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I C A O 9384 P A R T 8 3 8 8

4 B 4 3 4 3 b 0020393 188

DOC9184-AN/902
Part 3

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AIRPORT PLANNING
MANUAL

PART 3
GUIDELINES FOR
CONSULTANT/CONSTRUCTION
SERVICES
FIRST EDITION

- 1983

Approved by the Secretary General


and published under his author@

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

Published in separate English, French, Russian and Spanish editions by the International
Civil Aviation Organization. AN correspondence, except orders and subscriprions, should be
addressed to the Secretary General.
Orders for this publication should be sent to one of the following addresses, together with the
appropriate remittance (by bankdraft or post office money order) in U.S. dollars orthe
currency of the country in which the order is placed.
International Civil Aviation Organization
Attention: Distribution Officer
lo00 Sherbrooke Street West, Suite 400
Montreal, Quebec
Canada H3A 2R2
Argentina. El Ateneo, Pedro Garcia S.A.L.E. e I., Dpto. Compras - Importacion,
Patagones 2463, 1282 Buenos Aires.
Egvpr. ICAO Representative, Middle East and Eastern African Office,
16 Hassan Sabri, Zamalek, Cairo.
France. Representant de I'OACI, Bureau Europe, 3bis, villa Emile-Bergerat,
92522 Neuilly-sur-Seine, Cedex.
India. Oxford Book and Stationery Co., Scindia House, New Delhi
or 17 Park Street, Calcutta.
J a p n . Japan Civil Aviation Promotion Foundation, 15-12, 1-chorne, Toranomon,
Minato-Ku, Tokyo.
Mexico. Representante de la OACI, Oficina Norteamerica y Caribe,
Apartado postal 5-377, Mexico 5, D.F.
Peru. Representante de la OACI, Oficina Sudamerica, Apartado 4127, Lima 100.
Senegal. Representant de I'OACI, Bureau Afrique, Boite postale 2356, Dakar.
Spain. Libreria de Aeronautica y Astronautica Surnaas, Desengaiio, 12-3"-3, Madrid 13.
Sweden. C.E. Fritzes Kungl. Hovbokhandel, Box 16356, S-103 27 Stockholm.
Thailand. ICAO Representative, Asia and Pacific Office, P.O. Box 614, Bangkok.
Unired Kingdom. Civil Aviation Authority, Printing and Publications Services,
Greville House, 37 Gratton Road, Cheltenham, Glos., GL50 2BN.

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No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

ICAO 9184 P A R T t 3 t t

4841416 0020393 T 5 0

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Airport Planning
Manual
(DOC9184-AN/902)

Part 3
Guidelines for
Consultant/Construction
Services
First Edition

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

- 1983

Not for Resale

AMENDMENTS
The issue of amendments is announced in the ICAO Bulletin and in the monthly
supplements to the Catabgue of ICAO hblications, which holders of this
upon request.
publication should consult. These amendments areavailablefree

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Not for Resale

I C A O 9184 P A R T + 3 * X

4 8 4 1 4 1 b 0020395 8 2 3

T h i s manual p r o v i d e s a g e n e r aol v e r v i e w
on c o n t r a c t i n g
f opr l a n n i n g
or
c o n s t r u c t i o ns e r v i c e s .
It is i n t e n d e df o rb o t hp e r s o n s
who a r e d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e
preparation and administration
of a c o n t r a c t as w e l l - a s s u p e r v i s o r s of such persons.
P r i m a r i l y ,t h e
manual i s aimed a t c o n t r a c t sr e l a t e d
t o a i r p o r t development
b u t i t may be of b e n e f i t t o many o t h e r c o n t r a c t a p p l i c a t i o n s .
I t s purpose i s t o o u t l i n e
t h ev a r i o u s t e p st h a st h o u l db et a k e nf r o mc o n c e p t i o no tf h ei d e at oc o n t r a c ft o r
of t h ec o n t r a c t .
It i s n o ti n t e n d e dt o
be a t e x t b o o k on
cons e r v i c e st oc o m p l e t i o n
tractingbutrathertoidentifythevariousstagesandimportantissuesassociatedwith
each stage.
I n t h i s r e g a rt h
dmea n uha alpsu r p o s e b
l ye ekne cpot n c i sS
e .p e c i f i c
e x a m p l e sa r ei n c l u d e db u t h er e a d e r
is c a u t i o n e dt h a t h ec i r c u m s t a n c e s u r r o u n d i n g
e a c h c o n t r a c t a r e d i f f e r e n t a n d a l l a d v i c e i n t h i s manual must be judged accordingly and
i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e work t o be accomplished.
This f i r s t e d i t i o n of t h e manual was p r e p a r e d by t h e A i r NavigationBureau,
with the assistance of an expert technical consultant.

It is i n t e n d e dt h a t h e
manual
be
-kept
up
t o dateF
. u t u r ee d i t i o n s
will
beimprovedon
t h e b a s i s of e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d a n d comments a n d s u g g e s t i o n s r e c e i v e d f r o m
u s e r s of t h i s manual.
T h e r e f o r e , r e a d e r s of t h e manual are i n v i t e d t o g i v e t h e i r v i e w s ,
comments a n ds u g g e s t i o n s
on t h i se d i t i o nT
. h e s es h o u l d
be d i r e c t e d t o t h eS e c r e t a r y
Generalof ICAO.

(iii)

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TABTE OF CONTENTS
Page

.................................................
...............................................
.......................................
1
of
.....................................
3
vs
....................... .... 4
by
or
by
.........................
6
............................................
6
.
.........................................
10
....................................................
10
of
..................................
Materials ................................
13
of
........................
Local
......................... 15
of
...............................
Terms
.............................................. 20
of Work ....................................................
to
.......................................
3.
of
....................................
....................................................
......................................... ... 23
and
Process ..............................
....................................................
for
............................
.
........................................
....................................................
45
(Fee
.......................................
... 4647
a
a
.......................................
..........................................
48
.................................
..................................
.............................................
.
............................................
....................................................
..........................................
of
.......................................
......... 55
.............................................

CHAPTER 1

Introduction

1.1
Purpose o f Manual
1.2
Scope
and
Usage
of Manual
1.3
Sizes
and
Types
Projects
1.4
S t e pb yS t e pP r o c e d u r e
Combining S t e p s
1.5
L i m i t a t i o n s Imposed
N a t i o n a lP r a c t i c e
1 - 6L i m i t a t i o n Ism p o s e d
Lending
Agencies
1.7
P r o j e cOt r g a n i z a t i o n
CHAPTER 2

-2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5

2.6
2.7

2.8
2.9
CHAmR

Agency S t a n d a r d s

T a s kI d e n t i f i c a t i o n

Introduction
Magnitude
TaskandSchedule
Assembly of Background
Preparation
Manpower and Cost Budgets
O f f i c eL o c a t i o na n d
Participation
Schedule
PaymentsandCurrency
o fR e f e r e n c e
Scope
Instructions
Proposers
Selection

Consultants

10

15

19
19

21

23

3.1
Introduction
3.2
S o l i c i t a t i o nP r o c e d u r e s
3.3
Review
Selection
3 .F
4 ePe r o p o s a l
3.5
Sources
b c a t i n gW a l i f i e dF i r m s

25
41
41

C o n t r a c tP r e p a r a t i o n

45

CHAPTER 4
4.1

4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8

Introduction
Contract Type
Basis)
S a l a r y Cost Times
MultiplierPlus
C o s t Plus
FixedPayment
Fixed Lump Sum Payment
P e r c e n t a g e of C o n s t r u c t i o n C o s t
ContractFormatandProvisions
StandardProvisions

CHAPTER 5

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5

23

45

Direct N o n S a l a r y E x p e n s e

Award o f C o n t r a c t

52

Introduction
Negotiation
Objectives
Proposals
Verification
D e t e r m i n a t i o n of P o s s i b l eS c o p ea n d / o rS c h e d u l eC h a n g e s
NegotiatioP
n rocess

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49
49
51

Not for Resale

52
52
53
54

(vi 1

Planning

Airport

Y'inual

.....................................................
55
.............................................
56
..........................................
56
..................................
57

..

5 6
Participants
5-7TimingandLocation
5.8
Record of N e g o t i a t i o n s
5.9
Revisionand Award of C o n t r a c t

....................................................
58
........................................
58
..........................................
59
...................................................
60
........................................
61
..................................
..........................................
7 . C o n s t r u c t i o nC o n t r a c t s ......................................6 6
I n t r o d u c t i o n ....................................................
ContractTypesandProcedures
................................... 67b 6
CompetitiveBidding
.............................................
A d v e r t i s i n g .....................................................
P r e - Q u a l i f i c a t i o n ...............................................
BiddingDocuments ...............................................
70
I n s t r u c t i o n st oB i d d e r s
.........................................
70
Bid Form ........................................................71
C o n s t r u c t i o nC o n t r a c t ........................................... 7 2
P l a n s . D r a w i n g s a n dS p e c i f i c a t i o n s ..............................
73
Bid Opening. E v a l u a t i o na n d Award ...............................
74
C o n s t r u c t i o n Management a n d C o n t r a c t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n
............. 7757
.....................................
ChangesDuringConstruction

6.1
Introduction
6.2
Method of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n
6.3
OrganizatioS
n tructure
6.4
Co-ordination
6 .A
5 d m i n i s t r a t i oF
nunctions
6-6
R e v i s i o n st o the S c o p e of Work
6.7
S e t t l e m e n t of D i s p u t e s
CHAPTER

7.1
7.2
7.3

7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13

CHAPTER 8

APPENDIX

64
64

66

68

68

.....................................................
79
S t a n d a r dC o n t r a c tP r o v i s i o n s
..................................81

Summary

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1.1

PURPOSE .OF MANUAL

1.1.1
This manual i s intended
to
provide
info.rmation
and
guidance
to
those
indiv i d u a l s and a u t h o r i t i e sr e s p o n s i b l ef o rt h ep l a n n i n g ,d e s i g n
and c o n s t r u c t i o n of airp o r t s and a i r p o r t f a c i l i t i e s .
This informationandguidance
i s s p e c i f i c a l l yr e l a t e dt o
the processes for selection
of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n s u l t a n t s and c o n t r a c t o r s and the prepara t i o n ,n e g o t i a t i o na n da d m i n i s t r a t i o n
of c o n t r a c t sf o rt h e
work whichtheyhave
been
retained to perform.
1.1.2
There a r e c o n s i d e r a b ldei f f e r e n c e s
between t hoer g a n i z a t i o nt h,per o c e s s e s
a n df r e q u e n t l y' t h el e g a lr e q u i r e m e n t s
of c o n t r a c t i n g f o r c o n s u l t i n g s e r v i c e s v i s - a - v i s
c o n t r a c t i n g f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n services. The two a r e , t h e r e f o r e , d e a l t w i t h s e p a r a t e l y i n
t h i s manual, Chapters 1 through 6 of the t e x tb e i n gd e v o t e dt oc o n s u l t i n gs e r v i c e s
and
Chapter 7 t o c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t s .
. .

1.1.3
While t h e manual i s p r i m a r i l yd i r e c t e d toward p r o j e c t s for which thesponsor
chooses
or
i s r e q u i r e dt os o l i c i p
t roposals
from c o n s u l t a n t as n d / ocr o n t r a c t o r s
by
i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n v i t a t i o n , rmch of t h e c o n t e n t i s e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o p r o j e c t s e x e c u t e d
with
thh
e elp
of l o c a l consultants/contractors.
However, i t is not
the
purpose
or
i n t e n t of t h i s manual to i n f l u e n c e t h e e s t a b l i s h e d r e g u l a t i o n s o r p r o c e d u r e s
employed by
each State in oontracting services for projects to
be planned,designedandconstructed
by l o c a l c o n s u l t a n t s a n d c o n t r a c t o r s .
1.1.4
In some S t a t e st, h er e s p o n s i b i l i t yf o cr o n s t r u c t i o n
rests w i t hm i n i s t r i e s
or
a g e n c i e ss e p a r a t ef r o mt h o s er e s p o n s i b l ef o rp l a n n i n g
and d e s i g n ;i no t h e r
States, t h e
process is continuouswithinoneministry
or agency from p r o j e c ti n c e p t i o n to completion.
In e i t h e rc a s e ,
i t i s d e s i r a b l et o havecontinuitythroughtheproject.
Theref o r e ,g u i d a n c em a t e r i a l
i s a l s oi n c l u d e di nt h i s
manual f o rr e t a i n i n gc o n s u l t a n t sf o r
postdesign services.

1.1.5
One consideration
remains
paramount i n any
case.
Regardless
of t h tey p e
contract under which a c o n s u l t a n t i s r e t a i n e d t o p e r f o r m o n e o r
more s p e c i f i c t a s k ,
r e g a r d l e s so f
how well t h a t c o n t r a c t i s a d m i n i s t e r e d ,t h eq u a l i t y
and c o s t o f t h e c o w
p l e t e d work depends on t h e competence
and
i n t e g r i t y of the c o n s u l t a n t .
Thus,
s e l e c t i o n of the proper consultant for planning, design and post-design services
is
o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n ts t e p si nt h er e a l i z a t i o n
of a p r o j e c t ,r a n k i n gi ni m p o r t a n c e
e q u a l t o t h e s e l e c t i o n of t h e c o n t r a c t o r f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n .
1.2

of
and
the
one

SCOPE AND USAGE OF MANUAL

1.2.1
The manual h a s been
prepared
t o prov-ide
guidance
for t h o s ep r o j e c t rse q u i r ing t h e f u l l r a n g e of c o n s u l t i n g s e r v i c e s from i n i t i a l p l a n n i n g t o p l a c i n g t h e f a c i l i t y
i n s e r v i c e . The s u g g e s t i o n s a n d t h e l o g i c . o n
whichthey are based are s u b j e c t t o common
s e n s ea n a l y s i s
and a d a p t a t i o nf o rt h o s ep r o j e c t sf o r
which t h ef u l lr a n g e
of s e r v i c e s
a r e notrequired.Otherthandiscussion
on t h ep o s s i b l el i m i t a t i o n s
which might be
imposed by l e n d i n g a g e n c i e s , t h i s
manual d o e sn o ta d d r e s st h es u b j e c t
of f i n a n c i n gt h e
project

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2
.

A i r p o r t Planning Manual

-1 2;. p
The manual d i s c u s s e s the p r o c e d u r e sf o r ' e a c hp h a s eo fp r o j e c tr e a l i z a t i o n
with regard to:

;-

a)

sot<citation of consutkznts;

b)

selection of consultant;

c)

negotiations h t h consuttant;

d) a m x i o f contract; a d
8)

Qdministturtionof

contract.

1.2.3
The p h a s eop
sfr o j e cr te a l i z a t i ocno n s i d e r eidn
which t h e c o n s u l t a n t m i g h t p a r t i c i p a t e :

this manual are t h o sien

1.2.4
The s t a r t i n gp o i n tf o ra n yp r o j e c t
is t h ei d e n t i f i c a t i o no fa na p p a r e n tn e e d
o r demand.
S a t i s f a c t i o no ft h i sn e e do r
demand c a n ,i n some cases, be accomplished by
cases a new a n ds e p a r a t e
e x p a n s i o no rm o d i f i c a t i o no fa ne x i s t i n gf a c i l i t y ;i no t h e r
f a c i l i t y mightberequired.Havingidentifiedtheneedor
demand, t h en e x ts t e p( p r e i t s p o t e n t i agl r o w t ha n dt od e v e l o pt h e
programmes f o rt h e
p l a n n i n g ) i s t of o r e c a s t
S i u u l t a n e o u s l y , s i t e selecf a c i l i t i e s which w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o s a t i s f y t h a t demand.
tion studies and a l l investigations required to establish the parameters for design and
construction should be undertaken.
1.2.5
The s e c opnhda(spel a n n i nsgt a) w
r t sitdthheev e l o p m e n t
of a l t e r n a t i v e
s c h e m e s f o r the s e l e c t e d s i t e , e v a l u a t i o n o f t h o s e
schemesand t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f s u f f i c i e n td o c u m e n t a t i o n( s k e t c h e s ,c o s t
estimates, r e v e n u ep r o j e c t i o n s )t od e t e r m i n ef i n a n c i a l f e a s i b i l i t y and t o form a s o l i d b a s i s f o r
continuing t h e work. The p l a n n i n gp h a s e
c u l m i n a t e s i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a comprehensive master p l a n w h i c h e s t a b l i s h e s t h e b a s i c
framework f o ru l t i m a t ed e v e l o p m e n t ,t h eg e n e r a ll o c a t i o n s ,a p p r o x i m a t es i z e sa n db a s i s
odf e s i g n
f oar lfla c i l i t i e s .
It a l s e
o s t a b l i s h e tsh e x t e n t
of t h ei n i t i a l
construction and the steps
by which expansion would t a k e p l a c e t o keep pace with
demand.

1.2.6
The t h i r p
dh a s e
of c o n s u l t a net f f o r t
i s t hde e s i g np, r e l i m i n a r ayn fdi n a l .
A co-ordinatedpreliminarydesign,supplemented
by o u t l i n e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s a n d p r e l i m i n a r y c o s t estimates, s h o u l d b e u n d e r t a k e n f o r e a c h m a j o r p h y s i c a l e l e m e n t
of t h e p r o j e c t .
Detailedplans,specifications,cost
estimates, biddingschedulesand
a l l other contract
phase.
For
a i r p o rpt r o j e c t tsh m
e ajor
documents a r e completed i nt h ef i n a dl e s i g n
design elements include:

a)

runways and taxiways;

b)

the p s s e n g e ~terminal area and buitdings;

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I C A O 9384 P A R T x 3 t t m 484141b 0020400 TLO m


3

Part
Consultant/Construction
3.- Guidelines
for
Services

c)

thesupport

and ancittary areas and buitdings;

d,

theinfmstructure

(roads and u t i t i t y systems);

e ) automobile parking; and

fl

special systems(navigational
a-ids, controltower,
movement
a r e lai g h t i n ga, i p c r u fftu e t t i n g ,
o t h e r fixed apron
services)

1.2.7
The fourth
phase
(post-design
services)
follows
completion
of t hf ei n a l
d e s i g n and c o n t r a c t documents a n d c o n t i n u e s t h r o u g h t h e a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d p l a c i n g
t h ef a c i l i t yi n t oo p e r a t i o n .
The c o n s u l t a n t ' sr o l ei nt h i sp h a s ec a n
have s i g n i f i c a n t
v a r i a t i o ni n formandmagnitude.
It i s p r i m a r i l y dependent on t h et y p e and number of
c o n s t r u c t i o cno n t r a c t sa,n tdhde e g r eteo
which t hsep o n s oorort h erre s p o n s i b l e
a g e n c i e s assume thosefunctionsthemselves.
A range of possi.blefunctions i s described
i n 2.2.11.
1.3

SIZES AND TYPES OF PROJECTS

1.3.1
The proceduresdescribed
i nt h i sm a n k le n t a i l
a considerableexpenditureof
time and e f f o r t on t h e p a r t of theprojectsponsor.
It f o l l o w s t h e n t h a t
i t is princip a l l ya p p l i c a b l et ol a r g e ,
Comprehensive, conplexprojects.
However, i t i s a l s ou s e f u l
as a g u i d e l i n e f o r s m a l l e r , less comprehensive p r o j e c t s .
1.3.2
Each c o n s u l t a nrte c e i v i n g
a r e q u e sftopr r o p o s a l s
w i l l d e t e r m i nhe i s
willingnesstorespond
on t h eb a s i s
of t h ee f f o r rt e q u i r e dt op r e p a r et h ep r o p o s a il n
a c c o r d a n c ew i t ht h e
terms of r e f e r e n c e weighed a g a i n s tt h ep o t e n t i a lp r o f i t a b i l i t y
of
t h e work and h i se s t i m a t eo ft h ep r o b a b i l i t y
of h i sb e i n gs e l e c c e df o rt h e
work.
It
follows then, that widely disseminated requests for proposals containing highly detailed
and'demanding terms of r e f e r e n c e a r e c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e u n l e s s t h e p r o j e c t
is v e r y l a r g e
and complex.
For smaller p r o j e c t s t, h es p o n s o r
i s , t h e r e f o r e ,a d v i s e dt o
examine t h e
suggestedprocedures w i t h t h e aim of e l i m i n a t i n g o r r e d u c i n g t h e r e q u i r e d e f f o r t ( b o t h
on t h e p a r t of t h e s p o n s o r a n d c o n s u l t a n t s ) i n r e s e a r c h
and p r e p a r a t i o n of r e q u e s t s for
p r o p o s a l as n d
t h e irre s p o n s e s ,
commensurate,
of
c o u r s ew
, ith
t h ter u e
needs of t h e
project.
1.3.3
C o n s u l t a n tfsopr a r t i c i p a t i o in"nt u r n k e yp" r o j e c t sp, r o j e c tfso r
which t h e
c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t o r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b o t h d e s i g n and construction, usually provide
t h e i r s e r v i c e s under s u b c o n t r a c ta r r a n g e m e n t sd i r e c t l yw i t ht h ec o n s t r u c t i o nc o n t r a c tor.
Thus a l lt h e
normal
proc.edures
f o sr o l i c i t i n g
and s e l e c t i n g
consultants,
and
a w a r d i n ga n da d m i n i s t e r i n gt h e i cr o n t r a c t s
do . n o ft u l l ya p p l y
in those cases.
The
p r o c e d u r e sf o rt h e s ef u n c t i o n s
a s r e l a t e dt oc o n s t r u c t i o nc o n t r a c t sa r ed i s c u s s e di n
Chapter 7.
1.3.4
The successfulcompletion of any p r o j e c t i s dependentonthe
competency with
whichboththedesignandconstruction
are c a r r i e do u t ,b o t hf u n c t i o n sb e i n ge q u a l l y
important.Therefore,
In t h es o l i c i t a t i o n
and s e l e c t i o n of a c o n s t r u c t i o nc o n t r a c t o r
f o r "turnkey"projects,asnuchemphasisshouldbeplaced
on t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of t h e
consultant he proposes
as a sub-contractor as on t h e r e c o r d of t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n company

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

A i r p o r t Y 1 anning Planual

3 r e g a r d i n gt h ea n a l y s i so fc o n s u l t a n t ' sq u a l i f i c a itself.
T h ed i s c u s s i o ni nC h a p t e r
t o "turnkey" p r o j e c t s .
t i o n s is, t h e r e f o r e ,a p p l i c a b l e

1.3.5
" P a s t - t r a cpkr"o j e c pt sr,o j ew
ci n
thsitcchhoen s t r u c t i o n
starts before
d e s i g n i s c o m p l e t e s, h o u l dn e v e rb eu n d e r t a k e nu n l e s st h e r e
i s a c l e a r l yd e m o n s t r a b l e
of d e s i g n f o l l o w e d b y conu r g e n c yw h i c hc a n n o tb es a t i s f i e db yt h en o r m a lp r o g r e s s i o n
s t r u c t i o n". F a s t - t r a c k p" r o j e c t s
a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y demanding of o u t s t a n d i n gq u a l i f i cationsonthepart
o f t h ec o n s u l t a n ta n dc o n t r a c t o r .
To e n s u r e c o n t i n u o u s c o n s t r u c t i o n
nust b e
thedesignnustconstantlyanticipatetheprogressofthe
work.Theconsultant
p r e p a r e dt of u r n i s h ,o ns h o r tn o t i c e ,d e t a i l e dd r a w i n g s
and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s t o meet any
c h a n g e si n
the s c h e d u l i n g of the p r o j e c t T
. h i sr e q u i r e s
a c o n s u l t a nw
t ith
a highly
s t a f f w i t hp r o v e na b i l i t yt o
work u n d e rp r e s s u r e .T h e r e f l e x i b l ea n dh i g h l yc o m p e t e n t
f o r e ,m c hg r e a t e re m p h a s i ss h o u l db ep l a c e do nt h e s ef a c t o r sb o t hi nt h es o l i c i t a t i o n
and selection of consultants than
would b e o n o r d i n a r y p r o j e c t s .
1.4

STEP-BY-5TEP

PROCEEDUKE

VS. COMBINING STEPS

1.4.1
T h e r e are t h r e ae l t e r n a t i v be a s i pc r o c e d u r e w
s h i c ch a b
n feo l l o w e idn
ting the scope of
work of c o n s u l t a n t s ' c o n t r a c t s .

set-

a )S t e p b p s t e p
procedure.
In this
the
contract
cover6 one
particularstep of the m r k a t a time, $.e., prsptanning,
ptanning,
design,
poshdesign ~ e r v i c e s , placing into
service, for one or more ( o r all) eZements of the project.
bl

c)

Combining steps procedure.


Inthisthecontract
a t 1 o r some of these steps i n the scope of
more ( o r a t t l e t m e n t s of the project.

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Fiybrid proce&ure.
Here the
contract
is e x p l i c iitnt h e
d e f i n i t i o n of the scope o f work and other provisions for one
o r more of the earlier steps, and indicates the expectation
and ?.aiZtingness o f bothpartiesto
undertake negotiations
o f the mrk when d e f i n i t i o no ft h a t
forthecontinuation
work becomes possible as a result of the on-going work under
contract

T h ea d v a n t a g e sa n dd i s a d v a n t a g e s
a d d r e s st h es u b j e c to fd i v i s i o no ft h e
d i s c u s s e d i n 2.2.

1.4.2
by-step basis

combines
one or

1 3 0 ~ 7f~o r

o f e a c ho ft h e s ep r o c e d u r e s ,d i s c u s s e db e l o w ,
work among s e v e r a lc o n s u l t a n t s .T h a ts u b j e c t

Thp
e r i n c i p aal d v a n t a g e as n d i s a d v a n t a g e os af w a r d i n gc o n t r a c t os n
are:

I)

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

shoutd tire consut tant Emdertaking the m r k prooe


unsatisfactory t o the sponsor, his contract canbe
camelled w i t h l e s s penalty (cznd probably t e s s t o s s
of time) than zlroutd be the ease f o r a larger scope
c ontpac t; and

Not for Resale

do n o t

is
a step-

Part 3

.-

Guidelines for Consultant /Construction Services

21

the scope of work for each successive step could


probabty be d e f i n e d more explicitly as the project
progresses,thereby
p e d t t i n g agreater
accuracy
i n determination o f the reasonabte f e e s .

b) Disadvantages:
1)

thesponsor'e
e f f o r t i n preparing, negotiating and
adininiste~ing
contracts
nould be greater
as
a
sinple function of the greater number o f contracts
t h a t would
be
involved; and

2)

although theactuut cormnitment o f funds is spread


out i n time thetotatexpenditure
i n funds w i t 2
probably be greater.
!This is because consultants
w i l l have t o protectagainstthepossibitity
of
incurring mobilization costs
for each step (rather
t h a n one mobilization
process
for t h e whole
project) arid to66 of productivetimeduringthe
negotiations that would be necessary for each step.

1.4.3
T h pe r i n c i p aal d v a n t a g eas n d i s a d v a n t a g e s
of c o m b i n i n p
g r o j e cstt e piso
nne
c o n t r a c t are, i n g e n e r a l , a r e v e r s a lo ft h o s et h a ta c c r u et ot h es t e p - b y - s t e pp r o c e s s .
T o t h e s eh, o w e v e rs, h o u l db ea d d e do n ev e r ys i g n i f i c a nat d v a n t a g eC
. o m b i n i n gp r o j e c t
time frame o f t h e w o r ka n de n a b l e tsh ec o n s u l t a ntto
s t e p si n c r e a s e st h es c o p ea n d
programme a n d ,b e c a u s et h ep r o j e c t
w i l l occupy a larger
d e v e l o p a l o n gr a n g es t a f f i n g
partofhisoverallworkload,theincentivetoprovidehisbestmanagerialandtechnical
staff.
1.4.4
T hhey b r ipdr o c e d u rdee s c r i b e d
i anl t e r n a t i v(ecc)a n
maximize t h e advant a g e s a n dm i n i m i z et h ed i s a d v a n t a g e sp r e v i o u s l yd e s c r i b e d .
I t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y , and t h e
i t i s g r e a t l yd e p e n d e n t
o n t h ed e g r e eo fr a p p o r ta n dc o n f i a d v i s a b i l i t yo fe m p l o y i n g
dencethateachpartydevelopstowardtheother,andthemaintenance
of t h i s r a p p o r t and
life of the project.
confidencethroughoutthe
1.5

LIMITATIONS
IMPOSED

BY NATIONAL
PRACTICE

OR AGENCY STANDARDS

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1.5.1
Th
c oe n d ueocvftepr yr o j e c t
uust i n e v i t a b l y be i n f l u e n c e
bndya t i o n a l
p r a c t i c e sa n di nt h e
case o f a g r e e m e n t sw i t hf o r e i g nc o n s u l t a n t so rc o n t r a c t o r s ,t h e
as well.
A d d i t i o n a l l ye,v e r y
p r o j e csth o u lbdgeo v e r n ebdiyn t e r n a t i o n aplr a c t i c e
public or quasi-public organization sponsoring
a p r o j e c t nust operate in conformity with
t . hlei m i t a t i o nism p o s ebdy
its charter.
J?rivate o r g a n i z a t i o n s as w e l l nust o p e r a t e
w i t h i n a set o f r u l e s o r p o l i c i e s ( w r i t t e n
or e s t a b l i s h e d b y p a s t p r a c t i c e ) b y t h e t o p
of
management o ft h eo r g a n i z a t i o n T
. h ep r o j e c st p o n s o rs h o u l db ec o m p l e t e l yi n f o r m e d
t h o s e l a w s , r e g u l a t i o n s ,a n d
common p r a c t i c e s a s t h e ya f f e c tt h er e l a t i o n s h i pb e t w e e n
sponsorandconsultant.

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

I C A O 9384 P A R T x 3 * x

4841416 0020403 7 2 T
A i r p o r t P 1 anning Manual

6
_. ..
_
-.

.. -

..

1.6

LIMITATIONS IMPOSED BY L E N D I N G AGENCIES

..

..

_.

1.6.1
T h e r e are numerous p o t e n t i as ol u r c ewsh i c h
make l o a nosgrr a n tfsot rh e
a c c o m p l i s h m e n to fc e r t a i np r o j e c t s .T h e s es o u r c e s
are p r i v a t e ,n a t i o n a l ,r e g i o n a la n d
i n t e r n a t i o n a lb a n k s ,g o v e r n m e n t a la g e n c i e s ,p u b l i ca n dp r i v a t ei n s t i t u t i o n s .E a c hl e n d i n g agencyhastheresponsibilitytothesourcesofthe
money ( d e p o s i t o r s ,g o v e r n m e n t s ,
s t o c k h o l d e r s )t oa s s u r et h a tt h e
money i s u s e df o rj u s t i f i a b l ep u r p o s e sa n dt h a t
there
aresuitablecontrolsexercisedintheexpenditureoffunds.Whilethere
is a d i v e r s i t y
a s e t of r u l e sw h i c h nust b e
o f p o l i c y among t h el e n d i n ga g e n c i e s ,e a c hg e n e r a l l yh a s
f o l l o w e dw i t hr e g a r dt os o l i c i t a t i o n so cf o n s u l t a n t s
and
awarding
and
administering
contracts in order to justify for the loan.
Theprojectsponsorshouldbefamiliarwith
and a d h e r teo
them
t h r o u g h o utthpe r o j e ctteon s u rceo n t i n u i t oy f
t h e sp
eolicies
financing.
1.6.2
Where p o s s i b l et,h e
names o f the l e n d i n g
agency
and
t hd
e e g r eo
eaf u t h o r i t y
a n d t h e r u l e s of r e s t r i c t i o n s w h i c h w i l l b e imposed b y t h a t a g e n c y s h o u l d b e i n c o r p o r a t ed i n t o t h e terms o f r e f e r e n c e f o r p r o p o s a l s .
1.7

PROJECT ORGAN E A T I O N

1.7.1
T hied e n t i f i c a t i o np,r e p a r a t i o ni ,n i t i a t i oanncdo - o r d i n a t i oonlfa r g e
scale
p r o j e c t sr e q u i r e s
a b r o a dr a n g eo tfe c h n i c aal n d
management c a p a b i l i t y a, n d ,
as t h e
programme advances, a d e p t h o f t h e s ep r o f e s s i o n a lr e s o u r c e s .G i v e nc u r r e n tm e t h o d o l o g i e s ,r e q u i r e m e n t sf o rb u d g e t i n g ,d e b ts e r v i c ea s s e s s m e n t ,a n dt h e
criteria established
by the major international lending institutions, project organization requires the highest l e v e l of a t t e n t i o n o n a continuous basis.
1.7.2
T h i rs e q u i r e s
a p r o p e r l ys t a f f e do r g a n i z a t i o nw i t h
clear l i n e s o f responsib i l i t y and a u t h o r i t y .T h ec o m p o s i t i o no ft h i so r g a n i z a t i o n
w i l l bedifferentif
i t is
f oor n pe r o j e crta t h etrh a fno r
a continuing
r o l ien
many p r o j e c t s .
If s u cahn
e x i s t , o r i s o n l yp a r t i a l l yf o r m e d ,t h ep r o j e c ts p o n s o r
o r g a n i z a t i o nd o e sn o ta l r e a d y
must g i vsee r i o utsh o u g htctor e a t i n ge,x p a n d i nogprr o c u r i nsgu cahonr g a n i z a t i o n .

a) recruitment of
usuallgdoesnot
peopt e;
b)

cl

all t h en e c e s -

p e P 8 0 ? ~ a df o r

retatively shortitem positions


evoke apptications fromhighty
qualified

theprocess of devdoping organization charts, detailing Bob


f u n c t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b C t i t i e 8 , determining s t a f f i n g
requirment8,delineating
t i n e s of communication and chain
of conanand, and locating, planning and furnishing office
space i s a large undertaking per se; and

. thepe

will be a period of time 1066 white


the
newt#
r e c r u i t e ds t a f f
familiarize thsmsslvesoiththe
orguniz~~
tion, their individuczt and c o t t e c t i v e ,job functions, and the

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1.7.3
Forming
and
s t a f f i n ga no r g a n i z a t i o nt o
manage
and
accomplish
s a r yf u n c t i o n sr e l a t e dt oc o n s u l t a n ta n d / o rc o n s t r u c t i o nc o n t r a c t sc a nb ev e r yc o s t l y
and d i f f i c u l t p a r t i c u l a r l y o n a o n e - p r o j e c t b a s i s s i n c e :

~-

I C A O 9384 PARTs3

*x m 4841416 0020404 666

Part C
3 o-n sG
uu
fl toiadrnetl/iC
no
e snS
s terruvci tcieosn

project. ! h i s fantiticrrizationperiodalmost
atwa s results
organii n the need for re-evaluation and re-working of
t h e s t a f f become
zation
charts
as
the
true
talents
of
apparent.

tL

1.7.4
Becauso
etfh lea r g se c o p ae n d
complexity
of c e r t a i np r o j e c t s
antd t h e unders t a n d a b l ep r e s s u r et oa c h i e v ee a r l yr e s u l t s ,t h ep r o j e c ts p o n s o ro f t e nr e q u i r e sa l m o s t
i n s e v e r a lt e c h n i c a lf i e l d s
as well as competence i n management.
i m m e d i a t ee x p e r t i s e
o r o v i d teh pe r o f e s s i o n aal d v i s o r sye r v i c ehs ags a i n e w
d ide
H i r i n g a c o n s u l t a nttp
problems t h a t a r i s e i n these circuma c c e p t a n c e as a r e s p o n s i v e means t os o l v et h e
s t a n c e s . Under t h ep r o f e s s i o n a la d v i s o r ys e r v i c e sa p p r o a c h ,t h es p o n s o rr e t a i n sd i r e c t
b a s i sf o r
a l l master
c o n t r o la, u t h o r i t ya, p p r o v a al n dc o - o r d i n a t i o n
on a day-by-day
p l a n n i nagnpdr o j e ci tm p l e m e n t a t i o n .
The c o n s u l t a n t a c t s i n the r o l e of t e c h n i c a l
as
a d v i s eor "r i n - h o u s e c" o n s u l t a n tB
. ased
on
work
o r d e r si s s u e d
by t h es p o n s o o
rr
recommended by t h ec o n s u l t a n ta n da p p r o v e d
by t h es p o n s o r ,t h ea d v i s o r ys t a f fd e v e l o p s
t h e p r o j e c t sf o r
award t oo t h e rc o n s u l t a n t s
or a g e n c i e sw i t h
whom the a d v i s o r ys t a f f
w i l l interface and/or monitQr during the course of project execution.
1.7.5

any or a l l of t hfeo l l o w i n ign t e r r e l a t e d

A d v i s o rsye r v i c ems i g hi nt c l u d e

review and evduation of the schedule f o r phased implemeni&


t w n o f t h e o v e r a l l prograrrune;
revieu and evatuationofavailableor
finamiYlg the programne;

proposed p t m s f o r

review and evaluation of the findings of studies and inveati


igations
carried
out
to
date.
This helps i n avoiding
duplication and i n propertyassigning
f i e l d s of vespons.ir
b i l i t y ami interest;
for, and i n the
assistance in
drafting
specifications
procurment of equipment. lhis can hetp alleviate immediate
needs;
identification of specific tasks and definition of project
parmeters such a8 objective, scope, cost,duration,
final
output, impact and f e a s i b i l i t y .
lhis will permit the
sponsor t op l a n
and commit t h en e c e s s a r yf u n d fso r
..
. . ... .
i m p t mentation;

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

preparation of project assessment papers f o r t h e procurement


of financing.
I h e consul t a n t ' s f a m i l i a r i t y withrequire
ments of theinternationallendingagencies
can be brought
t o bear t o h e t p the sponsor i n securing needed funds i n a
timet y manner;
devetopnent o f terms of reference f o r ptanning,design
construction contracts;

. ..

