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DRPT2008

6-9 April 2008 Nanjing China

Comparing Transformer Derating Computed


Using the Harmonic Loss Factor FHL and
K-Factor
Tao Shun and Xiao Xiangning, Member, IEEE,

Abstract-- The transformer losses will increase while it is


supplying nonlinear load current. The derating measure for
normal transformers is always taken to limit the temperature of
windings or top-oil. In this paper, the formulations how to
calculate the maximum permissible rms non-sinusoidal load
current (Imax) using the harmonic loss factors FHL and K-factor
were introduced. The difference of them was also reasoned and a
case study illustrated the process of reasoning. The applications
of these two factors were discussed too.
Imax computed using FHL for normal transformer is more
economical because Imax computed using K-factor is more
conservative. Based on the actual monitoring data of harmonic
component, K-factor is suitable for selecting right transformers
in design and FHL for establishing transformers operation
capability, therefore there is a harmonic loss margin when the
transformers supply non-sinusoidal load.
Index Terms-- transformer; harmonics current; losses

I. INTRODUCTION

RANSFORMERS deliver power energy to loads with


different voltage levels. The original loads gradually had
replaced with nonlinear loads that inject harmonic currents [1].
Under such conditions we call for transformers derating or
replaced with more tolerance to harmonic thermal effect.
Recommendations for the matching of a given load with the
right transformer, or for computation of the needed derating at
a given load, are provided in [2]-[6]. The operating capability
of transformers to supply non-sinusoidal load currents is
determining by the use of a harmonic loss factor, FHL or Kfactor. FHL is defined as follows:
N

FHL = ( I h 2 h 2 ) / I 2 = ((
h =1

or

h =1

Ih 2 2 N Ih 2
) h ) / ( )
I1
h =1 I1

N
I
I
= (( h ) 2 h2 ) / ( h ) 2
I
h =1
h =1 I
N

(1)

where Ih is rms current at harmonic h, N is the highest

significant harmonic number, and I =

K-factor is defined as (2)


N

K = (
h =1

Ih 2 2 N 2 2
) h = Ih h / I R2
IR
h =1

(2)

where IR is rms fundamental current under rated frequency and


rated load conditions.
The relationship of FHL and K-factor is:
N

K=

2
h

h =1

IR2

FHL

(3)

That is, the numerical value of the K-factor is equal to the


numerical value of FHL when the rms value of the load current
is equal to the rated load current of a transformer [4].
In this paper, the formulations how to calculate the
maximum permissible rms non-sinusoidal load current (Imax)
using the harmonic loss factors FHL and K-factor were
introduced and the difference of them reasoned. The
applications of FHL and K-factor were also discussed.
II.

MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE RMS NON-SINUSOIDAL LOAD


CURRENT

A. Formulations of Imax
It is well known that voltage and current harmonics
generate additional temperature rises which may lead to
ageing and the rated lifetime of the apparatus may not be
reached[2]-[5]. To prevent such a failure of normal transformer
maximum permissible rms non-sinusoidal load current Imax is
formulated such that the rated temperature rise is not being
exceededa limitation of the losses under non-sinusoidal
loads identical to the rated losses occurring at linear loads.
IEEE/ANSI C57.110-1998 standard defined Imax as (4) with
FHL, [4] as (5) and [5] as (6) with K-factor.
N

I
h =1

978-7-900714-13-8/08/ 2008 DRPT

2
h

h =1

FHL
=
I max

This work was supported in part by the State Grid Corporation of P.R.
China under research project for supplying electric traction system.
Tao Shun and Xiao Xiangning are with the Key Laboratory of Power
System Protection and Dynamic Security Monitoring and Control (North
China Electric Power University), Ministry of Education Beijing 102206 P.R.
China (e-mail: tao_shun@sina.com).

2
h

/ IR =

PLL-R
1+FHL PEC-R

pu

(4)

where PLL-R is load losses under rated conditions (pu), and


PEC-R winding eddy-current losses under rated conditions (pu).
FHL
I max
=

RDC + REC R ( PFe + POSL ) / I R 2


RDC + FHL REC R

pu

(5)

DRPT2008

K
I max
=

RDC + (1 K ) REC R (PFe + POSL ) / I R 2


RDC

6-9 April 2008 Nanjing China

pu (6)

where, PFe=hPFehPFeR and POSL=hPOSLPOSLR


and hPFeh is iron losses and hPOSL is other stray losses
under harmonic conditions (pu), and PFeR is iron losses and
POSLR is other stray losses under rated conditions (pu). RDC is
DC resistance of windings, and REC-R is an additional
resistance due to the eddy-currents at rated frequency, which
can be got by measure methods [4-5].
The apparent output power of the transformer will be
reduced for nonlinear loads. This reduction is computed as
(7)[4-5]

RAPR = (1

V
I max ) 100%
VR

(7)

where VR is rated rms voltage, and V =

the inequation shows the total losses under harmonic


conditions, and the right under rated conditions.

