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CHEM 122 Practice Test IV:

Thermodynamics and Electrochemistry


Name: _______________________________

Multiple Choice 1-20 (60 points total)

April 30, 2012

________

21. (10 points)

________

22. (10 points)

________

23. (10 points)

________

24.

________

(10 points)

TOTAL(100 points)

__________

EC1. (8 points for test III) ________

Partial credit is given for questions 21-24 and EC1


Write your name and write and bubble your netid and banner id on the scantron sheet.
Be sure to bubble in the test version (AA) and section (002). Use only #2 pencil to answer
scantron questions.

Some possibly useful information:


Planck's constant

6.63 x 10-34 J sec

Gas Constant

8.314

Speed of light

3.00 x 108

Faraday Constant

9.65 x 104

6.022 x 1023 mole-1

Avogadro

NA

or

R = 0.08206 L atm mol-1 K-1

m/sec

Boltzmann

C/mole

also

J/(mol oK)

1.381 x 10-23 J K-1

C + 273.15 = K

Multiple choice- select the best answer and mark it on the scantron sheet.
1. Which of the following is NOT true:
a. A reaction which increases the entropy of the system is always spontaneous
b. A reaction which increases the entropy of the universe is always spontaneous
c. A spontaneous reaction has a negative free energy of reaction
d. A reaction which decreases free energy is increasing the entropy of the universe.
2.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Which one of the following is always positive when a spontaneous process occurs?
Ssys
Ssurroundings
Suniverse
Hsys
Huniverse

3. Which of the following statements is TRUE?


a. A spontaneous reaction is always a fast reaction.
b. There is a "heat tax" for every energy transaction.
c. The entropy of a system always decreases for a spontaneous process.
d. Perpetual motion machines are a possibility in the near future.
e. None of the above are true.
4.
a.
b.
c.
d.

The entropy of a substance


is directly proportional to temperature in K
is inversely proportional to temperature in K
does not change with temperature
increases with increasing temperature, but is not directly proportion to temperature in K

5. Place the following in order of increasing molar entropy at 298 K.


NO
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

CO

SO

NO < CO < SO
SO < CO < NO
SO < NO < CO
CO < SO < NO
CO < NO < SO

6. Which of the following processes shows a decrease in entropy of the system?


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

2 NO(g) + O2(g) 2 NO2(g)


NaClO3(s) Na+(aq) + ClO3-(aq)
COCl2(g) CO(g) + Cl2(g)
CH3OH(l) CO(g) + 2H2(g)
None of the above will show a decrease in entropy.

7. In which of the following processes will entropy decrease?


a. salt dissolving in water
b. dry ice subliming
c. ice melting
d. water freezing
e. water evaporating
8. Consider the following reaction at constant pressure. Use the information here to determine
the value of Ssurr at 398 K. Predict whether or not this reaction will be spontaneous at this
temperature.
4 NH3(g) + 3 O2(g) 2 N2(g) + 6 H2O(g) H = -1267 kJ
a. Ssurr = +12.67 kJ/K, reaction is not spontaneous
b. Ssurr = +50.4 kJ/K, reaction is not spontaneous
c. Ssurr = +3.18 kJ/K, reaction is spontaneous
d. Ssurr = -12.67 kJ/K, reaction is spontaneous
e. Ssurr = -3.18 kJ/K, it is not possible to predict the spontaneity of this reaction without more
information.
9. Consider a reaction that has a negative H and a positive S. Which of the following
statements is TRUE?
a. This reaction will be spontaneous only at high temperatures.
b. This reaction will be spontaneous at all temperatures.
c. This reaction will be nonspontaneous at all temperatures.
d. This reaction will be nonspontaneous only at high temperatures.
e. It is not possible to determine without more information.
10. Determine the equilibrium constant for the following reaction at 498 K.
2 Hg(g) + O2(g) 2 HgO(s)
a. 2.31 10-22
b. 1.87 1010
c. 4.33 1021
d. 5.34 10-11
e. 8.10 1031

H = -304.2 kJ;

S = -414.2 J/K

11. Use Hess's law to calculate Grxn using the following information.
CO(g) C(s) + 1/2 O2(g)
Grxn = ?
CO2(g) C(s) + O2(g)
CO(g) + 1/2 O2(g) CO2(g)

Grxn = +394.4 kJ
Grxn = -257.2 kJ

a. +523.0 kJ
b. +651.6 kJ
c. -60.0 kJ
d. +137.2 kJ
e. -265.8 kJ
12. Below what temperature does the following reaction become nonspontaneous?
2 HNO3(aq) + NO(g) 3 NO2(g) + H2O(l)

H = +136.5 kJ; S = +287.5 J/K

a. 151 K
b. 475 K
c. 39.2 K
d. This reaction is nonspontaneous at all temperatures.
e. This reaction is spontaneous at all temperatures.
13. What is the oxidation state of N in NO2-?
a. +5
b. +4
c. +3
d. -1
e. -3
14. What element is being reduced in the following redox reaction?
Cr(OH)4(aq) + ClO(aq) CrO42-(aq) + Cl(aq)
a. Cr
b. O
c. H
d. Cl
15. Define a salt bridge.
a. A pathway between the cathode and anode in which ions are oxidized.
b. A pathway in which no ions flow.
c. A pathway by which counterions can flow between the half-cells without the solutions in the
half-cell totally mixing.
d. A pathway between the cathode and anode in which ions are reduced.
e. A pathway, composed of salt water, that ions pass through.