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


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No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

and

Planning

Airport

evaluation
h)
of technical
proposals
recmsndations for contract amrd;

and

Manual

presentation
of

i) assistance i n contract negotiations w i t h the successful firm


or contractor; and
j) preparation of final contract docments
sponsor and the successfu~firm.

1.7.6

As t h p
e r o j e cpt r o c e e d sa, d d i t i o n a l

f o r execution by the

tasks could
be
assigned,
including:

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

monitoring of contracts including review of project reports


f o r conpteteness in comparison t o scope of mrk, soundness
of recomendatwns, and back-up supporting docmentation;
deuetopnent of management i n f o m a t i o n systems t o enable the
sponsor t o control and nmanage m r k in progress,properly
phase theinitiationof
new contracts, and preparebudget
estimates for the next fiscal year or ensuing years;
preparation of position papers on current and near completed
has t o
contracts,particular28
i n cases &ere t h ec l i e n t
co-ordinate with other agencies;
development of other management information systems, o r datu
banks;

deveZopment of and assistance i n training programmes f o r


selected counterpart s t a f f ; and
preparation of progress reports or position papers on behalf
of the sponsor f o r conference or public relations purposes.
1.7.7
In r e g a r dt op r o v i s i o no fs e r v i c e st ot h ec l i e n tf o ra s s i s t a n c e
with prepara t i o n of project applications for international financing,
key members of t h e c o n s u l t a n t
s t a f fs h o u l dh a v eh a dw o r k i n ge x p e r i e n c ew i t h
the i n t e r n a t i o n a ll e n d i n gi n s t i t u t i o n s .
E a c hi n s t i t u t i o nh a s
i t s own r e q u i r e m e n t sf o tr h ef i l i n ga n dp r o c e s s i n go p
f roject
a p p l i c a t i o nTs .h eei xr p e d i t i o u
ap
s p r o voa fl t edne p e n d
l asr g e l y
on p r o v i d i nt h
ge
i n proper sequence and i n p r o p e r d e t a i l .
appropriate papers and reports

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

.-

P a r t 3C o nG
s uufliotdar enlti/nCeosn sSter ruvcitci o
e sn

1.7.8

The
advantages

of t ah de v i s osr eyr v i caeps p r o a c h

are:

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

a)

there i8 720 l i m ittoh e


Specific task8
that
m y be
provided. a i s .i.s t o say that attention may be given t o t h e
devetopent programme on many f r o n t s Simultaneously. Scopes
of work f o r any number ofcontracts
may be prepared and
issued at short intervals
while a t t h e same timeassessment
papers are prepared f o r o t h e r elements of the m r k ;

it will permitan early attainment of irpetus which can be


This aspect will
maintained
or
increased
a8 necessary.
p e d t recovery of any t o s t time or ensure adherence t o
project schedules a8 promulgated;

C)

the sponsor has conlplete controZ over the assigwnent of work


tasks;

dl

it pemnita the developnent t o proceed on many technical


fronts with the advantage that the s p o n s o ~deals with onty a
single management entity;

el

the sponsor increases h i s own projectcapability


by the
access to the technical staff resource8 of the consultant on
very short notice; and

i n controZlingtheinitiationof
mrk tasks an& staffing
assignments - shopt and long term the sponsor can pay f o r
only the expertise
provided by the easily-accountable COS^
plus reimbursement f o m t a .

1.7.9
The
very
important
requirement
o f t hsep o n s o ru,n d et rhaed v i s o rsye r v i c e s
approach, is t h atth es p o n s o r
m s t a s s i g nf u l l
time a s e n i o er x e c u t i v eo ar d v i s o r y
a d a y - t o - a a yb a s i s .U n l e s st h ea d v i s o r y
committee t o whom t h e c o n s u l t a n t c a n r e p o r t o n
team can have such immediate
access t o a p e r s o n o r b o a r d w i t h
full a u t h o r i t y t o act, the
advisory services approach can bog
down and f a i l to r e a l i z e i t s full p o t e n t i a l .

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

I C A O 9384 P A R T * 3

2.1

**

W 4843436 0020407 375 W

INTRODUCTION

2.1.1
B e f o r ea n ye f f o r ct a nb ee x p e n d e dp r o f i t a b l yi nt h ep r o c e s so fr e t a i n i n gt h e
services of a consultant, the project sponsor should have
made s u f f i c i e n t d e t e r m i n a t i o n s
to ensure that:

a)there
is a need f o r consuttant
services
that
CUnnOi3 be
s a t i s f i e d from &thin the 6poneor's organization because of
a lack o f expertbe, insuffgcient manpower or i n s u f f i c i e n t
time; and
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

bl

financing will be avaitabZe f o r consuttant


services
preferabZy f o r the project i t s e l f .

and

2.1.2
Having made t h o sdee t e r m i n a t i o n tsh,sep o n s os rh o u ladc c o m p l i sshu f f i c i e n t
or c o n f u s et h ep r o c e s so f
p r e p a r a t o r y work t o a n t i c i p a t e t h e
problems t h a tm i g h td e l a y
a c o n s u l t a n tS
. t a t e ds i m p l y t, h es p o n s o r
rmst i d e n t i f y what
s o l i c i t i n g andemploying
time f r a m ef o r
i t s c o m p l e t i o n ,a n dt h eb u d g e ta v a i l a b l ef o r
mustbeaccomplished,the
t h e work.
2.1.3
The p r i m a r yt o o lf o rt a s ki d e n t i f i c a t i o n
p e r t i n e ni tn f o r m a t i orne q u i r efdoprr e p a r a t i o n
s p e c i f i ct a s k ( s 1 .T h i si n c l u d e sn o to n l yt h es c o p e
the conduct of the
work a n d t h e c o n s u l t a n t ' s f e e .

of

is t h ea s s e m b l ya n da n a l y s i s
of a l l
t h e terms of r e f e r e n cfeotrh e
ofwork,
b u t a l l f a c t o r sa f f e c t i n g

2.1.4
R e g a r d l e sot h
sfdee g r etwo
eh i ct hiins f o r m a t i o n
is e l a b o r a t eitdnh e
terms of r e f e r e n c e ,p r o s p e c t i v ec o n s u l t a n t s
w i l l havequestionsregarding
i t which may
The sponsor must b ea b l e to prob e r a i s e d a t any p o i n td u r i n gt h es e l e c t i o np r o c e s s .
v i d e a pronptanswer t o t h o s e q u e s t i o n s t o a v o i d d e l a y s . I n f o r m a t i o n
of a t e c h n i c a l and
s t a t i s t i c a l n a t u r ep r o v i d e di nr e s p o n s et oq u e s t i o n so f t e nd i r e c t l ya f f e c t st h ec o n s u l effort.
The e x p r e s s i o n s of i n t e r e s to rp r o p o s a l s
t a n t ' s estimate of manpower andwork
p r e p a r e d by c o n s u l t a n t s i n r e s p o n s e t o a s o l i c i t a t i o n , w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y i n c l u d e
price
o f f e r s , a r e i n h e r e n t l yc o q e t i t i v e .T h e r e f o r e ,
any i n f o r m a t i o nf u r n i s h e dv e r b a l l yo ri n
writing to one consultant should be furnished to
all.
2.2

MAGNITUDE OF TASK AND SCHEDULE

2.2.1
The m a g n i t u daensdc h e d u lfeoarntya s k
a r e i n h e r e n t liyn t e r d e p e n d e na tn d
a r e a f u n c t i o no ft h es c h e d u l ea n dm a g n i t u d eo ft h ep r o j e c t
as a whole.
The
project
a tentativeoverallplanning,designandconstruction
sponsor,therefore,shouldprepare
schedulefortheprojectusingthehistoriesofsimilarprojects
as a bench mark. A f t e r
a n e v a l u a t i o n of t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e p h y s i c a l a n d f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e work w i t h i nt h ee s t i m a t e d
time frame, more d e t a i l e d breakdowns
of
t h es c h e d u l e s
s h o u l d be made.
When
t h i sh a s
beenaccomplished,theprocess
of i d e n t i f y i n gt a s k so r
combinations of t a s k s f o r accomplishment by a c o n s u l t a n t ( o r c o n s u l t a n t s ) c a n p r o c e e d
on
a solid foundation.

10

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

I nf or mat i on Hand1 i na Servi ces. 2000

Not for Resale

P a rCt o3.n s u lG
tfaounritd/ C
e loi S
n es strrvui c teiso n

11

2.2.2
It is h i g h l yd e s i r a b l et h a o
t n l yo n ec o n s u l t a n bt ee n g a g e dt oa c c o m p l i s h
all
t hbea s ipcl a n n i ntga s kssi n cper o p eprl a n n i nrge q u i r et shien t e g r a t i oann d
coo r d i n a t i o no fa l lp r o j e c te l e m e n t s ,i n c l u d i n gt i m i n ga n db u d g e t i n g .T h i s
is verydiffic u l t t o a c h i e v e when t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s d i f f u s e d . . Also, a much l a r g e r a n d more d i f f admini c u l t burden f a l l s on t h e s p o n s o r ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n t o p r o v i d e t h e c o - o r d i n a t i o n a n d
i s t r a t i o n of m u l t i p l e c o n t r a c t s .

2.2.3
For c e r t a i np r o j e c t sp, a r t i c u l a r l yt h o s ef o w
r hich
a d e c i s i o n to proceed i s
dependentontheresultoftheplanning,
i t may b e a d v i s a b l e f o r t h e s p o n s o r t o
award a n .
i n i t i a l p l a n n i n g c o n t r a c t i n a s many a s f o u r p h a s e s :

a ) forecasting and prog.lummring;


bl

investigations and a i t e o e b c t i o n ;

c)

preparation of attemabive schemes and ~scomnsndutwne;and

d ) d e v e t o p w n t of a master p l a n , cost estdmates and a financial


f e a s i b i t i t y anat9si~.
2.2.4
However, u n l e s s a d e c i s i otpnor o c e ew
d i tahnpyh a s e
of t hpel a n n i n g
is
t a t a l l y d e p e n d e n t o n t h e results of t h ep r e v i o u sp h a s e ,
i t is i n t h e s p o n s o r ' s i n t e r e s t
t a award a comprehensive single p h a s ec o n t r a c t .
Many o ft h ew o r ke l e m e n t so ft h ep l a n ning process can
be carried ~ r sni m u l t a n e o u s l y ( o r a:t l e a s t can o v e r l a p ) . c r e a t i n g a more
of t h ec o n s u l t a n t ' sw o r ka n dm i n t m i z i n gu n p r o d u c t i v es t a f f
time.
e f f i c i e n ts c h e d u l P n g
Aasnrance o f work c o n t i n u f t y results i n l o w e r c o s t s t o t h e s p o n s o r .
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

2.2.5
If t h e ccmtract nust beawardedin!such
a f o r mt h act h e
work i s t op r o c e e d
clear and
a n a phase by phase basis, t h e l i n e o f d e m a r c a t i o n b e t w e e n p h a s e s m u s t b e v e r y
t h er e v i e wa n da p p r o v a l
of each phasemustbeaccomplished
i n a v e r y s h o r t time p e r i o d
t o udnimize t h ec o n s u l t a n t ' sp r o j e c t - r e l a & d
casts betweenphases.This
i s b e s ta c c o n r
p l i s h e d by p e r m i t t i n g t h e c o n s u l t a n t t o proceed o n t h o s e a s p e c t s o f t h e s u b s e q u e n t p h a s e
w h e r et h ea c t i v i t i e si n v o l v e d
are n o at f f e c t e d
by t h ec o n c l u s i o n s
of t h ep r e c e d i n g
It i s a l s oa d v i s a b l et h a tt h ep h a s er e p o r t ss h o u l db er e v i e w e d
a t least i n p a r t
phase.
time r e q u i r efdofro r m a l
c o n c u r r e n t lw
y i tthh e iprr e p a r a t i o nt ,h ussh o r t e h i ntgh e
review.
T t i s i m p e r a t i v e ,i na n y
case, t h a t r e v i e w time b e k e p t t o
a mininum or i t w i l l
consume a inn o r d i n a t e l lya r g e
time p e r i o d i n t h teo t apl r o j e cstc h e d u l e .

2.2.6
The p r e l i m i n a rdye s i gpnh a sheams n y
of t h e same characteristics as t h e
p l a n n i n gp h a s ea n d
it is, therefore,desirabletohave
i t accomplished by a s i n g l e conThe v a l u e of c o n t i n u i t y
s u l t a n t ,p r e f e r a b l yt h ec o n s u l t a n t
who hasdone . t h ep l a n n i n g .
a n df a m i l i a r i t yw i t ht h ep r o j e c t. b a c k g r o u n dc a n n o tb eo v e r e m p h a s i z e d .S h o u l dt h e
cons u l t a n t who a c c o m p l i s h e dt h ep l a n n i n gn o tb ef u l l yq u a l i f i e dt oa c c o m p l i s ht h ep r e l i m i n a r yd e s i g n of e v e r y a i r p o r t e l e m e n t w i t h h i s
own f o r c e s , t h e u s e
of s u b c o n s u l t a n t s
( w h o s eq u a l i f i c a t i o n s
are a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e s p o n s o r )
i s a s t a n d a r d ' p r a c t i c ea n dc a nb e
considered.
The p r i m ec o n s u l t a n tm u s t ,
however, b e a rr e s p o n s i b i l i t yf o rt h eq u a l i t yo f
d e s i g na n da d h e r e n c et os c h e d u l e
of t h e s u b c o n s u l t a n t s .
It i s a l s o a c c e p t a b l e t o h a v e
as l o n g as
t h ed e s i g ba c c o m p l i s h e d
by a l e g a l l yc o n s t i t u t e dc o n s o r t i u mo fc o n s u l t a n t s
the party responsible for performance
of t h e c o n s o r t i u m i s c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d .

2.2.7
The p r e l i m i n a r y
design
p h a s e s t a b l i s h etsh ae p p r o x i r n a t sei z ae n d
l a y o uot f
the project.
It i n c l u d e cs a r r y i n g
o ust u r v e y as n d
i n v e s t i g a t i o n tso
s u p p l e m e nat n d
r e f i n et h o s ea c c o m p l i s h e di nt h ep l a n n i n gs t a g e .
The p r e l i m i n a r yd e s i g ni n v o l v e st h e
s t u d y of a l t e r n a t i v e means, s y s t e m ,a n dm a t e r i a l sf o rf u l f i l l i n gt h e
master p l a na n d

-.

. -. -~

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO

I nf
or mator inetworking
on Hand1
i ng
Servi
No reproduction
permitted without
license
from IHS ces, 2000

Not for Resale

I C A O 9184 P A R T f 3 f t

12

9841416 0020409 148

Planning

Airport

Manual

c u l m i n a t e s i n t h ep r e p a r a t i o no fl a y o u ts k e t c h e s ,o u t l i n es p e c i f i c a t i o n s ,r e p o r t s
c o s t estimates of t h e most s u i t a b l e of t h e a l t e r n a t i v e s .

and

2.2.8
It i s h i g h l y
p r e f e r a b l eb, unt o t
of t h e same magnitude of importance as i n
t h ep l a n n i n g
and p r e l i m i n a r yd e s i g ns t a g e s ,f o ro n ec o n s u l t a n tt oa c c o m p l i s ht h e
cor
p l e t ef i n a ld e s i g nf o rt h ep r o j e c t .
It is u s u a lf o rt h ep r e l i m i n a r yd e s i g na n df i n a l
d e s i g n of a l l o r s e l e c t e d f e a t u r e s o f t h e
work t o b e i n c o r p o r a t e i n o n e c o n t i n u i n g
contract.
As w a s t r u ei nt h et r a n s i t i o np e r i o d
betweenplanningandpreliminarydesign,
of t h e p r e l i m i c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s of t h e f i n a l d e s i g n c o u l d b e u n d e r t a k e n b e f o r e a p p r o v a l
i t s e n t i r e t y ,t h u sm i n i m i z i n gt h ec o n s u l t a n t ' sp r o j e c t s r' e l a t e dc o s t s
n a r yd e s i g ni n
between phases.
of t h ep r e l i m i 2.2.9
The f i n adl e s i g np h a s e s s e n t i a l l yi n v o l v e st h ec o n t i n u a t i o n
n a r yd e s i g np h a s et op r o v i d ec o n p l e t ed e t a i l s
of t h ec o n s t r u c t i o n .
The f i n a ld e s i g n
c u l m i n a t e sw i t ht h ep r e p a r a t i o no fd e t a i l e dc o n t r a c td r a w i n g s ,s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ,c o n t r a c t
documents and cost
estimates.
2.2.10
Certain
post-design
services
are f r e q u e n t l p
yrovided
by t h de e s i g cn o n s u l t a n t .T h e s e
may o r may noL b e i n c l u d e d i n t h e o r i g i n a l d e s i g n c o n t r a c t . S i n c e t h e s c o p e
o ft h e s es e r v i c e sc a n n o t
be d e f i n e dw i t ht h e
same d e t a i l o r c e r t a i n t y
a s i s t h es c o p e
a separate f e e b a s i s f o r t h e i r a c c o m p l i s h f o r d e s i g n , i t may p r o v e d e s i r a b l e t o p r o v i d e
ment.
2.2.11
are:

The p o s t - d e s i gsne r v i c e s

most commonly provided by t hdee s i gcno n s u l t a n t

a)

assistancetothe

sponsor i n securing bids;

bl

tabulation and bid analysis;

c)

recommendatwns on amrd of construction contracts;

dl

preparationof
suppZementary drawings required to resotve
unforeseen actual field conditwns;

e)

checking contractor's shop, erection and construction d


iw8;

f) reviewinglaboratory,

shop and mitt test veports;

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

g)

m k i n g specific visits t o the&tetoobserve


progress and q u a l i t y of construction;

h)

reviewing
requests
payments;

and report on

by contractor for
periodic

i) preparing a final inspectionreport


pletion;

pPSpaPing

k)

preparing operation and maintenance manuats; and

&littt'drrtdW6;

t ) tm<ning personnet i n operations and maintenance.

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


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No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

and finat

and statement of corn

3)

"A6

Part 3

0-

13

G u i d e l i n e s for C o n s u l t a n t / C o n sSt er ur vc it ci oens

2.3

ASSEMBLY OF BACKGROUND MATERIAIS

2.3.1
To e n s u rt h
ehei g h eds te g r eoreef s p o n s i v e n e str oes q u efsopt r o p o s a l s ,
a l l a v a i l a b l eb a c k g r o u n d material p e r t i n e n t
p o t e n t i a lp r o p o s e r ss h o u l db es u p p l i e dw i t h
o f t h e material o r i t s
t ot h ep r o j e c t .
When t h i s is n o tp r a c t i c a lb e c a u s eo ft h ef o r m
m a g n i t u d ep, r o s p e c t i v ep r o p o s e r s h o u l d
a t l e a s t beinformed
of what i n f o r m a t i o n i s
a v a i l a b l ea n dt h es o u r c e sa n dr e l i a b i l i t yo ft h ei n f o r m a t i o n .
If p o s s i b l e , a l o c a t i o n
where t h e material c a n b e examined s h o u l d b e p r o v i d e d .

2.3.2
It i s i tnh sep o n s o r 'isn t e r e stto
assemble t h im
s a t e r i able f o rree q u e s t s
and t h e p r o p o s e r s h a v e t h e b e s t
posf o r p r o p o s a l s a r e w r i t t e n so t h a t b o t h t h e s p o n s o r
s i b l e m u t u a lu n d e r s t a n d i n g of w h a ta d d i t i o n a li n v e s t i g a t i o na n dr e s e a r c h
are n e c e s s a r y
t o s u p p o r t a smoothand u n i n t e r r u p t e d s t a r t q p a n d p r o g r e s s i o n of t h e work.

2.3.3
Following, as an
example,
are l i s t s of data which
would
be p e r t i n e n t ot h e
p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s f o r a new a i r p o r t t o r e p l a c e o r s u p p l e m e n t a n e x i s t i n g a i r p o r t .

a ) StatCsticaZ data:
relevant economic and poputation s t a t i s t i c e ;
copies of any previousty c k t e t e d t r a f f i c f o r e
Casts, f e a s i b i t i t y 8 t u d i 8 8 , Sit63 8ei!%t3tiO?~8tudie8,
master p t a n studiss;
8 i k l t U 8 Of

h l d aCqUi8itWn;

current paasengsr and caygo a i r t r a f f i c sutlpnary


arrival and departure times
a i r c r a f t types
toad f a C t O P 8
m e 8 of airtines using airport;
current composition of Abtionat Air Plssts;
p ~ o j e c t s dcomposition of llkLtionat Air fleets;

construction anti building cost indices;


national and tocat building codes
b)

Physicat data
1)

topographic mps;

2)

geologicut maps;

3)

earihquake records;

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

and

and standards.

I C A O 9184 P A R T * 3

484L4Lb 00204LL 8 T b

*X

14

A i r p o r t Planning Manual

s o i l s investigation

records/mapa;

r e c o d of wutsr t e v e t s in tocat wetls (or other


water tabte measurements)and record8 of sustained
pumping rates from those
mlZa;

location, size and reliability recorda of other


potential mter supply;
records of elee
tocation, capacity and retiubitity
lines;

tpicity and communication

location

of

and reliabilityrecordsof

potential

outlets
for sewage

effluent;

locations and evcrtuations of quantity and quatity


of potential aggregate sources;
tocation of
pipelinss;

m j o r aviation fuel

stomge and/or

location, usage and flight pa&tems of other ai+


popts within160 .km;and
tocations and elstrations of potential obstmctions
of ai~space, both natural and mu-made, within
a
32 km radius centredon the aerodrome.
c)

MsteoPological data
1)

minfatl data: duration, frequency, intensity


curves;

2)

wind pose or suff<cient data


to prepare a wind
rose;

3)

cloud cover and

4)

temperature and h W i t y recorda.

ground fog

data, visibitity; and

2.3.4
These l i s t s odf e s i r a b l de a t a
are meant o n l y t boree p r e s e n t a t i v e
of t h e
as a l l - i n c l u s i v e
t y p eo fd a t aw h i c h
would b e u s e f u l a n d s h o u l d n o t b e c o n s t r u e d e i t h e r
o r as a b s o l u t e l y r e q u i r e d f o r a l l p r o j e c t s .
Nor is i t i n t e n d e dt h a tt h es p o n s o rs h o u l d
e x p e n da n ys i g n i f i c a n te f f o r ti nd e v e l o p i n gt h i sd a t as h o u l d
i t n o tb ea v a i l a b l e .
howand c o m p i l et h a t
e v e r ,t h es p o n s o rs h o u l d
make a r e a s o n a b l e e f f o r t t o l o c a t e t h e d a t a
which are a v a i l a b l e . H e s h o u l d a l s o b e p r e p a r e d
to i n f o r m c o n s u l t a n t s o f t h e n o n - a v a i l may e n q u i r e .
a b i l i t y of d a t a a b o u t w h i c h t h e c o n s u l t a n t s
2.3.5
T h ec o n s u l t a n t h e n
w i l l know t h ee x t e n to ft h ei n f o r m a t i o nw h i c hh e
w i l l be
r e q u i r e dt od e v e l o pf o ru s ei nh i s
workandwhichinformationhe
w i l l need o n l y t o
v e r i f y .T h i s
w i l l influencetheconsultant'sinitial
workprogramme,
schedule, manpower
care s h o u l b
de x e r c i s e d
i n d e s c r i b i n gt h e
a l l o c a t i o n , and c o s t sT. h e r e f o r eg, r e a t

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permitted without
license
from IHS ces, 2000
I nf
or mator inetworking
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P a r t 3.- Guidelines for Consultant/Construction Services


a v a i l a b l ei n f o r m a t i o n
proposal.

when i t i s n o p
t o s s i b l et op r o v i d ec o p i e sw i t ht h er e q u e s t sf o r

2.4

PdPARATION OF MANPOWER AND COST


BUOGETS

2.401
The methods
which
may be employed t o approximate
the
consultant's
fee
are
discussed
in
Chapter
4, Contract
Preparation.
The selected
nethod
may be modified
d u r i n g n e g o t i a t i o n s as discussed in Chapter
5 , Award of Contract.

2.4.2
Curves
have
been
developed
p l o t t i ntgh e
median
of
f e e s commonly a p p l i e d
a g a i n s tp r o j e c tc o n s t r u c t i o nc o s t sf o rj o b s
of above averagecomplexity
and j o b s of
averagecomplexity.
Most comprehensive a i r p o r tp r o j e c t sf a l li n t ot h ef i r s tc a t e g o r y .
Thesecurves
are provided for r e f e r e n c ei nF i g u r e s
2-1 and 2-2.
It nust be n o t e dt h a t
t h e s ec u r v e s
are o n l yu s e f u lf o ra p p r o x i m a t ee s t i m a t i o n
of f e e s and cannotbeused
to
deteqdne actual fees.
The a c t u a l f e e c a n ~ o n l y be determined on the basis of--the
guidel i n e sc o n t a i n e di nC h a p t e r
5 of t h i s manual.
Bowever, thecurvesdoprovide
a reasonable basis for the level
ofaccuracyrequiredforbudgetingandscheduling
at theearly
s t a g e s of p r o j e c t development.

From t h ee s t i m a t e dp r o j e c ct o n s t r u c t i o nc o s t s t, h e
time scheduleandthefee
curves, i t is possibletodeterminetheapproximate
manpower which t h ec o n s u l t a n t w i l l
b er e q u i r e dt op r o v i d e .
The manpower requirements, i n t u r n , w i l l p r o v i d ed i r e c t i o n in
t h e s o l i c i t a t i o n and s e l e c t i o n of c o n s u l t a n t s . While i t i s n o ta l w a y st r u et h a tl a r g e
f i r m s are n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n
and cannotundertake small p r o j e c t s a t r e a s o n a b l ef e e s , it
i s c e r t a i n l yn o td e s i r a b l et os o l i c i t
small ffrms (which would have t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r
s t a f f s s i g n i f i c a n t l y o n a temporary basis) for large projects.

2.4.3

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

2.4.4
The p r e p a r a t i o n of estimates of
requirements w i l l be b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e s p o n s o r

p r o j eccots t s
and c o n s u l t a n t ' s
i n s e v e r a l ways:

manpower

a) they trilt be usefut in scheduling and budgeting the project


as a d o t e ;

b)

they will be useful in the solicitation and selection of


conauttants and contmctops;

c)

they will serve as one of


negotiation procsss; und

d)

if the anticipated approxhate project construction costs


and 8Chedul0 are announced in the soticitation, consultants
%is will
can a t s o estimate the manpower -requirements.
beneficially narrow down the number of responses f r o m f i m
nominally qualified accept f o r sise.
2.5

the starting points of

the

OFFICE LOCATION AND LOCAL PARTICIPATION

2.5.1
The l o c a t i o n of t hoef f i cfeoarc c o m p l i s h i ntghdee f i n etda s k s
may be of
s i g n i f i c a n c et ot h ep r o j e c t
sponsor, theprospectiveconsultantsorboth.
The sponsor
s h o u l de v a l u a t et h ea d v a n t a g e sa g a i n s tt h ed i s a d v a n t a g e s
of r e q u i r i n g t h e o f f i c e t o
be
i n a s p e c i f i cl o c a t i o n .
Should theadvantagesoutweighthedisadvantages,theselected
l o c a t i o n s h o u l d be s t a t e d as a p r o j e c t r e q u i r e m e n t i n t h e s o l i c i t a t i o n
of expressions of

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Airport Planning Manual

16

0.01

0.05 0.1

0.5

10

Net construction cost, in mil(i0ns d dollas

50

IOIO

(U.S.)

Figure 2-1.
Curve A, MedianCompensation for BasicServices
Expressed as a Percentage of Construction Cost for
Projects of Above-Average Complexity (1974)
(Source:

ASCE Manual No. 45 (1975))

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Part
Consultant/Construction
3 . - Guidelines
for
Services

17

Figure 2-2.
Curve B , Median Compensation forBasicServices
Expressed a s aPercentageofConstruction
Cost f o r
Projects of Average Complexity (1974)
(Source:

ASCE Manual No. 45 (1975))

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I C A O 9184 P A R T * 3
18

-.

..

4 8 4 1 4 3 b 0020435 441

Planning

Airport

Manual

i - n t e r e s t and proposals.
However, unless
there
is - - abornpelling
and non-negatiable
i t is p r e f e r a. . b l et od e f e r
requirementforthe
work t o be done i n a s p e c i f i cl o c a t i o n ,
r e s o l u t i o n of t h i s s u b j e c t u n t i l t h e c o n t r a c t n e g o t i a t i o n s a r e s t a r t e d .

2.5.2
The d e s i r a b l e x t e n t
and form of p a r t i c i p a t i o n by l o c acl o n s u l t a n t isnt h e
and t h i s e x t e n t s t a t e d i n t h e
t a s k of the international consultant should be determined,
w i l l bebased
on n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s and/
solicitation.
The e x t e n t o f t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n
or legalrequirements and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of l o c a l c o n s u l t a n t s and s t a f f . The form of
prime consultant
l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n may c o n s i s t of s u b c o n t r a c t ( s ) t o t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l
f o rs p e c i f i cp a r t s
of t h et a s k or provision of l o c a l manpower t o be i n c o r p o r a t e di n t o
expert h ec o n s u l t a n t ' ss t a f fe i t h e rt os h a r ei nt h ec o n s u l t a n t ' se f f o r to rt oa c q u i r e
ience in specific disciplines.

2.5.3
The primary
considerations
location should be designated are:

i n determining
whether

or not a s p e c i f i co f f i c e

the degree t o &ich c+mdinatwn and review of the cornul8 SffOT't


i s PepiPed during the p P O g I W 8 8 O f the W r k
and the f t d b i t i t y of movement w i t h i n the sponsor's organ&
m t i o n t o acCOmpZi8h that co-opdination and pevitm;
o r mandatedand

the avaitabitity of both o f f i c e space and housing a t or near


the designated location;

the avaitabitity and r e l i a b i l i t y of c o m n i c a t i o n s( t e l e phone, cable, mail, etc.) chiefly f o r technicatmatters,but


also for personnel and administ~ativsconcerns;
the degree of intimacywith
COn8dtU?Zt'S S t U f f ;

the project site needed by the

the anticipcrted ppojectcosts o f . p e r f o d n g the work a t a


designaeed s i t e conpared wCth c o s t s o f perfomring the w r k
i n the consuttant's home office or a t a locatwn sezected by
the consultant;
the avaitabitity and willingness ofconsuttant's
to relocate for the duration of the project; and

key staff

the avaitabitity t o the sponsor of f o r e Q n currency and


tegat restrictions on the disbursements of foreGn and tocat
currency.

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the extent oflocatparticipationdesired


auaitabte;

ICAO 9184 P A R T w 3

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Part
Consultant/Construction
3.- Guidelines
for
Services
2.6

19
SCHEDULE OF PAYMENTS AND CURRENCY

2.6.1
The schedule of payments
and
the
currency
to
be
used
w i l l usually be a
s u b j e c tt o
bediscussedandagreed
upon a t a l a t e rd a t ed u r i n gn e g o t i a t i o n s .
Those
agreements a r e t h e n i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e c o n t r a c t
between thesponsor and t h e consultant.
Any l e g a l andnon-negotiablecurrencyrestrictionsshould
be c l e a r l yi d e n t i f i e d
i n t h e terms of reference.
2.6.2
The schedule
of
payments is l a r g e l y dependent
on
t hfeebea s i s
of t h e
contract.
For lump sum f e ec o n t r a c to rf o rf e e sb a s e d
on a percentageofconstruction
c o s t s ,t h es c h e d u l es h o u l d
c a l l f o rf i x e di n c r e m e n t a l( g e n e r a l l y
monthly)payments
or
f o r a variable increment payments based on progress of t h e work. For t h o s e c o n t r a c t s i n
which t h e reimbursement i s a f u n c t i o n of t h ec o n s u l t a n t ' sa c t u a lc o s t s ,t h es c h e d u l e
s h o u l dc a l lf o rv a r i a b l ei n c r e m e n t a l
payments based on a c t u a lc o n s u l t a n tc o s t s .
Most
contracts for consulting services call
f o r reimbursementof p e r s o n n e l . c o s t s i n t h e currency of t h ec o n s u l t a n t ' s
home country and o t h e rc o s t si nt h ec u r r e n c y
of t h ec o u n t r y
where the expenses are incurred. Any currency on which both t+le sponsor and t h e consult a n t c a n a g r e e is a c c e p t a b l e p r o v i d e d t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of exchange rates and i n f l a t i o n
are clearly elaborated.
2.6.3
Sincetheschedulingof
payments is o n l y one o ft h ef a c t o r st o
be considered
i nt h es e l e c t i o n
o ft h ea p p r o p r i a t et y p e
of c o n t r a c tf o rt h e
work, no recommendations
a r e made here.
However, a t t e n t i o n i s c a l l e d t o t h e e x t e n t
of thesponsor'sadministrat i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and e f f o r t i n h e r e n t i n e a c h system.
2.6.4
The amount of t hceo n s u l t a n t 'fse e s
w i l l , of course,
be
influenced
by t h e
amount of t a x e s t h a t w i l l b el e v i e da g a i n s th i so r g a n i z a t i o n ,h i sp e r s o n a li n c o e ,
and
t h es t a f fs a l a r i e se a r n e d
i n thesponsor'snation.
By f a rt h e
simplest way of d e a l i n g
w i t h t h i s is forthesponsortotake
upon himself the payment of t h e s e t a x e s , i n e f f e c t
c r e a t i n g a t a x - f r e es i t u a t i o nf o rt h ec o n s u l t a n tT
. his
i s u n f o r t u n a t e l yn, o t
always
l e g a l l y a c c e p t a b l e i n some S t a t e s . S i n c e
t h i s i s a s u b j e c t which w t l l a r i s e d u r i n g t h e
p r e p a r a t i o n of t h e c o n s u l t a n t ' s f e e p r o p o s a l
and thesubsequentnegotiations,the
spons o r shoulddeterminetheextent
of t h e a p p l i c a b l e t a x e s
andcomrmnicate
thisas a part
of t h e term of r e f e r e n c ei nt h er e q u e s tf o rp r o p o s a l s .
The u s u a lp r a c t i c e is orany
t a x e sl e v i e d
beyond t h o s ei n i t i a l l ys t i p u l a t e d ,
as a r e s u l t of new l e g i s l a t i o n ,t o
be
reimbursed by t h e s p o n s o r t o t h e c o n s u l t a n t .