I 2 RDC + REC R I h 2 h 2 + PFeh + POSLh >


h =1

I R RDC + I R 2 REC R + PFe + POSL


The maximum permissible non-sinusoidal load current Imax
with the given harmonic composition is as

I max 2 RDC + REC R I max, h 2 h 2 + PFeh + POSLh =


h =1

h =1

Based on (1)-(3), (4) equals (5) when PFe and POSL


equal zero (This will be acceptable since the copper losses are
the major part of the total losses of a transformer.). After
equation conversions, (5) is equals to (6). However, the
apparent power derating computed from K-factor is a
somewhat more conservative than from FHL [4]. There is no
reasonable explanation in [4]. This paper represents this
reasoning in detail.
B. Reasons
Equation (1) can convert to (8)

(10)

I R RDC + I R REC R + PFe + POSL


where Imax,h is rms current at harmonic h when I= Imax.
Joined (10) with (1), the harmonic loss factor FHL approach
shows
FHL 2
I max
RDC + FHL I max 2 REC R + PFeh + POSLh =

I R 2 RDC + I R 2 REC R + PFe + POSL

(9)

(11)

From (11), Imax,h comparing with Ih of pre-derating


decreased by I/Imax times. Winding eddy-current losses in (11)
is caused by the harmonic current Imax, which is the
transformer delivering current capability to such a harmonic
load.
Joined (2) with (9) and (10) respectively, we can get

I 2 RDC + KI R 2 REC R + PFeh + POSLh >


I R 2 RDC + I R 2 REC R + PFe + POSL

K 2
I max
RDC + KI R 2 REC R + PFeh + POSLh =

I R 2 RDC + I R 2 REC R + PFe + POSL

(12)

(13)

The larger winding eddy-current losses before derating in


(12)
replaced the factual winding eddy-current losses after
FHL
(8)
deraing in (13). The relationship between IKmax and IFHLmax
Comparing (2) with (8), when the value of K-factor is given, shows as (14), computed from (11) and (13). The square
before
the spectrum of harmonic current components is decided for IR difference of the total rms harmonic current between
K
is
more
derating
and
after
derating
is
negative,
so
I
max
is also given. Nevertheless, if only the values of Ih/I are
FHL
conservative
than
I
as
well
as
the
apparent
power
max
equivalent, FHL will NOT be changed, that is, the proportions
F
K
of Ih and I cannot be changed but the magnitudes of Ih can be derating computed from K-factor, that is I maxHL > I max and
difference when the value of FHL is given. Fig.1 shows two
FHL
K
R APR
< RAPR
spectrums with different magnitudes signed by different colors, but
K 2
FHL 2
FHL 2
the values of FHL are same.
I max
= I max
+ FHL PEC R ( I max
I 2)
(14)

I
= ( h )2 h2
h =1 I
N

1. 2
1

I h pu

0. 8
0. 6
0. 4
0. 2
0
1

11

13

17

19

Fig.1. Spectrums with same harmonic composition and different


magnitude

Suppose that the relationship of the total transformer losses


under pre-derating conditions and under rated conditions
meets (9) in per unit (base current is rated current and base
loss density is the I2R loss density at rated current). The left of

C. Case study
A Case study for a dry-type transformer in TABLE I
illustrates the process of these reasons. In the case given a
nonsinusoidal load current composition is listed in the second
column and load losses under rated conditions PLL-R=1.15 pu
as in [2], DC and additional resistances RDC=27 and
REC=4.05 respectively, and the iron-core losses and other
stray losses are neglected. IFHLmax and IKmax with the given
harmonic composition can be calculated, as listed in the third
and the fourth column respectively. Load lossesPLLunder
different operation conditions can also be computed, showed
in TABLE I. PLL of pre-derating is 1.569 pu, which is larger
than PLL-R. PLL is 0.954 pu while Imax is determined by Kfactor, which is 83% of PLL-R , and only applying FHL derating
method, load losses equal rated values.

DRPT2008

(pu)

FHL

1.000

0.856

0.78

0.233

0.199

0.182

0.108

0.092

0.084

11

0.042

0.036

0.033

13

0.027

0.023

0.021

17

0.013

0.011

0.01

19

0.008

0.007

0.006

I / Imax (pu)

1.034

0.885

0.806

1.569

1.150

0.954

(pu)

III.

S max,1 = VR

APPLICATION DISCUSSION

A. Selecting right transformer


Underwriters Laboratory Inc. had developed Standard UL
1561 for dry-type K-factor rated transformer. A transformer
designed specifically can supply its rated kVA output to nonsinusoidal loads with K-factor not to exceed x. (x= 4, 9, 13, 20,
30, 40 or 50). Examples of K-4and K-13 loads shows in
TABLE . The K-factor values were calculated with (15).
When supplying nonlinear load currents, right K-factor rated
transformer may be selected remaining within its operating
temperature limits.
25

K=

2
h

h2

h =1

h = 2k 1 k=1213

I R2

TABLE
EXAMPLE OF K-4 AND K-13 DRY-TYPE TRANSFORMERS
K-4

(15)

