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AMBER ENTERPRISES

RAJPURA, PUNJAB
TRANING REPORT
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
(MECHANICAL ENGINEERING)
SESSION 2012-2016

SUBMITTED BY
SUSHIL KUMAR MANGAL
1249754
SUBMITTED TO
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
RIMT IET
MANDI GOBINDGARH
i

Declaration
Respected Sir,
I am the student of B.Tech. (Mech.Engg.), 3rd year student, of RIMT-IET and feeling
an immense pleasure in submitting the report on 1.5 months industrial training completed by
me at AMBER ENTERPRISES, RAJPURA.
I would like to express my courtesy to MR. VIJAY SINGH RANA, VICE PRESIDENT and
MR. SUBHASH SHARMA, PRODUCTION INCHARGE and all the staff of the organization
for rendering me full support and assistance during my training period. In this report, it is my
Endeavour to present the information collected during the training period in more concise &
lucid manner. In this report also, I have presented the projects undertaken by me under the
guidance of my Industrial tutor, MR. RAHUL SHARMA and General Manager, MR.
BHAVISH JINDAL.

With kindest regards,


Yours sincerely,

Sushil Kumar Mangal

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I must express my heartfelt thanks to all the employees of Amber Enterprises Ltd. For whose
benign help in all respects. I was able to complete my six week training in a fruitfull fashion.
There were a lot of technical aspects worth learning which were taught here.
I must thanks to all the plant H.O.D`s who made me feel as friend and that too in no time. They
gave me every bit of knowledge they had, moreover they took special interest in my
projects and were always very encouraging.
I heartily thanks & regards must go to my project guide Mr. Narinder Singh (Plant
Manager) for awarding my projects involving active application of

engineering

knowledge . He was always there whenever I needed the most. He not only enhanced our
knowledge, but also guide us

how can I broaden my horizon.

Last but not the least I must thanks all my teachers who guided me to join Industry like
G S Radiators Ltd. Where I realized how engineering study is being applied.
Looking forward for fruitful interaction with AMBER ENTERPRISES in future.

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ABSTRACT

Industrial Training plays very much significant role in the course of engineering. It provides the
student during the engineering course a boost to enhance his technical skills, abilities and
creativity. Industrial training backens up the theoretical knowledge by practical knowledge
gained during the course. As is widely said, Ounce of practical is better than the tons of
theory. In fact, both these two things are incomplete without each other. In this report, I have
tried my level best to present the work undertaken by me during my training period in liquid,
concise and precise manner. Engineering means optimum utilization of resources for the
achievement of the desired objectives. Projects and some suggestion given by me in this
report under the guidance of my Industrial Tutor, MR. RAHUL SHARMA.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.

INDUSTRY
(i)

INTRODUCTION

(ii)

COMPANY PROFILE

(iii)

VISION, MISSION & PHILOSPHY

(iv)

CUSTOMERS

2.

VARIOUS PRODUCTS

3.

AIR CONDITIONERS

4.

5.

6.

(i)

INTRODUCTION

(ii)

CLASSIFICATION OF AIR CONDITIONERS

MANUFACTURING
(i)

DESIGNING

(ii)

THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

(iii)

QUALITY CONTROL

ENGINNERING STORE
(i)

STORE KEEPING

(ii)

PROCEDURE FOR STORE

PRODUCTION PLANNING & CONTROL


(i)

INTRODUCTON

(ii)

PROCEDURE FOR PLANNING

INTRODUCTION

Fig. Shows the outer image of Amber Enterprises Industry.

Incorporated and promoted in 1992 by Mr. Kartar Singh, the Amber Group is among other
things, one of the largest original equipment manufacturer of white goods in India. One factor
that has led us this far is our relentless focus on quality. At the Amber Group we follow strict
quality processes and we are an ISO 9001-2008 certified company.
Mr. Kartar Singh, a first generation entrepreneur founded the company in 1992 and still runs
the business today, aided by his two able sons. They have a rich business experience of over 40
years between them. Besides the family, the key management team also has a large hand in
keeping the show running smoothly and many have been with Amber.
"Amber" has 9 manufacturing units spread out over diverse locations like Rajpura, Dehradun,
Kala Amb, Greater& Pune.

