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IV Sententiae, d. 8, q.

1
Concerning the Eucharist
Hic est duplex quaestio. Prima de ipso
Eucharistiae sacramento. Secunda de forma
ipsius. Circa primum quaeruntur quatuor: 1
utrum Eucharistia sit sacramentum; 2 de
significatione ejus; 3 de institutione; 4 de
ordine sumendi hunc cibum respectu aliorum
ciborum.

At present there is a twofold question. First, on


the very sacrament of the Eucharist. Second, on
its form. Concerning the first, four things are
sought: first, whether the Eucharist is a
sacrament; second, of its signification; third, of its
institution; fourth, of the order of partaking of this
food with respect to other foods.
[QUESTION 1: The sacrament of the
Eucharist as such.]
[ARTICLE 1: The sacramentality, unicity, and
names of the Eucharist.]
SUBQUESTION 1: Whether the Eucharist is a
sacrament.

Ad primum sic proceditur. Videtur quod


Eucharistia non sit sacramentum.

Proceeding to the first, it seems that the


Eucharist is not a sacrament.

Ad idem enim non debent diversa ordinari.


Sed confirmatio est ad perficiendum,
secundum Dionysium. Cum ergo secundum
ipsum Eucharistia etiam sit perfectio, videtur
quod superfluat hoc sacramentum.

1. For different things ought not to be ordered to


the same thing. But confirmation is [ordered] to
perfecting, according to Dionysius. Since
therefore according to the same author the
Eucharist, too, is perfection, it seems that this
sacrament is superfluous.

Praeterea, in omni sacramento novae legis


idem quod figuratur, efficitur per signum
figurans. Sed species panis et vini, quae
figurant corpus Christi verum et mysticum, non
efficiunt illud. Ergo Eucharistia non est
sacramentum novae legis.

2. Further, in every sacrament of the new law,


that which is represented is effected by that
which represents it.1 But the species of bread
and wine, which represent the true and mystical
body of Christ, do not cause that body to come to
be [since it already exists].2 Therefore the
Eucharist is not a sacrament of the new law.

Praeterea, sacramentum est elementum


3. Further, according to Hugh, a sacrament is a
materiale, secundum Hugonem exterius oculis material element placed outwardly under the
suppositum. Sed corpus Christi verum quod
eyes. But the true body of Christ, which here is
dicitur hic sacramentum et res similiter, non est called both the reality and the sacrament, is not
oculis videntium suppositum. Ergo non est
placed under the eye of the onlooker. Therefore
sacramentum.
it is not a sacrament.
Praeterea, omne sacramentum in ipsa sui
susceptione consecratur et perficitur, sicut
patet de Baptismo, quod perficitur in ipsa
ablutione. Sed Eucharistia consecratur ante
sumptionem. Ergo non est sacramentum.

4. Further, every sacrament is consecrated and


perfected in its very reception, as is evident with
baptism, which is perfected in the very act of
washing. But the Eucharist is consecrated
before being received. Therefore it is not a
sacrament.

Praeterea, in omni alio sacramento illud quod 5. Further, in every other sacrament that which is

est res et sacramentum, est aliquid effectum in


suscipiente, sicut character in Baptismo. Sed
corpus Christi verum, quod ponitur hic res et
sacramentum, non est aliquid in recipiente
effectum. Ergo non est sacramentum ejusdem
rationis cum aliis.

reality and sacramental sign 3 is something


effected in the received, as the character is in
baptism. But the true body of Christ, which is set
down here as the reality and sacramental sign,
is not anything effected in the recipient.
Therefore it is not a sacrament in the same
sense in which the others are sacraments.4

Sed contra

On the contrary:

est quod in collecta dicitur: praesta ut hoc


tuum sacramentum non sit nobis reatus ad
poenam.

1. It is stated in the Collect: "Grant that this, your


sacrament, may not be for us [a cause of] guilt
unto punishment."

Praeterea, omnis actio per ministros Ecclesiae


dispensata, in qua ex ipso opere operato
gratia confertur, est sacramentum. Sed
Eucharistia est hujusmodi. Ergo est
sacramentum.