2 2

Ih %

Ih pu

Ih h

Ih %

Ih pu

Ih h

100

100

16.67

0.17

0.25

33.33

0.33

1.00

10.00

0.10

0.25

20.00

0.20

1.00

7.14

0.07

0.25

14.29

0.14

1.00

5.56

0.06

0.25

11.11

0.11

1.00

11

4.55

0.05

0.25

9.09

0.09

1.00

13

3.85

0.04

0.25

7.69

0.08

1.00

15

3.33

0.03

0.25

6.67

0.07

1.00

17

2.94

0.03

0.25

5.88

0.06

1.00

19

2.63

0.03

0.25

5.26

0.05

1.00

21

2.38

0.02

0.25

4.76

0.05

1.00

23

2.17

0.02

0.25

4.35

0.04

1.00

25

2.00

0.02

0.25

4.00

0.04

1.00

163.22

1.03

4.00

226.44

1.10

13.00

(Note: actual values of the percentage of harmonic may vary.)

I1 FHL
I
I max

(16)

where I1 is RMS fundamental load current before derating.


For a specific transformer designed more tolerance
capability for harmonic losses, as K-x rated transformer, (17)
can be got when it is operating under rated conditions, at the
same time, IKmax = IFHLmax =I (examples showed in TABLE,
I=1.03 when K-4, and I=1.10 when K-13).
FHL 2
I FHL 2 h 2 = FHL I max
= KI R 2
(17)
h max h

For a K-x rated transformer, the maximum permissible nonsinusoidal load current with the others given harmonic
composition can be computed from Equation (18)
FHL
I max
=

(1 + THDI x 2 ) RDC + xREC R (PFe + POSL ) / I R 2


(18)
RDC + FHL REC R

where THDIx is total harmonic current distortion under K-x


rated conditions (examples showed in TABLE ,
THDI42=1.032 1=0.0609 when K-4)
Based on the calculation results of monitoring power
quality data, K-factor is suitable for selecting right transformers in design while FHL fits calculating transformers
operation capability. There is a harmonic loss margin when
the transformers supply non-sinusoidal loads.
IV.

K-13
2 2

B. Determining the appropriate operating capability


Given harmonic composition, winding eddy-current loss
factor FHL can reflects the actual operating total current. It is a
more economical approach to determine the operating
capability of any conventional transformers to supply nonsinusoidal load currents using FHL than K-factor, for IKmax is
more conservative. The fundamental apparent power delivered
by a transformer can be got easily from (16) as soon as IFHLmax
is determined.

TABLE I
EXAMPLE OF CALCULATION
Ih of deratining (pu)
Ih of pre-derating

PLL

6-9 April 2008 Nanjing China

CONCLUSION

The K-factor is dependent on both the magnitude and


distribution of the harmonic current. Remaining within the
rated power loss limits, maximum permissible rms nonsinusoidal load current using K-factor approach is relatively
conservative for derating wingding eddy current losses is
replaced with pre-derating ones. The Harmonic Loss Factor
FHL is a function of the harmonic current distribution and is
independent on the relative magnitude. Maximum permissible
rms non-sinusoidal load current using FHL approach is
relatively economical for taking account of actual operating
harmonic current. The latter harmonizes the term with IEC
and with the HVDC converter transformer standard of IEEE as
well [5]. Corrected harmonic loss factor FHL in [6] is more
accurate prediction of transformer capability to operate when
supplying nonsinusoidal load currents.

K-factor is suitable for selecting right transformers in design


while FHL fits calculating transformers operation capability,
and then there is a harmonic loss margin when the
transformers supply non-sinusoidal loads.

DRPT2008

6-9 April 2008 Nanjing China

V. REFERENCES
[1]
[2]

[3]
[4]
[5]

[6]

Xiao Xiangning, Analysis and controlling of Power Quality , Beijing


P.R.China, CEPP 2004.
IEEE Recommended Practice for Establishing Transformer Capability
when Supplying Nonsinusoidal Load Currents, IEEE C57.110/D7February 1998, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.,
New York, Jul. 1998.
http://www.federalpacific.com/university/kfactor/kfactor.html[Online]
D.Yildirim and E.F Fuchs, Measured transformer derating and
comparison with harmonic loss factor (FHL) approach, IEEE Trans.
Power Delivery vol. 15, pp:186 191, Jan. 2000.
E.F.Fuchs, D.Yildirim and W.M.Grady, Measurement of eddy-current
loss coefficient PEC-R, derating of single-phase transformers, and
comparison with K-factor approach, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery vol.
15, pp:148 154, Jan. 2000.
S.N.Makarov and A.E.Emanuel, Corrected harmonic loss factor for
transformers supplying non-sinusoidal load currents, in Proc. 2000
Harmonics and Quality of Power International Conf., pp:87 90.

VI. BIOGRAPHIES
Tao Shun was born in P.R.China, on Nov. 18, 1972,
is an electric engineer. Now she is working towards
her PhD degree in North China Electric Power
University. She received M.S. degree in the same
university. Her research interests include the
monitoring, analysis and assessment of modern power
quality.

Xiao Xiangning was born in P.R.China on March 5,


1953, is currently a professor in North China Electric
Power University. He became a Member (M) of IEEE
in 2003. His research interests include power quality
and power electronics applications.