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Using the Harmonic Loss Factor FHL and

K-Factor

Tao Shun and Xiao Xiangning, Member, IEEE,

supplying nonlinear load current. The derating measure for

normal transformers is always taken to limit the temperature of

windings or top-oil. In this paper, the formulations how to

calculate the maximum permissible rms non-sinusoidal load

current (Imax) using the harmonic loss factors FHL and K-factor

were introduced. The difference of them was also reasoned and a

case study illustrated the process of reasoning. The applications

of these two factors were discussed too.

Imax computed using FHL for normal transformer is more

economical because Imax computed using K-factor is more

conservative. Based on the actual monitoring data of harmonic

component, K-factor is suitable for selecting right transformers

in design and FHL for establishing transformers operation

capability, therefore there is a harmonic loss margin when the

transformers supply non-sinusoidal load.

Index Terms-- transformer; harmonics current; losses

I. INTRODUCTION

different voltage levels. The original loads gradually had

replaced with nonlinear loads that inject harmonic currents [1].

Under such conditions we call for transformers derating or

replaced with more tolerance to harmonic thermal effect.

Recommendations for the matching of a given load with the

right transformer, or for computation of the needed derating at

a given load, are provided in [2]-[6]. The operating capability

of transformers to supply non-sinusoidal load currents is

determining by the use of a harmonic loss factor, FHL or Kfactor. FHL is defined as follows:

N

FHL = ( I h 2 h 2 ) / I 2 = ((

h =1

or

h =1

Ih 2 2 N Ih 2

) h ) / ( )

I1

h =1 I1

N

I

I

= (( h ) 2 h2 ) / ( h ) 2

I

h =1

h =1 I

N

(1)

N

K = (

h =1

Ih 2 2 N 2 2

) h = Ih h / I R2

IR

h =1

(2)

rated load conditions.

The relationship of FHL and K-factor is:

N

K=

2

h

h =1

IR2

FHL

(3)

numerical value of FHL when the rms value of the load current

is equal to the rated load current of a transformer [4].

In this paper, the formulations how to calculate the

maximum permissible rms non-sinusoidal load current (Imax)

using the harmonic loss factors FHL and K-factor were

introduced and the difference of them reasoned. The

applications of FHL and K-factor were also discussed.

II.

CURRENT

A. Formulations of Imax

It is well known that voltage and current harmonics

generate additional temperature rises which may lead to

ageing and the rated lifetime of the apparatus may not be

reached[2]-[5]. To prevent such a failure of normal transformer

maximum permissible rms non-sinusoidal load current Imax is

formulated such that the rated temperature rise is not being

exceededa limitation of the losses under non-sinusoidal

loads identical to the rated losses occurring at linear loads.

IEEE/ANSI C57.110-1998 standard defined Imax as (4) with

FHL, [4] as (5) and [5] as (6) with K-factor.

N

I

h =1

2

h

h =1

FHL

=

I max

This work was supported in part by the State Grid Corporation of P.R.

China under research project for supplying electric traction system.

Tao Shun and Xiao Xiangning are with the Key Laboratory of Power

System Protection and Dynamic Security Monitoring and Control (North

China Electric Power University), Ministry of Education Beijing 102206 P.R.

China (e-mail: tao_shun@sina.com).

2

h

/ IR =

PLL-R

1+FHL PEC-R

pu

(4)

PEC-R winding eddy-current losses under rated conditions (pu).

FHL

I max

=

RDC + FHL REC R

pu

(5)

DRPT2008

K

I max

=

RDC

pu (6)

and hPFeh is iron losses and hPOSL is other stray losses

under harmonic conditions (pu), and PFeR is iron losses and

POSLR is other stray losses under rated conditions (pu). RDC is

DC resistance of windings, and REC-R is an additional

resistance due to the eddy-currents at rated frequency, which

can be got by measure methods [4-5].

The apparent output power of the transformer will be

reduced for nonlinear loads. This reduction is computed as

(7)[4-5]

RAPR = (1

V

I max ) 100%

VR

(7)

conditions, and the right under rated conditions.

h =1

The maximum permissible non-sinusoidal load current Imax

with the given harmonic composition is as

h =1

h =1

equal zero (This will be acceptable since the copper losses are

the major part of the total losses of a transformer.). After

equation conversions, (5) is equals to (6). However, the

apparent power derating computed from K-factor is a

somewhat more conservative than from FHL [4]. There is no

reasonable explanation in [4]. This paper represents this

reasoning in detail.