We have particular expertise in

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Manufacture of Residential Window, Split Air Conditioners, Commercial (Ducted & Package)
Air Conditioners, RMPU (Roof Mounted Package Unit) for Indian Railways
Heat Exchangers and Multi flow Condensers.
Home Appliances like Microwave Ovens, Washing Machines and Refrigerators.
Precision Sheet Metal and Auto Components
Commercial Luminaries
Vacuum Forming & Extrusion
Injection Molding
Recent ventures also include commercial lighting and solar powered illumination
"Amber" is one of the largest OEMS in India and we supply equipment to many leading Indian
and global brands like LG, Whirlpool, Voltas, Blue Star, Videocon, Godrej, Philips, Onida,
Swaraj Mazda, John Deere, Honeywell and Indian Railways. All our products are made
according to ISO 9001:2008 certified processes and are backed by strong research and
development. Products go through rigorous testing at our facility and our Psychometric Test
Facility Lab is considered best.
At Amber we believe people are our real assets and we invest a lot of effort, time and money
into developing the potential of each of our employees. Innovative ideas and suggestions are
encouraged and actively incorporated into our processes. In fact from the workers on the shop
floor to the ranks of senior management, everybody participates in Amber's knowledge sharing
culture. Regular training and updating of technical know-how is a way of life with us. Rewards
and recognitions are generously given, it's all part of the encompassing Amber work culture
that acknowledges the value and importance of our people.

COMPANY PROFILE
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Incorporated and promoted in 1992 by Mr. Kartar Singh, the Amber Group is among other
things, one of the largest original equipment manufacturer of white goods in India. One factor
that has led us this far is our relentless focus on quality. At the Amber Group we follow strict
quality processes and we are an ISO 9001 - 2008 certified company. Under the aegis of the
Amber Group there are two distinct entities: Amber Enterprises India Pvt. Ltd. and Amber
Aviation India Pvt. Ltd. Amber Industries is a conglomerate of 9 manufacturing units that are
involved in producing original equipment for some of the biggest brands in India while Amber
Aviation is engaged in aircraft charters and training of commercial pilots.
Some of top white good brands stake their reputations on our products every day and have done
so for years. What makes giants like L.G, Videocon, Godrej, Whirpool, Blue Star, Philips and
Voltas trust the insides of their products to us? It can be summed up in one word - trust. Our
customers trust us. We manufacture and customize original equipment as per specifications and
as per schedule. Customer service is not a word we use lightly.
Why are we one of the most cost-effective white good OEMs in India?

We are based at strategic locations and well connected to the rest of the country.

Our in-house products, tool development facility and an active R&D department ensure
quality and innovation thereby reducing costs.

Our backward integration across a wide range of components along with economies of
scale keep our costs low.

MISSION, VISION & PHILOSOPHY

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What does the Amber Group stand for? An encapsulation of our core beliefs:
Vision :

To be the first choice of customers

Add value to their Business

Discipline & strong management principles

Mission :

To be No. 1 OEM & parts manufacturing company

Excellent services to our customers

Create growth for all associated with our organization

Philosophy :

Smart working

Innovation

Happiness for all

CUSTOMERS

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L.G

Voltas

Videocon

Whirlpool

Blue Star

Onida

Philips

Indian Railway

Swaraj Mazda

John Deree

Products
Amber is one of the largest OEMS in India and we supply equipment to many leading Indian
and global brands like LG, Whirlpool, Voltas, Blue Star, Videocon, Godrej, Philips, Onida,
Swaraj Mazda, John Deere, Honeywell and Indian Railways. We produce diverse products
like Air Conditioners, Microwave Ovens, Refrigerators, Washing Machines, Heat Exchangers,
Multi Flow Condensers, Luminaries, Plastic Extrusion Sheets, Vacuum Forming Components,
Injection Molding Components, Sheet Metal Stamping and Auto Parts. Our equipment is used
in multiple industries like white good, electrical, electronic, lighting, automobile tractors.
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As an R&D initiative, we have also set up a unit for solar lantern system installation for
lighting in rural areas.
All our products are made according to ISO 9001:2008 certified processes and are backed by
strong research and development. Products go through rigorous testing at our facility and our
Psychometric Test Facility Lab is considered one of the best in the country.
Partial Product List:1. Air Conditioners
2. Heat Exchangers
3. Multi Flow Condensers
4. Home Appliances
5. Lighting
6. Plastic Extrusion
7. Vacuum Forming
8. Injection Molding
9. Sheet Metal Components/Auto parts