2.7

TERMS OF BEFERENCE

2.7.1
Terms
of
reference
should
be
prepared
with
as
much' d e t a ial p
s o s s i b l teo
reduce t h e potentialformisunderstandingsand.consequentdisputesarising
fromsuch
misunderstandings.Everythingpertinenttotheexpeditious
and professionalcompletion
of t h e work should be disclosed with nothing held
back for t h e sake of a presumed advant a g ed u r i n gt h ec o n t r a c tn e g o t i a t i o n s
or i n t h e c o u r s e
of work. It i s extremelyinport a n t t h a t thesponsor
and theconsultantdevelop
a mutualrespect and understanding if
t h e w o r k ' i s t o proceedsmoothly.
A v i t a l element i n a c h i e v i n g t h i s is completeopenness
and frankness on both sides, both before
and a f t e r c o n t r a c t award.
2.7.2
The terms of r e f e r e n cien c o r p o r a t eidn ttohree q u e sf o
tprr o p o s a lssh o u l d
i n c l u d e , as a minimum:

a)

The project background: an historical r & m d of theorigins


and growth of an existing facility; i t s physicaland

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Air por t Planning Nanual

20

geogmphicat characteristics; i t s managementand operational


orguniaation; and the c i r c m a ~ n c e sleading to the need f o r
mdification, expansion or replacement. I t is desirableto
provideappropriate mups and/or plans of t h e f a c i l i t y a d
i t 8 8UrPOUndiv6 t 0 8lLpphTW?lt the written background.
fie objectives of this project: the anticipated interim
and
o f service t o
ultimate demands and/or capacities; the level
be provided;
ueathetic
considerations;
integration
with
other transportation facilities.
A description of availableinformation
sponsor will provide (see 2.3).

and data which the

institutional framework and


list$.ng of ths- sponsor's responsibitities including: timely
review of ths mrk; co-ordinationwith governmentat agencies; prompt papent o f invoices;
logistic
support ( i f
appropriate) f o r consultant.
l i s t i n g of the consultant's responsibilities including: a
thorough elaboration o f the scope and schedule of the work;
of design and applicable standards; complicrnce
thebasis
withinsurance and guarmtee requirements;conptiance
with
set f o r t hi n h i s
management
and
staffing of projectas
proposal;
mzintenance
o f a local
office
(if required);
making availabletothe
sponsor a l l project records and
correspondence.
A

fie language(s) i n which reports, drawings and s p e c i f i c e


tionsareto
be
prepared
and thesystem
of weights ami
measures t o be used.

fie sizes, scates and materials t o be used i n the prepare


t i o n of drawings and reports.

Type of f e e basis mandated ordesiredorastatementthat


the proposers should statetheir
preference; and the
~ e n c yt o be used.

CUF

Any Pequirement f o r association with local consultants.


Instructions to proposers (see 2.9)
2.8

SCOPE OF WORK

2.8.1
The scope of work for eachtaskshould
b e defined as completely as possible.
The degree of t h e d e t a i l w i l l , of course, vary w i t h t h e type and magnitude of t h e t a s k .

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A description of the sponsor'6

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P a rConsultant/Construction
t 3.- Guidelines
for
Services

21

2 . a. 2
P l a n n i npgr o j e c t s
are t h e most d i f f i c u ltty p efso r
which tpor e p a raen
e x p l i c i t scopeof
work.
They f r e q u e n t l y have, as a basis,onlyanapparent
needwhich
shouldbesatisfiedand
a t e n t a t i v e budgetand time schedule, both for the planning
and
t h i sr e a s o n ,t h es c o p e
c o n s t r u c t i o np h a s e s ,w i t h i n
which i t is t o b e accomplished.For
o f work f o r a p l a n n i n gp r o j e c t
i s o f t e nb e s td e f i n e d
by d e s c r i b i n g i n d e t a i l t h e
end
It should, however, l i s t a l lt h ef a c t o r s
p r o d u ct o
be
produced
by t h ec o n s u l t a n t #
which a r e t o b e i n v e s t i g a t e d a n d t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e p r e - p l a n n i n g s t a g e
of
t h e work and t h e number and t y p e s of a l t e r n a t i v e s t o be s t u d i e d i n t h e p l a n n i n g s t a g e .

2.8.3
The scope of work f o p
r r e l i m i n a r yd e s i g nt a s k sc a n
bedefined
somewhat
more
i s only one o ft h ee v o l u t i o n a r ys t e p s
precisely.
However, s i n c e t h e p r e l i d n a r y d e s i g n
l e a d i n g t o a completed p r o j e c t , t h e r e are a l s o l i m i t s t o t h e p r e c i s i o n of i t s descript ion.

2.8.4
There e x i s t s a considerablerange
of o p i n i o nw i t h i nt h ed e s i g n
conslunity as
t ot h ep r o p e r
cut--off p o i n t between preliminarydesign and-f i n a l design.Since
it is
h i g h l yd e s i r a b l et oh a v et h ec o n s u l t a n t
who d o e st h ep r e l i m i n a r yd e s i g na l s o
do t h e
f i n a ld e s i g n ,
i t is s u g g e s t e dt h a t h e s e
two phases of t h e work be combined i n one
c o n t r a c t , making t h a t d i s t i n c t i o n academic.
2.8.5
The scope
of
work f o fr i n a d
l e s i g nt a s k s h o u l d
list each
separate
element
( b u i l d i n gu, t i l i t y ,
pavements, etc.) of t h p
eroject,
its s i z e , f u n c t i o n and design
is
requirements.
The d e s c r i p t i o n of the
functional
requirement
each
of element
e s p e c i a l l ys i g n i f i c a n t ,b e c a u s et h er e q u i r e da p p u r t e n a n c e s
of eachelement
are u s u a l l y
implicit in that description.
The scope of work f o r a p r e l i m i n a r y / f i n a l d e s i g n c o n t r a c t
s h o u l da l s od e s c r i b et h ec o m p o s i t i o n
and d e t a i lr e q u i r e d
as t h e end product of that
design.
To i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t ,
some examples are l i s t e d below:

a)

the scope of work should s t a t e whether o r not i t i s required


t o draw crose-sec.t.iona of the earthwrk movement und, i f so,
the scaZes and intsroaZs desired;

b)

the scope of Lnork should s t a t e ?#aethsr or not i t i s required


t o prepare fomwzl 1ongCtudinat p r o f i l e s f o r e x t e r i o r u t i l i t y

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

8y87%TNs;

cl

the mope of mrk should s t a t e whether or notreinforcement


d e t a i l s ape required f o r reinforcedconcretestructures;
and

d)

thedegree
ofdesireditemiaationof
the engineer'sest&
mates should be expre88ed, inctuding the requirement or l a c k
of requirement f o r breakdakts of material, labour, equiprent
and plant.
2.9

INSTRUCTIONS TO PROPOSERS

2.9.1
Instructions
concerning
the
format
and content of proposals
should
be
furnished in the solicitations
whichallow as much freedom of e x p r e s s i o n a s p o s s i b l e t o
theindividualproposerswhile
a l s o providing a reasonable means of comparativeevaluat i o n of proposals.
The determination of t h eb a s i s of t h a te v a l u a t i o n( s e e
3.3) should
be made b e f o r et h ei n s t r u c t i o n sa r ef i n a l i z e d
and t h a tb a s i ss h o u l db ee x p l a i n e dt o

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Not for Resale

ICAO 9 3 8 4 PART*3

**

4843436 0020439 1377

22

Airport Planning Manual

as t o t h e d e p t h

p r o s p e c t i v ep r o p o s e r si nt h ei n s t r u c t i o n s .P r o p o s e r ss h o u l db ei n f o r m e d
of detail desired in the proposal for the
following items:

a)

the proposed methodology f o r accomplishingthe

b)

t h e management and conposition of the p r o j e c t staff, inctucling 8 U b - C O Y l 8 U t k W l t B if P S q U i P S d ;

cl

t h ee s t i m t e d
rmnpower requirement and schedule f o r each
disciptine i n each subdivision of t h e mrk;

d)

ths plans and/or docments t o be c o w l e t o d for each stage o r


item of w r k ; and

el

the n ~ p khi8tOr&8 of t h e key s t a f f and management who tail1


be assigned t o t h e p m j e c t .

work;

2.9.2
C o n s u l t a n tssh o u l bdree q u i r e tdsou b m itth e ipr r o p o s a lisn
s t r i c t accorda n c ew i t ht h e
terms o f r e f e r e n c e i n t h e r e q u e s t
or proposals.
However, t h e y s h o u l d b e
of value t o t h e
encouragedto
make a n ys u g g e s t i o n st h e yf e e lm i g h tb ea p p r o p r i a t ea n d
of t h ep r o j e c tT. h e s es u g g e s t i o n s h o u l di n d i c a t et h e
s p o n s orre g a r d i n g
any
aspect
e x t e n t t o which t h e p r o p o s a l would be modified if t h e s u g g e s t i o n s were accepted.

2.9.3
To e n s u rteh a t
a l l p r o p o s e r s are t r e a t eedq u a l l y
and f a i r l yt ,hien s t r u c tionsshouldbeclear
and p r e c i s e as t o t h e form, t i m i n g and l o c a t i o n f o r s u b m i s s i o n of
p r o p o s a l s . The a n t i c i p a t e d d a t e f o r c o n p l e t i o n
of the selection and notification
of t h e
selected consultant should be stated.

--

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I C A O 9384 P A R T * 3

**

484L4Lb 0020420 8 0 9

3.1

INTRODUCTION

3.101
The s e l e c t i o n of a c o n s u l t a n t is not
complete
u n t i l a c o n t r a chta s
been
s i g n e d by t h e c o n s u l t a n t a n d . t h e p r o j e c t s p o n s o r w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l
ofany other organizationifrequired.Selection,then,
is a two s t e p p r o c e s s , t h e f i r s t b e i n g t h e i n i t i a l
s e l e c t i o n of a c o n s u l t a n t on t h e b a s i s of merit; t h e second being the reaching of agreement w i t h him o n c o n t r a c t terms.
3.1.2
The n e g o t i a t i npgr o c e s s
and award of c o n t r a c t are d i s c u s s eidsnu b s e q u e n t
c h a p t e r s of t h i s manual.
Should t h en e g o t i a t i o n sw i t ht h et e n t a t i v e
selectee f a i l .o r
requiredcontractapprovalsnotbeobtained,theproceduresdescribed
i nt h i sc h a p t e r
would b e r e p e a t e d s t a r t i n g a t a n a p p r o p r i a t e s t e p as d i c t a t e d by l a w o r c i r c u m s t a n c e s .

3.1.3
B e f o r teh se e l e c t i o n
process
is u n d e r t a k e nt,h se p o n s osr h o u l de s t a b l i s ha n
administrative policy within his
0o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r designating persons authorized
to
select o r recommend c o n s u l t a n t sf o v
r a r i o u sa s s i g n m e n t s .
The personsdesignated
may
fncludetheadministrator,
or the departmenthead, t o besupplemented by o t h e r s t o make
up a s e l e c t i o n board.
The persons empowered t o make t h e s e l e c t i o n nust b e k e p t f r e e of
pressures,bothinternalandexternal.
In m o s t ' c a s e s ,t h e most s a t i s f a c t o r yp r o c e d u r e
a t least one but preferably more of whom should be
would be t o u t i l i z e a board of three,
anengineerorarchitect,
The boardshouldalsohave
a member coupetent t o a n a l y s e t h e
l e g a l and f i n a n c i a l i q l i c a t i o n s of each proposal or have such an analysis
made o u t s i d e
The boardshouldconductinvestigationsand
t h e boardand a separatereportpresented.
make recommendations,holdingsuchinterviews
and i n q u i r i e s as t h e y f e e l may be d e s i r able.
The f i n a sl e l e c t i o ns h o u l d
be by t h ea d m i n i s t r a t oor gr o v e r n i n g
body of t h e
sponsor based uponrecommendations by t h e board.

3.2

SOLICITATION PROCEDURES

3.2.1
When t h e work r e q u i r e d of a c o n s u l t a n t is s i m i l a ro r
comparable, i n magnitude,type
and complexity t o work which has beenpreviouslycompleted
by a p a r t i c u l a r
consultant for the
sponsor ( o r any o r g a n i z a t i o n well known t o t h e s p o n s o r ) , i t may w e l l
b ei nt h es p o n s o r * si n t e r e s tt o
make a d i r e c t a p p r o a c h t o t h a t c o n s u l t a n t f o r t h e
new
work p r o v i d e d t h a t :

a)

the direct approach to a single consultant is legal, c o n 8 i ~ t e n t w i t h . the government poZicy and is approved by lending
070 other agencies when t h i s approval i s required;

b)

the
previous
work m s technicallysatisfactory,
on time within the budget;

c)

the consuttant is under the same management and s t i t 2


employs many of the key staff dao participated i n the
earlier w r k ;

23

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completed

24

Planning

Airport

d)

theconsdtant
i s witting and abte t o commit those key
managerial and technicaZ s t a f f t o the new mrk; and

el

120 significant benefit


wilt accrue t o the project by e d n ation of mope than one approach t o the conduct of the work
and/or the design of *he project, per se.

Manual

302.2
Unless a l l t h e s ec o n d i t i o n sa r es a t i s f i e d
i t is probably more d e s i r a b l et o
s o l i c i ts e v e r a lc o n s u l t i n gf i r m sb e f o r es e l e c t i n go n et op e r f o r mt h e
work.
T h e r e are
two b a s i ct y p e so fs o l i c i t a t i o nw h i c hh a v eb e e n
employed e f f e c t i v e l yf o rt h i st y p eo f
work. These a r e s o l i c i t a t i o n b y d i r e c t i n v i t a t i o n
and s o l i c i t a t i o n b y b r o a d a d v e r t i s e ment.
3.2.3

Solicitation by direct invitation

3.2.3.1
It is recommended t h a t no less t h at nh r eceo n s u l t a n b
tasep p r o a c h e d
by
d i r e c ti n v i t a t i o nf o rp r o p o s a l s .S o u r c e sf o ro b t a i n i n gt h e
names of p o t e n t i a l l yq u a l i f i e d c o n s u l t a n t s are l i s t e d i n 3.5.
3.2.3.2
T h ed i r e citn v i t a t i o np r o c e d u r e s
is as follows.
From t h e l i s t o f c o n s u l t antsdeterminethosethatappeartobebestqualifiedfortheparticularproject.
Write
s e p a r a t e l e t t e r s t oe a c ho f
them d e s c r i b i n gb r i e f l yt h ep r o p o s e dp r o j e c t
and i n q u i r i n g
as t ot h e i ri n t e r e s t .I nt h e
case o fd e s i g np r o j e c t s ,g i v ee a c hc o n s u l t a n ta no p p o r t u n i t yt oi n s p e c tt h e
s i t e , e x p l a i n i n gt o
him t h ep r o p o s e ds e r v i c e sr e q u i r e d .
Review
t h eq u a l i f i c a t i o n s
a n dr e c o r d so fe a c hf i r m
and i t s c a p a b i l i t yt oc o m p l e t et h e
work
who e x h i b i t t h e d e s i r e d q u a l i f i c a t i o n s a n d
w i t h i n t h e time a l l o t t e d .T h o s ec o n s u l t a n t s
active i n t e r e s ti nt h ep r o j e c ts h o u l dt h e nb er e q u e s t e dt os u b m i tb i n d i n g
e x p r e s sa n
p r o p o s a l s .T h i sr e q u e s ts h o u l db ef o r m a la n dt h e
terms o f r e f e r e n c e i n c l u d i n g t h e s c o p e
o f work s h o u l d b e d e f i n e d w i t h a l l p o s s i b l e d e t a i l .

3.2.4

S o l i c i t a t i o n b y broad a d v e r t i s e m e n t

3.2.4. L
T h i sf o r mo fs o l i c i t a t i o n
i s o r d i n a r i l ya c c o m p l i s h e d i n two s t e p s ; t h e f i r s t
step being an advertisement in a l l appropriate publications requesting those consultants
i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p r o j e c t t o s u b m i t e x p r e s s i o n s of i n t e r e s t a n d s t a t e m e n t s o f q u a l i f i c a is t h ea n a l y s i so ft h e s ee x p r e s s i o n sa n dq u a l i f i c a t i o n sa n d
the
t i o n s .T h es e c o n ds t e p
e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a s h o r t l i s t o f c o n s u l t a n t s ( g e n e r a l l y no less t h a n t h r e e ) who would b e
for t h e work. W h i l et h e r e i s a ni n h e r e n t time l o s s
i n v i t e dt os u b m i tf o r m a lp r o p o s a l s
i n t h i s procedure, and a p o t e n t i a l l y large e f f o r t r e q u i r e d of t h e s p o n s o r : ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n
great number o fr e s p o n s e s
i n i t s e l f is an
t o a n a l y s e a great number b fr e s p o n s e s ,t h e
a d v a n t a g e i n t h a t i t creates a g r e a t e r f r e e d o m of s e l e c t i v i t y .
3.2.4.2
In t h er e q u e s ft o re x p r e s s i o n s
of i n t e r e s t a n ds t a t e m e n t s
of q u a l i f i c a t i o n s
t h e terms of r e f e r e n c en e e dn o tb ee l a b o r a t e di n
as much d e p t h as i n t h es u b s e q u e n t
As a minimm,
however,
i t s h o u ldde s c r i btehsei z et y
, pe,
r e q u e sf toprr o p o s a l s .
l o c a t i o n and time s c h e d u l ef o rt h ep r o j e c t .T h er e q u e s tf o rp r o p o s a l ss h o u l di n c o r p o r a t e a l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n d i s c u s s e d i n 2.7 and 2.8.
3.2.4.3
T h feo r m aottfh ree s p o n s e fsoer x p r e s s i o n osifn t e r e sat n d
statements
of
q u a l i f i c a t i o n ss h o u l db el e f tt ot h ed i s c r e t i o no ft h ei n d i v i d u a lr e s p o n d i n gc o n s u l t ants.
Many c o n s u l t i n gf i r m sh a v ep r e p a r e dt h e i r
own s t a n d a r d forms andbrochureswhich
W i l l s u i t t h i s purpose.
However, i t is a d v i s a b l e t h a t t h e r e q u e s t s h o u l d c o n t a i n
a list
o f t h e mininum d a t ar e q u i r e df o rc o n s i d e r a t i o no fa d v a n c e m e n t
o f t h er e s p o n d e n tt ot h e
s h o r t l i s t o f c o n s u l t a n t s f r o m whom p r o p o s a l s w i l l b e s o l i c i t e d .

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.-

P a r t 3C o nGs duf.iotdarenl ti /nCe os n sSt er ur vc it ci oe ns

25

3-2.4.4
A t y p i c a lf o r mw h i c hc o u l db eu s e dt os o l i c i tt h a td a t a
3-1.
It s h o u l d b e m o d i f i e d o r s u p p l e m e n t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e
of each project.

is i n c l u d e di nT a b l e
w i t h thespecificrequirements

3.3.1
T hber o ar d
a n go
pefr o j e scitz ef o
w
s rh i c h
t h i s manual i s i n t e n d et o
d
of: t a s k s t o b ea c c o m p l i s h e d makes i t
p r o v i d eg u i d a n c e ,t o g e t h e rw i t ht h er a n g ei ns c o p e
v i r t u a l l yi m p o s s i b l et oe s t a b l i s hs p e c i f i cg u i d e l i n e sf o ra n a l y s i s
of e x p r e s s i o n so f
i n t e r e s t and s t a t e m e n t s o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ,T h es e l e c t i o nb o a r dc o n d u c t i n gt h i sr e v i e w
should carefully examine the nature of the proposed project and the scope of services to
A general criteria forselectionshouldbeestablished
b ep r o v i d e du n d e re a c hc o n t r a c t .
i n k e e p i n gw i t hn a t i o n a lp o l i c ya n dr e s o u r c e s ,p r o j e c tr e q u i r e m e n t sa n da d m i n i s t r a t i v e
c r i t e r i a s h o u l d b e e s t a b l i s h e dw i t h i nt h a tg e n e r a l
r e s o u r c e s ,F o l l o w i n gt h i s ,s p e c i f i c
E a c h e l e m e n to ft h e
criteria l i s t e d w i l l not
framework, f o re a c hp r o p o s e dc o n t r a c t .
h a v e the same i m p o r t a n c e a s the o t h e r s , n o r w i l l t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e of e a c h e l e m e n t
remain constant for each contract of each project.

a)

completeness and c l a r i t y of response;

b)

recentexperience

c)

experiencerecords

d)

experience i n sponsor'sgeographicalregion;

e)

experience i n sponsor'snation;

on similarprojects;
of key s t a f f and project manager;

f) current mrkZoad compared to s h e of company;


g)

Oittingness t o estubtish branch o f f i c e ;

hl

d l l i n g n e s s t o eo-operate wi.t;h local firms;

il

wltlingness to conanit key staff t o project; and

jJ

a h i t i t y t o s u p p l y technical and financial refsrences.

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


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3.3.2
A means of e v a l u a t i o ni n
common u s a g e i s t h ec r e a t i o no f
a m a t r i xi nw h i c h
e a c h c r i t e r i o n is assigned a numerical value in accordance with
i t s relative importance.
E a c hr e s p o n d e nct a nt h e nb g
e r a d e d(,a g a i no n
a n u m e r i c a bl a s i s a) c c o r d i n gt ot h i s
a ranka p p a r e n tc o m p l i a n c ew i t he a c hc r i t e r i o n .T h e
sum of t h ep r o d u c t st h e np r o v i d e s
i n g o fr e s p o n d e n t s .S i n c et h ed e t e r m i n a t i o no ft h er e l a t i v ei m p o r t a n c e
of each criterio n and t h ed e g r e e
of compliance are e a c hr a t h e rs u b j e c t i v ef u n c t i o n s ,
i t is suggested
b e made i n d i v i d u a l l y
by
s e v e r aql u a l i f i e d
p e o p l ae n d
the
t h a tt h e s ed e t e r m i n a t i o n s
a f i n a lr a n k i n g .
Any w i d ed i s p a r i t yi nt h er a n k l n g
of any
r e s u l t sa v e r a g e dt op r o v i d e
list o fr e p r e s e n t a t i v e
c o n s u l t a n t among t h e r e v i e w e r s s h o u l d b e c a r e f u l l y
examined.The
f a c t o r sw h i c hf o l l o w s
is n o ti n t e n d e dt od e s i g n a t eo r d e r
of i m p o r t a n c e ,w h i c hs h o u l db e
c o n s i d e r e da n dd e t e r m i n e ds e p a r a t e l yf o re a c hc o n t r a c t .
Nor i s i t i n t e n a e d t o e x c l u d e
o t h e r f a c t o r s w h i c h may b e s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a s p e c i f i c c o n t r a c t :

I C A O 7384 P A R T * 3

**

4 8 4 1 4 3 b 0020423 518

26

Airport Planning Manual

CONSULTING FIRM REGISTRATION FORM


A. FIRM DESCwPnON
1-10. NAME, AWRESS, TYPE OF ORGANPATION.

I-

2.

am urn d

Iyn
MONTH

DAV

rg-q~

lUo"r-1

~ $ 0 -

YEAR

Page 1 of 4

Table 3-1.

Consulting F i r m Registration Form

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part 3

.-

Guidelines for Conshtant/Construction Services

27

A. FIRM DESCRIPTION
11-14. PERSONNEL, LANGUAGE CAPABIUTY,FEES,BANK REFERENCES
l l . m m l o l e * m R n ( l k b U b o l d ~ ~

Reem indicate language A. E@*

capabilitv.&s
ahn
hnguagioundeiF lo J.

I 6. French

c.spamsh

ID.hsaiM

.&ah
0

I F....................

0
0

....................

I I
Year

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Consulting F i r m Registration Form

Not for Resale

' 1 " .................... 0

1 + A m r l V ~ o ( o 1 o . . F y . o 1 ~

Table 3-1.

.................... 0

....................

I C A O 9384 P A R T t 3 t t

m 484l14Lb 0020425 390 m

28

A i r p o r t P l a n n i n g Plar~ual

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Page 3 01 4

Table 3-1.

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


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C o n s u l t i n g F i r m K e g i s t r a t i o n korm ( C o n t d )

Not for Resale

I C A O 9384 PARTU3
Part 3

**

48414Lb 002042b 227

.-

Guidelines for Consultant/Construction


Services

29

C. FIRM EXPERIENCE
18. PRQIECTWSERWCES

Table 3-1.

Consulting Firm Registration Form (Cont'd)

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3.3.3
F o l l o w i n gt h er a n k i n gocf o n s u l t a n t s
who h a v es u b m i t t e dt h e ier x p r e s s i o n s
of
i n t e r e s t and s t a t e m e n t s o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ,
a l l t h o s e who h a v e n o t b e e n s e l e c t e d f o r
the
" s h o r t list" shouldbe
so n o t i f i e d .
A sample n o t i f i c a t i o n l e t t e r i s provided i n Table
3-2.
Those who h a v eb e e ns e l e c t e ds h o u l da l s o
be n o t i f i e d andinformedoftheproceduresandtiming
of t h en e x ts t e p s
i n t h es e l e c t i o np r o c e s s .I ft h er e q u e s tf o rp r o p o s a l s has been f o r m l a t e d a t t h i s time, i t should be sent
as soon as p o s s i b l e t o a f f o r d
p r o s p e c t i v ec o n s u l t a n t st h e
maxirmm time a v a i l a b l ef o rp r e p a r a t i o no ft h e i rp r o p o s a l s .
I ft h er e q u e s tf o rp r o p o s a l s
has notbeencompleted,even
terms of referencewhich are
i d e n t i f l e d as preliminary w i l l b eu s e f u l
to p r o s p e c t i v ec o n s u l t a n t s .
The more time
a v a i l a b l ef o r the p r e p a r a t i o no fp r o p o s a l s ,t h e
more informedandresponsivetheprop o s a l sc a n be.
It should, however, b er e c o g n i z e dt h a t
no c o n s u l t a n t sc a nr e a s o n a b l y
be
e x p e c t e dt o
make f i r m commitments
of
s t a f ff o rp r o j e c t st h a t
are n o ta n t i c i p a t e dt o
start more t h a n several months i n t h e f u t u r e .
3.3.4
A t t h i s time, a check
should
be
made w i t hr e c e n ct l i e n t s
of each c o n s u l t a n t
o nt h es h o r t
l i s t t od e t e r m i n et h eq u a l i t y
of pastperformance.
A sample letter of
r e q u e s t has beenprovided i n Table 3-3.
Thischeckshouldnotbelimitedtotherefere n c e ss p e c i f i e d
by the c o n s u l t a n t sb u ts h o u l de x t e n dt ot h es p o n s o r s
of any p r o j e c t s
l i s t e di nt h ec o n s u l t a n t ' s
statement of q u a l i f i c a t i o n sS. h o u l d
any n e g a t i v ef a c t o r s
such as d e s i g n
d e f i c i e n c i e sf,a i l u r teo
meet s c h e d u l eospro orre c o rkde e p i nbge
revealed in this check,
the consultant should be afforded
an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e x p l a n a t i o n
or rebuttal.

3.3'5
The r e q u e s t sf o rp r o p o s a lt ob es e n t ot h ec o n s u l t a n t s
on the s h o r t l i s t o r
tothoseotherwiseselectedshouldcontainthedefinitivestatement
of t h e work and the
conditionsunder
which the work i s t o beaccomplished.
Any conditionsnotcovered
in
t h er e q u e s t sf o rp r o p o s a l
w i l l beconstrued
by t h ec o n s u l t a n t st o
mean t h a t that a s p e c t
of t h e work is t o be
performed
a t the c o n s u l t a n t 'ds i s c r e t i o n .
This is c e r t a i n l y
a c c e p t a b l e and a t times a d v a n t a g e o u ss i n c et h ep r o p o s a l st h e n
may o f f e ra l t e r n a t i v e s
providing the sponsor with an opportunity to choose the
most favourable.
3.3.6
The p r o p o s a losf f e r e d
by t hceo n s u l t a n t s
on t h seh o r t
l i s t should
then
be
e x a d n e d and ranked i n t h e same g e n e r a l manneremployed
i n the c r e a t i o n of t h es h o r t
l i s t . Thisexaminationshouldbe
more i n t e n s i v e t h a n t h e f i r s t s i n c e
the p r o p o s a l s are
r e l a t e dt ot h es p e c i f i cp r o j e c ta n dd i s p l a yt h ec o n s u l t a n t ' si n t e n d e da p p r o a c h ,o r g a n i zation and schedule for accomplishing the
work.
3.3.7
A series ofsampleforms
is provided i n Table 3-4 as a g u i d e l i n ef o rr a n k i n g
o f the proposals.
These
forms
are comprehensive
and
require
a large xpenditure
of
effort.
They are, t h e r e f o r ei,n t e n d e fdour s e
on large,
comprehensive
and
complex
p r o j e c t sa n ds h o u l d
be s i m p l i f i e d f o r a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o
smaller, less complex p r o j e c t s .
If the size or complexity
of t h e p r o j e c t w a r r a n t s i t , t h e r e v i e w and ranking should be
done by a team of e x p e r t s .
Competing c o n s u l t a n t sc a n
be interviewed a t t h i ss t a g et o
establishrapport,tolistento
t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n s ,t oq u e s t i o n
themand t o a l l o w them
to present their questions.
3.3.8
When anorderof
merit h a sb e e ne s t a b l i s h e d ,
a l l f i r m s who w i l l n o rt e c e i v e
f u r t h e rc o n s i d e r a t i o ns h o u l d
be so advised.
A sample l e t t e r i s i n c l u d e di nT a b l e
3-5.
T h ef i r ml i s t e d
as f i r s t i n t h e merit l i s t s h o u l d ' b e i n v i t e d t o d i s c u s s a n d e n t e r i n t o
n e g o t i a t i o n s on i t s p r o p o s a l t, h ec o n t r a c t
terms and t h ef e es t r u c t u r e .D u r i n g
these
n e g o t i a t i o n s , the d e t a i l s of t h e terms of referenceshouldbereviewedcompletelyto
e n s u r ef u l lm u t u a lu n d e r s t a n d i n g .D i s c u s s i o n ss h o u l di n c l u d et h ec o n t r a c t u a la n dl e g a l
requirements of the agreement and the detailed costs.

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


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No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

I C A O 9184 P A R T u ~d

rn

4843436 0020428 O T T

rn

P a rConsultant/Construction
t 3.- Guidelines
for
Services

31

T a b l e 3-2. Letter o f n o t i c e t o
f i r m sn o ts e l e c t e dt os u b m i tp r o p o s a l s

(Insert N a m e and Address)

Dear

W
e havecarefullyreviewed
a l l t h ee x p r e s s i o n s
of
interest received from various firrm which responded to
our
p r o j e c t .announcement
the
for
W
e
r e g r e t t o a d v i s e t h a t y o u r f i r m w a s not one of t h o s e select e d for thedevelopment of a technicalproposal.
W
e want
--- to thank you f o ry o u r
submis&onand
t o say t h a t we apprec i a t e your i n t e r e s ti n( i n s e r ti d e n t i t y
of p r o j e c t ) and
h o p e t h a t you w i l l c o n t i n u e t o b e i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o j e c t s
of
(name o fs p o n s o r

. ..

).

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Very t r u l y y o u r s ,

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


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No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

I C A O 9384 P A R T + 3

+*

LIB43436 0020429 T3b

32

A i r p o r t Planning Manual

T a b l e 3-3.
Letter r e q u e s t i n gr e f e r e n c e s
from a c o n s u l t a n t ' s p r e v i o u s c l i e n t

Dear
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

__

( i n s e r t name)

Theconsultingfirm(consultant's
name) is a candid a tfeot rh e
award of a c o n t r a c t for
(function)
of
(project)
H e h ag
s i v e nu s
h i s p e r m i s s i o nt oc o n t a c t
you r e g a r d ih
pniegsr f o r m a n c e
of t (hfeu n c t i o n )
of
( p r o j ect )

.
.

We would a p p r e c i a t e a b r i e df e s c r i p t i o no tfh e
p r o j e c t (, c o n s u l t a n t
's name) r o l e i nt h ep r o j e c t
and a n
e v a l u a t i o n of his a c c o e p l i s b e npta, r t i c u l a rilenyg atrod
technical competence and adherence t o schedule.
Very t r u l y y o u r s ,

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


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No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

.-

33

P a r t 3C o nGs ufliotdraenl ti /nCe o


s n sSt er ur vc it ci oe ns

Note:
These
sample
rating
forms
have
been
prepared
f o r u s ei nt h ee v a l u a t i o no f
probe s i m p l i f i e d andcondensed
p o s a l sf o rl a r g ea n d / o r
complex p r o j e c t s .T h ef o r ms h o u l d
t oa na p p r o p r i a t ed e g r e ef o ru s ei nt h ee v a l u a t i o n
o f smaller less complex p r o j e c t s .
E v e r yp r o j e c ta n dt a s kh a s
some u n i q u ec h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,
making i t v i r t u a l l yi m p o s s i b l e
form.
It is s u g g e s t e dt h a tt h e
l i s t o f i t e m t ob e
t op r e p a r e a " s t a n d a r d "e v a l u a t i o n
t o them, be
prepared
c o n s i d e r e df o trh ep r o p o s ael v a l u a t i o n
and t h ev a l u e as s s i g n e d
s e p a r a t e l yb y a t l e a s t two ( b u tp r e f e r a b l y more) i n d i v i d u a l sa n d
a f i n a lr a t i n gs y s t e m
b e p r e p a r e do nt h i sb a s i so fc o n s e n s u s .
On t h e sample f o r mf o l l o w i n g v, a l u e s( p o i n t
a l l o c a t i o n sh)a vbee eans s i g n eadr b i t r a r i l y
t o e a c h item.
The o n l y p u r p o sf eo r
i s t oc l a r i f yt h eu s a g eo ft h e
forms; no o t h e rs i g n i f i c a n c e
i n c l u d i n gt h e s e. v a l u e s
should b e i n f e r r e d .