B. Reasons

Equation (1) can convert to (8)

(10)

where Imax,h is rms current at harmonic h when I= Imax.

Joined (10) with (1), the harmonic loss factor FHL approach

shows

FHL 2

I max

RDC + FHL I max 2 REC R + PFeh + POSLh =

(9)

(11)

decreased by I/Imax times. Winding eddy-current losses in (11)

is caused by the harmonic current Imax, which is the

transformer delivering current capability to such a harmonic

load.

Joined (2) with (9) and (10) respectively, we can get

I R 2 RDC + I R 2 REC R + PFe + POSL

K 2

I max

RDC + KI R 2 REC R + PFeh + POSLh =

(12)

(13)

(12)

replaced the factual winding eddy-current losses after

FHL

(8)

deraing in (13). The relationship between IKmax and IFHLmax

Comparing (2) with (8), when the value of K-factor is given, shows as (14), computed from (11) and (13). The square

before

the spectrum of harmonic current components is decided for IR difference of the total rms harmonic current between

K

is

more

derating

and

after

derating

is

negative,

so

I

max

is also given. Nevertheless, if only the values of Ih/I are

FHL

conservative

than

I

as

well

as

the

apparent

power

max

equivalent, FHL will NOT be changed, that is, the proportions

F

K

of Ih and I cannot be changed but the magnitudes of Ih can be derating computed from K-factor, that is I maxHL > I max and

difference when the value of FHL is given. Fig.1 shows two

FHL

K

R APR

< RAPR

spectrums with different magnitudes signed by different colors, but

K 2

FHL 2

FHL 2

the values of FHL are same.

I max

= I max

+ FHL PEC R ( I max

I 2)

(14)

I

= ( h )2 h2

h =1 I

N

1. 2

1

I h pu

0. 8

0. 6

0. 4

0. 2

0

1

11

13

17

19

magnitude

under pre-derating conditions and under rated conditions

meets (9) in per unit (base current is rated current and base

loss density is the I2R loss density at rated current). The left of

C. Case study

A Case study for a dry-type transformer in TABLE I

illustrates the process of these reasons. In the case given a

nonsinusoidal load current composition is listed in the second

column and load losses under rated conditions PLL-R=1.15 pu

as in [2], DC and additional resistances RDC=27 and

REC=4.05 respectively, and the iron-core losses and other

stray losses are neglected. IFHLmax and IKmax with the given

harmonic composition can be calculated, as listed in the third

and the fourth column respectively. Load lossesPLLunder

different operation conditions can also be computed, showed

in TABLE I. PLL of pre-derating is 1.569 pu, which is larger

than PLL-R. PLL is 0.954 pu while Imax is determined by Kfactor, which is 83% of PLL-R , and only applying FHL derating

method, load losses equal rated values.

DRPT2008

(pu)

FHL

1.000

0.856

0.78

0.233

0.199

0.182

0.108

0.092

0.084

11

0.042

0.036

0.033

13

0.027

0.023

0.021

17

0.013

0.011

0.01

19

0.008

0.007

0.006

I / Imax (pu)

1.034

0.885

0.806

1.569

1.150

0.954

(pu)

III.

S max,1 = VR

APPLICATION DISCUSSION

Underwriters Laboratory Inc. had developed Standard UL

1561 for dry-type K-factor rated transformer. A transformer

designed specifically can supply its rated kVA output to nonsinusoidal loads with K-factor not to exceed x. (x= 4, 9, 13, 20,

30, 40 or 50). Examples of K-4and K-13 loads shows in

TABLE . The K-factor values were calculated with (15).

When supplying nonlinear load currents, right K-factor rated

transformer may be selected remaining within its operating

temperature limits.