Introduction of Air Conditioning


The air conditioning is that branch of science which deals with the study of conditioning of air i.e.
supplying and maintaining desirable internal atmospheric conditions for human comfort, irrespective
of external conditions. This subject, in its broad sense, also deals with the conditioning of air for
industrial purpose, food processing, storage of food and other materials.
Factors Affecting Comfort Air Conditioning
The four factors for comfort air conditioning air conditioning are discussed as below:
(1) Temperature of Air:
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In air conditioning, the control of temperature means the maintenance of any desired temperature
within an enclosed space even though the temperature of the outside air is above or below the desired
room temperature. This is accomplished either by the addition or removal of heat from the enclosed
space as and when demanded. It may be noted that a human being feels comfortable when the air is
at 21oC with 56% relative humidity.
(2) Humidity of Air:
The control of humidity of air means the increasing or decreasing of moisture contents of air during
summer or winter respectively in order to produce comfortable and healthy conditions. The control
of humidity is not only necessary for human body but it also increases the efficiency of the workers.
In general, for summer air conditioning the relative humidity should not be less then 60% whereas
for winter air-conditioning it should not be more than 40%.
(3) Purity of Air:
It is an important factor for the comfort of the human body. It has been noticed that people dont feel
comfortable when breathing contaminated air even it is within acceptable temperature and humidity
ranges.

(4) Motion of Air:


The motion of circulation of air is another important factor, which shouldered controlled, in order
to keep constant temperature throughout the conditioned space. It is therefore necessary that there
should be equidistribution of air throughout the space to be air conditioned.

Units Of refrigeration Capacity:


The standard unit of refrigeration in vogue is ton refrigeration of simply ton denoted by the symbol
TR. It is equivalent to the production of cold at the rate at which heat is to remove from one US
Ton of water at 32oF to freeze it to ice at 32oF in 24 hours.
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Thus one TR = (1X 2000lb X144 Btu/lb)


24 hrs.
= 200 Btu/min.
= 211 KJ/min.
= 3.5167 KW

Principle of Air Conditioning


In the vapor compression cycle:
Refrigerating effect,

qo = area 1-4-d-e

Heat Rejected

qk = area 2-2-3-c-e

Work done

w = q k - qo
=area 1-2-2-3-c-d-4-1

Mechanism of a Simple Vapor Compression System:


It consists of the following five essential parts:
1. Compressor The low pressure and temperature vapor refrigerant from evaporator is drawn
into the compressor through the inlet or suction valve A, where it is compressed to a high
pressure and temperature. The high pressure and temperature vapor refrigerant is discharged into
the condenser through the delivery or discharge valve B.
2. Condenser The condenser consists of coils of pipe in which the high pressure and
temperature vapor refrigerant is cooled and condensed. The refrigerant, while passing through the
condenser, gives up its latent heat to the surroundings condensing medium which is normally air
or water.
3. Receiver The condensed liquid refrigerant from the condenser is stored in the vessel known as
receiver from where it is supplied to the evaporator through the expansion valve or refrigerant
control valve.

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4. Expansion Valve It is also called throttle valve or refrigerant control valve. The function of
the expansion valve is to allow the liquid refrigerant under high temperature and pressure to pass
at a controlled rate after reducing its pressure and temperature. Some of the liquid refrigerant
evaporates as it passes through the expansion valve. But the greater portion is vaporized in the
evaporator at the low temperature and pressure.
5. Evaporator An evaporator consists of coils or pipe in which the liquid vapor refrigerant at
low pressure and temperature is evaporated and changed into vapor refrigerant at low pressure
and temperature. In evaporating, the liquid vapor refrigerant absorbs its

Projected Consumption of Refrigerants


Assumptions for Domestic Refrigerators

Production based on CFC-12 in 2000 was 3.2 million.

Production with HFC-134a is the actual figure of 1998.

Growth rate is 10% throughout.

Life of the appliance is 15 years.

Fresh charge is 100 grams per unit.

Number of serviced appliance is 10% of the population.

HFC-134a appliance is serviced first after 5 years.

Recharge quantity is 10% more than the fresh charge.

Recovery and recycling is not considered.

Assumption for Commercial refrigerators

Production with CFC-12 in 1998 is taken as 310000 units.

Production with the HFC-134a is the actual figure of 1998.

Growth rate is 10% throughout.

Life of the appliance is 15 years.

Fresh charge is 450 grams per unit.


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Number of serviced appliance is 10% of the population.

HFC-134a appliance is serviced first after 5 years.

Recharge quantity is 10% more than the fresh charge.

Recovery and recycling is not considered.

Assumptions for mobile air conditioners

Production with CFC-12 in 1991 is taken as 221000 units.

Production with the HFC-134a is the actual figure of 1998.