2. Further, every action dispensed through the


ministers of the Church, in which action grace is
conferred by the very work wrought,5 is a
sacrament. But the Eucharist fits this description.
Therefore it is a sacrament.

Respondeo

Response:

dicendum ad primam quaestionem, quod


It should be said that the Eucharist is a
Eucharistia sacramentum quoddam est, alio
sacrament, yet in a way different from that of all
tamen modo ab omnibus aliis sacramentis.
the other sacraments. For a sacrament in the
Sacramentum enim secundum sui nominis
proper sense implies holiness in the manner of
proprietatem sanctitatem active importat; unde an agent; hence something has the ratio of a
secundum hoc aliquid habet sacramenti
sacrament insofar as it has the ratio of
rationem secundum quod habet rationem
sanctification, by which something is made
sanctificationis, qua sanctum aliquid fit. Dicitur holy.6 Now, something is called "holy" in two
autem aliquid sanctum dupliciter. Uno modo ways. In one way, simply and per se, such as
simpliciter et per se, sicut quod est subjectum that which is the subject of holiness, as a man is
sanctitatis, sicut dicitur homo sanctus. Alio
called holy. In another way, secondarily and in a
modo secundario et secundum quid, ex eo
certain respect, because it is ordered to this
quod habet ordinem ad hanc sanctitatem, vel holiness, whether as having the power of
sicut habens virtutem sanctificandi, sicut
sanctifying (as chrism is called holy), or being in
chrisma dicitur sanctum; vel quocumque alio any other way deputed to something holy (as an
modo ad aliquid sanctum deputetur, sicut
altar is holy). And so, those things by which
altare sanctum. Et ideo ea quibus aliquid fit
something is made holy in the first way are
sanctum primo modo, dicuntur sacramenta
called "sacraments" simply, whereas those by
simpliciter; illa autem quibus fit aliquid
which something is made holy in the second
sanctum secundo modo, non dicuntur
way are not called sacraments, but rather
sacramenta, sed sacramentalia magis. In aliis "sacramentals." In the other sacraments,
ergo sacramentis fit aliquid sanctum primo
therefore, something is made holy in the first
modo, sicut homo suscipiens sacramentum;
way, such as the man who is receiving the
non autem elementum corporale sanctificans sacrament, but not the bodily element sanctifying
hominem, quia hoc est sacrum secundo modo; the man, because this is holy in the second way;
et ideo hoc quod pertinet ad sanctificationem and so, that which pertains to the sanctification
materiae in omnibus sacramentis non est
of the matter in all sacraments is not a sacrament
sacramentum, sed sacramentale; sed hoc
but a sacramental; but that which pertains to the
quod pertinet ad usum materiae qua homo
use of the matter by which man is sanctified is
sanctificatur, est sacramentum.
the sacrament.

In hoc autem sacramento illud quod est


sanctificans hominem, est sanctum primo
modo, quasi subjectum sanctitatis, quia est
ipse Christus; et ideo ista sanctificatio
materiae est hoc sacramentum; sed
sanctificatio hominis est effectus sacramenti.
Et ideo hoc sacramentum in se consideratum,
est dignius omnibus sacramentis, quia habet
absolutam sanctitatem etiam praeter
suscipientem; alia autem non habent nisi in
ordine ad aliud; et ideo hoc sacramentum est
perfectio aliorum sacramentorum; quia omne
quod est per aliud, reducitur ad id quod est per
se, sicut patet de accidente et substantia.

However, in this sacrament, that which is


sanctifying man is holy in the first way, as the
subject of holiness, because it is Christ himself;
and so that sanctification of matter is this
sacrament, while the sanctification of man is an
effect of the sacrament. And thus, considered in
itself, this sacrament is worthier than all the
sacraments, because it has absolute holiness
even apart from its being received, whereas the
others have [holiness] only insofar as they are
ordered to something else [that possesses
holiness]; and so, this sacrament is the
perfection of the other sacraments, because
everything that is through another is led back to
that which is per se, as is evident concerning
accidents and substance.
Replies to objections:

Ad primum ergo dicendum, quod perfectum


unumquodque est, cum attingit propriam
virtutem, ut dicitur in 7 Phys. Virtus autem est
ultimum in re, ut dicitur in 1 Cael. et Mund.; et
ideo perfectio rei consistit in hoc quod res ad
sui ultimum perducatur. Est autem dupliciter
ultimum rei; unum quod est in re, et aliud quod
est extra rem; sicut in corporibus ultimum in
corpore est superficies corporis contenti;
ultimum extra est locus, qui est superficies
corporis continentis. Ultimum autem cujuslibet
rei in seipsa est ipsa rei operatio, propter
quam res est: forma enim est finis
generationis, non ipsius generati, ut dicit
Commentator in 2 Phys. Unde res quae habet
formam substantialem per quam est, esse non
dicitur perfecta simpliciter, sed perfecta in
esse, vel perfecta perfectione prima; et talem
perfectionem quantum ad esse spirituale
acquirit homo in Baptismo, in quo est
regeneratio spiritualis; et ideo Dionysius non
ponit Baptismum habentem vim perfectivam
simpliciter, sed magis purgativam et
illuminativam. Sed simpliciter perfectum dicitur
quod habet operationem convenientem suae
formae. In hoc enim consistit virtus rei,
secundum philosophum in 2 Ethic., per cujus
consecutionem aliquid dicitur perfectum, ut
dictum est.

1. To the first, therefore, it should be said that


each thing is perfect when it attains its proper
virtus, as is said in Physics VII. Now, virtus is the
ultimate that a thing can do,7 as is said in On the
Heavens I; and so a thing's perfection consists in
being brought through to its ultimate.8 But a
thing's ultimate is twofold: one that is within a
thing, and another that is outside a thing, as in
bodies the ultimate in a body is the surface of the
contained body, and the ultimate outside of it is
its place, which is the surface of the containing
body. Now, the ultimate of whatsoever thing in
itself is a thing's very activity, for the sake of
which a thing is; for form is the end of
generation, not of the generated itself, as the
Commentator says in Physics II. Hence, a thing
that has a substantial form through which it
exists is not said to be perfect simply, but perfect
in being,9 or perfect with its first perfection; and a
man acquires such perfection, as regards
spiritual being,10 in baptism, in which there is
spiritual regeneration. And so Dionysius does
not set down baptism as having a perfective
force simply, but more a cleansing and
enlightening [force]. But that which has an
activity suited to its form is called perfect, simply.
For in this the virtus of a thing consists,
according to the Philosopher in Ethics II, through
the obtaining of which something is called
perfect, as was said.