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


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I C A O 7184 PARTx3 t t m 4 8 4 1 4 L b 0020431 694 m


34

Planning

Airport

Manual

PROPOSAL SUBMITTAL CHECKLIST


I n c l u s i o n and coverage of t h e f o l l o w i n g ,
with TOR reauirements:

i n accordance

A*
-

M*
-

NA*
-

PROJECT OVERVIEW
WORK PROGRAMME

- Task

description, bar

chart, CPM s c h e d u l e

ORGANIZATION AND MANPOWER

- O r g a n i z a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i n g firms
- Local association role
- Organization chart
- Personnel assignment schedule
- Manpower breakdown by t a s k a n d i n d i v i d u a l
- Curricula vitae for a l l professionals and in the
d e t a i l s p e c i f i e d i n TOR
QUALIFICATION OF PROPOSER
For e a c h i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i r m

- Firm description
-

Organization

- Financial status
- C l a r i f i c a t i o n statements re c o n f l i c t s
and litigations
- Experience on similar p r o j e c t s
- Experience on r e l a t e d p r o j e c t s

of i n t e r e s t

- Local associate
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

T o t a l no.

As, Ms, NAs

- -

Additionalquestions:

Yes

1.

Was proposalsubmitted

2.

Is the proposinggroupcomprised
of the same members a n d
formed t h e same way as f o r p r e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ?

3.

Is t h e r e a n y d a t a o r i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h
is n o t i n c l u d e d
and which does not permit
the e v a l u a t o r t o c o r q p l e t e t h e
e v a l u a t i o n o b j e c t i v e l y , w i t h o u t making u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d
assumptions?

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

by d e a d l i n e ?

Not for Resale

No

Not
determined

-- -- -

P a rConsultant/Construction
t 3.- Guidelines
for
Services

35

RATING FORM

Evaluation of t e c h n i c a l p r o p o s a l s f o r a i r p o r t p r o j e c t
Date r e cEevi va el uda
E
attvieo
a(lnsu)a t o r

Name of proposing group or firm:

Role*
-

Member firms

XParticipation**

Nationality

SlJIWARY OF SCORING
PART A,

1.
2.

3.
4.
PART B.
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1.
2.

3,

4.
PART

**
***

c.

scorn***

PROPOSAL (350 p o i n t s )
O v e r a l l q u a l i t y of proposal
Overview of p r o j e c t
Work programme & task coverage
Organization
Sub-total

35 p o i n t s
40 p o i n t s
185 p o i n t s

EXPERIENCE & EXPERTISE ( 2 0 0 - p o i n t s )

General
Studies
Design
Supervision of construction

30 p o i n t s
80 n o i n t s

60 Loints
30 p o i n t s
Sub-total

200 p o i n t s

TOTAL

1 000 p o i n t s

PERSONNEL (450 p o i n t s )

P s p r i n c i p a l ; JV=member of j o i n tv e n t u r e or consortium;SCIpartipating
as a no u t s i d e
c o n s u l t a n t o r s u b c o n t r a c t o r ; OTHER=(specify by f o o t n o t e ) .
To be developed using Professional man-months
f o r breakdown by firm, see P a r t C ,
Personnel.
F i l l i n a p p r o p r i a t e column o r space.

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ICAO 9184 P A R T 8 3

36

**

D 4 8 4 3 4 3 6 0020433 4b7

Planning

Airport

Manual

PART A
PROPOSAL (350 p o i n t s )
( I n t e r p o l a t i o n between s c o r i n g g u i d e l i n e s i s a p p r o p r i a t e )
SCORE

I.

OVERALL QUALITY OF PROPOSAL ( 3 5 , p o i n t s )


(As a guide,review"checklist",page
2)
a)

C l a r i t y of p r e s e n t a t i o n
Excellent(15);
Good (10); F a i r( 5 ) ;

Poor (0)

b)Completeness
of p r e s e n t a t i a n
Excellent(20);
Good (10); F a i r( 5 ) ;

Poor (0)
A. 1 Sub-total

2.

OVERVIEW OF PROJECT (40 p o i n t s )

a)

P r opos er' s fam i l i a ri z at i o n wi t h a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g


the project
Excelle n t (15); Good (10); Fair ( 5 ) ; Poor (0)

of

b)Proposer'sstatementsregardingdevelopment
of t h e
p r o j e c t , c o n s t r u c t i v e viewson TOR, e l a b o r a t i o n or
emphasis of c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of t h e p r o j e c t , etc.
Excellent(25);
Good (1 5 );Fai r( 5 ) ;
Poor (0)
A . 2 Sub-total

3.

WORK PROGRAMME AND TASK COVERAGE (185 p o i n t s )

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

a)

Overalltechnicalapproach
t o accomplishingthe
work, i n c l u d i n g c o n s t r u c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e means o r
accomplishing the work
Excellen t ( 2 0 ) ; Good (1s); F a i r (10);Poor
(0)

b)

S u i t a b i l i t y of work plan,thoroughness of coverage


of scope of work,and d e s c r i p t i o n of how work (not
o n l yt h a t work) w i l l be c a r r i e do u t * (By t a s k area,
as s ign a p p ro p rfa t e s c o re . )

Excel- Good
Fair
Poor Score
--

Task area

lent
-

1. Data c o l l e c t i o surveys
n and
2. Forecasting
and
programming
3. Development of a l t e r n a t i v e s
10
master plan
and 15
4. Preliminary
design
des ign
5. F in a l
10
s erdes
vices
6. ign
Post

15
15

10
20

10
10

5
15
5

5
5

0
0

5
0
10
0

0
0
0
0

Sub-total 3 b)
3 a) & 3 b) carry forward

May want t oc o n s u l tt h e
s ized.

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


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No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

manpower a l l o c a t i o n which i n d i c a t e st a s k

Not for Resale

areas being empha-

Part
Consultant/Construction
3 . - Guidelines
for
Services
PART A

3.

37

- PROPOSAL (350

points) (Cont'd)

WORK PROGRAMME AND TASK COVERAGE (Cont'd)Scorebrought


forward.
c)

S u i t a b i l i t y of t a s k d i v i s i o n & scheduling t o
accomplish t h e work and meet TOR deadlines:
Excellent (20); Good (15); Fair (10); Poor (0)

d)

Coverage oftasks by p r o f e s s i o n a lp e r s o n n e l
s u i t a b i l i t y of staff assignments (are d i s c i p l i n e s
and e x p e r t i s e of i n d i v i d u a l s a s s i g n e d i n
accordance with the scope
of work of t a s k s t o
which they are a s s i g n e d ? )
by t a s k area as follows:

-Good

Task area

1. A i r f i e l d
r a s t2r u cItnufr e
3. Terminal area
4. T e r m i n a l b u i l d i n g
5. Support
and
a n c i l l a r y areas
6 . Support
and
a n c i l lbauriyl d i n g s

10
10

Fair
Marginal
5

IO

5
5
5
5

10

0
10

0
0
0
0
0
0

Score
-

Sub-total 3 d)
A.3 Sub-total

4.

'

ORGANIZATION ( 9 0 p o i n t s )
Proposer's organization structure to perform the
work
(number and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of firms)*:
Well organized (20); Workable (10); Questionnable (0)
Local p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p e r f o r m i n g t h e work:
Good (20); F a i r (10); Poor (0)
Proposer's logistical plan to accomplish the
work,
i.e. breakdown of work done l o c a l l y and abroad and on
and off site:
Good (20); F a i r (10); Questionnable (0)
Effective use of personnel
on p r o j e c t (is.scheduling
such that excessive mobilization
i s not incurred; are
a n e x c e s s i v e number of s h o r t - t e r m e x p e r t s . p r o p o s e d ? ) :
Good ( 2 0 ) ; F a i r (10); Poor ( 0 )
Adequacy and a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o proposed nonprofessional support staff (surveyors, draftsmen,
o t h e r t e c h n i c i a n s , etc. 1:
Good (10); F a i r ( 5 ) ; Poor (0)

A . 4 Sub-total
PART A

- TOTAL

For j o i n tv e n t u r e so r
a consortiumof
many forms,considerationshould
be given t o
previous working relationships, manageability of the consortium
and combined e f f o r t s
and a l l o c a t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e s u b j e c t f i r m s .

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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ICAO 9184 P A R T t 3 t t

38

48414Lb 0020435 23T W

Planning
PART B

- PROPOSER'S

Airport

EXPERIENCE (RECENT) SI EXPERTISE (200 p o i n t s ) l

RATING^ x
1.

Manual

WEIGHT
FACTOR

-= SCORE

GENERAL (30 point.8)

a)
b)

Handling of c o n t r a c t so fc o m p a r a t i v e
s i z e and complexity
Experience i n c o u n t r y o r r e g i o n
Sub-total

2.

STUDIES (80 points)

Air and ground t r a f f i c

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

U t i l i t y demand and supply


Site selection
Airspace
Geotechnical
Environmental
Atrf i e l d l a y o u t
Terminal area l a y o u t
Terminal building
Composite master p l a n

3.0
1.0
2.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

2.0
3.0
3.0
3.0

=
=
=

=
=
=
=
=
5

Sub-total

3.

DESIGN (60 p o i n t s )

a) A i r f i e l d
b)
Terminal
buildings
c) Cargo b u i l d i n g s Q hangars
d )U t i l i t ys y s t e m s
e) Roads
f) A i r c r a f tf u e l l i n gs y s t e m s

X
X
X
X
X

3.0

3.0
3.0
2.5
2.5

l,o

=
=

=
=
=

=
=

Sub-total

4.

SUPERVISION OF CONSTRUCTION (30 p o i n t s )


a) Buildings
b )A i r f i e l da n dr o a d s
c ) U t i l i t ys y s t e m s

X
X
X

3.0
2
.5 .
_.
2.0
Sub-total

PART B TOTAL =
k o n s i d e r number, s i z e or l e n g t h a n d l o c a t i o n
of . , a p p l i c a b l ep r o j e c t su n d e r t a k e n
in t h e
l a s t 10 years.
Also, t h er o l e or percentage of work undertaken by t h ef i r m on t h o s e
projects.
2Rating: 4 = Outstanding; 3 = Good; 2 = Adequate; 1 = MargFnal; 0 = Not demonstrated,

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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X*

4 8 4 1 4 L b 0020436 176

Part 3.- G u i d e l i n e s for C o n s u l t a n t / C o n s t r u c t i o n S e r v i c e s

PART C

- PERSONNEL

39

(450 p o i n t s )

BASIC SCORJ3S TO BE USED I N ASSESSMNT OF PROFESSIONAL EXPPRIENCE

s CORE
-

Aswm
EDUCATION
OVERALL EXWRIENCE
PERTINENT EXPERIENCE
WITH FIRM

WORK ABROAD

TOTAL

I.

10
5
20
5
10

50 p o i n t s / p e r s o n

PROJECT MANACXMENT ( p i c k

N M

3) (150 t o t a l p o i n t s )
POS ITION

s CORE

TITLE

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1.
2.

3.
Sub-total C-1
11. KEY PROFESSIONAL STAFF ( p i c k 6 ) (300 total p o i n t s )

NAME

POS ITION

s CORE

TITI5

1.
2.

3.

4.
5.

6.
Sub-total C-2

TOTAL
PART

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


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.40

Airport Planning Manual

T a b l e 3-5.- Letter of n o t i c e t o
firms whose p r o p o s a l s w i l l n o t b e c o n s i d e r e d f u r t h e r

( I n s e r t Name and Address)

Dear

W
e want t ot h a n k
you very rmch f o ry o u rp r o p o s a l
a n dt os a yt h a t
w e a p p r e c i a t ey o u ir n t e r e s t
in ( i n s e r t
identity of project) and hope that
you w i l l continue t o b e
i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o j e c t s of
(name o f sponsor)

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


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Not for Resale

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

We c a r e f u l l ye v a l u a t e dt h ep r o p o s a l
you submitted
p r ot o
j et hcus
et . o n
We r e g r e t t o
a d v i s e t h a t your firm was n o t s e l e c t e d f o r t h e n e g o t i a t i o n
of the contract.

I C A O 7384 P A R T * 3

tt

484L4Lb 0020438

P a rC
t o3.n s uG
l ft a
u
on
irdt leC
l ionnS
essetrrvuicctei o
sn

41

If agreement is nroeta c h ewdit h e


f i r s t ranked
firm,
i t should
be
3.3.9
n o t i f i e d i n writing.
The secondranked f i r m s h o u l db ei n v i t e df o rn e g o t i a t i o n s
and so
o n u n t i l a s a t i s f a c t o r y agreement i s reached.
Once a f i r m h a s b e e n r e j e c t e d ,
i t is not
c o n s i d e r e de t h i c a lt or e o p e nn e g o t i a t i o n s .
When agreementhasbeenreached,
a l l those
firms not previously advised should be notified.
3.3.10
The above-mentionedsample letters are n o ti n t e n d e d t o supersedestandard
( o r i n d i v i d u a l ) letters which t h es p o n s o r may choose t o write. They are intendedonly
as g u i d e l i n e s t o t h e e x t e n t o f i n f o r m a t i o n
which shouldbeprovided.
The p r e p a r a t i o n of
p r o p o s a l su s u a l l yi n v o l v e sc o n s i d e r a b l ec o s ta n de f f o r tt oc o n s u l t a n t s .I n q u i r i e sf r o m
c o n s u l t a n t s as t ot h er e a s o n sf o rn o n - s e l e c t i o n
are notunusual.Responses
t o such
letters may c a r r y c e r t a i n l e g a l i o p l i c a t i o n s a n d s h o u l d b e f o r u u l a t e d w i t h t h a t i n mind.
However, responsesshouldbe
as c o n p l e t e as p o s s i b l ef o rt h eu u t u a lb e n e f i t
of t h e
s p o n s o r a n d t h e c o n s u l t a n t on o t h e r p o t e n t i a l p r o j e c t s .
/

3.6

FEE PROPOSAL

3.4.1
Many S t a t e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s do n roet q u e s t
a f eper o p o s auln ttihl e
technicalproposalshavebeen
examined and t h ec o n s u l t a n ts e l e c t e d .O t h e rS t a t e s
and
organizationp
s refer
or are r e q u i r e d by l a w t or e q u e s t
and r e c e i v ef e ep r o p o s a l s
s i m r l t a n e o u s l yw i t ht h et e c h n i c a lp r o p o s a l s .
When t h i s i s done, t h e p r e f e r e d method is
f o r t h e c o n s u l t a n t s t o s u b m i t t e c h n i c a l and f e e p r o p o s a l s i n s e p a r a t e , s e a l e d e n v e l o p e s .
3.4.2
The t e c h n i c aplr o p o s a l s
are t h e n a l l opened and examined b e f o rtehfee e
proposals are opened.
The purpose
of
t h i s i s t oe n s u r et h a t h ee v a l u a t i o n
of t h e
technicp
a lr o p o s a l s
i s not
consciously
or subconsciously
influenced
by t hfee e
proposals.
3.4.3
F o l l w i n gt h er a n k i n go cf o n s u l t a n t s
on t h eb a s i s
of t h e v a l u a t i o no tfh e
technicalproposals,thefeeproposalsshould
beopened and examined. Unless t h e r e are
s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e proposed fees, s e l e c t i o n of t h e c o n s u l t a n t s h o u l d b e made
o nt h eb a s i s
of t h et e c h n i c a pl r o p o s a l s .
If t h e r e are s i g n i f i c a n d
t i f f e r e n c e s t, h e
technical proposals should be
re-examined t o determine whether there are d i f f e r e n c e s i n
t h e proposed work programme w h i c h a c c o u n t f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n f e e .
3.4.4
The s p o n s osrh o u l d
r e c o g n i z teh atth q
euality
e f f o r t may produce a s a v i n g s i n c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s
in d e s i g n f e e s

3.5

and t i m e l i n e s s of t h d
eesign
which may w e l l outweighanysavings

SOURCES FOR LOCATING QUALIFIED FIRMS

a)

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

The Internationat Fedemtion of Consulting Engineers (PIDIC)


comprising the fotl&ng national bodies:

Not for Resale

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

3.5.1
There are s e v e r a el x c e l l e n st o u r c e sf o rl o c a t i n gq u a l i f i e dc o n s u l t i n g
firms.
I ng e n e r a l ,
noneof
t h eo r g a n i z a t i o n sl i s t e d
below w i l l recommend a p a r t i c u l a r f i r m ;
t h e y w i l l p r o v i d e s e v e r a l names. In some cases, t h e l i s t may c o n t a i n names of firm f o r
which t h e f i l e s do nothavecompleteorup-to-dateinformation.
It i s w o r t hw h i l et o
o b t a i n na&s of p r o s p e c t i v e c o n s u l t a n t s f r o m
more thanonesource
when p o s s i b l e . Among
are:
the organizations that maintain files containing information concerning consultants

42

Airport Planning

Manual

Australia
The A66OC&~tiOnof ConsultingEngineers,

Australia

Bel u
im
+mbre
des Inse/nieursConseils de Belaicwe
Kamer van Raad&ueruie Ingenieurs van Bilgie

Bmail

Assoe&yiib Brasiteiru de Consultores de Engenharia

Canada
Association of Consulting Ehgineers of Canada
D m r k
Foreningen a f Radgivende Ingenwrer

Finlad
Suomen Neuvottetevion Insinoorien L i i t t o
pinlands Komulterands Ingen.jorers Forbund
F?W?li?S

de fiance

T i m b r e des Ing&ieur+Conseils

G e m n y (Fedem1 Republic of)


Verband Beratender Ingenieure

VBI

Hong K o n g
The A68OC&~tiOnof Consulting Ehgineers,

Hong Kong

Iceland
Fetag Radgjafawerkfraedinga
Irmr (Islamic Republic o f )
IPanian Association 0f Consul ting Ehgineers
Ireland
Cmman Innealtoiri Comhairle na bEireann
A6GOcicrtwn of Consulting Engineers of Ireland
Ismet
7
e Israel As8OCiatiOn o f ConsuZting Engineers
Italy
Associ~zsione IngegneriConsul t e n t i I t a 1 i a n i
Japan
The Association of Japanese Consulting Engineers
I

Ken
+e

Association of Consulting Ehgineers of Kenya

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

I C A O 9184 P A R T t 3 tt

Part 3

4 8 4 1 4 1 b 0020440 bT7

.-G u i d e l i n e s for Consultant/Construction


Services

Matad
fie Associcrtion of Con8ulting Ghgineers of Centrat
Africa

Ne23 zeatand
The Association of Comulting Bzgineers, iUew Zealund

Spain

Asoci&cio/n E s p s l a de Consultores de in genie^&

Suedm
S u s n s k a ~onsutterande ~ngenjorers
Forening
Switaertand
Association a C 8 8 S de8 Ing&ieur&Conssits
Schnsiaerischer VerbandBePatsndeP Ingenieups
United Kingdom
The AS8OCii~tiOn of Consulting Ehgineers
United States of Americu
American Consul ting Ehgineers' CounciZ
Zimbabm
The Assoc.iation of Coneutting Engineers' of Centra2
A f rica

dl

!The United

States Agency f o r InternationaZ DeveZopnent

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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Not for Resale

43

44

Airport Planning Manual

e)

The Uhited s t a t e s Ehgineers' Council

f) Civil Aviation Authorities of ICAO Member States


g)

A i r p o p t administrative bodies mrld-wide (names and


addPe88e8 can be obtained from the "World Aviation

Directory")
h)

The Internationat Bank f o r Reconstruction and & v e t o p e n t

(world BanW

The A d Devslopnmt Bmrk

I)

The A s h Developnent Bank

m)

The Caribbean Devetopnent Bank

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

k)

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

1.
I

4 1 INTRODUCTIOl
4.1.1
This c h a p t e d
r e s c r i b e st h et y p e s
of c o n t r a c t g
s e n e r a l l yu s e di nt h e
employare d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 7.
ment of c o n s u l t a n t s . C o n t r a c t s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n s e r v i c e s

4.2

CONTRACT TYPE (FBE W I S )

4.2.1
There are f o u rb a s i cc o n t r a c t y p e s
determining consultants' fees is concerned:

i n g e n e r a lu s ei n s o f a r

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

4.1.2
A d r a f to ft h e
proposedcontractshouldbeprepared
and s u b m i t t e df o r conditionalapprovalandfor
comment a n d r e v i s i o n t o a l l organizations whose f i n a l a p p r o v a l
op
r articipation
w i l l be required.
This
draft
contract
should
be p r o v i d e d
to
the
s e l e c t e dc o n s u l t a n t oa f f o r d
him t h eo p p o r t u n i t yt os t u d yt h e
term, d i s c u s sh i s
d e t a i l e d f i n a n c i a l p r o p o s a l s and develop alternatives which are b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e sponsorand/ortheconduct
of t h e work. Following-anynegotiationswiththeselected
cons u l t a n t , any new term agreed upon between sponsor and consultant
nust be resubmitted to
the concerned organizations for f i n a l approval.

as t h e method of

a) 8aZary cost times a ntuZtipZhr, p l u s dsreot, non-3uZary

e;Fpen-;

bl

uost ptus a fi=csd p y w n t ;

0)

fhd

ztrnp 8m paylent; d

dl percentage

of c a s t r u o t w n c o s t .

Each.type is described i n the following paragraphe.


4.2.2
While any of t h e above-mentloned f e e ba8eS can be used i n a coaeultancy
c o n t r a c t ,l o g i cd i c t a t e st h a tc e r t a i nc o n t r a c tt y p e s
are more a p p r o p r i a t et h a no t h e r s
Anumg t h e f a c t o r s that e n t e r i n t o t h i s l o g i c are the following:
f o r - any s p e c i f i c t a s k .
a)

b)

the degree to &adoh the scope of nark can be define&


the degrse to &ich the durat*n

of

W P ~
ban

be def3ned;

a?ld
c)

the 8pon8or's staffing rsquireme.nt f o r adminietmtion and


audit for each t g p s o f oonlract

4.2. 3
While l o g i c may favour a p a r t i c u l a rt y p e
of c o n t r a c t ,t h el i m i t a t i o n s
which
may beimposed
by l a w , u s u a ls t a n d a r dp r a c t i c e s
or by outsidelendingagencies,could
governthetype
of c o n t r a c tt o . b e used.Shouldnoneof
t h e s ef a c t o r s be p r e s e n t ,t h e

45

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


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Not for Resale

46

Planning

Airport

Manual

c o n s u l t a n t may have a p r e f e r e n c e f o r a s p e c i f i c t y p e of c o n t r a c t . If t h e c o n s u l t a n t c a n
demonstratethathisproposedtypeofcontract
is beneficial(or a t least notdisadvaw
t a g e o u s )t ot h es p o n s o r d
, u ec o n s i d e r a t i o ns h o u l db eg i v e nt oa d o p t i n gt h a t y p e
of
contract.

4.3

SALARY COST T X S A MULTIPLIERPLUS

DIRECT NON-GALAKY EXPeNSE

4.3.2
T h em u l t i p l i e rw h i c h
i s a p p l i e dt os a l a r yc o s t
is a factorwhichcompensates
t h ec o n s u l t a n tf o ro v e r h e a d ,
(see 4 . 3 . 4 1 , p l u s a r e a s o n a b l e m a r g i n f o r p r o f i t . T h e s i z e
o f t h e r m l t i p l i e r w i l l v a r yw i t ht h et y p eo f
work, t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and experience of
the c o n s u l t a n t , and thegeographic
area i n w h i c ht h eo f f i c e
i s l o c a t e d .S a l a r i e so r
imputed salaries of p a r t n e r s o r p r i n c i p a l s , t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y p e r f o r m t e c h n i c a l o r
a d v i s o r ys e r v i c e sd i r e c t l ya p p l i c a b l et ot h ep r o j e c t ,
are considered as s a l a r yc o s t .
Since, on this basis
of payment, t h e salaries a r e t h e most inportant element
of c o s t , i t
i s a d v i s a b l e for t h es p o n s o rt or e a c ha na g r e e m e n tw i t ht h ec o n s u l t a n to n
the salary
ranges f o r e a c h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f l a b o u r c h a r g e a b l e . I n
80 doingheminimizestheposs i b i l i t y o f d i s p u t e s d u r i n g audits o f t h e c o n s u l t a n t ' s a c c o u n t s .
4.3.3
Direct non-salary
expenses
usually
incurred
the following:

i n such
engagements

al

living and t m v e t t i n g expenses of ewt0yse8, paptne~s, and


primipals when away from the home o f f i c e on bU8im388 connected with the project;

bl

identifiable comnunication expense, such a8 long-distance


telephone,
tetegmph,
cable
expW88 chappa, and p08tczg8,
othep than f o r gemma1 correspondence;
servicesdirectlyappticabte
t o the work, such asspecial
legal and accounting expense8, conputer rental and p r o m
ming cost8, speckt consuttants,
bomhqs,
laboratory
Charges, comrserciat pPinting and binding, and similar cost8
that are not appticabts to general overhead;
identifiable d m f t i n g suppties and expenses charged t o the
Ctient'8 Work, CCB distinguished
from
such 8Upplie8 and
expenses appticabte t o two or more p ~ o j e c t s ;and

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


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No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

may i n c l u d e

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

4.3.1
For many p r o j e c t s i t is n opt o s s i b l et o
s t a t e a c c u r a t e l yt h es c o p eo f
work
a t the time t h ec o n s u l t a n t
is r e t a i n e df o rt h ep r o j e c t T
. h ep r e l i m i n a r ye n g i n e e r i n g
s e r v i c e ss, u c h
as s u r v e y si,n v e s t i g a t i o n sp, r e p a r a t i o n
obf u d g e t
estimates, p r o c e s s
s t u d i e s ,d e v e l o p m e n to fa l t e r n a t el a y o u tp l a n s ,
and o t h e rs e r v i c e s needed t o e s t a b l i s h
the f i n a ld e s i g n ,
are u s u a l l y so i n d e t e r m i n a t ei ns c o p et h a tn e i t h e r
a lump sum nor a
f i x e dp e r c e n t a g eo fc o n s t r u c t i o nc o s t
would b ea ne q u i t a b l eb a s i so fc o m p e n s a t i o n .
Furthermore, on many p r o j e c t s ,d u r i n gt h ed e s i g np h a s e ,
i t becomes n e c e s s a r yt o undert a k e a d d i t i o n a l i n v e s t i g a t i v e work, t h e r e s u l t s of which may f u r t h e r a l t e r the s c o p e of
t h ep r o j e c t .C o m p e n s a t i o nf o r
services o nt h eb a s i so ft h es a l a r yc o s to ft h e
work,
times a n a g r e e d m l t i p l i e r
i s a s a t i s f a c t o r y a n d e q u i t a b l e method f o r s u c h a s s i g n m e n t s ,
when the e f f o r et q u i r e d
is u n d u ldyi f f i c utplotr e d e t e r m i n e .
Direct non-salary
expenses are o r d i n a r i l y c o n s i d e r e d as a s e p a r a t e item f o r reimbursement.

I C A O 9L84 P A R T * 3

*t

4841416 0020444 2 4 2

=
47

Part 3.- Guidelines


Consultant/Construction
for
Services
e)

identifiabZe reproduction costsapplicable t o the work, such


as
blueprinting,
photostating,
mimeogmphing, printing,
etc.

These expenses, which seldom 'can be determined in advance with any degree of accuracy,
are reimbursed by the client at actual invoice cost.

l i g h t , heat, and simitar items f o r


a ) provisions f o ro f f i c e ,
working space, depreciation attonancss or rentat for furnG
ture, dPafting equipnent and engineering instnrmsnts, automobile exp87~8e8,und o f f i c e and d r a f t i n g supplies not iden+
ifiabtetospecificprojects;
... .

.-

b) imurance and taxes (other than income tax);


library and periodical ~(cpenses, and other meat28 of keeping
abreastof
a d v m e s i n engineer{ng, such a8 attendmrce a t
technicat and pmfess&maZ meetings;

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

4.3.4
The consultant's overhead, which comprises a major portion of the compensation generated by the rmltiplier on salary cost, includes the following "indirect"
costs, which are not directly allocable to specific engagements:

executive,administrative,
accounting, tegat, stenographic,
and clericat salar-ies and expenses, other than identifiable
satariss included i n s a t a q c o s t s and expensesincluded i n
reimburseable no-salary expenses, plus sala~ieso r imputed
salaries of paPtners and principats, to the extent that they
perform general executive and czdnrinistrative services as
distinguished from technicat OP adviso~yservices'directty
and
applicable t o particular
projects.
nese
services
eqsnse8, essentiut to the
conduct of thebusiness,include
preliminary arrangements f o r new projects orassignments,
and interest onborrowed capital;
business developnentexpenses,
6ncluding salaries of priw
cipats and salary costs of smptoyees so engaged; and
provision f o r toss of productive time of technicat employees
assigments, and for time of principals and
employees on public i n t m e s t assig.mnents.

between

4.4

COST PLUS A FIXED PAYMENT

4.4.1
For many engineering projects, the consultant is required to start work
before the cost and detailed scope of the project can be accurately determined.
Such
indeterminate projects generally result from requirements for speed, special problems
which require studies, research or experimental work, preparation of estimates for
alternate types of construction, and other requirements. The contract, however, should
carry a reasonably well developed description or statement of the scope of work contemplated - that is, the number, size and character of buildings or other facilities, the
extent of utilities and other items.

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


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No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

**

I C A O 9384 P A R T m 3

484L4Lb 0020445 389

Planning

48

Airport

Manual

For t h i tsy p o
epf r o j e c tt,h ce o s t - p l u s - f i x e d - p a y m e n t
method o f f e r s a satisf a c t o r yb a s i sf o rp e r f o r m i n gt h es e r v i c e .
Under the cost-plus-fixed-paymentcontracts,
i s r e i m b u r s e df otrh ea c t u acl o s t s
o f all h i ss e r v i c e s
and s u p p l i e s
t h ec o n s u l t a n t
including the following:

4.4.2

a )S a i h yc o s t .
b)

Overhead.

A8

previously &fined.

A 8 previously
defined.

B e consultant should be

preparsd t o support the bases f o r h i s overhead charges.

C)

Direct m - s a t a r y s;lcpsnses. A 8 previouslydefined.

d)

In addition t o reimbursement f o r costa


F3xed payment.
zncluded i n a ) . b) and c ) above. theconsultant is m i d a
f i x e d amount f & prof it. f i e fried payment vapies w&h the
scopeof the engineering eemrices involved. lhis m y be an
of theprojectatthe
amount b e d on theestimatedcost
i s engaged. B e ~06t-ptue-u1-fi~ed-paytimetheconsuttant
ment basis of conpermation requires, a6 a prerequisite t o
equitabte negotiation, that the
scope of the project itself
be f a i r l y wstl defined, and t h a tt h es e ~ v i c e st o
be pew
formed by theconsultant be f u t t y s e t f o r t h i n t h e a g r e e
ment. Such agreements should at80provide f o r approppiate
adjustments i nt h e
f i x e d payment, in theeventthatthe
physical scope oftheproject,time
f o r coqletion, or the
servicss required are m t e r i a t t y increased over that contemplated during the negoticrtions.
4.5

FIXED LUMPSUM PAYMENT

This
method.
of
compensating
consultants
is u s efdr e q u e n t lfyoi nr v e s t i g a when t h e s c o p e
t i o n s a n ds t u d i e s and for b a s i c s e r v i c e s o n d e s i g r t y p e p r o j e c t s
assignments to be undertaken can be clearly and fully defined.

4.5.1

of t h e

4.5.2
Two methods a r eg e n e r a l l yu s e dt oa r r i v e
a t a lump-sum c o m p e n s a t i o n
f otrh e
b a s i cs e r v i c e so nd e s i g n - t y p ep r o j e c t s .
The f i r s t o ft h e s e
is t h ec o m p u t a t i o n
of a
lump sum a s a n a p p r o p r i a t e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e e s t i m a t e d c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t o f t h e p r o j e c t .
Thesecond
is d i r e c t development of a f i x e d amount ofcompensation,
b y e s t i m a t i n gt h e
i n d i v i d u a le l e m e n t so ft h ed e s i g no u t l i n e di nt h ef o r e g o i n gs e c t i o n ,p l u s
a reasonable
m a r g i no fp r o f i t ,
a l l expressed as a s i n g l e lump sum. These two methods are f r e q u e n t l y
u s e dc o n c u r r e n t l y ,e a c h
a s a c h e c ko nt h eo t h e r .F o ra r r i v i n g
a t a lump-sum compensat i o nf o ri n v e s t i g a t i o n s
and s t u d i e s ,t h es e c o n do ft h e
two precedingmethods
i s genera l l y used.

4.5.3
Where c o n s u l t a t i o n i s undertaken
on
a lump-sum b a s i st ,haeg r e e m e nsth o u l d
d e s i g n a t e a c a l e n d a r limit w i t h i n w h i c h t h e s e r v i c e s
a r e t ob ep e r f o r m e d ,
and a provitime i n e x c e s so ft h a ts t a t e d ,p r o v i d e dt h a tt h e
s i o nf o ra d d i t i o n a lc o m p e n s a t i o nf o r
e x t e n s i o n o f time is n o t d u e t o d e l a y s o n t h e p a r t o f t h e c o n s u l t a n t . I n d e s i g n a s s i g n a provision
f ocr o m p e n s a t i o n
f ocr h a n g e rse q u i r e d
a f t etrh e
m e n t st,h e r seh o u l d
be
approval of preliminary designs.

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Part 3.-Consultant/Construction
Guidelines
for
Services

4.5.4
logical

49

Whenthelump-sumpaymentmethodisuseditshouldbebrokendowninto
sub-parts to facilitate negotiations and progress payments.
4.6

'

PERCENTAGE OF CONSTRUCTION COST

4.6.1
This method has been widely used for determining the compensation of consulting engineers on assignments where the principal responsibility is the designof
various works, and the preparation of drawings, specifications, and other contract d
ments necessary f o r the description of facilities to be constructed. Construction cost
is defined as-the total cost to the client for the execution
of the work authorized at
or
one time and handled in each separate phase of consultant services, excluding fees
other costs for legal services, the cost
of land, rights-of-way, legal and administrative expenses, but including the direct cost to the client of all construction contracts; items of construction, including labour, materials, and equipment required for
the completed work (including extras) and equipment purchased or fvrnished directly
by
the client for the project.

4.6.2
Overtheyears,engineeringexperiencehasestablished
some approximate
correlations between engineering costs and construction costs, for certain types
of
engineering design, where design procedures and .materials or construction are more
or
less standardized. These correlations have resulted
in various curves and schedules
which have been widely used
- so w c h so that they are sometimes mistakenly regarded as
fixed basis of compensation f o r design projects of any kind.
Two of the curves in
2-1 and 2-2.
common usage are included in Figures
4.6.3
Thevaliditypfthe
percentage-of-construction-cost methodrestsuponthe
assumption that engineering costs vary
in proportion to the cost of construction, irrespective of the location
or type of construction undertaken. This is a questionable
assumption, however, it is not intended to imply that these assumed relationships
between engineering costs and construction costs are no longer of value. When judiciously applied, and with due consideration of the ranges within which engineering
may vary, they remain valuable
as tools for general comparison with lump-sum or salarypluslnultiplier charges for design services. Their acceptance over many years also
affords a valuable guide for judging the reasonableness of proposals for engineering
services.
4.7

CONTRACT FORMATAND PROVISIONS

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

4.7.1
The relations of the consultant with the sponsor should be clearly defined
by a written agreement before commencement of actual work.
All of the terms should be
clearly defined in the agreement.
It should state the parties to the contract and
define the complete extent and character
of the work to be performed
as well as conditions relating to any time limitations which may be involved. The terms and payments
for various services should follow.
The scope of the consultant effort should be
described in complete detail to determine whether
some services will need to be otherwise contracted for or be provided by the sponsor.