Currently 65% cars are fitted with air conditioned and 85% by 2005

Life of the appliance is 12 years.

Fresh charge is 850 grams per unit.

TYPES OF AIR CONDITIONERS

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Window and through-wall


Room air conditioners come in two forms: unitary and packaged terminal (PTAC) systems.
Unitary systems, the common one-room air conditioners, sit in a window or wall
opening, with interior controls. Interior air is cooled as a fan blows it over the
evaporator. On the exterior the air is heated as a second fan blows it over the
condenser. In this process, heat is drawn from the room and discharged to the
environment. A large house or building may have several such units, permitting each
room to be cooled separately.

Fig. shows a window AC system

Split systems
Split-system air conditioners come in two forms: central and mini-split. In both types, the
inside-environment (evaporative) heat exchanger and fan is separated by some distance from
the outside-environment (condensing unit) heat exchanger and fan.
In central air conditioning, the inside heat-exchanger is typically placed inside the central
furnace/AC unit of forced air heating system which is then used in the summer to distribute
chilled air throughout a residence or commercial building. A mini-split system typically
supplied chilled air to only a single space, and thus was sometimes referred to as splitsystem single-zone air conditioning. Today, however, one split-system compressor can supply
chilled air to up to eight indoor units. If the split system contains a heat pump, as is often the
case, the system may be easily switched seasonally to supply heat instead of cold. Controls can
be wall-mounted or handheld (the size of the remote control for a television).

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Fig. shows a split AC system

Ductless (split-system) air conditioning


Mini-split systems - today usually called ductless air conditioners typically produce 9,000
36,000 Btu (9,50038,000 kJ) per hour of cooling.[26] Most ductless systems are similar to
PTAC air conditioners in that they are often designed to cool a single room or space, but
ductless air conditioning allows design and installation flexibility because the inside wall space
required is significantly reduced and the compressor and heat exchanger can be located further
away from the inside space, rather than merely on the other side of the same unit as in a PTAC
or window air conditioner. In addition, ductless systems will offer much higher efficiency (up
to 27.1 SEER on some systems).Today's brands include Aircon, Carrier Daikin,
Klimaire, LG, Mitsubishi, Sanyo, Fujitsu and YMGI.
Most ductless (split system) air conditioners still typically provide cooling to a single room or
interior zone, just like a window air conditioner or PTAC; but more powerful outside units are
becoming more and more available, supporting cooling of ever-more interior zones.
Advantages of the ductless system include smaller size and flexibility for zoning or heating and
cooling individual rooms.

Fig. shows a ductless AC system


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DESIGN
All air conditioners have four basic components: a pump, an evaporator, a condenser, and an
expansion valve. All have a working fluid and an opposing fluid medium as well.
Two air conditioners may look entirely dissimilar in both size, shape, and configuration, yet
both function in basically the same way. This is due to the wide variety of applications and
energy sources available. Most air conditioners derive their power from an electrically-driven
motor and pump combination to circulate the refrigerant fluid. Some natural gas-driven chillers
couple the pump with a gas engine in order to give off significantly more torque.
As the working fluid or refrigerant circulates through the air-conditioning system at high
pressure via the pump, it will enter an evaporator where it changes into a gas state, taking heat
from the opposing fluid medium and operating just like a heat exchanger. The working fluid
then moves to the condenser, where it gives off heat to the atmosphere by condensing back into
a liquid. After passing through an expansion valve, the working fluid returns to a low pressure.

Water used to be the standard coolant, but today`s cooling system use a mixture of water and
antifreeze, a chemical solution that has a lower freezing point than water. Without antifreeze,
coolant could freeze inside the engine during cold weather and crack its metal. Anti-freeze also
has a higher boiling point than water. This property allows the engine to run at a high enough
temperature to be efficient, without boiling away the coolant. Modern antifreeze solution also
contain the chemical that inhibit water`s tendency to rust and corrode the engine and radiator.
Deposits of rust can clog the cooling system, decreasing the pump`s ability to circulate coolant.

The cooled refrigerant then passes through the expansion valve, which lowers the pressure of
the liquid. The liquid refrigerant now enters the evaporator, where it will take heat from the
room and change into a gaseous state. This part of the cycle releases cool air into the airconditioned building. The hot refrigerant vapor is then ready to repeat the cycle State. When the
cooling medium (either a fluid or air) passes near the evaporator, heat is drawn to the
evaporator. This process effectively cools the opposing medium, providing localized cooling
where needed in.
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Fig. Shows basic components of a Air-Conditioner System.

