.2.
,-l

P.2
,

(e)

NT

0.51trP*rH

,lznr

llp =

/t"\

(12)

lnDN)'
Poiytropic efficiepc rp

(10)

Once the leakage ate is clerermined, the measured field data


must be adjusted to find the actual conditions. In the case of a
straight-through compressor with a balance piston seal, rhe hot
balance piston seal leakage is mixed with the gas at the inlet
using a mass and enthalpy balance to determine the actual inlet
t.-[.r.tur. to the firsJimpeller (Fig. 5). This will change the

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Flow coefficient, @

O: Q. or g
/
ND'

(14)
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Allowable shift in mach number


ASME PTC 1O-1997

=a 0.1

o.o
.0,1
-0.2

Impeller mach number,

,41
(1

5)

The first step in any comparison is to obtain a set of nondimensional curves for rhe shop test or predicted data. If
they were not provided by the OEM, they can be obtained
by iteratively calcuiating the p and r2values from the given
values of discharge pressure and shaft horsepower. This can
be accomplished by guessing a discharge temperarure for the
given discharge pressure until the correct shaft horsepower
has been reached. Once the correcr discharge remperarue
is known, the polytropic head coefficient and efficiency can
be calculated to give a set of nondimensional curves (Fig.
6). These curves will predict the compressor performance
for the given mach numbe. They can be used ro compare
against the existing operating condirions if rhe field mach
numbe is close enough to the mach number for the curves.
The ASME PTC-10 test code defines the maximum shift in
mach number ratio for a certifiecl shop performance resr (Fig,
7). These limitations are good to apply in the field as well. If

the mach number shift is too large, the comparison may be


inaccurate. Ifthis is the case, a new set ofperformance curves,

rhat match the actual iniet conditions, should be obtained


From the OEM.
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Polytropic head coeff., p.p and effieincy, rlp

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1.4 1.6 1.8


o

2.A

polytropic head coefficient an{ efficiency.


I

The polyrropic head coefficient and efficiency ar the exist-

'Tr

ing operating conditions can be plotted on the nondimen-

if the compressor is operating on


irs curve. Also, the nondirlensional curves can be used to

sional graphs to determine

calculate the field discharge conditions (pressure, temperature, horsepower, etc.) based or the field inlet conditions and
the performance curves (Fig. 8). Even though seal losses do
not affect the calculated horsepower (i.e., they are included
in the lower measured efficiency), they do greatly affect the
predicted horsepower. The seal losses increase the calculated
value of , which moves the predicced operating point farther
ro the right on the performance curves, which always increases
the horsepower.
Exa m pl e perf

ormance eva I uato.

Reformer hydrogen

recycle compressor configuration:


. Six impellers, straight-through, barrel-type
. Vaneless diffusers

. Interlocking aluminum labyrinth balance piston seal


. Motor-driven through a speed-increasing gearbox
. Contact-type oil face seals.
.6,370hp

Pz = 275 Psia.
Balance piston labyrinth dimensional data:

Stationary labyrinth: nine teeth, 0.375-in. equal spacing,


n.'r.al|, 14.59 5 -it intenal diameter.
Rotating labyrinth: eight teeth, 0.375-in. equal spacing,
0.I875-in. :.ll, 14.937-in outside diameter.
Calculated seal leakage rate = 120 lbm/min.
0, 1 875 -i

- -'- I\4easured performance

data:

Pr = 150 Psia

Tr = 80'F

Pz = 248 Psia
T2 = 191'F

Balancehamber pressure = 156 psia


Flow = 190 MMscfd

P= o'gz
E = 0.957
1) Calculate the horsepower supplied to the

. Inlet llow = 14,600 cfm


. Molecular weight = 5.18
AUGUST 2007 HvDRocARBoN pRocESS|NG

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Amperage = 978
Voitage = 4,0A0
Speed = 1,784

Original design:

Speed = 7,949 rpm


Molecular weight = 7.1
Driver data:

'7,940 rpm

66

= 100'F

'Pr = 187 Psia

7h

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5. Reformer hydrogen recycle compressor

Paranreter Measuredfield
pe

rfo rnra nce

248

P2

lbf-ft/lbm
Efficiency, %
Shp

fn
Vf
flD
J tkator

If the

+7 I

4,000 x 978x0.957 x0.92


431

= 7,988 hP

arbox eFficiency is assumed rc be 97o/o, the calculated


shaft horsepower delivered to the compressor is:
ge

hp,o-p = 7,988 x 0.97 = 7,750 hp

The OEM supplied a performance curve showing predicted


discharge pressure and shaft horsepower (Fig. 9). These curves
are valid for only the design conditions listed previously (i.e.,
you cannot plot the measured discharge pressure and shaft
horsepower on these curves). Likervise, they are only predicted
curves (i.e., the compressor was not shop performance tested).