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A i r p o r t P1 anning Manual

50

4.7.2
C o n s u l t a ncto n t r a c tuss u a l lcyo v ehri g h ltye c h n i c as le r v i c e sT.h e r e f o r et o,
a l e g a l document, i t is e s s e n t i a l t h a t someone who hasthorough
e n s u r et h es o u n d n e s so f
knowledge o f t h ep r o j e cpt r e p a r et h es e c t i o n d
s e s c r i b i n gs e r v i c e tsob ep e r f o r m e d ,
sequence of work, i n f o r m a t i o n t o b e f u r n i s h e d b y t h e s p o n s o r , a n d
terms o f payment.
4.7.3
Many government a g e n c i e sb,u s i n e sfsi r m s ,
and e n g i n e e r i n og r g a n i z a t i o n s
have
d e v e l o p e sdt a n d a r d i z e d
forms f oer n g i n e e r i n g
and p l a n n i n g
contracts.
tiowever, i t i s
g e n e r a l l yn e c e s s a r yt om o d i f yt h e s es t a n d a r da g r e e m e n t st or e f l e c tt h es p e c i f i c
terms
a n dc o n d i t i o n sa p p l i c a b l et o
a p a r t i c u l a rp r o j e c t .T h e s em o d i f i c a t i o n ss h o u l db e
caref u l l y examined f o r c o m p l i a n c e w i t h a p p l i c a b l e l a w .
4.7.4
T hceo n t r a cbte t w e etnhsep o n s oarntdhceo n s u l t a ns th o u leds t a b l i sthh e
s c o p e of work b a s e do nc a r r y i n go u th i sp r o f e s s i o n a ld u t i e su n d e rt h er e q u i r e m e n t so f
law.
T h ec o n t r a c ts h o u l d ,t h e r e f o r e ,b ee x p l i c i t
as t ot h e l a w s which w i l l g o v e r nt h e
contract and any disputes arising therefrom.
4.7.5
It i s common under a c o n t r a c tf o ro n ef i r mt op r o v i d et h eb a s i cs e r v i c e sa n d
as s u b - c o n t r a c t o r st ot h em a i n
firm. I n
o n e o r more o t h e r s t o p r o v i d e s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s
t h e s e cases, t h ef i r mp r o v i d i n gt h eb a s i cc o n s u l t a n ts e r v i c e s
i s c o n s i d e r e dt h ep r i n work o f t h e s e e n g i n e e r i n g / c o n s u l t a n t
c i p a l c o n s u l t a n t who c o - o r d i n a t e s a n d o v e r s e e s t h e
f i r m s and h a s t h e o v e r a l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y
and q u a l i t y o f t h e work.
I t i s , t h e r e f o r e ,e x t r e m e l yi m p o r t a n tt h a tt h ec o n t r a c tc l e a r l ys p e c i f yt h ed i v i s i o n
of
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d a u t h o r i t y b e t w e e n a l l p a r t i e s engaged i n c a r r y i n g o u t e l e m e n t s o f t h e
proj ect

4.7.6
The f i n a l terms o tf h ec o n t r a c t
w i l l p r o b a b l yn oet v o l v eu n t inl e g o t i a t i o n s
havebeenconpletedtothesatisfactionofbothpartiestothecontract.
However, i t i s
o f extreme i m p o r t a n c et h a t
8 d r a f tc o n t r a c tb ep r e p a r e d
as a s t a r t i n gp o i n tf o rt h e
negotiation.
4.7.7
The f o l l o w i n c
g h e c k l i sct o n t a i ntsh e
more i m p o r t a n t items and p r o v i s i o n s to
be considered in preparing any contract for consultant services:

a)

effectivedate of contract;

b)

m e 8 and descriptions of the parties to the


agreement with
t h e i r addresses and, i n the case of a corporate body, the
legat description of the corporatwn;

c)

nature,extent,
and character of theprojdct,
thereof, and the time Zimitatwns;

dl

services, incZuding p e r f o m n c e #ad delivery schedules, t o


be rendered by the c o n 8 u ~ h n t ;

el

detineation of responsibilities of the


consultant,
the
sponsor, and otherconsuttanta and partiesinvotved
p e y f o m n c e of the project;

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Not for Resale

t h e location

i n the

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Part
C o n3 s. -u l tG
faounritdl C
e loiSn esertsrvui c et iso n

51

f) provision f o r renegotiation of thecontract on thebasis of


change i n the scope of theproject,
changes i n conditions,
udditionuZ work, etc.;
g)

provision f o r ownership of
originat
documents such as
tracings, plans, specifications, maps, basic
survey
notes
and sketches,charts,
computations, and otherdata prepared
or obtained under the terns of the contract;

h)provisionthat
reproduciblecopies
dmh?ings and specifications bemade
upon request;

of pZanning and design


available t o the sponsor

i) compensation, including methods of payment and


payment
schedutes, f o r services to be rendered by consultants; and
j)

provision f o r theequitabtetermination
of theconsultant
services should the situation arise wherein such termination
is dictated by circmstances.
4.8

STANDARD
PROVISIONS

4.8.1
S t a n d acrodn t r apcrto v i s i ohnasbveeteankfernoI m
nternational
General
RulesofAgreement
( P a r t 1 - S t a n d a r dC o n d i t i o n s )p r o d u c e da n di s s u e d
by the F e d e r a t i o n
o f ConsultingEngineersand
are i n c l u d e di nt h ea p p e n d i x .
The p r o v i s i o n sh a v eb e e n
renumbered o rc l a r i t y .
Some of t h ep r o v i s i o n sc o n t a i nr e f e r e n c e st oa p p e n d i c e st ot h e
I n t e r n a t i o n a lG e n e r a lR u l e so f
Agreementwhichhavenotbeenincluded
i n t h i s manual.
T h er e f e r e n c e h
s a v en obt e e nd e l e t e ds i n c et h e yd e m o n s t r a t et h er e q u i r e m e nftopr r o v i sions specific to each project.

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

4.8.2
I nt h ep r e p a r a t i o n
of t h eI n t e r n a t i o n aG
l e n e r aR
l ules
i t was r e c o g n i z e d
that
w h i l e there were numerous c l a u s e s w h i c h wouldbe u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i c a b l e , there were so=
c l a u s e s w h i c h must n e c e s s a r i l y v a r y to t a k e a c c o u n t of the c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d l o c a l i t y i n
whichtheservices
wouldbe c a r r i e d o u t .
The c l a u s e s of u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a t i o n h a v e b e e n
groupedtogetherand
are r e f e r r e d t o as General P r o v i s i o n s ( S t a n d a r d P r o v i s i o n s ) .

4.8.3
The p r o j escpt o n s o r ,
however,
should
examine
i s no c o n f l i c tw i t ht h e
a s s u r eh i m s e l ft h a t h e r e
State, before using
them i n a n y p r o p o s e d c o n t r a c t .

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these S t a n d a P
r dr o v i s i o n
t os
laws o rs t a n d a r dp r a c t i c e si nh i s

I C A O 9184 P A R T * 3

5.1

*X

= 4843436 0020449

824

INTRODUCTION

5.1.1
The award
of
c o n t r a cdt e p e n d s
on t h es u c c e s s f ucl o m p l e t i o n
of n e g o t i a t i o n of
t hsec o poe f
work, t h ec o n t r a c t
teras, a n tdh fee eF. u r t h e r ,
i t depends on i n c o r a final version
p o r a t i n g a c c u r a t e l y a l l t h ea g r e e m e n t sr e a c h e dd u r i n gn e g o t i a t i o n si n t o
o ft h ec o n t r a c tw h i c h
is s a t i s f a c t o r yt ot h es p o n s o r ,t h ec o n s u l t a n t ,
and t h el e g a l l y
authorizedgovernmentaldepartmentsandlendingagencies.
The c o n t r a c t i s n o tl e g a l l y
a l l t h en e c e s s a r ys i g n a t u r e sa r ea f f i x e d ,
and a l l necesb i n d i n g on e i t h e r p a r t y u n t i l
s a r y g u a r a n t e e s are i s s u e d .

5.1.2
This p r o c e scsainn
some cases consume c o n s i d e r a b l e time.
It fh e r e
is an
a c o n t r a c tc a nb e
u r g e n c ya b o u ts t a r t i n gt h e
work, a l e t t e r of i n t e n tt oe n t e ri n t o
which is an
written (provided there i s agreementbetweenthesponsorandtheconsultant)
e x p r e s s i o n of good f a i t h a l l o w i n g a l i m i t e d s t a r t o n t h e work.
5.2

5.2.1
The

NEGOTIATION OBJECTIVES

o b j e c t i v eo tfh en e g o t i a t i o n s

a)

the scope of

bl

theconditions

i s t oe s t a b l i s hw
, i t h o uat m b i g u i t y :

nopk;

under which i t is to beaccomptished;

c )t h e
time frame f o r completionofthe
component parts;

d)

thefeeto

el

the mannerand

whole work and i t s

be paid; and
timingof

papent.

of work have
been
5.2.2
Regardless
of
how w e l l t h e terms of r e f e r e n caensdc o p e
p r e p a r e di nt h er e q u e s ft o rp r o p o s a l s t, h e r e
w i l l be q u e s t i o n si nt h e
minds of t h e
r e s p o n d e n t st h a ct a no n l y
be answered i n face-to-facemeetings.
Each c o n s u l t a n t w i l l
have questions that
arise from his experiences on
similar p r o j e c t s f o r o t h e r c l i e n t s a n d
can beansweredand
accommodated i n t h e time u s u a l l y d e v o t e d
not a l l ofthesequestions
t o p r o p o s a lp r e p a r a t i o n .S i m i l a r l y ,r e g a r d l e s s
of how well t h ep r o p o s a lh a sb e e np r e p a r e d , t h e r e w i l l b e q u e s t i o n s I n t h e mind of t h e s p o n s o r as t o t h e c o n s u l t a n t ' s

52

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Not for Resale

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

All t h e s ec o n s i d e r a t i o n s
mustbe
a g r e e dt ot h em u t u a ls a t i s f a c t i o n
of the p a r t i e s and
is
w i t h i nt h ep a r t i e st' r u ed e s i r ea n da b i l i t yt ol i v e
up t ot h ea g r e e m e n t sT
. his
g e n e r a l l ya c h i e v e dt h r o u g ha c c e p t a b l e
compromise.
Acceptable compromise doesnotimply
r e a c h i n ga na g r e e m e n te x a c t l yh a l f - w a y
between t h eo r i g i n a lp o s i t i o n s
of the parties.
Theagreementreachedshouldbe
f a i r t o b o t h parties, i t s h o u l d n o t b e t h e o b j e c t i v e f o r
some a d v a n t a g eo v e rt h eo t h e r I. nt h i sc o n t e x t e, a c hp a r t ys h o u l d
o n ep a r t yt og a i n
i s aware, e i t h e rp r o j e c tr e l a t e do r
make
known
t ot h eo t h e r
any f a c t o r s of whichhe
apart f r o m t h e p r o j e c t , w h i c h c o u l d a f f e c t t h e p r o g r e s s o f t h e
work.

.-

Part 3C o nGs ufliotdraenl ti /nC


eo
s n sSt er ur vc it ci oens

53

d e g r e eo ff u l lu n d e r s t a n d i n go fa n dc o n f o r m i t yt ot h et e r m so fr e f e r e n c e .
It i s helDfui,therefore,toarrangef<r
pre-negotiation-meetings d u r i n gw h i c ht h e s eq u e s t i o n s
cHn
b e r a i s e d andanswered t o a c h i e v e a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g b y e a c h p a r t y o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n s
made
b yt h eo t h e ra n dt h eb a s i cp o s i t i o n s
and l o g i cw h i c he v o l v e do nt h eb a s i so ft h o s e
assumptions.
It would b e h d p ' f u l a t t h i s time, f o rt h es p o n s o rt of u r n i s ht h ec o n s u l t a n tw i t hs a m p l ec o n t r a c t sf r o mp r e v i o u sp r o j e c t s
and a d r a f to ft h ec o n t r a c tp r o p o s e d
for negotiation.

5.2.3
The s c o p eo f work i s g e n e r a l l yt h ef i r s t
item t ob et a k e n
up i nt h en e g o t i a t i o n ss i n c ea l lo t h e rf a c t o r s
must b ea g r e e d
uponon
t h eb a s i so ft h es c o p e
of work.
When t h ep r o j e c t
I s complex, i t i s o f t e nd i f f i c u l t ,i fn o ti m p o s s i b l e ,t od e f i n et h e
a means f o r
s c o p e o f work i n f o r m a l c o n t r a c t l a n g u a g e . T h e n e g o t i a t i o n p r o c e s s p r o v i d e s
both parties to reach agreement on the intent of the written scope of
work.
5.2.4
T hsee c o nidt e m
tbonee g o t i a t e d
i s t hceo s t
o f performing the work.
In
estimate o f manpower r e q u i r e m e n t sf o re a c he l e m e n t
o f t h e work,
p r e p a r i n gt h ed e t a i l e d
t h ec o n s u l t a n t
may h a v eu s e ds u b d i v i s i o n so ft h ep r o j e c tw h i c h
are d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h e
cases, a n item b y item comparison w i l l n o t b e
s p o n s o rh a su s e d
in his analysis. In such
items w i l l need t o b e u s e d .
f e a s i b l e and comparison of groups of individual
5.2.5
The t h i r d item t o b e n e g o t i a t e d i s t h e terms of r e f e r e n c eC
. e r t a f no tfh e s e
terms w i l l , o fc o u r 6 e ,b en o r r n e g o t i a b l eb e c a u s et h e y
are d i c t a t e d b y a u t h o r i t i e s o v e r
terms s h o u l d b e s t a t e d at t h eo u t w h i c hn e i t h e rp a r t yh a sc o n t r o l .T h en o n - n e g o t i a b l e
s e t of t h i s p h a s e o f t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s ,
leavjCng t h e rest t o b e n e g o t i a t e d i n t h e b e s t
i n t e r e s t of b o t h p a r t i e s .

5.3

VERIFICATION OF PROPOSALS

5.3.1
When a g r e e m e nht a sb e e nr e a c h e do nt h ec o n t r a cst c o p eo w
f ork,
i f t h e r e are
a n yc h a n g e st ot h es c o p ec o n s i d e r e di nt h ep r o p o s a l ,t h ec o n s u l t a n ts h o u l db ea s k e dt o
submit a r e v i s e df e ep r o p o s a w
l i t hs u p p o r t i n gc o s t
breakdown.
The
c o n s u l t a nst h o u l d
and c o s t r e q u i r e d f o r e a c h o f t h e m a j o r t a s k s .
p r e p a r e a d e t a i l e d estimate o f t h e h o u r s
i f a p p r o p r i a t e ,i n d i c a t et h e
I na d d i t i o nt oc h a r g e sf o rl a b o r ,t h ec o n s u l t a n ts h o u l d ,
c o s t sf o rs u b c o n s u l t a n t s ,t r a v e l ,l i v i n ge x p e n s e s ,r e p r o d u c t i o n ,a n do t h e rd i r e c to u t he incurred.
of-pocketexpensesexpectedto

5.3.2
A s p o n s ohr a v i n g
a s t a fw
f ith
e x p e r i e n c ien
estimating
t h ce o sot pf r o f e s s i o n a ls e r v i c e sa n dn e g o t i a t i n gc o n t r a c t sf o rt h e s es e r v i c e ss h o u l dd e v e l o pa ni n d e p e n d e n t estimate o f t h e c o s t o f t h e s e r v i c e s b a s e d o n
a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e s c o p e and
c o n d i t i o n so ft h e
work b e f o r en e g o t i a t i o n sb e g i n .S p o n s o r sh a v i n g
no s t a f f or having
l i t t l e o r no p r e v i o u se x p e r i e n c ei ne s t i m a t i n gt h ec o s to fp r o f e s s i o n a ls e r v i c e sa n d
services may n o t b e a b l e t o
p r e p a r e such a d e t a i l e d
negotiating contracts for consultant
I n t h e s ei n s t a n c e s ,t h es p o n s o rs h o u l ds e e kt h ea d v i c eo f
ICAO
a n a l y s i sb yt h e m s e l v e s .
o ro t h e rc o m p e t e n to r g a n i z a t i o n so nt h ee x t e n t
and s c o p e o f t h ep r o f e s s i o n a ls e r v i c e s
retainer t h a t is not
f o r similar t y p e so fp r o j e c t s .I ft h es p o n s o rh a sa ne n g i n e e ro n
b e i n gc o n s i d e r e df o rt h ep r o j e c t t, h es p o n s o r
may e n g a g et h a et n g i n e e rt op r e p a r e
a
d e t a i l e da n a l y s i s .T h ei m p o r t a n c e
o f having a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s p r i o r t o e n t e r i n g
negot i a t i o n sc a n n o t be overemphasized.Withoutsuch
a n a n a l y s i s ,t h es p o n s o rd o e sn o th a v e
a benchmark f o r n e g o t i a t i o n s .

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I
54

Planning

Airport

Manual

5.3.3
Fee negotiationsshould
be based upon t h ec o s o
t rp r i c i n gd a t as u b m i t t e d
by
t h ec o n s u l t a n t
a n da ne v a l u a t i o no ft h es p e c i f l c
work e f f o r t sr e q u i r e df o re a c ht a s k .
The datashould
be s u b j e c t to a t e c h n i c a l / e n g i n e e r i n gc o s ta n a l y s i s
by thesponsor.
S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e estimates submitted by t h e c o n s u l t a n t and t h e e s t i mates developed by thesponsorshouldberesolved,andrevisionsshould
be made t o t h e
estimates a n d / o r f e e as required.
5.3.4
If t h ec o n t r a c t
is t ob e awarded i n i t s e n t i r e t yo ri np a r t
on a c o s t reimb u r s a b l eb a s i s ,t h e
components of t h er e i m b u r s a b l ec o s t s
mustbe
e s t a b l i s h e d( s e e 4 . 3 )
andagreed
t oi nt h en e g o t i a t i o n s .
The consultantshould
be r e q u i r e dt op r e s e n t
and
j u s t i f y t h e documentation e s t a b l i s h i n g t h o s e c o s t s . P r o c e d u r e s f o r a u d i t i n g t h e c o n s u l t a n t ' s costs r e l a t i v e t o t h e p r o j e c t s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d .

5.4

DETERMINATION OF POSSIBLE SCOPE AND/OR SCHEDULE CHANGES

5.4.1
There are a number of circumstances
which
may arise d u r i n gt h en e g o t i a t i o n s
t h a ti n d i c a t et h ea d v i s a b i l i t y
ofchanging
e i t h e rt h es c o p e
of work, t h es c h e d u l eo r
i n a change t o t h e f e e p r o p o s a l
which w a s based on t h e
both.Thisshouldalsoresult
Any i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e t o t h e s c o p e o r s c h e d u l e
o r i g i n a l s c o p e of work and schedule.
of e a c h c o n t r a c t must be examined w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t
of i t s e f f e c t on the p r o j e c t as a
wholesinceothercontracts
would probably a l s o r e q u i r e m o d i f i c a t i o n t o
accommodate t h e
changes made t o t h e c o n t r a c t under negotiation.

5.4.2

5. 4.3
are:

Some examplesofcircumstanceswhichmightlead

t o a change i n schedule are:

a)

the a b i l i t y and willingnessoftheconsultant


favourable terms f o r such a change;

b)

the a v a i l a b i l i t yt o theproject of certainpreferred


rienced stuff member8 i n a d i f f e r e n t time frame;

c)

a reduction

d)

the methdoZogy p r o p 8 s d by the consuZtcfnt.

Some examplesof

a)

OP

to o f f e r more
expe-

increuse in the scope of w r k ; and

circumstanceswhichmightlead

t o a change i n scope

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

the Zack of s u f f i c i e n t e x p e r h e by the consuttant


(and h i s
subconsuttants) i n a certainspeciatised
etentent ofthe
orQina1 scope of work;

b) inability to
reach apeement on the ma?apower/cost of acto*
ptishing o m or more s p e c i f i c tasks s e t f o r t h i n
the or&
ginal scope of mrk, provided that agreement can be reached
on all other tusks; and

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of work

I C A O 9384 PARTW(3 f *

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0020452 319

P a r t 3.- G u i d e l i n e s f o r C o n s u l t a n t / C o n s t r u c t i o n S e r v i c e s

c)

55

a determination that additions t o t h e scope of work m t d be


acconplished beneficially by the same consultant i n pamltet
with the original tasks.

5.4.4
The s p o n s osrh o u l d
also
c o n s i d ear n y
changes
i nt h e terms orfe f e r e n c p
e rothe sponsor
p o s e db yt h ec o n s u l t a n tt h a ta p p e a rf i n a n c i a l l yo ro t h e r w i s eb e n e f i c i a lt o
are:
a n d / o rt h ec o n d u c to ft h e
work.
Some examplesofsuchpossiblechanges

a) location of the work force;


b) composition of t h e work force; and
c ) type of contmct (fee basis).
5.5

NEGOTIATION PROCESS

5.5.1
N e g o t i a t i o n i s a formal
process.
However, i t s h o u b
luden d e r t a k e n
i n an
o f a na d v e r s a r y .
a t m o s p h e r eo fc o r d i a l i t y ,m u t u a lt r u s ta n dc o - o p e r a t i o n .T h ea s s u m p t i o n
r o l eb ya n yo ft h ep a r t i c i p a n t sc a nr e s u l ti nc a u s i n gf e e l i n g so fa n t a g o n i s mt h a t
may
continue through the life of the project.
5.5.2
E a c ph a r t tytohne e g o t i a t i o nssh o u l edn t eirn t o
them w i t h a pre-prepared
position and the documentation required. to support that position.
. These positions
will
havebeenpreparedoncertainassumptions
and o n t h e p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e
o f t h e consult a n t .T h e s ea s s u m p t i o n s
and t h ee x p e r i e n c eg a i n e do np r e v i o u sp r o j e c t sm i g h t
well b e
substantially different for each party to the negotiations.
5.5.3
E a c hp a r t ys h o u l dg r a n tt ot h eo t h e rt h eo p p o r t u n i t yt oe x p l a i nt h el o g i co f
h i s assumptionsandthebackgroundofexperience
o n which they were made.
I n e v e r y case
where a d e c i s i o n mst b e made, e i t h e r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f o n e p o s i t i o n
as opposed t o t h e
o t h e r or a compromise p o s i t i o n , t h e p r i m e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d a l w a y s b e t h e n e t e f f e c t
on the project and the conduct of the
work.

5.5.4
Unless t h e p r o j e c t is of such
magnitude
and c o m p l e x i t yt h atth en e g o t i a t i o n s
a r e s u b d i v i d e di n t os u b j e c t st ob et a k e n
up b y two o r more " c o m m i t t e e s " ,t h es u b j e c t s
for negotiation should be addressed one
a t a time and,onceagreement
i s reached,should
n o tb er e o p e n e de x c e p t
when t h a ta g r e e m e n t is s u b s t a n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d b y t h e n e g o t i a t i o n
on a s u b s e q u e n t a n d r e l a t e d s u b j e c t .
5.6

PARTICIPANTS

5.6.1
Participation i n th
n e g o t i a t i o snhs o ub
cl do
e n f i n tethode
minimum o f
p e o p l ee s s e n t i a l
f o r t h ep r o c e s s .
However, t h ep a r t i c i p a n t ss h o u l db ea b l et o
c a l l on
e x p e r t s i n a l l f i e l d s( t e c h n i c a l ,l e g a l ,f i n a n c i a l )t oe n t e ri n t ot h en e g o t i a t i o n si f
needed f o r t h el i m i t e dp e r i o d s
o f time d u r i n gw h i c ht h es u b j e c t
of t h e i re x p e r t i s e
Is
being discussed.

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**

m 4841416 0020453 255 m


Airport Planning Manual

56

5-7

TIMING AND LOCATION

5.7.1
T h et i m i n go nf e g o t i a t i o n s h o u l db ed e t e r m i n e do nt h eb a s i o
s tfh ea v a i l a b l e time b e t w e e ns e l e c t i o no ft h ec o n s u l t a n t
and r e q u i r e d s t a r t of work.
s t a r t of t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s a r e :
considerations in determining the date for

a)anticipated

Among t h e

dumtion of negotiations;

bl

anticipatedprobability of reaching agreemen& with selected


consuttant and tims toss if agreement is not Peached;

cl

time requiwd t o obtainnecessary approuats; and

d)

timerequired for consultant's mobiziaation

for p r o j e c t .

5.7.2
Exceptforpre-negotiationmeetingswhich
may b ed e s i r a b l e
and
which
may b e
there i s no s u b s t a n t i a l a d v a n t a g e i n starting n e g o t i a t i o n s
r e q u e s t e db yt h ec o n s u l t a n t ,
e a r l i e r t h a nt h ed a t ew h i c h
accommodates t h ea b o v e - m e n t i o n e dc o n s i d e r a t i o n sw i t h
some
margin of safety.

5.7.3
The n e g o t i a t i o ncs a n
be conducted a t a n lyo c a t i o n
of convenient access b y
a l l parties.
T h e s p o n s o r * so f f i c e s are g e n e r a l l ya c c e p t a b l ep r o v i d e dt h a tt h e ya f f o r d
the consultant adequate comrmnication facilities (telephone-telex) with his
home o f f i c e .
is i m p o r t a n ts i n c et h e
number of people
T h ea v a i l a b i l i t yo fc o m r m n i c a t i o nf a c i l i t i e s
conducting the n e g o t i a t i o n s for t h ec o n s u l t a n t
i s normally small t o minimizecostand
expedite discussion.
5.8

RECORD OF NEGOTIATIONS

5.8.1
T h en e g o t i a t i o n p
s rovide
a f u l l e ri n s i g h t ot h ei n t e n o
t ft h ep a r t i e st h a n
c a ne v e rb ee x p r e s s e di nf o r m a lc o n t r a c tl a n g u a g e -S t a t e m e n t s
made, p o s i t i o n s t a k e n and
promises made b y e i t h e r p a r t y d u r i n g t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s ' s h o u l d b e
and g e n e r a l l y are t a k e n
a t f a c ev a l u eb yt h eo t h e rp a r t y ,t h u si n f l u e n c i n gt h ep o s i t i o n
and d e c i s i o n so ft h e
It i s , however, a f a c t t h a t i n many p r o j e c t s t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s
i n t h e negoo t h e rp a r t y .
t i a t i o n s are n o t a v a i l a b l e when c e r t a i n p o i n t s are d i s p u t e d i n t h e f u t u r e o r t h a t t h e i r
memories are notcouplete.
It i s , t h e r e f o r e ,i m p e r a t i v et h a t
a completerecord
of the
n e g o t i a t i o n sb ek e p t .
Moreover, t h ep e r t i n e n td e c i s i o n sa n da g r e e m e n t sr e a c h e d
in e a c h ,
day's negotiation should be transcribed and distributed on
a d a i l y b a s i s f o r the v e r i f i cation by each party to the negotiations.
Any e x c e p t i o n t o t h e s e m i n u t e s b y e i t h e r s i d e
s h o u l d b e t h e f i r s t item o f d i s c u s s i o n a t t h e n e x t n e g o t i a t i n g s e s s i o n a n d a n y n e c e s s a r y
corrections entered into the record.
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PaC
r to n
3.sulG
tfaounritd/ C
e loiSnesertsrvui c et iso n

57
5.9

REVIS ION AND AWARD OF CONTRACT

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

5.9.1
The d r acf o
t ntraw
c th i cshe r v e d
as t hbea s fi sonre g o t i a t i osnh o u lbde
r e v i s e dt or e f l e c t
a n ym o d i f i c a t i o n s d, e l e t i o n s
and a d d i t i o n s as agreed
upon
i nt h e
negotiations.Thefinalcontractdocumentsshouldbe
re-examined b y b o t h t h e p a r t i e s t o
b es u r et h a tt h ef i n a lw o r d i n g
i s t h et r u ei n t e n to fb o t hp a r t i e s
and doesnotcontradict t h er e c o r d
of t h en e g o t i a t i o n s .S i m l t a n e o u s l y ,t h e ys h o u l db es u b m i t t e dt o
all
a g e n c i e s whose approval i s r e q u i r e dS. h o u l da n yd i s a g r e e m e n t a
s r i s et,h e ys h o u l db e
A c l a u s es h o u l da l s ob ei n c l u d e d
r e s o l v e d and t h e c o n t r a c t amended, s i g n e d and awarded.
i n t h ef i n a lc o n t r a c td e s i g n a t i n gt h er e c o r d
o f t h en e g o t i a t i o n s
as a b i n d i n gp a r to f
thecontract.

e
Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization
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I C A O 9184 PARTx3 tlc

6.1

4 8 4 1 4 L b 0020455 028 D

INTRODUCTION

6.1.1
S u c c e s s f cu ol n t r a ac dt m i n i s t r a t i o n
i s dependent
on
the development of a n
organizationtomonitorandcontroleveryaspectoftheproject,staffed
by people comp e t e n ti nt h e i ri n d i v i d u a lf i e l d sa n dw i t ht h ew i l l i n g n e s sa n da b i l L t yt oc o - o r d i n a t e
andco-operatewithother
members o f t h e s t a f f , t h e c o n s u l t a n t ,
a n dr e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of
o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n the project.
6.1.2
A good o r g a n i z a t i o n
requires
good c o m r m n i c a t i o b
n o t ihn t e r n a l l ayn edx t e r n ally.
It is e s s e n t i a l t h a t each personinvolved know t h e f u l l e x t e n t of h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a n d t h e limit o f h i s a u t h o r i t y .
The s p o n s o r s h o u l d p r o v i d e t h e c o n s u l t a n t w i t h
a
copyof
h i st a b l e
of o r g a n i z a t i o n ,i n c l u d i n g
a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h er e s p o n s i b i l i t ya n d
a u t h o r i t yo ft h ek e ys t a f f
members w i t h whom the c o n s u l t a n t w i l l h a v ec o n t a c t .
The
sponsor should receive
a similar list from the c o n s u l t a n t .

6.1.3
All f o r mmael e t i nbgest w etsehpneo n saotn
chro
den s u l t asnhto ubled
least number - opf e o p lree q u i r e tdd
oiscuss
the s u b j e c t ( s 1
otfh e
c o n f i n e dt ot h e
meeting.
A r e c o r do fe a c hm e e t i n gs h o u l db ep r e p a r e da n dd i s t r i b u t e d
t o all particimembers ofeach
p a n t s . The f o r e g o i n g i s n o t i n t e n d e d t o d i s c o u r a g e i n f o r m a l m e e t i n g s o f
of the p r o j e c t .
Such d i s c u s s i o n s among a p p r o p r i a t e
s t a f ft od i s c u s st e c h n i c a la s p e c t s
the maxinun e x t e n t poss t a f f members i s . u s u a l l y b e n e f i c i a l a n d s h o u l d b e e n c o u r a g e d t o
sible.
Suchmeetingsshouldnotberecorded
so as t o p e r m i t a f r e e f l o w o f i d e a s t o b e
of views
consideredonaninformalbasis.Experiencehas
shown that suchanexchange
o f t e n r e s u l t s i n a much clearer u n d e r s t a n d i n g o n the p a r t o f b o t h t h e c o n s u l t a n t a n d t h e
s p o n s o r of t h e u n d e r l y i n g n e e d s t o b e f u l f i l l e d
by t h e p r o j e c t w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t the
f i n apl r o j e cpt r o d u c e d
i s of a h i g h eqru a l i t yF. u r t h e rs,u cihn f o r m adli s c u s s i o n
time n e c e s s a r y f o r
usuallypromotesreview
of t h e work as i t p r o c e e d s w h i c h r e d u c e s t h e
formalreview a t e a c h s t e p i n t h e p r o j e c t
development.
It a l s o p r e c l u d e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t work which i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y w i l l h a v e p r o g r e s s e d t o o f a r u n d e t e c t e d r e s u l t i n g
i n u n n e c e s s a r y time and expense t o reaccomplish i t i n a n a c c e p t a b l e manner.

6.1.4
The o v e r a lrl e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
of t hsep o n s o r 'os r g a n i z a t i o n
are u s u a l l y much
a s i n g l ec o n s u l t a n t .
b r o a d e ri ns c o p et h a nt h ea d m i n i s t r a t i o n
of a c o n t r a c ta w a r d e dt o
It is beyond t h ei n t e n t
of t h i s manual,however,
t oa t t e m p tt op r o v i d eg u i d e l i n e sf o r
t h ef o r m a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of a no r g a n i z a t i o nt od i s c h a r g et h e s eb r o a d e rr e s p o n s i b i l ities. T h i sc h a p t e r i s concernedonly with a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a c o n s u l t a n t ' s c o n t r a c t .

6.2

METHOD OF ADMINISTRATION

6.2.1
This i s o r d i n a r i l ayc c o m p l i s h e idon n e
c o m b i n i n g f e a t u r e s ofeach.

of t h r e e ways, o ri n

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58

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


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some cases, by

I C A O 9384 P A R T b 3 b t

m 484141b

0020456 Tb4

.-

59

P a r t 3C o nG
s ufliotdarenlti/nCeos n sSter u
r vcitci oe n
s

6.2.2

a)

bg incorpomting the
administmtive
functions
for
this
Pe8pOn8ibiZitie8 of the overatt organize
contmct into the
tion;

bl

by creatinga*askforce
team dedicated t o t h e administt i o n of t h i s c o n t m t and retieved of other responsibil&
t h 8 .
!l'hiS task force may contain SotW per80?'&?#1Specif&
cattyhiredfortheproject
but theleadership
should be
appointed from within the sponsor's e=cisting o~ganiaation;
a?d

cl

by enptoying an outside consultant t o perform some o r a l l of


fhs functions a8 discusssd in 1 . 7 . 4 through 1 . 7 . 9 .
of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n method:

S e v e r afla c t o risn f l u e n ctehceh o i c e

a )t h e
opeTvrtio?wit chamcteristics of
organtaation;

the

8pon80~'8

.-edsting

bl

the currentactivities
of the s p m o r ' s staff and t h e i r
a v a i l a b i l i t y a d capability t o accwnmodate additional uorktoad;

cl

t h e magnitude and conpledty of t h e o o n t m e


stwed;

dl

the number, eiae and conptsxity of associatedand/or


confracts;

el

daether or not t h e sponsor ha8 acontinuing progrvurrms f o b


tbe project comptstion t o j u s t i f y a p e m m n t
increase i n staff &as; and

t o be adminir
simitar

tming

f) the lsvet of experience thatthespomor'8organization


with C O n t . r u t c t 8 Of t h i s t y p e .

ha8

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

6.2.3
Any of t h et h r e e
methods o pf r o v i d i n g
a c o n t r a cat d m i n i s t r a t i o ns t a f fo, u t as to which
l i n e d above, c a n h e u t i l i z e d a n d h a v ep r o v e ns a t i s f a c t o r y .T h ed e c i s i o n
method t o u s e rests w i t h t h e o f f i c i a l w i t h i n t h e s p o n s o r ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n c h a r g e d w i t h t h e
responsibility of contract administration
and should be made o n t h e b . a s i s of t h e f a c t o r s
described above and any others which
may have a b e a r i n g o n t h e f i n a l d e c i s i o n .
6.3

ORGANIZATION STRUCLUKE:

6.3.1
T h e r ae r teh r e p
erimarc
ya t e g o r i e s
of work t b
oaec c o m p l i s h e b
d tyh e
s o r ' s s t a f f i n connexion with contract administration:

b)

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


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No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

teohnical; and

Not for Resale

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**

484LY1b 0020457 9 T O

60

Airport P l a n n i n g Manual

T h e f i r s t two are sometimescombined w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e ,


however,they
a r e distinctlydifferentaspectsofcontractadministrationandforthepurposeofthis
o f i t s s p e c i a ln a t u r e
d i s c u s s i o n w i l l b et r e a t e ds e p a r a t e l y .T h et h i r d ,l e g a l ,b e c a u s e
a n dt h e need f o r s p e c i f i c p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s
i s seldom, i f e v e r , combined w i t h
the s p o n s o r i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n h a s
i t s own l e g a l s t a f f
t h e o t h e r two f u n c t i o n s . G e n e r a l l y ,
o r h a s access t o t h e legal s t a f f of t h e p a r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d t h i s s t a f f h a s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for d e c i d i n g legal q u e s t i o n sr e f e r r e db yt h ea d m i n i s t r a t i v ea n dt e c h n i c a ls t a f f .
Excepo
t nv e r yl a r g ep r o j e c t s t, h el e g a al s p e c t s
of a p a r t i c u l a rp r o j e c t
would n o t
menber
o c c u p y a s t a f f member f u l l time a n dt ,h e r e f o r en, o r m a l l yt ,hlee g aslt a f f
assignedtomonitortheprojectwouldbehandling
a number of p r o j e c t s . T h e t h r e e
categ o r i e s of work a r e discussed below.