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THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

Creating encasement parts from galvanized sheet metal and structural steel

1 Most air conditioners start out as raw material, in the form of structural steel shapes
and sheet steel. As the sheet metal is processed into fabrication cells or work cells, it is
cut, formed, punched, drilled, sheared, and/or bent into a useful shape or form. The
encasements or wrappers, the metal that envelopes most outdoor residential units, is
made of galvanized sheet metal that uses a zinc coating to provide protection against
corrosion. Galvanized sheet metal is also used to form the bottom pan, face plates, and
various support brackets throughout an air conditioner. This sheet metal is sheared on a
shear press in a fabrication cell soon after arriving from storage or inventory. Structural
steel shapes are cut and mitered on a band saw to form useful brackets and supports.

Punch pressing the sheet metal forms

2 From the shear press, the sheet metal is loaded on a CNC (Computer Numerical
Control) punch press. The punch press has the option of receiving its computer program
from a drafting CAD/CAM (Computer Aided Drafting/Computer Aided Manufacturing)
program or from an independently written CNC program. The CAD/CAM program will
transform a drafted or modeled part on the computer into a file that can be read by the
punch press, telling it where to punch holes in the sheet metal. Dies and other punching
instruments are stored in the machine and mechanically brought to the punching arm,
where it can be used to drive through the sheet. The NC (Numerically Controlled) press
brakes bend the sheet into its final form, using a computer file to program itself.
Different bending dies are used for different shapes and configurations and may be
changed for each component.

3 Some brackets, fins, and sheet components are outsourced to other facilities or
companies to produce large quantities. They are brought to the assembly plant only
when needed for assembly. Many of the brackets are produced on a hydraulic or
mechanical press, where brackets of different shapes and configurations can be
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produced from a coiled sheet and unrolled continuously into the machine. High volumes
of parts can be produced because the press can often produce a complex shape with one
hit.

Many of the brackets are produced on a hydraulic or mechanical press, where brackets
of different shapes and configurations can be produced from a coiled sheet and unrolled
continuously into the machine.

Cleaning the parts

4 All parts must be completely clean and free of dirt, oil, grease, and lubricants before
they are powder coated. Various cleaning methods are used to accomplish this necessary
task. Large solution tanks filled with a cleaning solvent agitate and knock off the oil
when parts are submersed. Spray wash systems use pressurized cleaning solutions to
knock off dirt and grease. Vapor degreasing, suspending the parts above a harsh
cleansing vapor, uses an acid solution and will leave the parts free of petroleum
products. Most outsourced parts that arrive from a vendor have already been degreased
and cleaned. For additional corrosion protection, many parts will be primed in a
phosphate primer bath before entering a drying oven to prepare them for the application
of the powder coating.

Most outsourced parts that arrive from a vendor have already been degreased and
cleaned

Powder coating

5 Before brackets, pans, and wrappers are assembled together, they are fed through a
powder coating operation. The powder coating system sprays a paint-like dry powder
onto the parts as they are fed through a booth on an overhead conveyor. This can be
done by robotic sprayers that are programmed where to spray as each part feeds through
the booth on the conveyor. The parts are statically charged to attract the powder to
adhere to deep crevices and bends within each part. The powder-coated parts are then
fed through an oven, usually with the same conveyor system, where the powder is
permanently baked onto the metal. The process takes less than 10 minutes.

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Bending the tubing for the condenser and evaporator

6 The condenser and evaporator both act as a heat exchanger in air conditioning systems
and are made of copper or aluminum tubing bent around in coil form to maximize the
distance through which the working fluid travels. The opposing fluid, or cooling fluid,
passes around the tubes as the working fluid draws away its heat in the evaporator. This
is accomplished by taking many small diameter copper tubes bent in the same shape and
anchoring them with guide rods and aluminum plates. The working fluid or refrigerant
flows through the copper tubes and the opposing fluid flows around them in between
the aluminum plates. The tubes will often end up with hairpin bends performed by NC
benders, using the same principle as the NC press brake. Each bend is identical to the
next. The benders use previously straightened tubing to bend around a fixed die with a
mandrel fed through the inner diameter to keep it from collapsing during the bend. The
mandrel is raked back through the inside of the tube when the bend has been
accomplished.