Predicted

258

l/tr

191

Head,

Predicted

performance performance
(w/o seal losses) (w/seal losses)

68,898
79
6,129

64,504

65
7,641

182
66,411
76
7,030

These curves must be converted into a nondimensional form so


that they can be used ro predict the existing field performance

(Fig. 10).
The discharge condirions are repredicted with and withouu
seal losses to compare against the measured field results (Tables
5 and 6). The horsepower fo the existing field performance data
must be close to the horsepower supplied by the driver for the
results to be considered valid. As you can see, the con-rpressor efficiency is considerably iowe than what is predicted by the OEM
perfornrance curve. Adding the seal losses (approximately 4-5o/o
of the r:otal flow) to the predicted curves brings the predicted
and actual conditions closer together. However, the rneasuecl
efficiency is just too low to be a balance piston problem alone.
Likewise, the thrust bearing temperarure and axial position were
relative:ly low. Based on the past fouling history in this compressor as well as the high balance piston differentiaI pressure,
the loss in efficiencywas rhought to be a result of fouling. The
comprc:ssor was still moeting the desired discharge pre.ssure, bur
the lou, efficiency was causing excessive horsepower consumption, which was limiting unit charge rate. Because the motor was
oversized and the loss irr efficiency had been gradual, operations
was unaware that the pr:oblem was in the comPressor and not the
motor (i.e., they thought the motor was dirty).
The compressor wa$ pulled because it couldn't be washed in
place due to a lack of adequate case drains. Alarge amount of
ammonia chloride buildup was found in the compressor station.\qry.cpryp.p,rlfll (the diffuser channels had approximately 40o/o

' UtUiUrlC, Figs. 11 and 12). Note: The synchronous vitration

amplitudes were relatively low (< 1 mil) because the fouling was

mostly on the stationary components; the only fouling on the


rotor was on the inside diamete of the impelier eyes.
Afte the compressor was einstalled, the measured Field performance was within

3o/o

of the predicted.

NOMENCLATURE
Q = sPecific heat, constant Pressure, Btuilbm, 'F
C = specific hear, consrant volume, Btu/lbm, "F
D = imPeller diamerer, in.
= enthalpy, [iu/lbm
,? = head, lbf:ftllbm
hP =

hotstPo*e'

= sPecific heat rao, crlc,


l( = meter lactor
m = mess flow, lbm/s
,

M = mach number, non-dim.


MMscfd = million sandard cubic feet per day
Mw = moleweight, lbmilb-mole

l/=

l/S

speed, rpm

= specific spt:ed,
P - pressure, psia

non-dim.

Q = volum. [low, cfm

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:', Bartos, J. C., "Predicting Centrifugal Compressor

'}" Example test and repredicted field per"formance data

Title Hydrogen recycle compressor


Corrected test data

Test data
Suction

Discharge

conditions:

_/
'

Predicted data

lnlet

0utlet

lnlet

Discharge

conditions:

Press, psia

150

248.0

150.0

248.0

150.0

252.1

Temp, "F

80

191 ,0

84.9

191 ,0

84.6

182.1

Flow

lcfm

lbmimin

Flowmeter

1 Location (1 - suction, 2 - discharge)

0 Mole weight
0 Temp., "F

1,940

7,940 rpm

Number

Diametec in.
23

Calculated data
a1

Mole weight

Properties
Compressibility

Enthalpy, Btu/lbm
Specif ic volume, ft3/lbrn

Specific heat, Btu/lbm,'F

1.975.

outlet

lnlet

0utlet

lnlet

.0026

I.0059

1,0026

1.0059

56.1

561 .6

683.4

5.39

683.4
2 0/

1.129

1.115

5.44

3.94

.131

1.l75

cplcv

,33

1,32

1.33

1.32

Entropy, Btu/lbm, "F

3.76

3.84

3,77

3.84

Flow (corrected)
MMscfd

Predicted Predicted

inlet
1.0026
561 .3
5.44
.130
1.33
3.77
1

Flow (corrected)

outlet
1.0059
673,0
3.83
1

.112

1.32

190.0

lbm/min

2,496.0

lmpeller flow, lbm/min

2,6'10.0

2,616.1

1.695

lmpeller q/n

1.789

1.792

14.0

Performance

120.1

Predicted

Performance

(corrected)

pefformance

1.61

1.56

1,48

Polytropic head

64,509

64,195

66,417

Polytropic head coeff.

0.545

0.541

0.561

1.000

1.000

1.000

Polytropic effy.

0.65

0.68

0.76

Gas horseoower

7,497

7,497

6,892

Shaft horsepower

7,647

7,647

7,030

Mach no.

0.357

0,35 9

0.35 5

Volume ratio

1,361

1.379

1,421

Polytropic exponent

wl

Q = radiative heat rransfer, Btu


R = gas constant
= temPeature,

'F

= compressibiliry

Subscripts:

I = inlet condirions
2 = ourlet condirions
P = balance pisron
D = design condirions
= mechanical

M= mechanical
P = polytropic state
s = isentropic state
.t = corresponds to seal conditions

Machine Performance," Proceedings of the Eleuenth


Tur boma c h in ery STmp otium, Turbomachinery Labo ratory, Texas A&M Universiry, College Sration,
Texas, 1982, pp. 105-111.
Kerlin, T, 1i7. and E. M. Katz, "Temperature Measuremcnt in the 1990s," INTECL|, April 1990, pp.
40

- 43.