6.3.2
A d m i n i s t r a t i vTe .hp eu r e al yd m i n i s t r a t i vf ue n c t i oens, p e c i a l l y
the l e a d e r It is, of
ship
s h, o u lbadec c o m p l i s h ebcdyo m p e t e net x, p e r i e n c eadd m i n i s t r a t o r s .
c o u r s e ,a d v a n t a g e o u s
i f t h e s ei n d i v i d u a l sa l s oh a v et e c h n i c a l
and/or a i r p o r tb a c k g r o u n d
experience.
However,
competency
i na d m i n i s t r a t i o no fc o n t r a c t s
is more i m p o r t a n t h a n
otherexperience,provided
t h a t there i s ~ a
coupetent technical staff to provide back-up.
6.3.3
T e c h n i c aTlth.eec h n i cdaelp a r t m e n t
w i l l , coof u r svea,sirinyaz n
ed
d i v e r s i t yo fe x p e r i e n c ei na c c o r d a n c ew i t ht h es i z e
and c o m p l e x i t y of t h ec o n t r a c t .
I n s o f a r as p o s s i b l e , t h e i n d i v i d u a l s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e s c o p e
o f work f o rt h ec o n t r a c ta n dh a v e ,t h e r e b y ,
a n a p p r e c i a t i o no ft h ep r o j e c t
as a whole
of cona n dt h ev a r i o u sd e s i g ni n t e r f a c e s ,s h o u l db eu t i l i z e di nt h et e c h n i c a la s p e c t s
tract a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .
6.3.4
Legal.
gI ne n e r at lhf,ue n c t i o n
of t h
l eegdael p a r t m e n t
i s pt or o v i d e
a d v i c et ot h ec o n t r a c ta d m i n i s t r a t o r ,p a r t i c u l a r l yi nt h eh a n d l i n go fd i s p u t e sa n di n
t h pe r e p a r a t i o n
of r e v i s i o n tstoh ce o n t r a c t .
The l e g adle p a r t m e n t ,
as p r e v i o u s l y
d i s c u s s e d , is o r d i n a r i l y a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y , n o t
a f u l l time p a r t of t h e o v e r a l l c o n t r a c t
all
a d m i n i s t r a t i o ns t a f fC
. o n t i n u o u fs a m i l i a r i t yw i t ht h ep r o g r e s o
s tfh e
work
and
correspondenceconnectedwiththeprojectthat
is n o t p u r e l y t e c h n i c a l i n n a t u r e s h o u l d ,
however, b e m a i n t a i n e d .
6.4

CO-OFWINAT ION

6.4.1
A i r p o ratn adi r p o r t - r e l a t e d e s i g ann cdo n s t r u c t i o inn v o l vtehceo - o p e r a t i o n
andagreementof
many o r g a n i z a t i o n si na d d i t i o nt ot h es p o n s o r c, o n s u l t a n ta n d
t r a c t o r .T h e s eo r g a n i z a t i o n s
may i n c l u d e :

con-

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

NationaZ Aviation Authority


National A ~ Force
P
Internationat C i v i l Aviation OPganiaution
National and I n t e m t i o m l Airliws
Ministry of Comnications
Ministry of Public Works
Ministv of Transportation
Envimmnrsn&uZ Agency
Loeat W i t i t y Coqunies
Ming A g m i e s

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

PaC
r t o 3n.-s u l G
tfaounritd/ C
e loi S
n es trsrvui c teiso n

61

6.4.2
Otho
erganizations
may a l s o be involved
depending
o n the
governmental
and
i s t ob ed e s i g n e d
and c o n s t r u c t e d .
When t h e
l e g a l framework u n d e rw h i c ht h ep r o j e c t
p r o j e c t i s l a r g e andimportant,thepress,local
conrrmnity g o v e r n m e n t s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s
w i l l a l s ow i s ht ob ec o n s u l t e d
a n dp e r h a p so f f e rs u g g e s t i o n s
andproximatelandowners
a n d / o r o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e p r o j e c t o r some of i t s components.
6.4.3
Co-ordination
can
impose
a d i f f i c ubl tu r d eon
t nhaed m i n i s t r a t i vset a f f .
w i l l b ea c h i e v e d
However, i t is g e n e r a l l y t r u e t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t d e g r e e o f c o - o p e r a t i o n
by the fullest possible dissemination
of i n f o r m a t i o n t o a l l concerned.
6.5

ADMINISTRATION
FUNCTIONS

6.5.1
Workload a d m i n i s t r a t i ofnu n c t i o nisn v o l vceo n s i d e r a b lien t e r p l abye t w e etnh e
t e c h n i c a al n da d m i n i s t r a t i v ed e p a r t m e n t s w
, ith
some i n p uft r o mt h e
legal department.
The workload i s d e p e n d e n t o n s e v e r a l f a c t o r s :

6.5.2

a)

the size and corpZexity~.oftheproject;

bl

the type and contract under tlhich the consultant is errployed


and the specific terms of that contract;

cl

the requirements of thetending

dl

the requirements
agencies; and

e)

thelocation

of

agency;

national and international


aviation

where the work is bsingaccomptished.

T e crhenviiceawl

6.5.2.1
It is r e a s o n a b l ys a f et o
assume t h a th a v i n g
employed a ne x p e r i e n c e dc o n s u l t w i l l produce a l e v e o
l fd e s i g nt h a t
is
a n t h, i sp l a n n e r s a, r c h i t e c t sa n de n g i n e e r s
t e c h n i c a l l yc o r r e c t .T h e r e
w i l l a l s ob e a f u r t h e rc h e c ko nt h et e c h n i c a lc o r r e c t n e s s
a
made b yt h ec o n s t r u c t i o nc o n t r a c t o rb e f o r e
and d u r i n gt h ec o n s t r u c t i o n T
. herefore,
d e t a i l e dp o i n t
b y p o i n t o r computationbycomputationcheckbythe
sponsor's s t a f f i s
usually not warranted.
6.5.2.2
Certain
features
reviewed, among which are:

o f t hpel a n n i nagndde s i g n ,

however,
should

b ce a r e f u l l y

Is thedesign functionat and econodcat?

b)

Does it meet appt+cabtebuiZding and construction codes?

cl

Are the type of construction and materialssuitable?


Are
local~esources,matertats
and equipment used whereadvuntageous?

d)

Can t h ef a c i l i t y
be constructed by local tabour
forceg,
equipment and methods?

e)

1 s the degpee of detail in plans and specifications suff'icient f o r construction?


--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

a)

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


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No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

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I C A O 9384 P A R T * 3 mr

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4843436 0020459 773

Planning

Airport

fj

Are the interfaces with other contmcts correce?

gl

Isestimated
the construction

cost w i t h ien

Manual

budget?

6.5.2.3
The most e f f e c t i vtee c h n i c arle v i e w
i s conducted on a f r e q u e n(tb unto t
continuous)basis.That
i s t o s a y t h er e v i e w e r s make r e g u l a r ,b u ti n f o r m a l ,v i s i t st o
t h ec o n s u l t a n t ' so f f i c et o
examine t h e work i n progress.This
i s notalwayspossible
such as i n t h e case where some o r a l l of t h e work is beingperformedoutside
of t h e
sponsor'sState.
When such is t h e case, p e r i o d i cv i s i t st ot h ec o n s u l t a n t ' so f f i c e
shouldbescheduled
a t appropriatepointsduringeachphase
of t h e p r o j e c t .
The number
of v i s i t ss c h e d u l e d would,of
course,have
t o be c o n s i s t e n tw i t ht h e
need t o perform
contract administration in an economical fashion
and t h e time and expenses i n connexion
w i t h s u c h t r i p s would have t o be r e f l e c t e d i n b o t h t h e s p o n s o r ' s
and consultant's budget
f o r accomplishmentof
t h e work.
Nevertheless,theimportanceofthesemeetingscannot
b e overemphasized since they prevent the consultant from proceeding
f a r along on a b a s i s
which i s u n a c c e p t a b l eo ru n d e s i r a b l et ot h es p o n s o r ,
and a l s o minimize t h e amount of
time which w i l l be r e q u i r e df o rf o r m a lr e v i e w s
a t thecompletion of eachphase
of t h e
c o n s u l t a n t ' 8 work.
6.5.2-4
It mst be a c c e p t e dt h a tb o t ht h es p o n s o r
and t h ec o n s u l t a n t are p r i m a r i l y
concernedwithachievingthebestpossibledesign
a t t h e least p o s s i b l ec o s t .
Each
p a r t y approaches
these
goals
from
a perspective
based
on h i s own experience.
The
consultant,therefore,shouldbegiveneveryopportunity
to e x p l a i nt h el o g i c
of h i s
d e s i g nb e f o r e
changes are imposed.
If , a f t e rs u c he x p l a n a t i o n ,t h es p o n s o rb e l i e v e s
t h a t changes mst be made, such revisions should be requested
in writing.
6.5.3

Contract
compliance
review

6.5.3.1
Thisreviewshouldbecarriedoutperiodically
t o e n s u r et h a tt h ec o n s u l t a n t
is i n colnpliance w i t h a l l t h ec o n t r a c tp r o v i s i o n s ,g e n e r a la n ds p e c i a l ,i n c l u d i n g
cor
p l i a n c ew i t h
a l l a p p l i c a b l en a t i o n a l
and l o c a l laws and r e g u l a t i o n g
s o v e r n i n gt h e
conduct of h i s work.
6.5.3.2
A t the
beginning
of t hpe r o j e c t ,hceo n s u l t a n t
w i l l propose methods t o
s a t i s f yt h es p o n s o r ' sr e q u i r e m e n t sw i t hr e g a r dt op r o c e d u r e sa n dr e c o r df o r m a t .
These
should be reviewed i n a timelyfashion
and t h ec o n s u l t a n tn o t i f l e d
ofany
additional
requirements.
6-5.3.3
Contracts are of n e c e s s i t yw r i t t e ni nl e g a l a n g u a g e
which i s intended t o
p r o t e c tt h ei n t e r e s t s
ofboth
parties.
It is important t ot h e smooth conductofthe
work t h a ct o n t r a c t
conplizmce reviews s h o u l dc o n s i d e trh e
s p i r i t and i n t e n t of t h e
contract provisions rather than the
narrow "letter of t h e law".
6.5.4

Schedule and manpower review

6.5.4.1
In h i sp r o p o s a l
and i nt h ec o u r s e
of t h en e g o t i a t i o n s t, h ec o n s u l t a n t
will
h a v e p r e s e n t e d o r h a v e a g r e e d t o a schedule for the conduct
of t h e work and t h e manpower
requirementsestimatedtoacconplish
it.
The progress of t h e work shouldbereviewed
f r e q u e n t l y , a t least monthly.
I ft h e r e
are i n d i c a t i o n st h a tt h ec o n s u l t a n t
is f a l l i n g
behind i n accomplishlng c r i t i c a l elements of t h e work, he should be informed
of t h i s and
r e q u e s t e d t o t a k e c o r r e c t i v e measures.

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

--

- ' I

I C A O 9384 P A R T * 3

**

4 8 4 3 4 3 b 0 0 2 0 4 b 0 495

P a rCt o3.n s u lG
tfaounritd/ eC6
loi3nS
nesestrrvui c teiso n
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

6.5.4.2
T hsei t u a t i o n
may a r i s e w h e r e itnhsep o n s obre l i e v et sh aitnn c r e a si en
i s r e q u i r e d .S u c hr e q u e s t ss h o u l db ec a r e f u l l yc o n s i d manpower o r changeofpersonnel
e r e d a n d t,he s u b j e c t s h o u l d f i r s t b e d i s c u s s e d w i t h t h e c o n s u l t a n t . I f a f t e r d i s c u s s i o n
is c o n v i n c e dt h a st u c ha c t i o n
i s n e c e s s a r y t, h ec o n s u l t a n st h o u l db e
t h es p o n s o r
directed with the advice of
the s p o n s o r ' s l e g a l d e p a r t m e n t .

a r e o nt h e c r i t i c a l p a t hf o r
6.5.4.3
Not a l l e l e m e n t so ft h ec o n s u l t a n t ' st a s k
of i n s i s t e n c eo nm e e t i n gs c h e d u l e ss h o u l dt a k ei n t o
p l e t i o no ft h ep r o j e c t .T h ed e g r e e
c r i t i c a l i t y o ft h e
work which is o r shows i n d i c a t i o n so ff a l l i n gb e h i n d
accounthe
s c hedul e.

6.5.5

I n v o i cr e v i e w

and approval

- periodic

so

com-

payments

6.5.5.1
No c o n t r a c ct a nb ep e r f o r m e dw i t h o u dt i f f i c u l t i e si tf h ec o n s u l t a n t
is not
p a i d o n time ( i n b o t h f o r e i g n and l o c a l c u r r e n c i e s ) and t h e s p o n s o r s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e t h e
a r e g e n e r a l l yh i g h ,
n e c e s s i t y o f pro-mpt payment.The
i n i t i a l e x p e n s e so ft h ec o n s u l t a n t
a n d down-payments or advances a t t h e s t a r t o ft h es e r v i c e sa r ef r e q u e n t l yp r o v i d e df o r
i n t h e c o n t r a c t a n ds h o u l db ep r o n p t yp a i db yt h es p o n s o r .
To ensureprompt payment t o
t h ec o n s u l t a n t ,t h es p o n s o rs h o u l dd e s i g n a t e
a member o f h i s s t a f f
as r e s p o n s i b l ef o r
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f paymentsand o t h e r f i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e c o n t r a c t . F r e q u e n t l y , t h e
w i l l h e l p t o e x p e d i t e payment.The
s p o n s o rr e p r e s e n t a t i v ea n dt h e
useofstandardform
the formatandproceduresgoverning
c o n s u l t a n tr e p r e s e n t a t i v es h o u l dr e v i e wi nd e t a i l
t h ep r e p a r a t i o no fi n v o i c e sp r i o rt os u b m i t t i n g
the f i r s ti n v o i c e ,t h u sp e r m i t t i n gt h e
s p o n s o rt op r o c e s st h ei n v o i c e st h r o u g hh i so r g a n i z a t i o nw i t h o u td e l a y .I fl e t t e r - o f a r e u s e d ,t h e i rv a l i d i t ys h o u l de x t e n dl o n g
enoughand
t h e i r face
c r e d i ta r r a n g e m e n t s
amount b e l a r g e enough, so t h a t f r e q u e n t t i m e e x t e n s i o n s a n d e n h a n c e m e n t s o f f a c e
amount
are unnecessary.

6.5.5.2
Whenever t hs p
e o n s coor n s i d e r s
item i n c l u d eti hn
cdeo n s u l t a n ti'ns v o i c e s
a complete
t ob eq u e s t i o n a b l ef o ra n yr e a s o n h
, es h o u l dp r o v i d et h ec o n s u l t a n tw i t h
e x p l a n a t i o no f
a l l amounts
disallowed
and
should
then
proceed
with
payment of the
b a l a n c eo ft h ei n v o i c e .
As a matter o f e q u i t y , payment o f a n e n t i r e i n v o i c e s h o u l d n o t
b e d e l a y e d b e c a u s e some items a r e i n q u e s t i o n .

a r e s p o n s i b l e manner c o n t r i b u t e st ot h ee f f i c i e n c y
6.5.5.3
P r o c e s s i n go fi n v o i c e si n
o f t h ea c c o m p l i s h m e n to ft h e
work a n dr e d u c e st h e
time and h e n c et h ec o s ti n v o l v e di n
administering the contract for both the consultant and the sponsor.

6.5.6

F iancacl e p t a n c e

payment
and

6.5.6.1
Assuming t h at htceo n t r a ca td m i n i s t r a t i ohnabse epne r f o r m eddu r i nt gh e
programme, i n a t i m e l y f a s h i o n , t h e f i n a l a c c e p t a n c e
andpaymentwouldsimply
consistof
t h ec o n s u l t a n t ' sf i n a ls u b m i s s i o n
o f t h ep l a n s
and o t h e rd o c u m e n t sr e q u i r e du n d e rt h e
terms o f c o n t r a c t and t h e p r o c e s s i n g andpayment
o f t h ef i n a li n v o i c e .
Depending o n t h e
w i l l have
m a g n i t u d eo f the c o n t r a c t , i t is o f t e n t h e case, however, t h a t t h e c o n s u l t a n t
outstanding
b i l l fsoor u t - o f - p o c k eet x p e n s e fso r
which hheanso t
as y e t r e c e i v e d
r e c e i p t e db i l l sr e q u i r e dt os u b s t a n t i a t es u c he x p e n s e s
when i n v o i c e s a r e submitted.For
t h i s reason, i t is n o u
t n u s u a fl o r
some a d d i t i o n a lc h a r g e st ob es u b m i t t e da f t e rt h e
a r e u s u a l l yr e l a t i v e l ym i n o ri n
work p r o d u c th a sb e e nf i n a l l yd e l i v e r e d .T h e s ec h a r g e s
c o m p a r i s o nt ot h eo v e r a l lc o s t s .N e v e r t h e l e s s ,t h e y
a r e l e g i t i m a t ee x p e n s e si n c u r r e db y
the consultant which mst be reimbursed.

a
Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization
Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
I nf
or tmtorinetworking
on Hand1
i ng
Ser
vi ces, 2000
No reproduction
permitted without
license
from IHS

Not for Resale

I C A O 918Y PARTx3 * t

Y8Y34Lb 0020463 321

64

Airport P l a n n i n g Manual

6.5.6.2
To accommodate t h i sn e c e s s i t y ,
a time p e r i o db e y o n dt h e
f i n a l s u b m i t t a ld a t e
f o r t h e work performed, is u s u a l l ys p e c i f i e di nt h ec o n t r a c t T
. h i sp e r i o d
w i l l , of
course,varydependingonthemagnitudeofthework.However,because
of t h er e a s o n s
90 d a y s i s c o n s i d e r e d a minirmln f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . T h i s
time p e r i o d a l s o
o u t l i n e da b o v e ,
a l l o w s time f o r t h e s p o n s o r t o c o m p l e t e h i s r e v i e w
of t h e workanddocumentssubmitted
i n a l l respects.
to ensure their coupleteness
6.5.6.3
N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s a d v a n t a g e o u sf o b
r o t ht h es p o n s o ar n dt h ec o n s u l t a n t
to
a d h e r et ot h e
time period s p e c i f i e di nt h ec o n t r a - c tt oc l o s eo u tt h ep r o j e c t .
If t h i s
time p e r i o d i s p e r m i t t e d t o e x t e n d , b o t h t h e s p o n s o r a n d t h e c o n s u l t a n t
w i l l incurcosts
of m a i n t a i n i n g s t a f f w h i c h w o u l d
which have not been envisioned because of the necessity
not be fully occupied for the extended period.
6.5.6.4
A t t h ee x p i r a t i o n
of t h es p e c i f i e d
close o upt e r i o dt,h ec o n s u l t a nst h o u l d
b er e q u i r e dt os u b m i t
a f i n a li n v o i c ew i t ht h eu n d e r s t a n d i n gt h a tf u r t h e rc h a r g e s
will
n o t b e a c c e p t e dT
. h es p o n s o ro nt h eo t h e rh a n d c, o n c u r r e n w
t i t ht h ei s s u a n c e
of t h e
a f o r m a ls t a t e m e n t
o f f i n a la c c e p t a n c e ,i n d i c a t i n gt h a t
all
f i n a l payment,shouldissue
work i n c o n n e x i o nw i t ht h ec o n t r a cht a sb e e nc o m p l e t e da n da c c e p t e da n d
no f u r t h e r
obligationsexist.
6.6

REVISIONS T O THE SCOPE OF WORK

6.6-1
R e d s h ntt o
shsec o p e
of work f r e q u e n tpl yr o vd e s i r a b l e
as the
work
o r m o d i f i c a t i o nT
s .h e
p r o g r e s s eT
s .h e sr e v i s i o n s
may baed d i t i o n s u, b t r a c t i o n s
o r i g i n a lc o n t r a c to r d i n a r i l yc o n t a i n sp r o v i s i o n sr e g a r d i n gt h em e t h o d sb yw h i c hs u c h
r e v i s i o n s are a c c o m p l i s h e d a n d t h e m e c h a n i s m b y w h i c h t h e i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e i n f e e
is
negotiated and determined.

6.6.2
Any r e v i s i o nw
s h i c ehx c e e tdhpe r o v i s i o ncso n t a i n e idtnhceo n t r a c tp, a r t i same p r o c e d u r e s as d i s c u s s e d i n t h e
c u l a r l yi n c r e a s e st ot h es c o p eo fw o r k ,i n v o l v et h e
previous chapters, obviously omitting the solicitation and selection functions.
same

6.6.4
T h eo r i g i n anl e g o t i a t i o n s
w i l l s e r v e as a b a s i sf o tr h en e g o t i a t i o n so nt h e
r e v i s i o n st ot h es c o p e
o f work.
R e c o g n i t i o nm u s tb eg i v e n ,h o w e v e r ,
t o t h ee x p e r i e n c e
g. i n e d i n t h e p r o g r e s s of t h e work p r e c e d i n g t h e proposed r e v i s i o n s a n d c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h
of contract.
may h a v e c h a n g e d s i n c e t h e o r i g i n a l a w a r d
6.7

SETTLEMENT OF DEPUTES

6.7.1
T hceo n t r a scht o u l d
set f o r tthhper o c e s s
b y w h i cdhi s p u t ebse t w e et n
he
sponsor a n d t h e c o n s u l t a n t
a r e t o b e s e t t l e d if t h e y c a n n o t a r r i v e a t
a m t u a l l y satisf a c t o r ya g r e e m e n tb e t w e e nt h e m s e l v e s .E v e r ye f f o r ts h o u l db e
made t or e s o l v ed i s p u t e s
a s s o o n as p o s s i b l ew i t h o uot u t s i d ea s s i s t a n c eo irn t e r f e r e n c es i n c es u c ho u t s i d e
i n v o l v e m e n t i s u s u a l l yc o s t l y ,t i m e - c o n s u m i n g ,a n dp e r h a p sm o s ti m p o r t a n t l y ,d e s t r u c t i v e
o f r a p p o r bt e t w e e nt h es p o n s o ar n dt h ec o n s u l t a n tT
. h i sr a p p o r t
is e s s e n t i a lt ot h e
smooth conduct of t h e p r o j e c t .

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

6.6.3
T hceo n s u l t a nsth o u lbdree q u e s t etdo
make a p r o p o s a bl ,o tthe c h n i c aaln d
fee b a s i s f o r t h e a d d i t i o n a l
workneed
not be the
financial,onthe
new scope.The
as i n t h e o r i g i n a l c o n t r a c t .

I C A O 9 3 8 4 PARTS3

S f

48414Lb ~ 0 2 0 4 b 22ba

65

P a r t 3C o nG
s uufliotdarenlti/nCeos n sSt er u
r vc it ci oe n
s
0-

T h et y p e
o f d i s p u t er e f e r r e d
t o above is c o n c e r n e dw i t h money.
T h e r ea r e
o t h e rd i s p u t e sw h i c h
may a r i s ec o n c e r n i n gt h ed e s i g n T
. hese
may i n v o l v et h ed e s i g n ,
per se o r t h e d e g r e e o f d e t a i l w h i c h
is provided i n t h e p l a n s a n d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s .

6.7.3
R e g a r d i ntghdee s i g n ,
per se, most d i f f i c u l t i e s are a v o i d a b litefh e r e
is
f r e q u e n t or c o n t i n u a lr e v i e w b y t h e s p o n s o r d u r i n g t h e d e s i g n p r o c e s s . T h i s d i m i n i s h e s
amounts o f time a n d e f f o r t i n d e s i g n s
t h e p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the c o n s u l t a n t t o i n v e s t l a r g e
The s p o n s o r s h o u l d b e t h e f i n a l j u d g e o f w h a t
t h a t are n o t s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h e s p o n s o r .
as l o n g as i t d o e sn o v
t i o l a t ee n g i n e e r i n go ra r c h i t e c t u r a p
l rincipleso
,r
h ew a n t s
exceed the scope o f the contract.
6.7.4
D i s p u t erse g a r d i ntghdee g r e e
o f d e t a itio- b pe r o v i d e di nt h pe l a n s
s p e c i f i c a t i o n sc a nb ea v o i d e d
if a c a r e f u l l yt h o u g h t - o u dt e s c r i p t i o no ft h ed e s i r e d
d e g r e e o f d e t a i l is i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the c o n t r a c t l a n g u a g e .
--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

and

I C A O 4LB4 PART*3

7.1

**

484L4Lb 0 0 2 0 4 6 3 I T 4

INTRODUCTION

7.1.2
Circumstances
which
might
give
rise ttohuesoeafl t e r n a t i v e
means are
cases w h e r e i na ne m e r g e n c yd i c t a t e st h en e e df o ri m m e d i a t ec o n s t r u c t i o no ra ni n s t a n c e
when t h e r e q u i r e m e n t f o r o c c u p a n c y or u s e of a f a c i l i t y I s so u r g e n t t h a t time i s simply
u n a v a i l a b l e t o employ the normal procedures.

701.3
C o n s t r u c t i o cno n t r a c tisn v o l v e
sums of money
much
l a r g etrh a tnh ce o s tos f
i s the primary
t h ed e s i g n .F o rt h i sr e a s o n ,t h e
outcome of c o m p e t i t i v ep r i c eb i d d i n g
b a s i fsosr e l e c t i o o
ntfh ce o n s t r u c t i o cn o n t r a c t o r .
In c o n t r a c t i n fgocr o n s u l t i n g
of p a s t p e r f o r m a n c e s h o u l d
be t h e main c r i t e r i a f o r
services,experienceandtherecord
selection.
They are a l s of a c t o r st o
be c o n s i d e r e di ns e l e c t i n g
a c o n s t r u c t i o n cont r a c t o r ; how g r e a t a f a c t o r i s r e l a t e d t o t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e s p o n s o r ' s s u p e r v i s o r y a n d
control staff during construction.
7.1.4
There are many methods t h a t may be employed rt o
e d u ct heneo r m a l
time
requiredfordesignandconstruction.These
are f a r t o o numerous t o b e d i s c u s s e d w i t h i n
All i n v o l v e r e t a i n i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t o r p r i o r t o
t h e c o n t e x t of t h i s manual.
completion of design.
h e t toh oe v e r l a p p i n o
gdf e s i g n
and c o n s t r u c t i o n in t h e s e
c i r c u m s t a n c e st,h e
management of t h e work is much more complex r e q u i r i n g more coo r d i n a t i o n and s t a f f for the c o n s u l t a n t , c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r a c t o r a n d s p o n s o r .
7.2
7.2.1

7.2.2

CONTRACT TYPES AND PROCEDURES

There are f o u br a s i ct y p e so cf o n t r a c t s

a)

unit price;

b)

l w n p awn;

c)

cost p l u s a f k e d fee;

d)

cost p l u s a percenizge of c o s t .

commonly employed i nc o n s t r u c t i o n :

and

Unit p rciocnet r a c t

7.2.2.1
The u n ipt r i c ec o n t r a cat f f o r d tsh eb e sot p p o r t u n i t yf o cr o sct o n t r o l .
It
r e q u i r e s the s p o n s o r ' s s t a f f t o
make o r v e r i f y m e a s u r e m e n t s o f q u a n t i t i e s
on a continuing basis to justify periodic and final
payments, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e n o r m a l s u p e r v i s o r y
a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f . Care mst be t a k e n i n d e f i n i n g the pay items t o minimize the
number and type of measurements while maintaining
a t r u e g a u g e ofaccomplishment.

66

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

7.1.1
The scope of work of a c o n s t r u c t i o nc o n t r a c t is normallydefined
by d e t a i l e d
p l a n sa n ds p e c i f i c a t i o n s .
The guidanceprovided
i n t h i s manual is p r e d i c a t e d on t h a t
b a s i s , however, much of the material is a p p l i c a b l e , w i t h some m o d i f i c a t i o n , t o a l t e r n a t i v e means of accomplishing a c o n s t r u c t i o n programme.

.-

Part C
3o nfsoG
/uC
ri u
lno
tiean
dsnsett1r u
Sce6
triv7oinc e s

are b a s e do nt h eq u a n t i t i e s
7.2.2.2
T h eu n i tp r i c e sw h i c ht h eb i d d e rp r o p o s e s
A u n ipt r i c e
c o n t r a cst h o u l dc o n t a i nw o r d i n g
i nt h ep l a n s
and c o n t r a cdt o c u m e n t s .
a r e v i s e du n i tp r i c ef o rs u b s t a n t i a li n c r e a s e so r
c o v e r i n gt h e
method o fd e t e r m i n i n g
decreases in any particular pay
item d u e t o d e s i g n c h a n g e s d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n o r
n a t i o no ra d d i t i o no fe l e m e n t s
o f c o n s t r u c t i o n .N o r m a l l yt h eo v e r a l lp r o j e c tc o s t s
permitted to vary by plus or minus
15 p e r c e n t w i t h o u t
a revision to the contract.
7.2.3

shown

elimiare

Lump-sum c o n t r a c t

easiest to monitor
and
administer,
7.2.3.1
Lump-sum c o n t r a c t s are p r o b a btlhye
p r o v i d e dt h a tt h ep l a n sa n ds p e c i f i c a t i o n s
are completeand well d e t a i l e d .
If t h e p l a n s
a r e n o te x t r e m e l ye x p l i c i t
and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y exists for i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o r c h o i c e ,
it
i s onlylogicalto
assume t h a t t h e c o n t r a c t o r
w i l l f o l l o w t h e c o u r s e most p r o f i t a b l e t o
him and t h i s c o u l d g i v e r i s e t o d i s p u t e s .

item o f work to
7.2.3.2
Lump-sum c o n t r a c t s h o u l d
establish
u n ipt r i c e fsoer a c h
p r o v i d e a b a s i sf o ra d j u s t m e n t st ot h e
lump sum a r i s i n gf r o mr e v i s i o n st ot h ep l a n s
d u r i n gc o n s t r u c t i o no re l i m i n a t i o n
or a d d i t i o n o f work. T h eu n i tp r i c e sa p p l yo n l yi n
s u c h cases and c a n n o tb es u b s t i t u t e d
for t h ef i x e d
lump sum a g r e e df o rt h eo r i g i n a l
plans

7.2.4

C opsltu s

a f i x e d fee c o n t r a c t

7.2.4.1
T h i st y p e
of c o n t r a c t i s u s u a l l y employed when t h e r e is a n e c e s s i t yt o start
c o n s t r u c t i o n b e f o r e a l l t h ep l a n sh a v eb e e nc o w l e t e db u tt h eo v e r a l lm a g n i t u d eo ft h e
terms n u s tb ec a r e f u l l yp r e p a r e dt oe n s u r et h a t
p r o j e c th a sb e e ne s t a b l i s h e d .C o n t r a c t
the sponsor maintains sufficient control over labour
rates and t h e p u r c h a s e o f materials
and
equipment
t o result i n e c o n o m i c ca o
l n s t r u c t i owni t h o p
u lt a c i nugn r e a s o n a b l e
r e s t r a i n t s and d e l a y s o n t h e c o n t r a c t o r .
7.2.5

C o s t p l u s a p e r c e n t a g e of c o n s t r u c t i o cno s tcso n t r a c t

7.2.5.1
T h i st y p eo fc o n t r a c t
i s similar t ot h ec o s tp l u s
a f i x e df e ec o n t r a c t .
c a n , however, b ee q l o y e db e f o r et h eo v e r a l lm a g n i t u d e
of t h ep r o j e c th a sb e e ne s t a b It i s n o tu n u s u a lf o rt h ea g r e e m e n tt op r o v i d e
for a d i m i n i s h i n gp e r c e n t a g e
lished.
i n c r e m e n t s o f work are added t o t h e o r i g i n a l s c o p e .

7.3

It

as

COMPETITIVE BIDDING

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

7.3.1
The practice of a w a r d i n gc o n t r a c t sf o rc o n s t r u c t i o n
o n t h eb a s i so f
competii s o n eo fl o n gs t a n d i n g .S u c hb i d d i n gh a st h ep u r p o s e
of a f f o r d i n g to
t i v ep r o p o s a l s
c o n s t r u c t i o nc o n t r a c t o r sa d e q u a t en o t i f i c a t i o n
o f a sponsor'srequirementsandofproa c o n t r a c tf o rt h e
work.
Detailed
v i d i n g a l l b i d d e r sa ne q u a lo p p o r t u n i t yt oo b t a i n
of t e c h n i c a l
e n g i n e e r i n go ft h ep r o j e c t ob ec o n s t r u c t e di n c l u d i n gt h ep r e p a r a t i o n
s p e c i f i c a t i o nas n o
d t h ebr i d d i n g
d o c u m e n tps r e c e d etshien v i t a t i o tnb
o i fdotrh e
c o n t r a c t .T h ep r e p a r a t i o no ft h e s ed o c u m e n t se n s u r e st h a tt h ec o n t r a c t o r
w i l l deliver,
or unexi n f u l l c o m p l i a n c ew i t ht h es p o n s o r ' sr e q u i r e m e n t s w
, i t h o u tm i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g
p e c t e dc o s t ,
a p r o j e c at d e q u a t ef o r
i t s intendedpurpose.Theinformation
shown and
d e s c r i b e di nt h ec o n t r a c dt o c u m e n t s
rmst b es u f f i c i e n t oe n a b l et h ec o n t r a c t o rt o
prepare completeand accilrate e s t i m a t e s .