7 Tubing supplied to the manufacturer in a coil form goes through an uncoiler and
straightener before being fed through the bender. Some tubing will be cut into desired
lengths on an abrasive saw that will cut several small tubes in one stroke. The aluminum
plates are punched out on a punch press and formed on a mechanical press to place
divots or waves in the plate. These waves maximize the thermodynamic heat transfer
between the working fluid and the opposing medium. When the copper tubes are
finished in the bending cell, they are transported by automatic guided vehicle (AGV) to
the assembly cell, where they are stacked on the guide rods and fed through the plates
or fins.

Joining the copper tubing with the aluminum plates

8 A major part of the assembly is the joining of the copper tubing with the aluminum
plates. This assembly becomes the evaporator and is accomplished by taking the stacked
copper tubing in their hairpin configuration and mechanically fusing them to the
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aluminum plates. The fusing occurs by taking a bullet, or mandrel, and feeding it
through the copper tubing to expand it and push it against the inner part of the hole of
the plate. This provides a thrifty, yet useful bond between the tubing and plate, allowing
for heat transfer.

9 The condenser is manufactured in a similar manner, except that the opposing medium
is usually air, which cools off the copper or aluminum condenser coils without the
plates. They are held by brackets which support the coiled tubing, and are connected to
the evaporator with fittings or couplings. The condenser is usually just one tube that
may be bent around in a number of hairpin bends. The expansion valve, a complete
component, is purchased from a vendor and installed in the piping after the condenser. It
allows the pressure of the working fluid to decrease and re-enter the pump.

Installing the pump

10 The pump is also purchased complete I h from an outside supplier. Designed to


increase system pressure and circulate the working fluid, the pump is connected with
fittings to the system and anchored in place by support brackets and a base. It is bolted
together with the other structural members of the air conditioner and covered by the
wrapper or sheet metal encasement. The encasement is either riveted or bolted together
to provide adequate protection for the inner components.

QUALITY CONTROL

Quality of the individual components is always checked at various stages of the manufacturing
process. Outsourced parts must pass an incoming dimensional inspection from a quality
assurance representative before being approved for use in the final product. Usually, each
fabrication cell will have a quality control plan to verify dimensional integrity of each part. The
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unit will undergo a performance test when assembly is complete to assure the customer that
each unit operates efficiently.

This approach places an emphasis on three aspects:

Elements such as controls, job management, defined and well managed processes,
performance and integrity criteria, and identification of records

Competence, such as knowledge, skills, experience, and qualifications

Soft elements, such as personnel, integrity, confidence, organizational culture,


motivation, team spirit, and quality relationships

Quality control emphasizes testing of products to uncover defects and reporting to management
who make the decision to allow or deny product release, whereas quality assurance attempts to
improve and stabilize production (and associated processes) to avoid, or at least minimize,
issues which led to the defect(s) in the first place. For contract work, particularly work awarded
by government agencies, quality control issues are among the top reasons for not renewing a
contract.

ENGINEERING STORE

STORE KEEPING

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PROCEDURE FOR STORE


ISSUES

STORE KEEPING

Store keeping forms an important function for all organizations such as industrial, commercial
and scientific etc. for handling different type of stores for day-to-day use. The organization
whether it is small, small and large must have its own stores department. Store-keeping is
primarily a service function in which the store keeper acts as a custodian of all items kept in the
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store. It is necessary to have material and goods in hand as soon as it is needed and in the
desired quantity. Therefore, sufficient quantity of material must be purchased and stocked
before hand.

Definitions of store keeping

The connecting link between the planning and production department and shops. Parts and
material moves through it as much as money moves into and out of commercial department of
bank.
-KNOWLLS AND THOMSON

Store keeping is a service function. It serves the manufacturing and other plant operation as
well as market. The responsibilities of store keeping management are to receive material, to
protect them while in storage from damage, to issue material in right quantity at right time to
right place and to provide these services promptly and at least cost.

-H.B.MAYNARD

FUNCTION OF STORE KEEPING/STORE KEEPER

1. To receive the material in correct form.


2. Store keeper prepares receipt note for the material received by him in which it is written
as to how much material of different quantity and quality has been received by him.
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3. To advise the purchase department at the appropriate time in connection with


purchasing of material.
4. Each item of the material should be kept at proper place so that at each time of needed it
may be obtained easily and work is not dislocated in any way.
5. The material should be kept in the store in such a way that there should be minimum
material is damaged during handling.
6. The store keeper should examine the material lying in store from time to time so that he
should have full knowledge about the material at all times and there should not be any
shortage at any time and that the material could be saved from damage etc.
7. Before issuing the material the store keeper should see that the material demand note
bears the signature of some authorized officer. In absence of such signature the store
keeper should not issue the material.
8. Proper record of each material should be kept. It is the duty of each incoming and
outgoing material in the bin card so that it could be ascertained as to how much material
is lying in the store.
9. Co-ordination with departments.
10. The material should be kept in the store in such a way that there should be minimum
material is damaged during handling.
11. To advise the purchase department at the appropriate time in connection with
purchasing of material.