Hominis autem operatio spiritualis est duplex. Now, the spiritual activity of a man is twofold.
Una ipsius inquantum est persona privata; et One is his insofar as he is a private person; and
quantum ad hoc perficit confirmatio, quae facit what brings about perfection with regard to this
hominem non impeditum aliquo mundano
is confirmation, which makes a man unimpeded
timore in confessione fidei, et aliis quae ad
by any worldly fear in the confession of the faith,
Christianam religionem spectant. Alia,
and in other matters bound up with the Christian
inquantum est persona publica, quasi
religion.11 The other is his insofar as he is a
membrum principale, et influens aliis membris; public person, as if a chief member, and a
et quantum ad hoc perficit sacramentum
source of influence upon other members; and
ordinis. Ultimum autem cujuslibet rei extra
what brings about perfection with regard to this
seipsam, est principium a quo res habet esse: is the sacrament of order. But of whatsoever
quia per conjunctionem ad ipsum res
thing, the ultimate outside itself is the principle
complentur et firmantur, et propter distantiam from which a thing has being, since through
ab ipso deficiunt, sicut corruptibilia propter
union with this principle, things are completed
longe distare a primo, ut dicitur in 2 de
and strengthened, and owing to distance from it
Generat.; et ideo primum agens habet etiam
they falter and fail, as corruptibles do when they
rationem ultimi finis perficientis. Fons autem are far away from the first [mover], as is said in
Christianae vitae est Christus; et ideo hoc
On Generation and Corruption II; and so, the first
modo Eucharistia perficit, Christo conjungens; agent has also the ratio of ultimate and
et ideo hoc sacramentum est perfectio omnium perfecting end.12 The font of Christian life,
perfectionum, ut Dionysius dicit; unde et
however, is Christ; and so the way the Eucharist
omnes qui sacramenta alia accipiunt, hoc
brings about perfection is by joining one to
sacramento in fine confirmantur, ut ipse dicit. Christ [himself]; and thus, this sacrament is the
perfection of all perfections, as Dionysius says.
And hence, all who receive other sacraments
are strengthened in the end by this one, as the
same author says.
Ad secundum dicendum, quod sicut ad
species sensibiles aliorum sacramentorum se
habet virtus quae interius inest, quae
sanctificationem acquirit, ex qua sacramentum
efficit, secundum Hugonem, ita in hoc
sacramento se habet ipsum corpus Christi,
quod per consecrationem sub speciebus illis
fit. Unde sicut in aliis sacramentis materiale
elementum non est causa virtutis quae in ipso
est, neque alicujus spiritualis effectus in
homine, nisi mediante virtute, secundum quod
ex elemento et virtute quasi unum efficitur; ita
in hoc sacramento species non sunt causa
corporis Christi, neque alicujus effectus in
anima spiritualis, nisi mediante corpore Christi
vero, secundum quod ex speciebus et corpore
Christi fit unum sacramentum. Utrum autem
species illae secundum se habeant aliquem
effectum corporalem, sicut aqua corporaliter
abluit in Baptismo, etiam non mediante
spirituali virtute, infra dicetur.

2. To the second, it should be said that as the


power that is present within the other
sacraments, which acquires sanctification, by
which the sacrament brings about its effect,
stands to the sensible species of those
sacraments, so in this sacrament the body of
Christ, which comes to be under the species [of
bread and wine] through the consecration,
stands to those species. Hence, as in the other
sacraments the material element is not the
cause of the power that is in it, nor is it the cause
of any spiritual effect in man except by means of
this power, inasmuch as some one thing is
formed from the element and the power
[together]; so in this sacrament the species are
not the cause of the body of Christ, nor are they
the cause of any effect in the spiritual soul
except by means of the true body of Christ,
inasmuch as one sacrament is formed from the
species and the body of Christ. But whether
those species, in and of themselves, have some

bodily effect, as water washes in a bodily


manner in baptism even without the mediation of
a spiritual power, will be spoken of below.
Ad tertium dicendum, quod omne
3. To the third, it should be said that every
sacramentum est visibile; non tamen oportet sacrament is visible, but it is not necessary that
quod quidquid est in sacramento, sit visibile. whatever is in a sacrament be visible. For the
Videtur enim species visibilis aquae in
visible species of water is seen in baptism, but
Baptismo, sed non videtur virtus spiritualis,
the spiritual power is unseen, which more
quae secretius operatur salutem; et similiter
secretly works salvation; and likewise here the
hic videntur species, sed non videtur verum
species are seen, but the true body of Christ is
corpus Christi. Vel dicendum, quod est visibile unseen. Or it should be said that it is visible not
non in se, sed in speciebus quae ipsum
in itself, but in the species that cover it, as the
tegunt; sicut et substantia aliorum corporum
substance of other bodies is seen by means of
videtur mediante colore.
color.
Ad quartum dicendum, quod sanctitas quae
4. To the fourth, it should be said that the
est in materiis aliorum sacramentorum, non est holiness that is in the matter of the other
forma sanctitatis absolute, sed secundum
sacraments is not the form of holiness
ordinem ad aliud, ut in 1 dist. dictum est; et
absolutely, but as ordered to something else, as
ideo non est simile de aliis sacramentis et de was said above in Distinction 1; and so there is
hoc, ut ex dictis patet.
no parallel between the other sacraments and
this one, as is evident from what has been said.
Ad quintum dicendum, quod ex hoc ipso quod
alia sacramenta perficiuntur in acceptione vel
collatione, contingit quod illud quod est in eis
sacramentum et res, est aliquid acquisitum in
suscipiente; in hoc autem sacramento aliter
est, ut ex dictis patet.