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

I C A O 9184 P A R T * 3
68

48414Lb 00204b5 T 7 7

*Y

Planning

Airport

7.4

Manual

ADVERTISING

7.4.1
The b e si tn t e r e s tost fhper o j e catrsee r v ebdtyhw
e i d e sdti s s e m i n a t i o n
p o s s i b l eo fb i d d i n gd o c u m e n t s T
. h ei n t e r n a t i o n a lc o m m n i t ys h o u l db en o t i f i e d
of t h e
detailsoftheprojectandtheopportunityofbidding.Normallythis
is accomplishedby
of g e n e r a lc i r c u l a t i o ni nt h e
a d v e r t i s e m e n to ft h eb i d d i n go p p o r t u n i t yi nn e w s p a p e r s
s p o n s o r ' sc o u n t r ya n di n
the case of l a r g e c o n t r a c t s i n w e l l known t e c h n i c a lm a g a z i n e s
a n dt r a d ep u b l i c a t i o n so fw i d ei n t e r n a t i o n a lc i r c u l a t i o n .T h e s ea d v e r t i s e m e n t ss h o u l d
time b e f o r eb i d s
are t ob e
opened t oe n a b l ep r o s p e c t i v e
b ep u b l i s h e di ns u f f i c i e n t
a
b i d d e r st or e q u e s tb i d d i n gd o c u m e n t sa n dp r e p a r eb i d s .A d v e r t i s e m e n t ss h o u l dc o n t a i n
b r i e fd e s c r i p t i o n
of t h ep r o j e c t ob ec o n s t r u c t e d
and t h e name a n da d d r e s so tf h e
agencyorofficialwithinthesponsor'sorganizationtobecontactedforfurtherinformation.Inthe
case o f p r o j e c t s w h i c h a r e f i n a n c e d i n w h o l e o r i n p a r t b y i n t e r n a t i o n a l
l o a n s i t s h o u l d b e n o t e dt h a ta l ll e n d i n ga g e n c i e sp r o v i d i n gf u n d sf o r
large p r o j e c t s
h a v ee s t a b l i s h e dp o l i c i e sc o n c e r n i n gt h er e q u i r e de x t e n to fa d v e r t i s i n gf o rb i d sf r o m
c o n t r a c t o r s .I ng e n e r a l ,i n v i t a t i o n sf o rb i do rp r e - q u a l i f i c a t i o ns h o u l db et r a n s m i t t e d
tolocalofficialrepresentatives
o f a l l S t a t e sd e s i g n a t e db y
the l e n d i n g a g e n c y o r t o
of t h o s eS t a t e s A
. d v e r t i s e m e n t ss h o u l da l s o
b e p l a c e di nw i d e l y
t h ef o r e i g no f f i c e s
circulatedtechnicalmagazinesandtradepublications.

al

a brief

description of theprojectincluding

o f s o l i c i t i n gt h ei n t e r e s t

i t s tocation

and the construction services required;

bl

the t y p e of contract contempZated ( e 830 Z w ? p sum);

c) the estimzted date


when i n v i t a t i o n s fop bids wilt be<ssued,
bid ~Zosing date and s t a r t i n g and c o q t e t i o nd a t e s
of
construction services;
)

a statement of t h ec u r r e n c i e si n
which t h ec o n t m c t o r A L Z
be paid wCth some indication of which categories of s e r v i c e s
wit 1 be payable i n each curwncy;

theaddressfrom
which in*erested f imns may o b t a i n f u r t h e r
$nf onnation; and

;f, a statement of the


qual<fications
required
for
bidders
( s a t i s f a c t o r y expelrience on p r o j e c t s of simiZar kind and
size;
financial
capacity;
a v a i t a b i Z i t y of necessary m
z
+
pomr and equipnent).
7.5

PICE-QUALIFICATION

7.5.1
P r e - q u a l i f i c a t i oonbfi d d e r s
i s n oatb s o l u t e lm
y a n d a t o rbyuf tul ra r goer
i t is n o r m a l l ya d v i s a b l et oc o n f i n et h eb i d d i n g
t o o n l y t h o s e firms
c o m p l e xc o n t r a c t s
that have proven capability.

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


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No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

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7.4.2
T h ae d v e r t i s e m e nottfh p
e r o j e cftotrh p
eurpose
of c o n t r a c t o r s s h o u l d c o n t a i n a s a minimum:

4 8 4 1 4 1 b 0020466 903 D

I C A O 9 3 8 4 PARTS3 S t

Part 3

.- Guidelines

7.5.2

Pre-qualification
f a c t o r i l y ,t a k i n gi n t oa c c o u n t :

1)

2)

69

for Consultant/Construction
Services

should bbaeseendt i r e l y

on a b i l i t y to perform s a t i s -

handling contmcts of compamble siae,conptexity,


and technicat speciatty;

perfonning theparticular
required; CLttd

kinds and specialties of

8@?W&ss

3)

perfopming overseus contmctsnotnecessarity


in
t h e sponsor's muntry, inctuding experience in
dealing&th
firms and p e r s o m t , and i n working
under conditions such a8 &st
in the 8pon8or's
country.
~

bl

c)

reputation, covering:

for

11

ot>emlt professionat reputation,


particutarty
services of the chcxmcter pequired;

2)

known cases of prior perfopmrmcs, inctuding quality


of mrk, maintenance of 8Chedute8, and cost of
ss?wices; and

3)

the firm's knowr retationship with i t sc t i e n t s ,


of t i t i g a t i o no ro t h e r
inctudingtheextent
disputes arising out of i t s contmats.

jobcapacity,

coveping:

4ntention and a b i l i t y t o assign efficient quatific3d


persmnet, inctuding techniciane in the speciatties
required, and experienced and quatified eupe?wiso~y
personnel, ppefembly f Porn its o m orguniaation;
intention and a b i l i t y t o perform the
contmot
p r i m z r i t y wieh i t 8 own staff, mtherthan through
8ubcontmctors;the mrkload of the firm under curvent contru;lcts
relative to i t s tocal strength;
the fimn's capacity t o s t a r t m r k pronptty;
the firm's ability to furnish
or procure required
materiats, equipment, or specicrtised 8ervice8, if
any, a d the qmZifications of anyproposed subcontrmctors;

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.~

I C A O 9384 PARTx3 tt
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.

4843436 0020467 8 4 T

Planniw

. ..
.

Airport

6)

the fim*s a b i l i t y t o deal with local personnst and


agencies i n the country where services ape to be
performed on technical and administmtivs matts~s,
includingthe a b i l i t y of i t s personnel t o use the
local language; and

7)

(L
showing
f inn.

Of

Manual

adsqUtlte fi?la?ZC&
8t?W?Z@h
d
Of the

7.5.3
A b b r e v i a t esdp e c i f i c a t i o nssh o u lbde
made a v a i l a b l e to c o n t r a c t o rds e s i r i n g
t ob ec o n s i d e r e df o rq u a l i f i c a t i o n .
When p r e q u a l i f i c a t i o n i s enployed a l l firmsfound
to be qualified should be permitted to bid.
7.6
7.6.1
t o prepare

BIDDING DOCWNTS

The b i d d i n g dncuments
should
furnish
a l l information ecessary
for
These documentsshouldinclude:

a bidder

a responsive offer.

a) i n s t r u c t h t o bidders;
b) bdd form;
e)

t h e proposed
contrurotor;

d)

the genera2 c o n d i t i m of the contmct;

8)

special canditColc8 of the contmct;

f)

*he d d n g e ; and

gJ

the specificatio?w aa mtt a8 a?lg necessary appsndice8.

contraot

between t h e

sponsor and

the

7.6.2
The c o s t of p r o v i d i n gc o p i e s
of p l a n s s, p e c i f i c a t i o n s
and o t h e r documents t o
To e n s u r e that c o n t r a c t o r s are t r u l y s i n c e r e i n
p o t e n t i a l b i d d e r s can b ec o n s i d e r a b l e .
their desire to bid on the project,
i t is u s u a l t o r e q u e s t t h a t a sum o f money, conunencost of p r e p a r i n gt h e
documents, b ed e p o s i t e dw i t ht h es p o n s o rt h e n
s u r a t ew i t ht h e
returned to unsuccessful bidders on return
of t h e documents.

7.7

INSTRUCTIONS TO
BIDDERS

7.7.1
The notice and i n s t r u c t i o tnp
o r o s p e c t i vbe i d d e rssh o u l idn c l u d e
priate the following:

a) the addrsss &ere and the d a t s and tinas w h s n s a t e d bids


w i l t be opmwd a.nd the closing date and t h f o r receipt of
bids;
b) a genelvrt d s s c ~ i p t i aof the project;

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No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

as appro-

I C A O 9384 P A R T x 3 x *

rn 4841416 00201rb8

78b

rn

Part
C o3n.s-u lG
tfaounri td/eCl o
i nnSesestrrvui c teiso n

71

the requirements f o rt h e
amounts of bid,performznce
and
The proceeds of these should
paymentbonds
orguarantees.
bepayable
to the sponsor and theperiodthebid
and bid
bond shall remain firm and bindingshould be specified. B i d
bonds or guarantees should not be s e t so high as t o d i s c o u ~
age suitable bidders
and should be released to unsuccessful
bidders as soon as possible after it i s detemnimd that they
will not be amrded the contract;
an indication of the portion
of construction services which
w.r'-lt be paid i n local currency and t h a t which w i l t be paid
i n foreign
currency,
and the
conversion
rate between
currencies which wilt be used t o conpare bids should a l s o be
specified;
e

of the
astatement that bidders' f a i l u r e t o v i s i t t h e s i t e
project and t o f a m i l i a r h 3 themselves with the nature of the
workand
localconditions which m y a f f e c t t h e c o s t o f t h e
relieve
bidders
from
responsibiZity
for
work w i l l not
property estimating the cost of performing the mrk;
i f pre-qualification has not beenrequire&,

enumeration of
thoseitemsof
i n f o m t i o n which bidder8 must f u r n i s ht o
establish their qualifications and a statement of the right
o f t h e sponsor t o r e j e c t any firm not qualified i n t h e s o h
judgement of the sponsop; and
shalt beawarded t o t h e lowest
a statement that the contruct
qualified and responsivebidder and t h a t t h e sponsor shalt
r e j e c t any bid that i s unresponsive and may also r e j e c t a l l
bids.
7.8

7.8.1

BID FORM

The b i d f o r m s h o u lid
n c l u dper o v i s i o n

for:

the
bidder's
achnowtedgement of receipt
of
the
conplete
contmct docments and alZ addenda;
t h eb i d d e r ' so f f e rt o
performthe
work described i n the
contract docwnsnts a8 s p e c i f i e d f o r t h e amount i n local and
other currencies separately stated and t o t a l z e d a s s e t f o r t h
i n the
bid
form and any
accompanying
by the
bidder
schedule; and
thebidder'sundertakingthat
upon writtennotification of
awardand acceptance o f i t s bid by t h e sponsor t h a t it will,
within
specified
a
time,
furnish
such performnee and
by the contract
paymentbonds o r guarantees asarerequired
documents and executea f o m t contract Uith the sponsor i n
the form included i n the contract docwnents.

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72

A i r p o r t P1 anning Manual

7.9

CONSTRUCTION CONTKACT

7.9.1
T h ce o n t r a cftocr o n s t r u c t i o n
services
i s t hfeo r m adl o c u m e nsti g n e bdtyh e
s u c c e s s f u lb i d d e ra n dt h es p o n s o rb yw h i c ht h es u c c e s s f u lb i d d e ra g r e e st op e r f o r mt h e
set f o r t h o n t h e b i d
form.The
w o r kd e s c r i b e d i n t h e c o n t r a c td o c u m e n t sf o rt h ea m o u n t s
s e t o ut htceo n t r a c t u ar el l a t i o n T
s .hi en d i v i d u a l
c o n t r a cs h
t o u lsda t i s f a c t o r i l y
are a p p l i c a b l e w i l l d e p e n do nt h et y p eo fp r o j e c r ,l o c a l
c l a u s e s of t h ec o n t r a c tw h i c h
s t a t u t o r eyq u i r e m e nat no
s dt hve ar r i a b l ehsi.d e l i n op
en
sa r t i c u l a rcl y
ritical
components o f t h e c o n t r a c t are d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s .

The -contract should clearly define the


scope of work t o be
performed and t h e r i g h t s and obligations of the sponsor, t h e
contractor and the powers and authority of the personnel
adnri.nister4n.g the contract

Thenumber, type and frequency of r e p o r t s t o be submitted b y


thecontractortothe
sponsor should be specified and t h e
language i n which t h e r e p o r t s a r e t o be written.
f i e t y p e s and terms of insurance t o be provided f o r 1066 or
damzge t o t h e mrk i n progress and againstclaims by t h i r d
of contract perfomnznce
p a r t i e s f o r damzges arisingout
should be clearly stated.
f i e e x t e n t of f i n a n c i a l l i a b i l i t y , exevp-tion o r i m n i t y of
t h ec o n t m c t o r
and i t s personnel f o rt a x e s c, u s t o m
and
duties imposedby t h e sponsorshould be c l e a r l y s t a t e d .
I t should be s t i p u l a t e d t h a t t h e f a i l u r e
on the part of t h e
p a r t i e st o
perform theirobligations
under t h ec o n t m c t
would not be considered a d e f a u l t i f euch f a i l u r e is t h e
r e s u l t of an event of force majeure as defined i n t h e conditiO?l6 Q f ContFfiZCt.

Procedures
should
be established f o r the
settlemant
of
disputes and the method of appeal f o r any decision on such a
dispute
including
applicable
law and forum.
Experience
of disputes by an
indicates that provision for arbitration
impartial body has c e r t a i np r a c t k a l advantagesoverother
d i s p u t e s e t t l i n g methods.
The contract should specify the conditions andmecmnics of
payment and the currency i n which payments d l 1 be made.
Where applicable,provisionshould
be made for t h e conveF
s i o n by the
contractor
of t h e sponsors
currency
into
foreigncurrenciesasrequired.
f i e contract should a t s o
from a
provideagainst
a l o s s O P gain tothecontractor
variation i n exchange r a t e s -

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I C A O 7184 P A R T x 3

J
tk

484L4Lb 0020470 334 W

Part C
3.-o n sGuufl oti adrne tl /i C
n eosn S
s terruvcitcieosn

h)

73 ,

Where appticabte any advance palpnentupon


signature of the
contractformobilization
and similar expenses should be
retated t o the
estimrted
coat
these
of items.
Other
advances t o be nude, f o r e x w p l e , for matedata delivered t o
t-hs s i t e for. incorpomtim in the jlork, should be clearly
described and should include terma of any security required
for advance payments

i) The contract should contain


are subfect to adastmsnt.
acljustnasnt formcta related
usually preferred method of

a clear statement whether prices


The use of a co?rprehensive price
t o basicriceindices
i s the
providing &r such adjustanent

3) When

O f pePfO?TKZ?XW58 i*OPtCl?lt,
CkUSe8 p P O V i d i w f o r
amounts in the
liquidated damrge8 of specifiedmasonable
evsnt p s r f o m n c e i s not completed by astipulated.. &tg
dioutd be included i n thecontmct.
Proviaion mag at80 be
made f o r a bonus t o be paid to contmctors for conpletionof
contmacts aheadof the time specified i n ths contract.

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

7.9.2
T hIen t e r n a t i o n aFle d e r a t i ooC
nf o n s u l t i nEgn g i n e e r s
(FIDIC) has
published
s e v e r a l d o c u m e n t sw h i c hp r o v i d ec o m p l e t es a n p l ec o n t r a c t sf o rc o n s t r u c t i o nc o n t r a c t s .
of numerous n a t i o n a lr,e g i o n a l ,
and i n t e r n a t i o n a l
These
documents
have
the
approval
associations of contracts.
Among t h e documents of p a r t i c u l a ri n t e r e s t
t o s p o n s o r so f
a v i a t i o n r e l a t e d p r o j e c t s are:

a ) Conditions of Contlsact ( I n t e m t i o n a l ) for Works ofCivil


Engineering Construction; and
b)

Conditias of Contlsact (International) for Ft eotricat and


Mechanical Work8.

Thesedocumentshavenotbeenreproduced
o r its associated organizations, which

7.10

i n t h i s Manual.
They are a v a i l a b l e f r o m
are l i s t e d in Chapter 3 of t h i s Manual.

FIDIC

PLANS , DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS

7.10.1
T hpel a nds r, a w i n ga snsdp e c i f i c a t i o nusubscteo m p l e t ce o, n s i s t e n
wti t h
p r o j e c tr e q u i r e m e n t s ,d i s p l a ya na p p r o p r i a t el e v e lo fd e s i g na n db ep r e p a r e d
i n such a
manner a s t o s e t f o r t h as c l e a r l y a n d p r e c i s e l y a s p o s s i b l e t h e work t o b e accomplished.
i s t oe l i m i n a t ea m b i g u i t ya n de n c o u r a g e
maxiuum c o m p e t i t i o n
T h ep r i n c i p l eo b j e c t i v e
among t h ef i r m sb i d d i n g .
Drawingsshould
b ef u l l yc o - o r d i n a t e da n dc o n s i s t e n tw i t ht h e
t e x to ft h es p e c i f i c a t i o n s .T h e
tests, s t a n d a r d s andmethods
t h a t w i l l b e employed t o
j u d gceo n f o r m i toytfh e
work p e r f o r m ew
d i tthhsep e c i f i c a t i o nssh o u lbdcel e a r l y
b e b a s e do np e r f o r m a n c er e q u i r e m e n t sa n dr e f e r e n c e st o
d e f i n e d .S p e c i f i c a t i o n ss h o u l d
a s f a r as p o s s i b l e .I f
i t becomes n e c e s s a r yt oq u o t e
a
b r a n d names s h o u l db ea v o i d e d
b r a n d name o f a p a r t i c u l a r m a n u f a c t u r e r t o c l a r i f y
a s p e c i f i c a t i o n , t h e words "or equiv a l e n t s" h o u l d
be
added a f t e r t h b
erand
name.
The s p e c i f i c a t i o n
should
p e r m itth e
a c c e p t a n c eo fo f f e r sf o ra l t e r n a t i v ee q u i p m e n tw h i c hh a v e
similar c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and
whichprovideperformance
and q u a l i t y a t l e a s t e q u a lt ot h o s es p e c i f i e d .A l t e r n a t i v e s
w o u l dn o tb ea c c e p t a b l e
w h e n s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i s s o u g h t ,o rb e c a u s et h e
need for s p a r e
p a r t s andmaintenance service c a n n o t b e met.

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I C A O 9184 P A R T * 3
74
.

**

4843436 0020471 270

Planning

.- ...

7.11

Airport

Manual

BID OPENING -EVALUATION AND AWARD

7.11.1
T h eb a s i sf o rc o n p e t i t i v eb i d d i n g
w i l l h a v eb e e nc l e a r l ye s t a b l i s h e di nt h e
i s a clear c u t method of comparison of t h e
instructionstobidderstoensurethatthere
b i d st h a t
are r e c e i v e d T
. his
is a r e l a t i v e l ys i m p l ep r o c e s si nu n i tp r i c ec o n t r a c t s ;
a l i s t o f pay items a n dq u a n t i t i e so fe a c h
to which e a c hb i d d e r
t h es p o n s o rp r o v i d e s
i s employed, t h ep r o c e s s
i s more
a p p l i e sp r i c e s .
Where a d i f f e r e n t y p eo fc o n t r a c t
complex.
I nt h e s e cases t h eb i d d i n gs h o u l db eb r o k e n
down i n t o u n i t s commensurate w i t h
t h e s i z e and c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e p r o j e c t .
7.11.2
D u r i ntghbei d d i npgr o c e s s ,
i t i s e x t r e m e liym p o r t a nt h
t aatn y
t ion,verbalorwritten,withanybidderontheprojectwhichprovidesadditonalinfor-

comnunica-

m a t i oonurn d e r s t a n d i nrge g a r d i ntghper o j e catl sboceo n m u n i c a t etdo


bidders

all

other

7.11.3
The time a l l o w e df o rp r e p a r a t i o n
of b i d s w i l l depend t o a l a r g ee x t e n tu p o n
t h e magnitudeandcomplexity
of t h e c o n t r a c t i n v o l v e d
and t h e r e m o t e n e s s o f
the p r o j e c t
from areas from
which
b i d s may be expected.
Where l a r g ec i v i l
works are involved,
90 d a y ss h o u l db ea l l o w e df o rc o n t r a c t o r st oc o n d u c ti n v e s t i g a t i o n s
at
g e n e r a l l ya b o u t
t h e site.
The time allowed,however,should
b e g o v e r n e db yt h ec i r c u m s t a n c e sr e l a t i n g
to each project.
the i n v i t a 7.11-4
The
d a t eh, o u ar n dp l a c eo b
f i do p e n i n gs h o u l db ea n n o u n c e di n
a t t h es t i p u l a t e d
time.
Bids
received
t i o n s and a l l b i d s h o u l db eo p e n e dp u b l i c l y
a f t e rt h i s
time s h o u l db er e t u r n e d
unopened.
Theamountsofeachbidshouldberead
aloud and recorded.

7.11.5
No b i d d esrh o u l bdpe e r m i t t e tdo
alter h i b
s i da f t e trh eb i d s
have
been
opened. Only c l a r i f i c a t i o n s n o t c h a n g i n g t h e s u b s t a n c e o f t h e b i d
may b ea c c e p t e d .T h e
a c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f his b i d b u t s h o u l d n o t a s k a n y b i d d e r
s p o n s o r may a s k a n y b i d d e r f o r
t o change the substance of his bid.
Except as may b ree q u i r e d
by
law, no i n f o r m a t i o nr e l a t i n gt o
the examinaand e v a l u a t i o n of b i d s andrecommendationsconcerningawards
should
b e comrmnicated a f t e r t h e p u b l i c o p e n i n g o f b i d s
to any persons not officially concerned
with these procedures before the
announcement o f t h e award of a c o n t r a c t to t h e s u c c e s s fu l b i d d e r
7.11.6

t ion, Clarification

7.11.7

Following the opening, i t should be a s c e r t a i n e dw h e t h e r :

d)

documents have been property sip&i; m d

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75

P a rCt o 3.n s u lG
tfaounritd/ C
e loi S
n es strrvui c teiso n

- I f a b i dd o e sn o st u b s t a n t i a l l yc o n f o r mt ot h es p e c i f i c a t i o n so r
is n o o
t therwise
subs t a n t i a l l yr e s p o n s i v et ot h ei n v i t a t i o n ,
i t s h o u l db er e j e c t e d .
A t e c h n i c a la n a l y s i s
s h o u l d t h e n b e made t o e v a l u a t e e a c h r e s p o n s i v e b i d
and t o e n a b l e b i d s t o b e
compared-

7.11.8
Bid e v a l u a t i o n ss h o u l db ec o n s i s t e n tw i t ht h e
terms and c o n d i t i o n s s e t , f o r t h
i nt h es p e c i f i c a t i o n s
andany
m o d i f i c a t i o n st h e r e o fp r i o rt ot h eo p e n i n go fb i d s .F o r
as
t h ep u r p o s eo fd e t e r m i n i n gt h el o w e s te v a l u a t e db i d ,f a c t o r so t h e rt h a np r i c e ,s u c h
t h e time o fc o m p l e t i o no fc o n s t r u c t i o n ,o p e r a t i n gc o s t s ,t h ee f f i c i e n c y
and r e l i a b i l i t y
o ft h ee q u i p m e n t ,t h e
time of i t s d e l i v e r ya n d
the a v a i l a b i l i t yo fs e r v i c e
and s p a r e
p a r t s ,s h o u l da l s ob et a k e ni n t oc o n s i d e r a t i o ni fa p p l i c a b l e( w h e n e v e rp o s s i b l e ,b e i n g
expressed i n monetary terms a c c o r d i n g t o the b a s i s g i v e n i n t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ) .

7.11.9
Itnhaeb s e n copefr e - q u a l i f i c a t i o nt h,sep o n s osrh o u ldde t e r m i nw
ehether
t h eb i d d e r whose b i dh a sb e e ne v a l u a t e dt h el o w e s th a st h et e c h n i c a lc a p a b i l i t y
f i n a n c i a lr e s o u r c e st oe f f e c t i v e l yc a r r yo u tt h ec o n t r a c tc o n c e r n e d .I ft h eb i d d e rd o e s
not meet t h a t t e s t , h i s b i d s h o u l d b e r e j e c t e d .
.

and

7.11.10
O r d i n a r i l y ,t h e
award o f a c o n t r a c ts h o u l db e
made t ot h eb i d d e r
whose b i d
hasbeendeterminedtobethelowestevaluatedbid
and who meets t h e a p p r o p r i a t e stand a r d s of t e c h n i c acla p a b i l i t ayn fdi n a n c i arle s o u r c e sS. u c bh i d d esrh o u l nd obt e
work n o t s t i p u l a t e d
r e q u i r e d , as a c o n d i t i o n o f award, t o u n d e r t a k e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o r
i nt h es p e c i f i c a t i o n so rt om o d i f yh i sb i dp r i c e .T h e r e
are, however, c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,
lw b i dw h i c h
i s unbalanced i nt h er e l a t i v ec o s t sf o r
i t s components,
f o r example a o
which might indicate that the next lowest bidder
i s a more d e s i r a b l e c o n t r a c t o r .
7.11.11
The laws of e a c hS t a t ea n dt h er e q u i r e m e n t so f
the l e n d i n ga g e n c i e s are not
uniformregardingtherequirementforawardingthecontracttotheapparent
low b i d d e r .
T h es p o n s o sr h o u l d
seek l e g a al d v i c eb e f o r ea w a r d i n g
a c o n t r a c tt o a c o n t r a c t o r who i s
n o t t h e low b i d d e r , e v e n when t h e r e are good and l o g i c a l r e a s o n s f o r d o i n g
SO.
7.11.12
B i d d i ndgo c u m e n tuss u a l lpyr o v i dt eh a t
owners may reject a l l b i d S
s .u c h
meet t h e i n t e n t o f t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o r
where
r e j e c t i o n is justified where bids do not
t h e r e i s e v i d e n c eo fl a c k
of competition. New b i d ss o l e l yf o rr e a s o n s
of p r i c es h o u l d
n o r m a l l yn o tb ei n v i t e d .
However, sponsor may reject a l l b i d s i f t h e l Q w e r b i d se x c e e d
a r e a s o n a b l ej u s t i f i c a t i o nf o r
t h ec o s te s t i m a t e sb ya n
amount s u f f i c i e n tt op r o v i d e
s u c ha c t i o n .I ns u c h
cases, new b i d ss h o u l db er e q u e s t e df r o m
a t l e a s t a l l who were
i n v i t e dt os u b m i tb i d si nt h ef i r s ti n s t a n c ea n d
a r e a s o n a b l e amount o f time s h o u l db e
allowed for the submission of the
new b i d s .
7.12

CONSTRUCTION MANA(;EMENT AND CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION

7.12.1
Once a c o n t r a cht abs e e n
awarded t h ce o n t r a c t om
r o b i l i z eas n cd o n s t r u c t i o n
commences i n a c c o r d a n c ew i t ht h ed r a w i n g s
and s p e c i f i c a t i o n sp r e p a r e df o rt h ep r o j e c t .
P e r s o n n e l who r e p r e s e n t t h e s p o n s o r e i t h e r f r o m h i s
own s t a f f o r t h r o u g h t h e s e r v i c e s o f
a f i r mh i r e df o rt h i sp u r p o s e
rmst be a s s i g n e dt ot h e
s i t e to o b s e r v e and monitor
of t h i s s t a f f is. t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e
c o n s t r u c t i o n and a d m i n i s t e rt h ec o n t r a c t .T h eg o a l
c o n s t r u c t T o n r e s u l t s i n a q u a l i t y p r o j e c t w i t h a l l work performed i n s t r i c t conformance
with
t h ree q u i r e m e n t s
o f t hde r a w i n gasn sdp e c i f i c a t i o n sT. hceo n t r a c t
is a l e g a l
commitment t o a c c o u p l i s h t h e
work i n a s p e c i f i e d manner w i t h i n a s p e c i f i e d time frame.
T h es p o n s o r sf i e l dp e r s o n n e ld on o th a v ea u t h o r i t yt oc h a n g et h e
terns o f t h e c o n t r a c t .
T h e i rr e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s t o e n s u r e t h a t
a l l work i s accomplished i n a c c o r d a n c ew i t ht h e
intent of the contract.

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

ICAO 9384 P A R T S 3
76

f t

= 484243b

Planning

0020473 043
Airport

=
Manual

7.12.2
T h ree l a t i o n s h i b
p e t w e e tnh ce o n t r a c t oar n tdh sep o n s o r 'rse p r e s e n t a t i v e
is
o f paramountimportance.Thecontractor
i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l i n h i sf i e l do fe n d e a v o u ra n d
w i l l s e e kt oa c c o m p l i s ht h e
work as e f f i c i e n t l y andeconomically as p o s s i b l e . T h e s p o r r
sor's f i e l df o r c es h o u l du n d e r s t a n dt h ep u r p o s ea n df u n c t i o no ft h ec o m p l e t e d
work and
is b u i l ti na c c o r d a n c ew i t ht h ei n t e n to ft h ec o n t r a c t
s h o u l de n s u r et h a tt h ep r o j e c t
f a i r and
documentT
s .hree l a t i o n s h iw
p i tthhceo n t r a c t os rh o u lbdbeu s i n e s s l i k e ,
f r i e n d l y . However, i t s h o u l d b e e n t i r e l y clear t h a t o n l y q u a l i t y
work i s a c c e p t a b l e . A
t h o r o u g hk n o w l e d g eo ft h ed r a w i n g sa n ds p e c i f i c a t i o n s
is e s s e n t i a lt op r o p e rm o n i t o r i n g
o f t h ec o n t r a c t o r ' s
work. All p e r s o n n e ls h o u l db et h o r o u g h l yf a m i l i a rw i t ht h e s ed o c u so a s t ob ea b l et op r o p e r l ym o n i t o rc o n s t r u c t i o n
m e n t sa n dr e f e rt ot h e mf r e q u e n t l y
activity.
7.12.3
T h ec o n t r a c dt o c u m e n t sc o n s t i t u t et h e n t i r eu n d e r s t a n d i n gb e t w e e nt h es p o n i s no v e r b a lu n d e r s t a n d i n gb e f o r eo r
a f t e r t h ec o n t r a c t
s o r a n dt h ec o n t r a c t o r ;t h e r e
s i g n i n gT. h e r e f o r ec, o n s t r u c t i o np r a c t i c es h o u l dn obt eg o v e r n e db yc u s t o m a r yt r a d e
practiceoranyothersuch
c r i t e r i a . T h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s are b a s e d o n l o n g e x p e r i e n c e i n
t h ef i e l do n
a d i v e r s i t yo fp r o j e c t s ,
are p r a c t i c a l a n dr e a s o n a b l ea n dt h e i ra c c u r a t e
coni n t e r p r e t a t i o n is r e q u i r et odn s u qr eu a l i t dy u, r a bal enmda i n t e n a n c e - f r e e
struction.

w i l l require
7.12.4
Payments
t tohceo n t r a c t osrh o u l bdpe r o c e s s e pd r o m p t l yT. h i s
t h es p o n s o r ' s t a f ft op e r f o r mn e c e s s a r yf i e l dm e a s u r e m e n t si n
a t i m e l yf a s h i o na n d
c o m p u t et h en e c e s s a r yq u a n t i t i e s .I nt h e
case w h e r et h ec o n t r a c t o r
is r e q u i r e dt os u b m i t a ni n v o i c e ,t h es p o n s o r ' sf i e l ds t a f fs h o u l dp e r f o r mt h en e c e s s a r yc o m p u t a t i o n s
for
c h e c k i n gt h ei n v o i c ep r i o rt or e c e i p to ft h ei n v o i c e
so as t o p e r m i t immediateprocess i n gf o r payment.
I fd i s c r e p a n c i e sa r ef o u n di nt h ei n v o i c e ,t h ec o n t r a c t o rs h o u l db e
n o t i f i e di m m e d i a t e l ya n dd i f f e r e n c e sr e c o n c i l e d .D e l a yi nt h ep r e p a r a t i o na n dp r o c e s is e n t i t l e d t o payment
s i n g o f p a y m e n ts h o u l dn o tb ep e r m i t t e dt oo c c u r .T h ec o n t r a c t o r
It i s n o to n l yu n f a i rt od e l a y
payment;
o rh i s
work i na c c o r d a n c ew i t ht h ec o n t r a c t .
i t i s a v i o l a t i o n o f t h ec o n t r a c ti f
payment is d e l a y e da f t e rs u b m i s s i o n
of a proper
invoice.
Payment o f a n e n t i r e i n v o i c e s h o u l d n o t b e d e l a y e d b e c a u s e
of a d i s c r e p a n c y i n
a s i n g l e item.
T h ed i s p u t e d
item s h o u l db ed e d u c t e da n dt h er e m a i n d e ro ft h ei n v o i c e
p r o c e s s e d f o r payment.
7 . 1 2 . 5M a i n t a i n i n ga d e q u a t er e c o r d s
i s a ni m p o r t a n ft u n c t i o no tf h es p o n s o . r ' sf i e l d
taff.
As a minimum, t h er e c o r d ss p e c i f i c a l l yr e q u i r e db yt h ec o n t r a c td o c u m e n t sm u s t
b e m a i n t a i n e dIa.nd d i t i o nc,e r t a irne c o r d s
w i l l bree q u i r etdcoo v eurn u s u aolr
o f good r e c o r dcsa n n obotev e r s p e c i a ls p e c totsh
fper o j e cT
t .hi em p o r t a n c e
o f r e c o r d sc a nb ev e r yc o s t l yi n
a m a j o rc o n s t r u c t i o np r o j e c t .
emphasized.Inadequacy
PIomptness i n e n t e r i n g r e c o r d s a n d p r e p a r i n g r e p o r t s
is fundamental.
Memory o f d e t a i l s
may fadeand
a r e c o r dp r e p a r e d
a s i g n i f i c a n t time a f t e r t h ee v e n tl a c k sc r e d i b i l i t y .
R e p o r t sr e q u i r e dd a i l ys h o u l db ep r e p a r e do n
time a n dn o tp e r m i t t e dt os l i p .C o r r e s pondence i s a v i t a pl a r t
of e v e rcyo n s t r u c t i opnr o j e cC
t . o m n u n i c a t i o nssh o u lbde
answered promptly, and none should be
l e f t unanswered.
A j odbi a r y
i s a b s o l u t e leys s e n t i a lnsdh o u lbd
aec c u r a t e lm
yaintained.
7.12.6
a d i s p u t e a r i s e a t a l a t e r d a t e .T h ed i a r y
T h e job d i a r y w i l l p r o v ei n v a l u a b l es h o u l d
a boundbook
o fa d e q u a t e
size.
The work d o n ee a c hd a ys h o u l db e
s h o u l db ek e p ti n
term a n da n yc o n v e r s a t i o n sw i t ht h ec o n t r a c t o rs h o u l db er e c o r d e d
r e m r d e di ng e n e r a l
terms
Any u n u s u aol c c u r r e n c e s u c h
as a c c i d e n t s b, r a c i n go rf a l s e w o r k
i ns p e c i f i c
as much d e t a i l as p o s s i b l e . Diaries
f a i l u r e s , work s t o p p a g e s , etc. s h o u l d b e e n t e r e d i n
shouldbewrittenininkwithouterasures.If
a m i s t a k e is made i t s h o u l d b e s t r u c k o u t

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

I C A O 9184 P A R T * 3

**

4 8 4 1 4 L b 0020474 T 8 T

.-

Part 3C o nG
s ufliotdraenl ti /nCe o
s n sSt er ur vc it ci oe ns

77

a n dr e - e n t e r e d W
. e a t h e rc o n d i t i o n s h o u l db ee n t e r e df o re a c hd a y T
. h ed a t e
of each
p l a c e m e n to fc o n c r e t es h o u l db er e c o r d e dw i t ht h eh o u ro f
s t a r t and f i n i s h , r e s u l t s of
tests, and d e s c r i p t i o no p
f r o t e c t i o nu s e da g a i n s ft r e e z i n go er x p o s u r et oe x c e s s i v e
heat.