Procedure for Stores


RECEIPT:

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Material receipt On the receipt of material at the factory gate the details are entered in the
gate entry register and the challan/bill is stamped with receipt number and date, after
verification of the material.
Material Identification The material on receipt in the stores area is duly verified for its
quantity and is placed in the receiving area duly identified with white tag. In case of material
like brass sheet, lead/tin ingots etc. which are difficult to be moved time and again, the material
is kept in the identified location of the stores but duly identified with white tag indicating its
status.
Intimation of material receipt The details of material received on any given bill/challan are
entered in the Inward Good Receipt and at the same is sent to quality assurance department
for verification.
Material Stacking On receipt of IGR from QAD, the material is placed in the identified area
if it is found as acceptable. In case of non-conformity, the material is identified with a red tag
and placed in rejection area.
Stock Updating The quantity received and accepted is entered in the stock ledger based on
IGR forwarded by QAD. The copies of IGR are sent to ED for approval. However, in case of
raw material the quantity found rejected is also entered in the ledger. In such cases an outward
gate pass is prepared for sending back the material to the vendor.
Line Returns The raw material lying as excess in the shop floor and not in use, is returned
to the store through line return slip.
Such returns are duly approved by HOD (QA). The rejections of raw material on line are
returned to the store through line rejection slip boldly indicating it as REJECTION such
rejection is duly approved by HOD (QA) prior to return.

ISSUES:

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Request For issues A request for the issue of material from stores is raised by the user
department through Requisition Slip duly approved by authorized person.
In case of material required for production i.e. raw material or consumable, the requisition is
raised by PPC to stores. In case any item requires a job to be done, out side the factory
premises, a request is given to store through IOM.
Material issue The requisition slip is verified for approving authority as per list of
authorized personnel. The material is issued as requested and quantity received is indicated.
The quantity of any given material issued to the user is entered in the stock ledger.
In case of chemicals or material with fixed shelf life, a list is prepared and issues are made on
FIFO basis. For items requiring job work a Returnable Gate pass is prepared and sent along
with the material.
Inventory control In case the quantity of material in the stock is found to fall low or gets
exhausted and indent is prepared and sent to purchase department.
The quantity of raw material & bought out components in stock is prepared by the end of
each day and copy is sent to purchase and PPC department.
Stock taking of all material in the store is done at least twice in each year. Report is prepared
on stock taking event format and action taken in case of excess/shortages.
Condition Monitoring The condition of material lying in stock is verified once every
quarter. In case of non-conformity immediate action is initiated. Details are recorded in the
condition monitoring register.

Handling All precautions are taken while handling, receiving and issue of material,
particularly chemicals.

PRODUCTION

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PLANNING

&

CONTROL

1.

Introduction

2.

Procedure For Planning

Introduction
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Many production processes are required to convert raw material into finished parts or products.
A single manufacture operation is insufficient, and several or many are required even for simple
parts. A manufacture who perform only one type of an operation is rare.
Once the planning is concluded, cost estimating is started. The purpose of cost estimate is to
find the cost of manufacturing operations and ultimately the price. Cost estimating precedes the
actual production, and thus consists of forecasting future costs.
The systematic determination of the methods to manufacture a product competitively and
economically is called operations planning or production planning.

Production planning is the stage between design and production. The plan of manufacture
considers functional requirements of the product, quantity, tool and equipment and eventually
the costs for manufacture. In the sense operation Planning is a detailed specifications and lists
the operations, tools and facilities.
Once the planning is concluded, cost estimating is started. The purpose of cost estimate is to
find the cost of manufacturing operations and ultimately the price. Cost estimating precedes the
actual production, and thus consists of forecasting future costs.

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BUSINESS OBJECTIVES OF PRODUCTION PLANNING

Production planning is a responsibility of the manufacturing organization.

A number of

functional staff arrangements are possible. This process leads to the same output despite
organizational differences.
The following are business objectives for operations planning:1.

New product manufacture : A new design may not have been produced before or
alternatively, new manufacturing operations may be introduced fo the product. Unless
there is planning , the product introduction will be helter-skelte

2.