5. To the fifth, it should be said that by the very


fact that the other sacraments are completed in
their reception or dispensing, it happens that that
which is the sacramental sign and reality in them
is something acquired by the recipient. In this
sacrament, however, it is otherwise, as is
evident from what has been said.
SUBQUESTION 2: Whether the Eucharist is a
single sacrament.

Ulterius. Videtur quod non sit unum


sacramentum, sed multa.

Moreover, it seems that it is not a single


sacrament, but several.

Primo per hoc quod in collecta dicitur:


1. First, owing to what is said in the Collect:
purificent nos, domine, haec sacramenta quae "May these sacraments that we have received
sumpsimus.
cleanse us, O Lord."
Praeterea, sacramentum est in genere signi.
Sed ea quae sunt in genere signi, sicut
nomina, plurificantur ad pluralitatem
signantium, quamvis sit idem signatum; sicut
Marcus et Tullius sunt duo nomina, quamvis
sit eadem res significata. Ergo cum in
Eucharistia sint plura signantia, sicut species
panis et vini, videtur quod sint plura
sacramenta.

2. Further, sacrament is in the genus of sign. But


things that are in the genus of sign, such as
names, are many when the things that signify
are many, even if there be the same thing
signified, as Marcus and Tullius are two names,
although there is the same thing signified by
them. Therefore, since in the Eucharist there are
several things that signify,13 such as the species
of bread and wine, it seems that there are
several sacraments.

Praeterea, unitas rei est ex forma sua. Sed in


Eucharistia sunt duae formae, una ad

3. Further, a thing's unity comes from its form.


But in the Eucharist there are two forms - one for

consecrationem panis, alia ad consecrationem the consecration of the bread, the other for the
sanguinis. Ergo sunt duo sacramenta.
consecration of the blood. Therefore there are
two sacraments.
Praeterea, ea quae nec in genere nec in
specie conveniunt, sunt plura simpliciter. Sed
corpus Christi verum cum speciebus panis et
vini sunt differentia et specie et genere. Ergo
sunt plura simpliciter. Cum ergo utrumque
dicatur sacramentum in Eucharistia, videtur
quod non sit unum sacramentum.

4. Further, things that come together neither in


genus nor in species are simply many. But the
true body of Christ differs from the appearances
of bread and wine by a difference in both
species and genus. Therefore they are simply
many. Since, therefore, each of these things is
called "sacrament" in the case of the Eucharist, it
seems that there is not just one sacrament.

Praeterea, ex duobus perfectis non fit aliquid


unum. Sed Christus perfecte est sub utraque
specie, scilicet panis et vini. Ergo ex his
duobus non fit unum sacramentum.

5. Further, from two perfect items something one


cannot come to be. But Christ is perfectly
present under either species, namely bread and
wine. Therefore, from these two, a single
sacrament cannot come to be.

Sed contra est, quia

On the contrary:

si essent duo, tunc sacramenta novae legis


non essent tantum septem.

1. If they were two, then the sacraments of the


new law would not be exactly seven in number.

Praeterea, quaecumque ordinantur ad idem


efficiendum et significandum, pertinent ad
unum sacramentum. Sed omnia quae in
Eucharistia sunt, pertinent ad idem
repraesentandum, scilicet mortem domini, et
idem efficiendum, scilicet gratiam, per quam
homo incorporatur corpori mystico. Ergo est
unum tantum sacramentum.

2. Further, whatever things are ordered to


bringing about and signifying the same, pertain
to a single sacrament. But all items that are in
the Eucharist pertain to representing the same
thing, namely the death of the Lord, and to
bringing about the same thing, namely the grace
by which a man is incorporated into the mystical
body [of Christ]. Therefore it is but a single
sacrament.
Response:

Ad secundam quaestionem dicendum, quod It should be said that what is per se one simply,
per se unum simpliciter, et quod est numero
and what is one in number, is said in three ways.
unum, tribus modis dicitur. Uno modo sicut
In one way, as an indivisible is one, such as a
indivisibile est unum, ut punctum et unitas,
point and one [the principle of number], which is
quod neque est multa actu neque potentia.
many neither in act nor in potency. In another
Alio modo quod est unum ex continuitate,
way, that which is one by continuity, which is yet
quod tamen est multa potentia, sicut linea.
many in potency, such as a line. In a third way,
Tertio modo quod est unum perfectione, sicut that which is one in perfection, as a shoe is said
dicitur calceamentum unum, quia habet omnes to be one when it has all the parts that are
partes quae requiruntur ad calceamentum; et required for a shoe; and this unity is spoken of in
haec unitas dicitur in omnibus illis ad quorum all things for whose integrity several items are
integritatem aliqua exiguntur, sicut unus homo, required, as "one man" or "one house." And
una domus. Et quia ad esse sacramenti multa since many things concur in the being of a
concurrunt, sicut forma et materia, et
sacrament, such as form and matter and
hujusmodi; ideo ab hac unitate perfectionis
suchlike, therefore it is from this unity of
dicitur sacramentum unum esse. Illa enim sunt perfection that a sacrament is said to be one. For
de integritate alicujus instrumenti quae
to the integrity of any instrument belong those
requiruntur ad operationem illam ad quam
things that are required for the activity to which it

instrumentum deputatum est. Hoc autem


sacramentum deputatum est ex divina
institutione ad cibationem spiritualem, quae
per cibationem corporalem significatur. Et quia
cibatio corporalis duo requirit, scilicet aliquid
per modum cibi, et aliquid per modum potus;
ideo ad integritatem hujus sacramenti ex
divina institutione est aliquid per modum cibi,
scilicet corpus Christi; et aliquid per modum
potus, scilicet sanguis.

is assigned as an instrument. Now, this


sacrament is assigned by divine institution to
serve as spiritual feeding, which is signified
through bodily feeding.14 And since bodily
feeding requires two things, namely something
in the manner of food, and something in the
manner of drink, hence for the integrity of this
sacrament there is, by divine institution,
something in the manner of food, namely Christ's
body, and something in the manner of drink,
namely [his] blood.
Replies to objections:

Ad primum ergo dicendum, quod dicitur


pluraliter sacramenta propter materialem
diversitatem signorum.

1. To the first, therefore, it should be said that the


Collect says "sacraments" in the plural on
account of a material diversity of signs.

Ad secundum dicendum, quod ratio illa


procedit quando utrumque signum habet
integram significationem; sic autem non est
hic: quia cibatio spiritualis non significatur
perfecte neque per panis tantum neque per
vini tantum sumptionem, sed per utrumque
simul, sicut est in significatione nominum
compositorum.

2. To the second, it should be said that this


argument holds when either sign has a complete
signification; but that is not the case here, for
spiritual feeding is perfectly signified neither by
the consumption of bread alone nor of wine
alone, but through the consumption of both at
once - as is the case, too, in the signification of
compound names.15

Ad tertium dicendum, quod ratio illa


procederet, si utraque forma responderet toti
sacramento; sed hoc falsum est: quia una
forma respondet uni, et alia alii eorum quae ad
sacramentum exiguntur.

3. To the third, it should be said that this


argument would hold, if either form
corresponded to the whole sacrament, but this is
false, since one form responds to one and the
other to the other of those [components] that are
required for the sacrament.

Ad quartum dicendum, quod quamvis non sint


unum in genere vel specie naturae, possunt
tamen esse unum per relationem ad unam
operationem, ex qua unitate sumitur unitas
sacramenti.

4. To the fourth, it should be said that although


they [viz., bread and wine, and the body of
Christ] are not one in genus or in natural
species, nevertheless they can be one by way of
relation to a single activity,16 by which unity the
unity of the sacrament is obtained.

Ad quintum dicendum, quod quamvis Christus 5. To the fifth, it should be said that although the
perfectus sit sub utraque specie, non tamen
complete Christ is present under either species,
quantum ad integrum usum sacramenti est sub he is not under each as regards the integral use
utroque, sed quantum ad diversos usus.
of the sacrament, but as regards different uses.17
SUBQUESTION 3: Whether the Eucharist is
named by suitable names.
Ulterius. Videtur quod non convenientibus
nominibus nominetur.

