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Chemistry

project

report

Certificate
This is to certify that Arpan Jain, student of class XII- C, Lovely Public
Sr. Sec. School has completed the project titled To analyse various
juices for detection of anions, cations, starch, fats, proteins during the
academic year 2015-2016 for the chemistry practical evaluation and
submitted satisfactory report as compiled in the following pages under
my supervision.

Acknowledgement
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my chemistry teacher
Mrs. Mamta Rampal for the vital support, guidance and encouragement
without which this project would not have come forth. I would also like
to thanks my project partner Pranav Aswal for his co-operation.

Aim:
To analyse various juices (tomato, spinach, onion) for the purpose of
detecting anions, cations, sugars, starch and protein .

Materials used:
Test tubes, test tube stand, test tube holder, bunsen burner, spatula,
beaker.

JUICES:
Tomato juice
Spinach leaves juice
Onion juice

Chemicals:
Fehlings A and Fehlings B, distilled water, several other lab chemicals
and reagents.

INTRODUCTION
A balanced diet is essential for the purpose growth and maintenance of
the body. A balanced diet contains about 60% carbohydrate, 20% fat,
15% proteins and small amount of vitamins and minerals. Fruits and
vegetables also contain acids and minerals. The amount and kind of acid
present in these juices differ. Some contain complex organic molecule
and some flavoring agents like esters and aromatic compounds.

The different classes of compound present in different fruits can be


extracted from their juices. In this project, I shall test the presence of
anions, cations, sugars, starch and the proteins in various vegetables.

Various Cations and Anions


ANALYSIS OF TOMATO

OBSERVATIONS:

Name of the juice: TOMATO


IDENTIFICATION OF ANIONS
(TOMATO JUICE)
Experiment

Observation

Inference

Juice +Dil. H2SO4

Brisk effervescence

May be CO32-

Pass the evolved


gas through lime
water.

Lime water turns


milky

CO32- confirmed

Juice + conc. H2SO4

Pungent smelling gas


evolved

May be Cl-

Add AgNO3 to the


solution

White ppt.

Cl- confirmed

Juice + Na2CO3 +
conc. HCl + BaCl2

No ppt.

Sulphate
absent

Juice + salt solution


warmed and add
Ammonium
Molybdate and heat

3Canary yellow ppt. PO4 confirmed

Identification of Cations

(TOMATO JUICE)
Experiment

Observation

Inference

Juice + NaOH

No reaction

NH4+ absent

Juice + dil. HCl

No reaction

Pb2+ absent

Juice + dil. HCl + H2S

No reaction

Cu2+ , Hg2+ , As2+ , Cd2+


absent

Juice + NH4Cl
+ NH4OH

Gelatinous white ppt.

Juice + Blue litmus +


NH4OH

Bluish colour ppt.


floating in a clear
solution

Al3+ confirmed

Juice + NH4Cl +
NH4OH filter
solution and pass
through H2S

No reaction

Ni2+ , CO2+ , Mn2+ , Zn2+


absent

Third group solution


filtrate + (NH4)2CO3

No reaction

Tests:

May be Al3+

Ba2+,Sr2+ , Ca2+
absent

(TOMATO JUICE)

Experiment
Juice + Fehling A and
Fehling B and heat

Observations
Red ppt.

Juice + Water + Iodine Green colour

Juice + conc. HNO3

Yellow colour

Juice + water shake


and keep at rest

Insoluble

Inference
Sugar confirmed

Starch absent

Protein confirmed

Fat confirmed

ANALYSIS OF ONION

Name of the juice: ONION

Identification of Anions
(Onion juice)
Experiment

Observation

Juice + dil. H2SO4

No reaction

Inference
CO32-, F- , SO32- ,
NO2- absent
_

Juice + conc.
H2SO4

Brown gas

May be NO3 or Br _

Add copper turnings

More brown gas

NO3 confirmed

Juice + Na2CO3+ BaCl2 No ppt.

SO42- absent

Juice + Na2CO3+ conc.


HNO3+ Ammonium
Molybdate

PO43- present

Canary yellow ppt

Identification of Cations
(Onion juice)

Experiment

Observation

Juice + NaOH

Inference
NH4+ absent

No reaction

Pb2+ absent

Juice + dil. HCl

No reaction

Juice + dil. HCl + H2S

No reaction

Cu2+,As2+, Hg2+ , Cd2+


absent

Juice + NH4Cl +
Nh4oh

Gelatinous white ppt

May be Al3+

Juice + blue litmus +


NH4OH

Bluish white ppt floating


in clear solution

Al3+ confirmed

Third group solution


filtrate + H2S gas

No reaction

Ni2+,Po2+,Mn2+, Zn2+
absent

Third group solution


filtrate + (NH4)2CO3

No reaction

Ba2+, Ca2+, Sr2+


Absent

Tests: (Onion Juice)


Experiment

Observation

Inference

Juice + Fehlings A and


Fehlings B

Red colour

Sugar confirmed

Juice +water+ Iodine

No colour

Starch absent

Juice + conc. HNO3

Yellow colour

Protein present

Juice + water shake


and keep at rest

Soluble

Fat absent

Fehlings test

Analysis of Spinach

NAME OF THE JUICE: SPINACH


LEAVES

IDENTIFICATION OF ANIONS
(Spinach leaves juice)
Experiment

Observation

Inference

Juice + dil. H2SO4

No reaction

CO32-, SO32- , NO2 absent

Juice + conc. H2SO4

Reddish brown vapours May be NO3- or Br -

Juice + copper turnings Vapours intensified

Juice +BaCl2 + conc.


HCl

Undissolved white ppt


is formed

Juice + FeCl3

Blood red colour

NO3 - confirmed

May be SO4 2-

SO42- confirmed

IDENTIFICATION OF CATIONS
(Spinach leaves juice)

Experiment

Observation

Inference

Juice + NaOH + heat

No reaction

NH4 + absent

Juice + dil. HCl

No reaction

Cu2+, As2+, Pb2+ absent

Juice + dil. HCl + H2S No reaction

Cu2+, As2+, Hg2+ , Cd2+


absent

Juice + NH4Cl +
NH4OH

Reddish brown ppt.

Ferrous and ferric


present

Third group solution


filtrate +H2S gas

No reaction

Ni2+,Co2+
Mn2+, Zn2+ absent

Third group solution


filtrate + (NH4)2CO3

No reaction

Ba2+, Ca2+, Sr2+


absent

Tests (spinach leaves juice)

Experiment

Observation

Inference

Juice + Fehlings A and No red colour


Fehlings B

Sugar absent

Juice + water + iodine No colour change

Starch absent

Juice + conc. HNO3 +


heat

Yellow colour

Protein confirmed

Juice + water. Shake


and keep it at rest.

Soluble

Fat absent

RESULT OF ANALYSIS

Topic

TOMATO

ONION

Spinach

Anions present

Cations present

23
34

CO , Cl
PO

Al3+

CO

2-4

, NO3

Al3+

NO3- , SO42-

Fe2+

Sugar

Starch

Protein

FAT

CONCLUSION
1. Proteins are present in all.
2. Sugar is present in onion and tomato.
3. Fat is present only in tomato.

4. Starch is absent in all of them.


5. Aluminium is present in two of the juices.

PRECAUTIONS
1. Juice should be properly sieved.
2. Juice should be fresh.
3. Test tube should be clear and should be held in holders.
4. Cations should be tested systematically from the zero group
onwards.