Chemistry 5

Chapter-3 Chemical Compounds Chapter-4 Chemical Reactions 25 September 2002

Naming Organic and Inorganic Compounds
Familiarize yourself with rules for naming inorganic and organic compounds in sections 3.5-3.7 of text.

Oxidation States
What is oxidation state (OS)?
The oxidation state can be simply defined as the number of electrons an atom loses or gains in forming a chemical compound.

Rules (often broken?) for assigning oxidation states:
• Oxidation state of individual atoms in a free element is zero. Fe(s): OS(Fe) = 0 Hg(l): OS(Hg) = 0 Cl2(g): OS(Cl) = 0 • Sum of atom oxidation states must equal net charge of compound or ion. NaCl: OS(Na)+ OS(Cl) = 0 • In compounds, group-I metals have +1 and group-II metals have +2 oxidation states. NaCl: OS(Na) = +1 MgO: OS(Mg) = +2

• In compounds, the oxidation states of H, halogens & oxygen are +1, -1 & -2, respectively. H2O: OS(H) = +1 MgO: OS(O) = -2 NaCl: OS(Cl) = -1

Oxidation States: Examples
barium sulfate
BaSO4 OS(Ba) = +2

I2

OS(I) = 0 NaF OS(Na) = +1 OS(F) = -1

sodium fluoride

BaTiO3

OS(Ba) = +2 OS(O) = -2 Charge of Ba + O = (+2) + 3(-2) = -4 OS(Ti) = +4 OS(Cl) = -1 OS(Hg) = +2

HgCl2

Chemical Reactions (ch4)
What is a chemical reaction?
A process in which a set of substances– reactants– are converted into another set of substances– products.

Chemical equations:
• Unbalanced
A chemical equation is a formula that describes a chemical reaction with reactants on left, products on right, and arrow indicating direction of reaction: Co(H2O)62+ + Cl- CoCl2 + H2O

• Balanced
In a balanced chemical equation, the number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation is the same! Co(H2O)62+ + 2ClCoCl2 + 6H2O

• Stoichiometric coefficients
The coefficients required to balance a chemical equations are called the stochiometric coefficients. These coefficients are central to quantitative analysis of reactions. Co(H2O)62+ + 2ClCoCl2 + 6H2O Stoichiometric coefficients: 1 (Co(H2O)62+) 2 (Cl-) 1 (CoCl2) 6 (H2O)

Chemical Reactions: Examples
Burning a clean fuel:
Hydrogen and Oxygen H2 + O2 H2O 2H2 + O2 2H2O

Oxygen transport in our bodies:
Hemoglobin (Hb) and Oxygen Hb + O2 Hb(O2) Hb + 4O2 Hb(O2)4

Atmospheric Chemistry:
Chlorine and Ozone Cl + O3 ClO + ? Cl + O3 ClO + O2

Reaction Stoichiometry
The coefficients in a balanced chemical equation enable quantitative analysis
e.g, relationships between atomic/formula masses

Consider reaction of vinegar and baking soda: • What is overall reaction?
CH3COOH + NaHCO3 CO2 + CH3COO- + Na+ + H2O (vinegar) (baking soda)

• Consequences of stoichiometric coefficients?
For complete reaction, stoichiometric coefficients define a 1:1 mole mixture of CH3COOH and NaHCO3. What happens when we vary the stoichiometry?

Limiting Reactants
When all reactants are completely consumed in a chemical reaction, they are in stoichiometric proportions– the mole ratios defined by coefficients of the chemical equation. When one reactant is completely converted into product using an excess of another reactant, the reactant completely used up is called the limiting reactant.

stoichiometric proportions:

Limiting reactants

• baking soda + vinegar reaction
Reaction carried in three regimes-- Demonstration

• SiCl4 + Mg
SiCl4 + 2Mg Si + 2MgCl2

• cisplatin (anticancer drug)
(NH4)2PtCl4 + 2NH3 2NH4Cl + Pt(NH3)2Cl2

Cisplatin: Anticancer Drug

Reactions in Solution
Solvents & solutes.
Solvents are liquids used to dissolve chemical reactants and provide a uniform environment for every reactant molecule. Solutes are the components dissolved within the solution– the reactants in a chemical reaction.

Concentration:
To quantify amounts of reactant/solute in a solution we define a concentration– molarity, M: M = moles solute/volume solution (liters)

Stoichiometry (yet again):
Stoichiometric coefficients of reactants and products in a chemical equation define mole quantities. Hence, in solution reactions we use volumes and molarity; i.e., volume x molarity = moles Example: AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl(aq)
AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq)

Is one reactant limiting? 50 ml 0.1 M AgNO3 2 ml 2.5 M NaCl

Some Complexity in Reactions
consecutive reactions–
reactions that are carried sequentially to yield a product. Example: atmospheric chemistry 2Cl + 2O3 2ClO+ 2O2 2ClO O2 + 2Cl reactions in which two or more substances react independent of one another in separate reactions occurring at the same time. EDTA4- + Ca2+ EDTA4- + Pb2+ [CaEDTA]2[PbEDTA]2-

simultaneous reactions–

Belousov-Zhabotinskii Reaction

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