Moreover, it seems that it is not named by


suitable names.

Nomen enim proprium alicui debet imponi ex 1. For a name proper to something ought to be
eo quod sit sibi proprium. Sed bonitas gratiae given to it on the basis of that which is proper to
est communis omnibus sacramentis. Ergo ex it. But "goodness of grace"18 is common to all

hoc non debet imponi nomen proprium uni


sacramento, ut dicatur Eucharistia.

the sacraments. For this reason, therefore, it


ought not to be given as a proper name to a
single sacrament, when it is called "Eucharist."
Praeterea, sicut in littera dicitur, hoc
2. Further, as is said in the text, this sacrament is
sacramentum ideo viaticum appellatur, quia in named "viaticum" because, refreshing us along
via nos reficiens, usque ad patriam deducit.
the way, it leads us even to the fatherland. But
Sed hoc est commune omnibus sacramentis, this is common to all the sacraments, which are
quae non nisi viatoribus dantur ad
only given to wayfarers for the purpose of
perveniendum ad gloriam patriae, quae est res arriving at the glory of the fatherland, which is
non contenta, et significata in omnibus
the reality uncontained, and signified in all the
sacramentis. Ergo non convenienter viaticum sacraments. Therefore it [i.e., this sacrament
appellatur.
alone] is not suitably called "viaticum."
Praeterea, causae per effectus denominari
solent. Sed adducere ad communionem
fidelium est effectus Baptismi, secundum
Dionysium, ut ex praedictis patet. Ergo
Baptismus magis debet dici communio vel
synaxis, quam hoc sacramentum.

3. Further, causes are customarily named


through their effects. But to lead one into the
communion of the faithful is the effect of baptism,
according to Dionysius, as is evident from things
said before. Therefore baptism ought rather to be
called "communion" or "synaxis" than this
sacrament.

Praeterea, in quolibet sacramento fit aliquid


sacrum. Sed hoc importat sacrificii nomen.
Ergo sacrificium etiam non est nomen
proprium hujus sacramenti.

4. Further, in any sacrament something is made


sacred. But this is implied in the name
"sacrifice." Therefore sacrifice, too, is not a name
proper to this sacrament.

Praeterea, hostia videtur idem quod


sacrificium. Sed Dionysius confirmationem
nominat chrismatis hostiam. Ergo neque
hostia neque sacrificium est nomen proprium
huic sacramento.

5. Further, "host" [i.e., victim] seems the same as


sacrifice. But Dionysius names the confirmation
of chrism a "host." Therefore neither host nor
sacrifice is a name proper to this sacrament.
Response:

Ad tertiam quaestionem dicendum, quod in


quolibet sacramento est tria considerare;
scilicet originem, perfectionem, et finem ad
quem est. Origo autem omnium
sacramentorum est passio Christi, de cujus
latere in cruce pendentis sacramenta
profluxerunt, ut sancti dicunt; perfectio autem
sacramenti est in hoc quod continet gratiam;
finis autem sacramenti est duplex; proximus,
scilicet sanctificatio recipientis, et ultimus,
scilicet vita aeterna.

It should be said that in any sacrament there are


three things to consider: its origin, its perfection,
and the end toward which it is [ordered]. Now the
origin of all sacraments is the Passion of Christ,
from whose side, when he was hanging on the
cross, there flowed forth the sacraments, as the
saints say; and the perfection of a sacrament is
in its containing grace; while the end of a
sacrament is twofold: the proximate end, namely
the sanctification of the recipient, and the
ultimate end, namely eternal life.