25

K=

2

h

h2

h =1

h = 2k 1 k=1213

I R2

TABLE

EXAMPLE OF K-4 AND K-13 DRY-TYPE TRANSFORMERS

K-4

(15)

2 2

Ih %

Ih pu

Ih h

Ih %

Ih pu

Ih h

100

100

16.67

0.17

0.25

33.33

0.33

1.00

10.00

0.10

0.25

20.00

0.20

1.00

7.14

0.07

0.25

14.29

0.14

1.00

5.56

0.06

0.25

11.11

0.11

1.00

11

4.55

0.05

0.25

9.09

0.09

1.00

13

3.85

0.04

0.25

7.69

0.08

1.00

15

3.33

0.03

0.25

6.67

0.07

1.00

17

2.94

0.03

0.25

5.88

0.06

1.00

19

2.63

0.03

0.25

5.26

0.05

1.00

21

2.38

0.02

0.25

4.76

0.05

1.00

23

2.17

0.02

0.25

4.35

0.04

1.00

25

2.00

0.02

0.25

4.00

0.04

1.00

163.22

1.03

4.00

226.44

1.10

13.00

I1 FHL

I

I max

(16)

For a specific transformer designed more tolerance

capability for harmonic losses, as K-x rated transformer, (17)

can be got when it is operating under rated conditions, at the

same time, IKmax = IFHLmax =I (examples showed in TABLE,

I=1.03 when K-4, and I=1.10 when K-13).

FHL 2

I FHL 2 h 2 = FHL I max

= KI R 2

(17)

h max h

For a K-x rated transformer, the maximum permissible nonsinusoidal load current with the others given harmonic

composition can be computed from Equation (18)

FHL

I max

=

(18)

RDC + FHL REC R

rated conditions (examples showed in TABLE ,

THDI42=1.032 1=0.0609 when K-4)

Based on the calculation results of monitoring power

quality data, K-factor is suitable for selecting right transformers in design while FHL fits calculating transformers

operation capability. There is a harmonic loss margin when

the transformers supply non-sinusoidal loads.

IV.

K-13

2 2

Given harmonic composition, winding eddy-current loss

factor FHL can reflects the actual operating total current. It is a

more economical approach to determine the operating

capability of any conventional transformers to supply nonsinusoidal load currents using FHL than K-factor, for IKmax is

more conservative. The fundamental apparent power delivered

by a transformer can be got easily from (16) as soon as IFHLmax

is determined.

TABLE I

EXAMPLE OF CALCULATION

Ih of deratining (pu)

Ih of pre-derating

PLL

CONCLUSION

distribution of the harmonic current. Remaining within the

rated power loss limits, maximum permissible rms nonsinusoidal load current using K-factor approach is relatively

conservative for derating wingding eddy current losses is

replaced with pre-derating ones. The Harmonic Loss Factor

FHL is a function of the harmonic current distribution and is

independent on the relative magnitude. Maximum permissible

rms non-sinusoidal load current using FHL approach is

relatively economical for taking account of actual operating

harmonic current. The latter harmonizes the term with IEC

and with the HVDC converter transformer standard of IEEE as

well [5]. Corrected harmonic loss factor FHL in [6] is more

accurate prediction of transformer capability to operate when

supplying nonsinusoidal load currents.

while FHL fits calculating transformers operation capability,

and then there is a harmonic loss margin when the

transformers supply non-sinusoidal loads.

DRPT2008

V. REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

P.R.China, CEPP 2004.

IEEE Recommended Practice for Establishing Transformer Capability

when Supplying Nonsinusoidal Load Currents, IEEE C57.110/D7February 1998, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.,

New York, Jul. 1998.

http://www.federalpacific.com/university/kfactor/kfactor.html[Online]

D.Yildirim and E.F Fuchs, Measured transformer derating and

comparison with harmonic loss factor (FHL) approach, IEEE Trans.

Power Delivery vol. 15, pp:186 191, Jan. 2000.

E.F.Fuchs, D.Yildirim and W.M.Grady, Measurement of eddy-current

loss coefficient PEC-R, derating of single-phase transformers, and

comparison with K-factor approach, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery vol.

15, pp:148 154, Jan. 2000.

S.N.Makarov and A.E.Emanuel, Corrected harmonic loss factor for

transformers supplying non-sinusoidal load currents, in Proc. 2000

Harmonics and Quality of Power International Conf., pp:87 90.

VI. BIOGRAPHIES

Tao Shun was born in P.R.China, on Nov. 18, 1972,

is an electric engineer. Now she is working towards

her PhD degree in North China Electric Power

University. She received M.S. degree in the same

university. Her research interests include the

monitoring, analysis and assessment of modern power

quality.

1953, is currently a professor in North China Electric

Power University. He became a Member (M) of IEEE

in 2003. His research interests include power quality

and power electronics applications.

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