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Ch.

6 Fatigue Failure Theories


Failure in machines occurs because of time-varying loads rather than statics
loads; S-N established to identify the endurance limit for steels that would be
tolerable for millions of cycles of fully reversed stress.

6.1 Mechanism of Fatigue Failure


Fatigue failure always begins at a crack. The crack could have been present
since its manufacture or could have developed due to cyclic straining around
stress concentrations. Stress concentration is the location where stress is
concentrated. The more evenly distributed the stress, the better. A
propagating crack occurs when concentrated stress exceeds the materials
theoretical cohesive strength.
Stages of fatigue failure:
1. Crack Initiation
Short duration, establishes a microcrack
Starts with no cracks but theres regions with geometric stress
concentrations (notches); As the stresses at the notch oscillate,
local yielding may occur
Geo stress conc (notches) local yieldingSlip BandsMicroscopic
Cracks
Even in smooth specimens with no notches, this mechanism can still
happen as long as the yield strength is exceeded somewhere in the
material
Brittle materials might skip initiation step and go to crack
propagation
2. Crack Propagation
Involves most of the life of the part
Crack growth is due to tensile stress and corrosion. Crack will grow
under static stress if its in a corrosive environment. Corrosion
fatigue (stress+corrosion)
3. Fracture
Instantaneous
At some point the crack becomes so large the stress intensity factor
K at the crack tip reaches the materials fracture toughness and
sudden failure occurs.

Fatigue-Failure Models
There are 3 models for fatigue failure:

1. Stress-Life (S-N)
Most common for high-cycle fatigue (many cycles before noticeable
deformation)
Load amplitude is predictable and consistent over the life of the part
Seeks to determine a fatigue strength and/or endurance limit so cyclic
stress can be kept below the level and failure is avoided, no crack
initiation
Infinite life
Rotating machinery bc high-cycle fatigue and predictable loads
2. Strain-Life (-N)
Since crack initiation involves yielding we need to bring strain into
the picture
Overloads that may introduce residual stress, fatigue loading and
high temperature,
Finite life
3. Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM)
Crack propagation
Cyclic stresses are known to be high enough to cause cracks

6.3 Machine Design Consideration

Low cycle fatigue machinery is common in transportation industry due


to storms, potholes, hard landings

6.4 Fatigue Loads

Any load that varies with time can cause fatigue failure
Repeated, Reversed and Fluctuating stress

6.5 Fatigue Failure Criteria

Rotating Beam Test


Endurance Limit
Axial Fatigue Test
Cantilever Bending Test
Torsional Fatigue Test

While strength data are available from test specimens, the best data is
obtained by testing the actual design under realistic loads, temperature, and
environmental conditions.

6.6 Estimating Fatigue Failure Criteria


Ideally youd want data from actual specimen but if this isnt available. For
steel, Se=.5Su, for iron it is Se=.4Su

Surface factor effect bc the specimen will usually not be polished or


the finished. Rougher finishes will have lower fatigue strength.
Size Effects
Loading effects
Temperature: fatigue tests done at room tempt. The fracture toughness
decreases at low temp.
Environment (corrosion-fatigue)

6.7 Notches and Stress Concentrations


Notch: a hole, groove, fillet an abrupt change in cross section or any
disruption to the smooth contours of a part. It creates a stress concentration
that raises the stresses locally and may even cause local yielding. Ductile
materials behave as brittle materials under dynamic loading!
Geometric (theoretical) stress-concentration factors K (for normal and shear
stress) give indication of the degree of stress concentration at a notch having
a particular contour. For dynamic loading, K needs to be modified based on
notch sensitivity of the material.
Notch sensitivity: sensitivity to stress concentrations. Generally, the more
ductile the material, the less notch sensitive it is.

6.8 Residual Stress


Stress already built in to an unloaded part. Can lead to premature cracking.
In order to reduce compressive residual stress: heat treatment, surface
treatment and mechanical prestressing treatments.
Positive effect: shot peening. Nearly all fatigue and stress corrosion failures
originate at the surface of a part, but cracks will not initiate or propagate in a
compressively stressed zone.

6.10 Designing for fully reversed uniaxial stresses

6.11 Designing for fluctuating uniaxial stresses


Same 1 and 2

6.12 Multiaxial Stresses in Fatigue

Sines Method
Von Mises method

Ch.7 Surface Failure

7.0 Introduction
An object can become obsolete, break, or wear out.
Wear: a broad term that encompasses many types of failures all which must
involve changes to the surface of the part.
5 categories: adhesive wear, abrasive wear, erosion, corrosion, and surface
fatigue.

7.1 Surface Geometry


Irregularities can be measured by passing a stylus over a surface; the
microscopic mountain peaks on the surface are called asperities.

Ra=Arithmetic mean roughness


Average height of peaks and valleys

same Ra

Rq= RMS= geometric average roughness


More peaks will affect this more than the Ra

7.2 Mating Surfaces