Haec autem per quamdam excellentiam in


Eucharistia inveniuntur. Quia hoc
sacramentum est specialiter in memoriam
dominicae passionis; unde Matthaei 26:
quotiescumque feceritis, in mei memoriam
facietis; et ideo quantum ad originem vocatur
sacrificium vel hostia. Similiter etiam gratiam

Now all these are found with a certain


excellence in the Eucharist. For this sacrament
is especially in memory of the Lord's Passion;
hence the words in Matthew 26: "Whensoever
you shall do this, do it in memory of me." And so,
as regards its origin, it is called sacrifice or host.
Likewise, too, it does not contain grace in the

non per modum intentionis continet sicut alia


sacramenta, sed plenitudinem gratiae in suo
fonte; et ideo antonomastice Eucharistia
dicitur. Similiter etiam quia ipsa est
consummatio omnium sanctificationum, ut
Dionysius dicit, id quod est omnium, scilicet
congregari ad unum, huic sacramento
attribuitur; et dicitur communio vel synaxis,
quod idem est, inquantum scilicet homo
congregatur ad unum et ad seipsum et ad
alios, ei quod est maxime unum conjunctus.
Similiter etiam quantum ad ultimum finem
consequendum maximam efficaciam habet,
inquantum realiter continet hoc quo janua
caeli nobis aperta est, scilicet sanguinem
Christi; et ideo specialiter viaticum appellatur.

same intentional manner 19 as the other


sacraments, but the fullness of grace in its very
font; and so it is called eucharist
antonomastically. Likewise, too, because it is the
consummation of all sanctifications, as
Dionysius says, that which is common to all
sanctifications, namely to gather together into
one, is attributed [especially] to this sacrament,
and it is called communion or synaxis, which
come to the same, insofar namely as a man is
gathered together into unity both with regard to
himself and with regard to others, joined to him
who is maximally one. Likewise, too, since it has
maximum efficacy in winning through to the
ultimate end insofar as it really contains that by
which the gates of heaven are opened to us,
namely the blood of Christ, thus it is specially
called viaticum.
Replies to objections:

Et per haec patet solutio ad objecta: quia ab


And through this response the solution to all
eo quod est commune, aliquid antonomastice objections is evident; since something can be
denominari potest.
antonomastically denominated from what is
common [to many].

Endnotes
1. idem quod figuratur, efficitur per signum figurans (return to text)
2. non efficiunt illud (return to text)
3. res et sacramentum (return to text)
4. Or: "it is not a sacrament having the same account as the others have," non est sacramentum
ejusdem rationis cum aliis. (return to text)
5. ex ipso opere operato (return to text)
6. Note throughout that the Latin terms are closely related: sanctitas, sanctificatio, sanctus. (return
to text)

7. Virtus autem est ultimum in re (return to text)


8. perfectio rei consistit in hoc quod res ad sui ultimum perducatur (return to text)
9. perfecta in esse (return to text)
10. esse spirituale (return to text)
11. aliis quae ad christianam religionem spectant (return to text)

12. ultimi finis perficientis (return to text)


13. plura signantia (return to text)
14. "feeding": cibatio; "food": cibus. (return to text)
15. E.g., "mailman," "swimming pool," are each one name, and not two. (return to text)
16. Namely, the activity both of sanctification and of eating and being sanctified by the eating.
The bread and wine are taken as food and drink, but what is received by those who receive
worthily is Christ's body and blood. Hence though the signs and the substance do not belong to
the same genus or species, they come together in exactly the same action. The single activity is
at once the signifying of sanctification (which is done by eating) and the sanctification itself (since
the sanctification is accomplished via the signification, these two actions are parts of one
complete action). (return to text)
17. In other words, though the whole Christ is present under the appearances of bread, the eating
of the bread is part of the integral use of the sacrament, which represents spiritual feeding (from
both food and drink). So, eating the species of bread is one use, drinking the species of wine is
another use, but taking both together is the sacramental use as such. It is for this reason that St.
Thomas always defends the fittingness of reception of the Eucharist under both species,
although he often approves of the custom of withholding the chalice for reasons of caution
against spillage. (return to text)
18. bonitas gratiae - a defensible Latin translation of eucharistia. (return to text)
19. per modum intentionis (return to text)

Peter Kwasniewski
(pak@wyomingcatholiccollege.com)
My thanks to Joseph Bolin for his careful review of an earlier draft of this translation
The Aquinas Translation Project
(http://www4.desales.edu/~philtheo/loughlin/ATP/index.html)