7.12.7
I and d i t i o tntohjeo db i a r yu, s u a l l m
y a i n t a i n e bdtyhsep o n s o r 'sse n i o r
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , o t h e r members o f t h er e s i d e n ts t a f fs h o u l dm a i n t a i nr e c o r d s .T h ec h i e f
o f s u r v e y i s r e s p o n s i b l ef o rt h em a i n t e n a n c eo f
a l l s u r v e y i n gf i e l db o o k sw h i c hs h o u l d
b e p r e s e r v e d as o f f i c i a l j o b r e p o r t s .
Any measurements r e l a t i n g t o d e v i a t i o n s f r o m t h e
contractplansshouldbepromptlytransposedto
a record s e t o f d r a w i n g s f o r u s e i n t h e
preparation of "as+uilt" drawings.

7.12.8
R e s u l t so f
a l l soil tests, b o r i n g sc, o m p a c t i o n
tests and p i l er e c o r d ss h o u l d
basis o f a c c e p t a n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l
items
a l s o b e c a r e f u l l y m a i n t a i n e d as a r e c o r d o f t h e
o f work.
A dailyrecordof
men andequipmentworkingonthe
s i t e e a c hd a ys h o u l da l s o
be compiledfrom
the d a i l y r e p o r t s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l
members o f t h e
b e k e p t .T h i sc a n
s t aafsfs i g nttevhodae r i osuesc t otophrfsreo j e c t .
- -.
~

7.12.9
In c o n c l u s i o n , i t s h o u lbrdee c o g n i z etdh a t
when t hceo n t r a c t o r
and t h e
sponsor'sfieldforce
work as a team t h e r e s u l t w i l l b e a q u a l i t y c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t
of p r o f i tf o rt h ec o n t r a c t o r .
A t times
c o m p l e t e do n time a n dw i t ha na d e q u a t em a r g i n
thedivergentperspectivesofthecontractorandthefieldforce
may c a u s e a d e t e r i o r a tion in this ideal relationship,
however, s e n i o r members of e a c h s t a f f s h o u l d s t r i v e t o
o v e r c o m e d i s p u t e s i n a f a i r a n d r e a s o n a b l e manner a n d m a i n t a i n b u s i n e s s l i k e b u t f r i e n d l y
relations throughout the course of
the p r o j e c t .
7.13

CHANCXS DURING CONSTRUCTION

7.13.1
T h e r eh a v eb e e nv e r y
f e w , i f a n y ,p r o j e c t sc o n s t r u c t e d ,t h a td i dn o ti n v o l v e
some changes i n t h e o r i g i n a l p l a n s a n d / o r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . T h e s e c h a n g e s
may a r i s e from
one o r more c i r c u m s t a n c e s , f o r example:

a ) monetary restm<nts;
b)unanticipated

f i s t d conditions;

cl

revision of ptanning goats;

d)

correction of deficeencies

e)

non-atlaitability of certain materiat

OP

nrietakes;
010 equipnent;

or

f) development of improoed construction methods.


7.13.2
These
changes
may o r i g i n a t ew i t he i t h e trh es p o n s o rt,h ec o n t r a c t o or trh e
d e s i g nc o n s u l t a n t .
All t h r e ep a r t i e s =st b e involved i nt h ei m p l e m e n t a t i o n
t i o nopf r o p o s e dc h a n g e sO
. bviously,
some c h a n g en, ont e c e s s a r i l yt h eo n ep r o p o s e d ,
nust b e made i n t h e case o f b ) , d )
o r e ) mentionedabove.

7.13.3
Changes
should
not
be
implemented,
e v a l u a t i o n b y a c o u p e t e n tc o n s u l t a n ta n d
his consultant.

however, w i t h o u t a t h o r o u gt eh c h n i c a l
a c o s tv s .b e n e f i ta n a l y s i sb yt h es p o n s o ro r

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

or rejec-

Not for Resale

78
.. ._

Airport Planning Manual

3 :4
The procedure for d e t e r m i n i n gt h ep a y m e n t . - o rc h a n g e sv a r i e sw i t h . t h e
..type
o fc o n t r a c ti ne f f e c t .F o ru n i tp r i c ec o n t r a c t s ,
much of t h ec o s t w i l l s i m p l yi n v o l v e
a na d d i t i o no rd e d u c t i o nt ot h eo r i g i n a lq u a n t i t i e s ,
as l o n g as thechangedoesnot
limits s p e c i f i e di nt h ec o n t r a c t .
If t h ec h a n g ei n v o l v e s
removal of work
e x c e e dt h e
t o b e paid for.
Changes made
a l r e a d ya c c o n p l i s h e d ,t h a t
work w i l l , of c o u r s e ,a l s oh a v e
u n d e r lump sum c o n t r a c t sh a v et ob en e g o t i a t e do n
a c a s eb yc a s eb a s i s .
Changes made
a f i x e df e eb a s i s
would
u n d e r a c o s tp l u sp e r c e n t a g eo fc o s tc o n t r a c to rc o s tp l u s
require negotiation only if the
change i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e .

,&-.

must

start

--`,,```,,,,````-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

7.13.5
Under a n yc i r c u m s t a n c e st h ec o n t r a c st h o u l ds p e c i f yt h a t h ec o n t r a c t o r
a c c e p t end inplement changes even i f agreement o n c o s t c a n n o t b e r e a c h e d p r i o r t o
o f work o n the changes.

Copyright International Civil Aviation Organization


Provided by IHS under license with ICAO
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

8.1
The f o r e g o i ntge x t
was prepared
with
only
one
purpose:
tpor o v i dgeu i d a n c e
to individuals and organizations in the process of. contracting for consultant/constructionservices.
The p o s s i b l e v a r i a t i o n i n t y p e , s i z e , c o m p l e x i t y , l o c a t i o n a n d
method of
p r o j e c t r e a l i z a t i o n is f a r t o o g r e a t t o p e r m i t
a volume of t h i s s i z e t o d e a l w i t h more
t h a ng e n e r a l i t i e sf o r
most of the subjectscovered.Specificshavebeenprovidedonly
f o rs u b j e c t sw h i c h
are u s u a l l yn o ta f f e c t e d
by the variationsmentionedabove.
Even
t h e s e s h o u l d be e x a m i n e d c a r e f u l l y t o b e c e r t a i n t h e y are a p p l i c a b l e .
8.2

The most s i g n i f i c a n t s t e p s f o r a n y p r o j e c t

a)

are:

Task i d e n t i f i c a t h the spomor must identifg what must be


accorripZzshed, thetime
frame f o r i t s comptetion, and the
.budget available for the mrk.
~~

b ) Assembly of background muteriat - the sponsor should


researchthoroughly all available data; physical, technical,
s t a t i s t i c a l and soci+economic which w ial fl f etcht e
magnitude and/or conduct of the m r k e f f o r t .

Preparation of invitations for proposals


the degree of
d e t a i l included i nt h ei n v i t a t i o n s
regarding the terms of
reference, scope of m r k and contract bondiiions should be
size and complexity of theproject.
commensurate with
the
dl

Selection of consultant - t h i s should be made on the basis


of recent past
accornptishments and reputation with conparative, competitive fees being a lesser consideration.
Consultant contract t y p e - untesa law or other rules dictate
of contract(feebasis)
should be a
otherwise,thetype
negotiable item and the type chosen should take into accomt
the probability of future modifications t o the scope of work
and the easieat possible m y t o do t h i s while miximizing the
administ~ativsburdens on both parties.

Selectionofcontractor
t h i s should be made on the basis
of competitivebidsafter
an e m i n a t i o n of thebids
for
corpec&ess, completeness and proper balancs of individ;al
u n i t prices. fie contracttype should be established by the
probability
of future
sponsor t a k i n g into account the
modifications to the scope of m h k .

79

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*+ =

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gl

N o t i a t w n s - these should be conducted i n a c e o p e m t i v e


the wiZtingness of each p a r t yt o
try to
-&th
understand and accommodate the requiremen&a of theother.
The negotiationprocess .?All have a l a s t i n ge f f e c t on the
conduct of the p r o j e c t .

h)

Contractadministration
- atZ t h ef u n c t i o n sl i s t e di nt h e
t e x t must be carpi.ed outthoroughly and expeditiously; none
more so than the prompt processing of invoices.

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= 484141b

0020478 625

... .

APPENDIX
PROVISIONS

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STANDARD
CONTRACT

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INTERNATIONAL GENERAL RULES


OF
AGREEMENT
PART I
STANDARD CONDITIONS

GENERAL PROVISIONS

1.1

Scow of Services
The services to be performed by the Consulting Engineer under this Agreement
(hereinafter called the Services) are described in the Scope of Services set forth
in Appendix A.

1.2

Relationship
between

the Parties

Nothing contained herein shall be construed as establishing or creating a relationship of master and servant or principal and agent.

Language18 and Law


There shall be stated in Part II of these International General Rules:
(a) the language or tanguages
in which the Agreement shall be drawn up;
(b) the language according to which the Agreement is to be construed and interpreted, designated the RulingLanguage;
(c) the countryor state, the lawof which isto apply to the Agreement endaccording
to which the Agreement is to be construed.

1-4

Changes In Legislation
If in the country in which the project is being carried out there should occur, subsequent to the date of this Agreement, changes to any National or State Statute,
Ordinance, Decree or other Law or any regulation or by-law of any local or other
duly constituted authority, or the introduction of any such State Statute, Ordinance,
Decree, Law, regulatton or by-law which causes additional or decreased costto the
Consulting Engineer in the performance of his services, such additionat or reduced
cost shall bepaid by or credited to the Client and the agreed remuneration adjusted
accordingly.

1.5

Deflnltlons
Words importing the singular only also include the plural and the masculine includes
the feminine and vice-versa where the context requires. The word days denotes
calendar days.

83

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1.3

84

Planning
1.6

Airport

Hepdirrgr
The headingsin these InternationalGeneral Rules of Agreement (Parts
I and II) shall
not be deemed to be part thereof or be taken into consideration in the interpretation
or construction thereof or of the Agreement.

1.7

Notices
All notices under this Agreement will be givenin writing and will be deemed to have
been given if delivered by one of the following means:
personal deliveryto the designated representativeof each of the Parties;
by telex;
- by tetegram;
by registered post
at the specific designationof the Partiesas set forth in Part 11 of this Agreement.

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ICAO 9384 P A R T X 3 * t m 484141b 0020483 L I T m


Part 3.- Guidelines for Consultant/Construction
Services
2

COMMENCEMENT,COMPLETION,ALTERATION
OF THE AGREEMENT

2.1

Agreement in Force

85

AND TERMINATION

The Agreement is considered to have comeinto force immediately all the necessary
signatures as stip6lated in Part II of this Agreement have been appended.

The Consulting Engineer shall commence the Services within the perlod stated in
Part 4
I of this Agreement.
~

2.3

C#npktkn Dab
The Servicesshall be completed within the period stated in Part II of this Agreement
or as alternathrely agreed in writing between both Parties.

Should circumstancesarise which call for modificationsof the Agreement these may
be made by mutual consent given
in writing. Proposalsin this respect from one party
shall be given dueconsideration by the other party.

2.5

hlgnmont

The Consulting Engineer shall not, without thewritten consent of the Client, assign
the benefits, other thanthe assignment of any monies due or to become due under
this Agreement.
The Consulting Engineer shall not, without thewritten consent of the Client, in any
way assign or transfer the obligations of this Agreement or any part thereof.

2.6

Death
the
of

Client

The Agreement shall not be dissolved by the death or demise


of the Client. Hisrights
and obligations shall pass to his successors.

2.2.7

Partnerships
(i) Addition of Partner(s)

Should the Consulting Engineer be a partnership and at any time


take an additional
partner or partners heor they shall thence be deemed
to be included in the expression the Consulting Engineer.
(ii) Withdrawal of Partner(s)
Should the Consulting Engineer be a partnership the Agreement shall not be dissolved by the death or withdrawal of one or more members of the partnership.

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Airport Planning Manual


2.8

Sub-Contracts

2.9

Postponement and Termination

2.9.1

By Notice of the Client


The Client may by written notice to the Consulting Engineer at any time give prior
notice of his intention to abandon the Services,in whole orin part, or terminate this
Agreement. The effective date of termination of this Agreement shall not be less
than sixty (60) days after receipt of such notice, or such other shorter or longer
period as may be agreed betweenthe Parties. Uponreceipt of such notice the Consulting Engineer shall take immediate stepsto bring the Servicesto a close and to
reduce expenditures to a minimum.

2.9.2

Force Majeure
The Consulting Engineer shall promptly notify the Client, in writing, of any situation
or event arising from circumstances beyond his control and which he could not
reasonably foresee which makes it impossible for the Consulting Engineer to carry
out in whole or in part his obligations under this Agreement. Upon the occurrence
of such a situation or event the Services shall be deemed to be postponed for a
period of time equal to that caused by the Force Majeure and a reasonableperiod
not exceeding one (1) month to remobilize for the continuation of the Services.

2.9.3

Default by the Client


The Consulting Engineer may by written notice to the Client terminate this Agreement:
(i) if he hasnot received payment of thatpart of any invoice which is not contested
within sixty (60)days of submission thereof;
(ii) if the Services have been postponed as provided for in Clause 2.9.2 and the
period of postponement has exceeded six
(6) months.

2.9.4

Entitlement of ConsultingEngineer upon postponement or termination


Upon postponement of the Services or termination of this AgreementunderClause
2.9.1,2.9.2
or 2.9.3 and subject to theobligation of theConsultingEngineer to
reduceexpenditure to a minimum as stated in Clause 2.9.1, the ConsultingEngineer shall be entitled to receive the remuneration due up to the effective date of
postponement or termination and reimbursement in full for such of the costs specified in Appendix D as shall have been incurred prior to the effective date of such
postponement or termination and for all costs incidental to the orderly termination
of the Services, including return travel of the Consulting Engineers personnel,their
dependents and effects.

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Any subcontract or modification or termination thereofrelating to the performance


of the Services by the Consulting Engineer shall be made only with the advance
written agreement of the Client.

Part 3.- Guidelines f o r Consultant/Construction Services


2.95

87

Inabllly of an lndlvldual Com.u)tlngEnglnoor to Pnlonn


Should the Consulting Engineer be an individual person and, for any reasonsbeyond
hts control and which he could not reasonably have foreseen and for which he is
not responsible, be unableto perform his obligations under the Agreement or have
it performed entirely, the Agreement terminates without prejudice to the accrued
rights of either party against the other.
The Client shall inkthat case pay the Consulting Engineer or his Successors and
Assigns upon surrender of the documents necessary for the continuation of the
Services, in so far as theyare available, suchpart of the remunerationas corresponds
to the state of the Services under the Agreement,including any reimbursable costs
and those termination costs (if any) ensuing for the Consulting Engineer or his
SuccessorsandAssignsfrom
contracts alreadyentered into in respect of the
Agreement.
._..

2.9.6

W u l t by tho Con8ultlng Englnoer


The Client shall notify the Consulting Engineer, in writing, if he considers that the
Consulting Engineeris not discharging his obligations under this Agreement, stating
the reasons therefor.In the event that the Consulting Engineer does
not respond to
such notice within fifteen (15) days the Client may deem the Agreement terminated.
In this event the Consulting Engineer shall be entitled to receive the remuneration
due for services rendered up
to the dateof notification of default and reimbursement
in full for such of the costs specified in Appendix D as shall have been properly incurred prior to the date of notification of default.

2.9.7

Clalms for Default


Any claim for damages arising out of default and termination shall be agreed between the Client and the Consulting Engineer or,
failing agreement, shallbe referred
to arbitration in accordance with Clause 6 of this Agreement.

2.9.8

Rlght8 and Llabllltks of Parties

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Termination of this Agreement, for whatever reason, shallnot prejudice or affect the
accrued rights or claims and liabilities of either party to this Agreement.

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Airport Planning Manual


OF THE CONSULTING
ENGINEER

THE RIGHTS AND


DUTIES

3.1

The ConsultingEngineer shall exercise all reasonable skill, care and diligence in
the performance of the Services under the Agreement and shall carry out all his
responsibilities in accordance with recognized professional standards.
The Consulting Engineer shallin allprofessionat mattersact as a faithful adviser to
the Client and, in so far as any of his duties are discretionary, act fairly as between
the Client and third parties.
The Consulting Engineer, his employees and sub-contractors, whilst in the Country
in which the Services are being carried out, shall respect the laws and customsof
that country.

3.2

The remuneration of the Consulting Engineer charged to the Client according to


Appendix D shall constitute his only remunerationin connection with the Agreement
and neither he norhis personnel shall accept any trade commission, discount,allowance or indirect payment or other consideration in connection with or in relation
to the Agreement or to the discharge of his obligations thereunder.

3.3

The Consulting Engineer shall not have the benefit, whether directly or indirectly,
of any royalty on or of any gratuity or commission
in respect of any patentedor protected article or process used on or for the purposes of the Agreement unless it is
mutually agreed in writing that he may.

3.4

The ConsultingEngineer will provide all the expert technical advice and skills which
are normally required for the class of services for which he is engaged. Where
specialist technical advice or assistance is required, beyondthat committed under
the Scope of Services in Appendix A, the Consulting Engineer may with the prior
written agreement of theClient arrange for theprovision of such services. TheClient
shall pay for all such services.
However, the Consulting Engineer shallretain full and unseverable responsibilityfor
all the Services which he is committed to render under this Agreement.

3.5

The copyright of all documents prepared by theConsultingEngineer in connection


with the Agreement rests with the Client. The Consulting Engineer may take copies
of such documents but shallnot use the contents thereoffor any purpose unrelated
to the Services without theprior written approval of the Client.

3.6

Equipmentandmaterialsfurnished to theConsultingEngineerby the Client or purchased by the Consulting Engineerwith funds wholly supplied or reimbursed by the
Client shallbe the property of the Client and shall beso marked.
Upon completionor terminationof the Services the Consulting Engineer shall
furnish
to the Client inventories of the equipment and
materials referred to above as it then
remains and dispose of same as
directed by the Client.

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Guidelines for Consultant/Construction Services

89

LIABILITY OF THE CONSULTING ENGINEER

4.1

Notwithstandinganythinghereincontainedtothecontrary,
the Clientshallindernnify and hold harmless the Consulting Engineerfor and against any and all claims,
damages, expenses or costs (including those asserted by third parties) directly or
indirectly related to the Servicesto the extent that such claims, damages, expenses
and costs exceed in total the Consulting Engineers liability as stated in Part II of
this Agreement. *
This indemnification and hold harmless by the Client shall not apply in cases where
such claims, damages and expenses arise from gross negligence
or criminal action
from the Consulting Engineer.

4.2

The liability of the


Consulting
Engineer
expires
as
specified
Agreement.

4.3

TheConsultingEngineer
shall be liable for any violation of legal provisions or
rights of third parties in respect of patents and/orcopyrights introduced into documents prepared by him.

4.4

Unless notice to the contrary is given in writing by the Client, the Consulting Engineer shall, at the Clientsexpense, take out and maintain, on terms andconditions
approved by the Client, insurance against third party liability and against loss of or
damage to equipment purchased,with funds providedby the Client,for the sole use
of the Consulting Engineerin the execution of the Services, provided that the Consulting Engineer shall use his best efforts to maintain at hls own cost, reasonable
professional liability coverage.

4.5

The Consulting Engineerhas no liability whatsoever for anydamage resulting from


any act of the Client which is not covered by the Scopeof Services or the Consulting
Engineers instructions or written advice.

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Airport Planning Manual


5

OBLIGATIONS OF THE CLIENT

5.1

The Clientshall furnish without charge and within a reasonable time all pertinent
data and information available to him and shall give such assistance as shall reasonably be required by the Consulting Engineer for the carrying out of his duties under
this Agreement. The Client shall give his decision on allsketches, drawings, reports,
recommendations and other matters properly referred to him for decision by the
Consulting Engineer in such reasonable time as not to delay or disrupt the performance by the Consulting Engineer of his Services under this Agreement.

5.2

The Client shallfacilitate the timely granting to the Consulting Engineer, and any
of his personnel and, where applicable, their dependents, in respect of the country
where the Services are to be carried out, of:
(i) necessary visas, licences, permits and customs clearance for entry and exit;

(ii) unobstructed access to all sites and locations involved in carrying out the
Services:
(iii) the privilege of bringing into the country reasonable amounts of foreign currency
for the purposes of the Services or for the personal use of such personnel and
of withdrawing any such amounts as may be earned therein by such personnel
in the execution of the Services;
(iv) a firm authorization from the country's Central Bank or other appropriate authority that the foreign exchange component of the remuneration under this
Agreement shall beallowed to be transferred to the Consulting Engineer's home
country;
(v) repatriation in the event of emergencies.
5.3

The Client will facilitate the clearance through customs ofany equipment, materials
and supplies required for the Services and of the personal effects of the Consulting
Engineer's personnel.

5.4

Except when exemption hasbeen arranged, the Client shall compensate the Consulting Engineer for the unrecovered cost of any taxes, duties, levies and other impositions under the laws and regulations in the country where the Services are carried
out in respect of:
(i) any payments made to the Consulting Engineer or the personnel he brings from
other countries for the purpose of carrying out the Services;

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(ii) any equipment, materials and supplies brought into the country for the purpose
of carrying out the Services and which, after having been brought into the country, will be subsequently withdrawn therefrom;
(iii) any property brought into the country by the Consulting Engineer or his personnet for their personal use or consumption which, after having been brought
into the country, will, if not consumed, be subsequently withdrawn therefrom
upon the departure of the Consulting Engineer and his personnel;
(iv) any stamp and other duties payable on documents.

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Part 3.- Guidelines for Consultant/Construction Services


TheClientshallmakeavailable,freeofcharge,totheConsultingEngineerandhis
personnel, for the purpose of the Services, the equipmentfacilities
and
described in
Appendix C.

5.6

In theeventthattheConsultingEngineer
is delayed in obtainingtheequipment
and/or facilities set forth inAppendix C, he shall notify the Client of such delay and
shall be entitled to appropriate time extension and proportional remuneration for
completion of the Services.

5.7

If theanticipatedequipmentand/or facilities arenotforthcomingtheClientandthe


Consulting Engineer shall agree on how the affected part of the Services shall be
carried out and upon a revised remuneration therefor.

58

TheClient will in conjunction with the Consulting Engineer arrange for the selection
and provisionof counterpart personnel where required,
as indicated in Appendix C
hereto. Counterpart personnel
will be trained by and work under the exclusive direction of the Consulting Engineer. In the event that any member of the counterpart
personnel fails to perform adequately the work assigned to him by the ConSuttlng
Engineer, provided such work assignment is consistent with the position occupied
by the staff member, the Consulting Engineer may request that he be replaced and
such request shall not be unreasonably refused.
If counterpart personnel are not provided
in accordance with AppendixC, the Client
and the Consulting Engineer shall agree on how the affected part of the Services
will be carried outand upon a revised compensation therefor.

5.9

The Client undertakes to arrange the provision of services from others in accordance
with Appendix C hereto. The Consulting Engineer shall co-operate
with the firms
andor individuals listed in the Appendix.
In the event that the Consulting Engineeris delayed in obtaining the servicesfrom
others set forth in Appendix C he shall notify the Client of such delay and shall be
entitled to appropriate time extension and proportional remuneration for completion
of the Services.
If the anticipated services are not forthcoming, the Client and the Consulting Engineer shall agree on how the affectedpart of the Services will be carried out and
upon a revised remuneration therefor.
The Client shall hold the Consulting Engineer harmless against
anyor claims
losses
resulting from the failure of others to provide the services to be arranged by the
Client in accordance with AppendixC.

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5.5

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Airport Planning Manual


SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES

6.1

Any dispute or difference arising out of theAgreement, including thoseconsidered


as such by only one of the Parties, shall be finally settled under theArbitration Rules
and Procedures stipulated in Part II of this Agreement.
The Arbitrators decision shall be final and binding on both parties. The resulting
award shallbe in lieu of any other remedy.
The Arbitrator@)will not be of the nationality of either the Client or the Consulting
Engineer.

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PERSONNEL

7.1

The Services shall be carried out by personnel specified in Appendix 6 hereof for
the respective periods of time indicated therein, provided that the Consulting Engineer may make such reasonable adjustments in such periods as may be appropriate to ensure the efficient performance of the Services.

7.2

The Consulting Engineer shall designate a Project Leader to be in charge of the


project and to be responsible for liaison between the Client and the Consulting
Engineer.

7.3

Shouid it become necessary to replace any person specified by name in Appendix B


hereof, the Consulting Engineer shall forthwith arrange for such replacement with
a person of comparable experience.
The party requesting the replacement shall be responsible for the financial consequences thereof, except in the cases when the Consulting Engineers personnel
are replaced for reasons of proved misconduct, inability to perform or violatioiiof
laws.
All such requests, for whatever reason, must be presented in writing with the particular reasons stated.

7.4

The Clients individual experts, if any, assigned to participate in the Services and
specified in Appendix C hereof, shall only be appointed with the agreement of the
Consulting Engineer and shall be remunerated by the Client. These experts may not
be removed or replaced except by the Client acting in consultation with the Consulting Engineer. In all other respects such persons shall be subject to the administrative direction and supervision of the Consulting Engineer.
Notwithstanding the appointment of such persons by the Client, the Consulting
Engineer shall at all times retain full and unseverable responsibility for the due performance of his obligations hereunder.and for the satisfactory completion of the
Services. TheClient shall be liable for these experts errors and/or omissions unless
otherwise stated in Part II of this Agreement.

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REMUNERATION OF THE CONSULTING ENGINEER

8.1

The Client shall remunerate the Consulting Engineer in respect of the Services in
accordance with the conditions set forth in Appendix D.

8.2

In the event of any services being required supplementary to those detailed in Appendix A due to circumsiances arising beyond the control of the Consulting Engineer
and which could not reasonably have been foreseen or for any additional services,.
alterations or modificatiops as agreed between the Parties and resulting from the
Client's specific requests which cause amendments to the Services or termination
of this Agreement, the Consulting Engineer shall receive additional remuneration
which shall be computed on a time basis together with all reimbursable costs incurred.

8.3

In the case of delay on the part of the Client the Consulting Engineer, to the extent
that such delay results in extra cost, shall be entitled to additional remuneration.
Such additional remuneration shall be computed on a time basis together with all
reimbursable costs incurred.

8.4

If the remuneration is stipulated as a lump sum plus reimbursable costs an agreed


index for escalation of the sum shall be specified in Appendix D.

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PAYMENTS TO THE CONSULTING ENGINEER

9.1

The Client shall effect paymentsto the Consulting Engineerin accordance with the
payment schedules andin the manner set forth in Appendix 0.

9.2

Amounts due to the Consulting Engineer shall be paid promptly. If the Client fails
to pay the Consulting Engineer within forty-five
(45) days the Client shall pay interest
as from the date of receipt
of the invoice at the rate specified
in Appendix 0.

9.3

If any item or part of an item of an invoice rendered by the Consulting Engineer is


disputed or subject to question by the Client, the payment by the Client of that part
of the invoice which is not contested shall not be withheld bn those grounds and
the provisions of Clause .9.2 shall apply to such remainder and also
to the disputed
or questioned item to the extent that
it shall subsequently be agreedor determined
to have been due to the Consulting Engineer and interest at the rate specified in
Appendix D shall be paid on all disputed amounts finally determined payable to the
.
..
consulting Engineer.

9.4

All payments made by the Client on account of foreign exchange costs shall be
available for repatriation by the Consulting Engineer unless specific provision to
the contrary is included in Appendix D.

9.5

Whenever it shall be necessary to evaluate one currencyin terms of another for the
purpose of the payment of an amount specified
in Appendix D the rate of exchange
applicable shall be the selling rate published byan official source, in the country
where the Services are being carried out, on the date the payment was due.

.9.6.

Except in the case of lump sum agreements the Client may nominate
a reputable
firm of accountants to audit all amounts claimed by the Consulting Engineer.
Advance written noticeof not less than thiee.(3) working days mustbe given to the
Consulting Engineer by the Client, or the firm of accountants, of such audit which
shall becarried out during normal working hours at the place where the records are
maintained.

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'

**

I C A O 9384 PARTU3

H 48434lrb 0020492 T T 5

PROVISIONS SPECIFIC TO PROJECT

1.
The s u b j e c t matter i n c l u d eudn d et h
r ihse a d i nhgabse eenx c e r p t ew
dith
m o d i f i c a t i o nf r o m

INTERNATIONAL GENERAL RULES OF AGREEMENT

some

PART I1

CONDITIONS OF GENERAL APPLICATION


2.
The f o l l o w i nngo t e s
are i n t e n d e d as an
aide-memoire
itnhper e p a r a t i o n
of
are d e a l t w i t h , b u tn o te x h a u s t i v e l y ,i n
P a r t I) which will v a r y
c l a u s e s (some ofwhich
as n e c e s s a r y t o t a k e a c c o u n t
of t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s and t h e l o c a l i t y where t h e works are
c a r r i e do u t .T h e s ev a r i a b l ec l a u s e s
which must be s p e c i a l l yp r e p a r e dt os u i t . . e a c h
particularagreementshouldcoversuch
of theundermentioned matters andany o t h e r s as
are a p p l i c a b l e .

a)

law

Language/s
and

Language/s i n which the Agreement. is drawn:


Ruling language:
The l a w t o whi-ch t h e Agreement i s t o be s u b j e c t :

W e n - t ' : s address and. r e s p o n s i b l e o f f i c i a l :

Consmltant ' s addzess :


~~

Consultant'salterfmtiveaddressforcables

and t e l e x :

cA
) uthorized
signatories
Signaturesrequiredforthis

Agreement t o be e f f e c t i v e :
Consultant

Client

97

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ICAO

9384 pARTx3 Ict

98
Manual

4843416 0020493 93%

Planning

Airport

Commencement date
The services shall be commenced within
days/weeks after the Agreementhas come into force.
ComDletion

date

The servicesshall be completed within


weeks/months of commencement of the services.
Financial

liability

of

the

consulting

engineer

The total liabilityof the consultant under this Agreement shall be


limited to
Clause 4.2
FkDirv of the

liabilitv

of

the

consultant

The liability of the consultant expires


Settlement of disputes
The arbitration rules and procedures under which any dispute
difference arising out of this Agreement shall
be settled shall be

or

3.
Eachprojecthasuniquetechnicalcharacteristicsandeachcontracthas
unique legal and administrative characteristics which be
must
expressed in the
provisions of the agreement. Some of these characteristics have previously been
discussed in Section2.7, Terms of reference and Section
2 . 8 , Scope of work; and in
Section 4.2 of this manual.

5.
It i s suggested, in keeping with the wording
of the standard provisions,
that separate appendices be provided in the contract as follows:
Appendix A

Scope

of

work

The scopeof work should be described


as completely as possibleas
previously discussed in Section
2.8.
The wording should reflect all the
understandings reached during the negotiations.
Appendix B

Consultants

personnel

In his proposal, the consultant will


have described his proposed staffing
for the project and presented the names and experience records of the
individuals nominated to fill the key positions. Depending on the time
lapse between the proposal and award of contract, these individuals
may or

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4.
Becausethesecharacteristicsareunique,theycannotbeexpressedinthe
relatively short and simple terminology which was used for the standard conditions.

Part 3 . - G u i d e l i n e s f o r C o n s u l t a n t / C oSnesrtvr ui ccet iso n

99

may n o t be a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e p r o j e c t .
Appendix B s h o u l dr e q u i r et h a tt h e
projectbestaffedwithpersonnel
of e q u i v a l e n t e x p e r i e n c e t o t h o s e
nominated i n t h e p r o p o s a l and a g r e e d d u r i n g t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s .
Appendix C - C o u n t e r p a r t p e r s o n n e l , a s s i g n e d s p e c i a l i s t s , e q u i p m e n t a n d
f a c i l i t i e s t o beprovided by t h e c l i e n t
The number of c o u n t e r p a r t p e r s o n n e l and a s s i g n e d s p e c i a l i s t s , t h e d u r a t i o n
of t h e i ra s s i g n m e n t s , their l e v e l s of e x p e r i e n c e , and t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
should be d e t a i l e d in Appendix C - t h e c h a i n of a u t h o r i t y g o v e r n i n g t h e s e
i n d i v i d u a l s s h o u l d be s t a t e d e x p l i c i t l y .
The t y p e , s i z e a n d c o n d i t i o n
of t h e e q u i p m e n t a n d f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d b e
d e s c r i b e da n dt h er e s p o n s i b i l i t yf o rm a i n t e n a n c e ,r e p a i ra n d / o rr e p l a c e m e n t
assigned.
Appendix D

Remunerationandpayment

This s u b j e c t h a s b e e n d i s c u s s e d i n S e c t i o n
2.6.
Appendix D should s t a t e t h e
t i m i n g of payments,currency
to be used,and
a l l p r o c e d u r a lr e q u i r e m e n t sf o r
i n v o i c i n g and p r o c e s s i n g of payments.

- END -

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ICAO T E C H N I C A L P U B L I C A T I O N S
77ze following summary gives the status, and also
describes in general terms the contents of the various
serics of technical publications issued by the InternationalCivil Aviation Organization. I t does not
includespecialized
publications that do not fall
specifically within one of the series, such as the
Aeronautical Chart Catalogue or the Meteorological
Tables for International Air Navigation.

InternationalStandardsandRecommended
Ract i c s are adopted by the Council in accordance with
Articles 54, 37 and 90 ofthe
Convention on
International Civil Aviation and are designated, for
convenience, as Annexes to the Convention. The
uniform applicationbyContracting
Statesofthe
specifications contained in the InternationaI Standards is recognized as necessary forthe safety or
regu.larity of international air navigation while the
uniform application of the specifications in the
Recommended Practices is regarded as desirable in
the interestofsafety,
regularity or efficiency of
international air navigation. Knowledge of any differences between the national regulations or practices of
a State and those established by an International
Standard is essential to the safety or regularity of
international air navigation. In the event of noncompliance with an International Standard, a State
has, in fact, an obligation, under Article 38 of the
Convention, to notify the Council of any differences.
Knowledge of differences from Recommended Practices mayalso be importantforthe
safety of air
navigation and, although the Convention does not
impose any obligation with regard thereto, the
Council has invited Contracting States to notify such
differences in addition to thoserelating to International Standards.
Rocexlures for Air Navigation services (PANS) are
approved by the Council for world-wide application.
They contain, for themost part, operating procedures

regarded as not yet having attained a sufficient degree


of maturity for adoption as International Standards
and Recommended Practices, as well as material of a
more permanent character which is considered too
detailed for incorporation in an Annex, or is susceptible to frequent amendment, for which the processes
of the Convention would be too cumbersome.
Regional Supplementary Procedures (SUPPS) have
a status similar t o thatof PANSin that they are
approved by the Council, but only for application in
the respective regions. They are prepared in consolidated form, since certain of the procedures apply to
overlapping regions or are common to two or more
regions.

The following publications are prepared hy authorify of the Secretary General in accordance with the
ptnciples and policies upproved by the Council.

Technical Manuals provide guidance and information in amplification of the International Standards,
Recommended Practices and PANS, the implementation of which they are designed to facilitate.

Air Navigation Plans detail requirements for facilities and services for international air navigation in the
respective ICAOAir Navigation Regions. They are
prepared on the authority of the Secretary General
onthe
basis ofrecommendations
of regional air
navigation meetings and of the Council action thereon. The plans areamended peripdically to reflect
changes in requirements and in the status of implementation of the recommended facilities and services.
ICAO Circulars make available specialized information of interest t o contracting States. This includes
studies on technical subjects.

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I C A O 9184 P A R T t 3 t t m 4 8 4 1 4 1 6 0 0 2 0 4 9 b 640 m

PRICE: US. $5.50


(or equivalent in other currencies)

@ ICAO 1983
3/83,

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DOC9184-AN1902, Part 3
Order No. 803212

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