Sales : Opportunity for greater stability of an existing or new product can develop
from different colour, material, finish, or functial and non- functional features. The
sales and marketing department will provide advice on the direction to help
manufacturing planning.

3.

Quantity : Change in quantity require different sequences, tools and equipment. The
planning differentiates for these fluctuations. If the volume increases, the chance is for
lower cost. In contrast, if the volume decreases the cost should not increase out of
reason. If quantity decreases too much, it is appropriate for the op planner to
recommend that production may no longer be economical.

4.

Effective use of facilities : Operation planning can often find alternate opportunities for
the plant production facilities to take up any slack that may develop. Seasonal products
, which might be popular in the summer , need to be complimented by an alternative
product for the winter season. For example, companies that produce spotting
equipment may use the same facilities to produce tennis racket & skies.

5.

Cost Reduction :

Various opportunities become available if the company has an

ongoing cost reduction effort. Suggestion plans, value analysis , redesign and directed
and systematic effort along these lines involve operations planning.

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PRODUCTION ANALYSIS

Before operation, tools and equipment, labour type can be identified, several policy questions
need to be answered. The question and answer are interrelated, so it may be necessary to back
track several times in iterative style. This stage is known as production analysis.
Design considerations are important. For a part may be cast or welded, or an eyelet
may be rolled or stamped, or they may be purched or made internally. These are common
choices. These contrasts occure by the hundreds in a moderates-sized facility. But the eventual
choice will have an important bearing on the production operations.
Material specifications have a significant effect on production. High or low-grade
carbon steels or alloy steels affect the production operation. There may be a common
characteristics among the various part. Production might be organized on parts that are made
from sheet or bar stock. By contrast material might be purchased on the basis that the company
has machines that effectively make sheet metal product but are inefficient with bar stock.
Tooling may be deciding factor in the analysis. Tolling can be of tow types: perishable or
capital. PERISHABLE TOOLING is drill bits, small cutters and the like. Capital tooling is jigs,
fixtures and ancillary support tooling that requires tool design and construction. Perishable
tooling is low coat as compared to capital tooling. A company may make a process design on
the availability of jigs and fixtures and the equipment to use tooling. Avoidance of new tooling
cost is a popular policy because of its magnitude and the likelihood of the tools becoming
obsolete.

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Procedure for PPC


# Receipt of information:
1. During the last week of each month, a monthly sales projection is received from
the Marketing Department indicating quantity to be supplied to various
customers during the next month.
2. The month by sales projection indicates the specified dispatch dates & any other
special requirement, if so requested by the customer.
3. The projection also include tentative schedule of quantities for models against
which firm orders are anticipated.
# Planning for Production:
1. On the basis of existing plant capacity and monthly sales projection, a week wise
production plan is prepared for the next month.
2. The planning is done based on the customer priority as indicated in the sales
projection and discussion with HOD (Mkt.)
3. When changes in quantities or items are requested by Marketing Department the
same are done through issue of a revised Production Plan (Op sheet) for that
month such Production Plan clearly indicates the revision number and the
quantities changed / modified are highlighted in the bold.
# Planning for Procurement:
1. The estimation of raw material , consumable required to carry out the planned
production is done on the basis of :

Approved part list of various models.

Stock position of material in the stores on a given date.

Information with respect to material under supply as intimated by Purchase


Department.

2. A demand note is put up to purchase department indicating the various items,


their quantities required and tentative date of requirement.
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3. In the case the required material is not received by the requested date a storage
list is prepared and sent to Purchase Department.
4. Whenever the production planning is changed due to change in customers
requirements, amendment to demand note is sent to Purchase Department.
# Intimation to Production:
1. A daily production plan is prepared and given to supervisor of concerned area through
Job-Card which contain the Model No. , Job description and Quantity of the material to.
2.

Details of the job-Cards issued and its number are entered in the job-Card Register.

# Requisition of Material:
1. Based on the quantity to be processed, a requisition slip is prepared and sent
along with the Job-Cards after authorization by the HOD.
2. In the case of semi-processed material the same are issued by the Planning
Department through WIP Store along with the Job-Card.
# Monitoring Status of Production:
1. The quantity of material processed by the section is indicated in the Job-Card
and returned to the Planning Department.
2. The quantity of material processed is indicated against the relevant job-card and
returned to the Planning Department.
3. A status of components produced is manufactured through component stock
position.
4. A daily Planning & Production Report is prepared by Press shop, SubAssembly & Core Section indicating the status indicating the activity carried
out. The details are sent to Planning Department.

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