,: Lapina, R. P., Estiruating Centrifugal Compressor

Performance, GulfPublishing, Houston, Texas, 1982.

: Lee, B. I. and M. G. Kelser, "A Generalized Ther-

modynamic Coelation Based on ThreeParamete Corresponding Stares," AIChE Journal,

, Yol. 2t,No. 3, May t975, pp. 5t0-527.


1 M"rrh.*s, T., "Fie ld Performance Tesring

to Improve

Compressor Reliability," Proceedings of the Tentb


Tur bomach inerl 51 mpot iun, Turbomachinery Labo rarory, Texas A&M Universiry, College Srarion,
165-167.
. Texas, 198I, pp. \i/.
Nathoo, N. S. and
G. Gottenbe rg, "Measuring the
Thermodyaamic Peformance of Mulristage Compressors Ope rating on Mixed Hydrocarbon Gase s,"
Proceedingt of the Tenth 71u'bomacb inery STmpo siutn,
Turbomachinery Laboratory, Texas A&M Univer-

,...
".

siry, College Sration, Texas, 1981, pp. 15-22.

Pais, R. B. and G, J.Jacobik,' Field Perfomance fesring of Ce nrrifugal Compressors," Proceeding of e

Th ird Titr b omachinerl Sympo tium,'furbomachinery


Laborarory, Texas AEM University, College SraA = differential
_ tion, Texas, 1974, pp.84-90.
I = efficiency, non-dim.
llschulrz, J. M. "The Polyrropic Anaiysis of Cenrrifugal
<D = sonic velocity ratio, non-dirn.
Compressors,",/a urnal of Engineeringfor Pouer, Yol.
U. = head coefficient, non-dim.
1, pp. 69-83.
coefficient,
seal
entrance
labyrinth
U.o.r =
viASME PTC I0-1997 Performance Test Code on
non-dirn.
Conpressors and Exhauters, American Society of
7 Mechanical Enginee rs, New Yok.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Laningham, F. L., "Guidelines tbr Peformance
Aicher, \V., "Tesr of Process Turbocompressors Wirh- ",)Van
Testing Centrifugal Compressors," ?roceedings of the
our CFC Gases," Proceedings of the Tuentl-Second
Te n th Tro'bo m a ch ine ry Symp ot ium, 1'u rbomach inery
Tur b oma ch in cr1 Symp o s ium, Tur b om ac h ine 11 L d bo Laboratory, Texas A&M University, College Staratory, Texas A&M University, College Station,
rion, Texas, 1981, pp. 169-171.
Texas, 1993, pp. 17)-184.
' - "Bullerin TS-l02," Minco Product Catalog, HP

Symbols

/ = specific volume, ft3llbm

MECH

'" Japikse, D., "Efficiency: The Silenr Parrner of

,,
Seal losses, lbm/min

Comprcssor Rerares and


Redesigns," Powe, fufachiner! and Compression Con.- ference, Houston, Texas, 1995
" Hun,, J. \f., "Field Testing of Ce nLrifugal Comprcssors," Proceedingt ofthe Tentb Turbonachinery S1mposium, Turbomachinerl Laboratory, Texas A&M
.7 University, College Station, Texas, 1981.

Flow (predicted)

13,456.9

"lUiti, O, J., "Centrifugal

3.82

lcfm

Q/N

iClak, W. A., "Measue


Porver by rhe Simplest Merhod
and Use fo Onstream Computer Monitoring," Proceedings of the knth Ttrbamacbinerlt Syntpostum,

Turbomachinerl, Laborarory, Texas A&M Univer'


siry, College Station, Texas, I981, pp. l5l-153.
Davis, H. M., "Compresso Performance, Field Dara
Acquisition and Evaluarion," Proceedings oftbe Second Tu' bomac h inerl SIm?o tium, Turbomachinery
Laboratory, Texas A&M University, College Srarion, Texas, 1971. pp.15 22.
,
n Gresh, M. T., Compressor Perfotmance-Select:on,
Operation, and Testing ofAxial and Centrifugal Contpretsort, Buterwoh-Heinemann, Boston, 1 991.
''Heftmann, E., ed., Cbromatography-A Laboratory
Hnndbo o k of Chrom atograp bi c an d E lec trop h o t e t i c
Method, Van Nosrrand Reinhold Co., tr-e w York,

0 Press., psia

lmpeller

161_175.

'

design data

Speed

MMscfd (only one flow is required)

190

Polytropic

Performance from lmpeller Dimensional Dara,"


Power Machinery and Compression Confere ncc,
I990, Housron, Texas.
Boyce, Iv[. P., "Principals ofOperarion and Perfor.
mance Estimarion of Centrifugal Compressors,"
Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Trtrbomacbinerl
Slmposium, Turbomachinery Laborarory, Texas
A6rM University, College Srarion, Texas, 1993, pp.

'

q/q

HYDROCARBOI

PROCE5STNG AUGUST

2007

69