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SYLLABUS

Total number of hours (per semester) in the


curriculum
(28 h course + 28 hours LP sem. I)
MORPHOPATHOLOGY

Name of Discipline

Year of study

III

Semester *

Type of final evaluation (E / V / C)

The regime of the discipline (C - Compulsory , O - Optional, F Facultative)

Ob

Number of credits

Total hours of individual


study

75

Total hours per


semester

Total hours of curriculum


Titular of the discipline

56

Conf.Dr. Sergiu Teleman

* If discipline has more semesters of study, should fill in for each semester

Faculty

Medicine

Department

Morphofunctional Sciences

Profile

Health

Specialisation

Medicine

Total

C**

56

28

28

Discipline objectives
1. Acquiring knowledge of general pathology and of structural changes representing disease
morphopathological substrates.
2. Establishing morpho-clinical connections in various pathological processes.
3. Learning the diagnostic methods of pathological use and their specific indications for various
injuries.

E1
8
131

Course content - 28 HOURS


1. INTRODUCTION TO PATHOLOGY (2 hours)
The aim of Pathology. Methods of study and diagnosis. Morphological and functional approach to lesions,
pathological processes and diseases. Classification of the pathological processes.
CELULAR PATHOLOGY
Reversible and irreversible cellular lesions: necrosis and apoptosis. Cellular adaptations: hypertrophy,
atrophy, metaplasia. Intracellular accumulations: lipids, proteins, glycogen, pigments.
EXTRACELLULAR LESIONS
Hyalinosis, Amyloidosis. Pathological calcifications: dystrophic and metastatic
2. ACUTE AND CHRONIC INFLAMMATIONS (5 hours)
General features about the inflammatory reactions
Acute inflammation: vascular and cellular phases, diapedesis and phagocytosis; chemical mediators;
classification of the exudative inflammations: serous, fibrinous and purulent inflammations. Effects and
outcome of the acute inflammation. Abscess, phlegmon, septicemia and septico-pyoemia.
Chronic inflammation: Definition, ethiology, pathogenesis, histopathological features. Granulomatous
inflammations: tuberculosis, syphilis, sarcoidosis, foreign body granuloma.
HEALING AND TISSUE REPAIR
Regeneration. Repair by connective tissue formation (fibrosis) and organization. Wounds healing.
3. NEOPLASIA (5 hours)
Definitions; Nomenclature; General characteristics of benign and malignant neoplasms: differentiation
and anaplasia; rate of growth; local invasion; metastasis, routes of spreading. Precancerous lesions.
Carcinogenesis: molecular mechanism, biology of tumor development; immunity in cancer. Clinical
aspects. Grading and staging of malignancies. Morphological diagnosis of tumors. Classification of
tumors. Morphological features of benign tumors: epithelial and mesenchymal benign tumors.
Morphological features of malignant tumors: carcinomas, sarcomas, disembryoplastic tumors.
4. HEMODYNAMIC DISORDERS (2 hours)
Hyperemia and congestion. Hemorrhage. Thrombosis. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation.
Embolism: pulmonary thromboembolism, systemic thromboembolism, fat embolism, air embolism,
amniotic fluid embolism. Acute and chronic ischemia, Infarction: types of infarcts, factors which
influence the development of infarcts. Edema. Morphology in shock.
5. HEART AND BLOOD VESSELS (5 hours)
Vascular lesions. Arteriosclerosis: atherosclerosis, mediocalcinosis, arteriolosclerosis.
Vasculitis: classification, morphology of vasculitis involving large, medium size and small vessels.
Cardiovascular aneurysm: classification, aneurysmal morphology. Aortic Dissection.
Veins: thrombophlebitis and phlebothrombosis, varicose veins.
6. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (3 hours)
Respiratory tract pathology: inflammations of upper and lower respiratory tract.
Athelectasis. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchial asthma,
emphysema.
Pulmonary infections: bacterial pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, interstitial pneumonia (primary atypical
pneumonia), lung abcess.
Pulmonary tuberculosis: primary and secondary tuberculosis.
Pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals
Diffuse interstitial disease: pneumoconiosis, sarcoidosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Tumors: bronchogenic carcinoma, paraneoplastic syndromes, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, neuroendocrine
tumors, pulmonary metastasis.
Pleura: inflammatory and non-inflamatory pleural effusions, primary and secondary tumors.
7. KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT (3 hours)
Glomerular Diseases: clinical syndromes; histological alterations; pathogenesis of glomerular injury (in situ
complex deposistion, Anti-GMB Nephritis, antibodies against planted antigens, circulating immune complex
nephritis, antibodies to glomerular cells, activation of alternative complement pathway). Acute proliferative
postinfectious glomerulonephritis, rapidly progressive (crescentic) glomerulonephritis. Membranous
glomerulonephritis (membranous nephropathy). Minimal change glomerular disease (lipoid nephrosis).

6. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (3 hours)


Respiratory tract pathology: inflammations of upper and lower respiratory tract.
Athelectasis. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchial
asthma, emphysema.
Pulmonary infections: bacterial pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, interstitial pneumonia (primary atypical
pneumonia), lung abcess.
Pulmonary tuberculosis: primary and secondary tuberculosis.
Pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals
Diffuse interstitial disease: pneumoconiosis, sarcoidosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Tumors: bronchogenic carcinoma, paraneoplastic syndromes, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma,
neuroendocrine tumors, pulmonary metastasis.
Pleura: inflammatory and non-inflamatory pleural effusions, primary and secondary tumors.
7. KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT (3 hours)
Glomerular Diseases: clinical syndromes; histological alterations; pathogenesis of glomerular injury (in
situ complex deposistion, Anti-GMB Nephritis, antibodies against planted antigens, circulating immune
complex nephritis, antibodies to glomerular cells, activation of alternative complement pathway). Acute
proliferative postinfectious glomerulonephritis, rapidly progressive (crescentic) glomerulonephritis.
Membranous glomerulonephritis (membranous nephropathy). Minimal change glomerular disease (lipoid
nephrosis). Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. Ig A nephropathy (Berger). Focal and
proliferative glomerulonephritis. Chronic glomerulonephritis. Glomerular lesions associated with
systemic diseases.
Tubulointerstitial Diseases: acute tubular necrosis; tubulointerstitial nephritis: acute and chronic
pyelonephritis, reflux nephropathy, tubulointerstitial nephritis induced by drugs and toxins.
Disease of blood vessels: benign and malignant nephroangiosclerosis, renal artery stenosis.
Obstructive uropathy. Tumors of the kidney
Lower urinary tract: congenital anomalies, inflammations, benign and malignant tumors
8. DIGESTIVE TRACT (3 hours)
Esophagus: congenital anomalies, esophagitis, tumors.
Stomach: congenital anomalies, acute and chronic gastritis; Chronic peptic ulcer. Benign and malignant
tumors.
Small and Large Intestines: congenital anomalies; infectious enterocolitis; idiopathic inflammatory bowel
disease: Chron disease and ulcerative colitis.Tumors.
Appendix: acute and chronic appendicitis. Tumors.

Laboratory content -28 HOURS


1.METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF DIAGNOSIS USED IN PATHOLOGY (4 HOURS)
Intra-vitam study of the lesions. Modalities for drawing tissue specimens: biopsy. Processing of the
tissue for the histopathological diagnosis. Modalities for drawing products which contain cells for the
cytopathological diagnosis. Preparing smears. The histopathological and cytopatholoical diagnosis.
2.CELLULAR LESIONS (4 HOURS)
Hydropic change, necrosis. Adaptation of cells : atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia
INTRACELLULAR AND EXTRACELLULAR ACCUMULATIONS
Pigments : jaundice, hemosiderosis, lipofuscinosis.
Lipids: hepatic and renal steatosis, cholesterolosis, atherosclerosis
Extracellular accumulation : hyalinosis, amyloidosis
Pathological calcifications: biliary and urinary stones, nephrocalcinosis.
3.DISORDERS OF THE BLOOD FLOW (4 HOURS)
Hyperemia and congestion. Hemorrhages. Thrombosis. Infarcts. Edemas.
4.INFLAMMATION AND HEALING (6 HOURS)
Morphology of acute inflammation. Vascular and cellular changes. Classification of exudative
inflammation: serous-fibrinous, purulent. Granulomatous inflammations: tuberculous, syphilitic,
fungal, parasitic and helmintic inflammations.
Regeneration and repair: granulation tissue. Organization.
5.TUMORS (8 HOURS)
Epithelial benign tumors: papiloma, adenomatous polyp, adenoma. Mesennchymal benign tumors:
lipoma, chondroma, osteoma, capillary and cavernous hemangioma. Carcinomas: keratinized
epidermoid carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, well differentiated, tubular adenocarcinoma,
carcinomatous metastases in lymph node. Sarcomas: undifferentiated fibrosarcoma, pleomorphic
rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma. Nevi and melanoma. Teratomas (mature teratoma)
6. ANATOMO-CLINICAL AUTOPSY (2 HOURS)
Bibliography
1. Atlas and textbook of pathology. Doina Butcovan, Ed.Universitas XXI Iasi,2005 ISBN 978-606538-019-6
2. Pathology course, Doina Butcovan, Ed.Universitas XXI Iasi, 009, ISBN 978-606-538-019-6
SSkills
S1. Learning by students the recommendations for morphological methods [cytodiagnostic and
histopathology on biopsy] used in clinical diagnosis and therapy for patients.
2. 2. Theoretical characterization and identification of the substrate morphology [macroscopic and microscopic]
of pathological processes and diseases presented by systems and apparatus.
3.3. Learning concepts of pathology which helps the student to correlate anatomo-clinical and laboratory
data of medical and surgical conditions.
4. 4. Learning of basic morphological concepts that allow understanding and interpreting by the future
physician the anatomo- pathologic bulletin

In determining the final the final mark we


consider:
- answers to exam / colloquium (final
evaluation):

Share in scoring in percent


(Total = 100%)
50%
35%

- practical exam

- final answers to practical laboratory


- periodical testing by control tests
- continuous testing during the semester

15%

- activities like homework / referrals / essay /


translation / projects

- other activities (please specify): colloquium


Describe the practical modality for the final evaluation:
Writing exam MCQ
Practical exam oral

Estimate the total time (hours per semester) for the individual activities of the student
(fill with 0 activities not required)
0
1. . Read-in and learning the curs notes
8. Preparing for oral presentations
2. Learning using the textbook, courses
3. The study of the minimal suggested
bibliography

4. Additional documentation in library


5. Specific activity for Seminars and / or
LABORATORY
6. Achieving of homework, report, essay,
translation

7. Preparing for tests

25

9. Preparing the final examination

16

10. Consultaii

11. Reference material

10

12. Reference material on Internet

13. Other activities ....

14. Other activities ....

Total hours of individual study (per


semester) = 75
Date of fill in: 2012
The signature of the titular:

Conf.Dr. Sergiu Teleman