16. Which of the following is the strongest oxidizing agent? (see standard reduction potentials
in table below)
a. Cr(s)
b. Sn4+ (aq)
c. Cr3+ (aq)
d. Sn2+ (aq)
e. Sn(s)
Reduction half reaction

E (V)

Sn4+ (aq) + 2 e- -> Sn2+ (aq)


Sn2+(aq) + 2 e- -> Sn (s)
Cr3+(aq) + 2 e- -> Cr (s)

0.15 V
-0.14 V
-0.73 V

17. Determine which of the following pairs of reactants will result in a spontaneous reaction at
25C. (see standard reduction potentials in table below)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Pb2+ (aq) + Cu(s)


Ag+(aq) + Br(aq)
Li+ (aq) + Al(s)
Fe3+ (aq) + Ni(s)
None of the above pairs will react.

Reduction half reaction


Br2 (l) + 2 e- -> 2Br- (aq)
Ag+ (aq) + e- -> Ag (s)
Cu2+(aq) + 2 e- -> Cu (s)
Fe3+ (aq) + 3 e- -> Fe (s)
Pb2+ (aq) + 2 e- -> Pb (s)
Ni2+ (aq) + 2 e- -> Ni (s)
Al3+ (aq) + 3 e- -> Al (s)
Li+ (aq) + e- -> Li (s)

E (V)
1.09 V
0.80 V
0.34 V
-0.036 V
-0.13 V
-0.23 V
-1.66 V
-3.04 V

18. What is the shorthand notation that represents the following galvanic cell reaction?
Pb(s) + Cu(NO3)2(aq) Pb(NO3)2(aq) + Cu(s)
a. Pb(s) | Pb2+(aq) || Cu2+(aq) | Cu(s)
b. Cu(s) | Cu2+(aq) || Pb2+(aq) | Pb(s)
c. Pb(s) | NO3-(aq) || NO3-(aq) | Cu(s)
d. Cu(s) | Cu(NO3)2(aq) || Pb(NO3)2(aq) | Pb(s)

19. Use the tabulated half-cell potentials to calculate G for the following balanced redox
reaction.
3 I2(s) + 2 Fe (s) 2 Fe3+ (aq) + 6 I(aq)
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

+4.9 x 101 kJ
-3.3 x 102 kJ
+2.3 x 102 kJ
-1.1 x 102 kJ
-9.7 x 101 kJ

Reduction half reaction


I2 (l) + 2 e- -> 2I- (aq)
Fe3+ (aq) + 3 e- -> Fe (s)

E (V)
+0.54 V
-0.036 V

20. Calculate the cell potential for the following reaction that takes place in an electrochemical
cell at 25C.
Sn(s) Sn2+(aq, 0.022 M) || Ag+(aq, 2.7 M) Ag(s)
a. +0.01 V
b. -0.83 V
c. -0.66 V
d. +1.01 V
e. +1.31 V

Reduction half reaction


Ag+ (aq) + e- -> Ag (s)
Sn2+(aq) + 2 e- -> Sn (s)

E (V)
0.80 V
-0.14 V

Questions 21-24: 10 pts each. Show All Work for Partial Credit.
21. Consider the following reaction:
Fe2O3(s) + 3 CO(g) 2 Fe (s) + 3 CO2 (g)
Estimate Go for this reaction at 400 K and predict if or not the reaction will be spontaneous.

G (kJ/mol)

Fe2O3(s)

CO(g)

Fe (s)

CO2 (g)

-742.2

-137.2

-394.4

Gorxn=npGop - nrGor
Gorxn={2x0 + 3x(-394.4)} {1x(-742.2) + 3x(-137.2)}
Gorxn= -29.2kJ/mol
spontaneous

22. Consider the following reaction:


2 H2S(g) 2 H2(g) + S2(g)

Go = 82.3 kJ/mol

Calculate G for this reaction at 50 oC with corresponding partial pressures:


PH2S = 0.200 atm, PH2= 0.150 atm and PS2 = 0.100 atm

Qp = P2H2PS2/P2H2S
Qp=0.1502 x 0.100/0.2002 = 0.0625
G = Go + RTlnQ
G = -82.3x103 + 8.31x323.15ln0.0625 = -89745 J/mol or -89.7 kJ/mol

23. Balance the following redox reaction step by step:


Cr(OH)4(aq) + ClO(aq) CrO42(aq) + Cl(aq)

24. A student builds his own galvanic cell based on the chemical reactions:
Mg(s) + Mn2+(aq) Mn(s) + Mg2+(aq)
Please sketch a good diagram this cell with the following information:

Clearly label each component: e.g. electrolytes, electrodes etc.


Also under each half cell, write corresponding half reactions.
Indicate the direction electrons and ions are moving in each component

Reduction half reaction


Mn2+ + 2 e- -> 2Mn (s)
Mg2+ + 2 e- -> 2Mg (s)

E (V)
-1.18 V
-2.37 V

Extra Credit Question for Exam #3. 8 pts. Show All Work for Partial Credits.
Note: with extra credit, a maximum grade of 100 pts on exam 3 will be allowed.
25. Calculate the pH for the solution that is prepared with a mixture of 150.0 mL of 0.50 M C 2H5NH2
(ethylamine) with 60.0 mL of 0.30 M C2H5NH3Cl.(ethylammonium chloride) Given that Kb (C2H5NH2) =
5.6 x 10-4.

pH = pKa + log([base]/[acid])
pH = pKa + log(nbase/nacid)
nbase = 0.150 x 0.50 = 0.075 mol
nacid = 0.060 x 0.30 = 0.018 mol
Ka = Kw/Kb = 10-14/5.6x10-4 = 1.78 x 10-11
pKa = 10.7
pH = 10.7 + log (0.075/0.018) = 11.3