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EHV(E.

M) Imp Questions & Notes @ SEWAA Page # 1

INTERMEDIATE- FIRST YEAR QUESTION BANK ( w.e.f 2014-15 )


Sub: ETHICS & HUMAN VALUES(E.H.V) IMPORTANT QUESTION & ANSWERS (E.M)
Translated, Composed & Paper-fit Designed by : Dr.G.SREEDHAR SUMAN, M.A,Ph.D, PRINCIPAL
1(3) X 15=15
sewaa.webnode.com Section A (Unit-1, 3, 10)
Q 1. Give an account of the nature, definition and scope of Ethics.
Ans: Ethic may be defined as a study of what is right or good in conduct. It is the general theory of conduct and
considers the action of human beings with reference to their Rightness or Wrongness. Their Tendency to good or to
evil. The term Ethics is derived from the Greek source Etos(meaning character, custom or habit). Similarly the
term Moral Philosophy which derived from Latin Mores (meaning habits or customs). Then we may say Ethics as
Study of Habits and customs. It is a study of what constitute the rightness or wrongness. The term Right and
Good requires some explanation as :
The term Right is derived from the Latin Rectus. The term Good is connected to the German Gut.
It is necessary for us to assume that there is some ideal in life that there is some standard of judgment by
preference to which we are able to say that one form of conduct is better than another. Thus Ethics is a science or
general study of the ideal involved in human life.
Ethics - Normative Study : The fact that Ethics is concerned with an end or ideal or standard serves at once to
distinguish it from most of the special sciences. The study of Ethics is distinguished from the Natural Sciences.
There are at least two other subjects commonly recognized as Scientific that are in a similar position like Logics &
Aesthetics. These are concerned respectively with the general conditions involved in the pursuit of truth and in the
creation and appreciation of beauty just as Ethics is concerned with what is good and right in human purposes and
actions. Such studies are some times said to be normative. Normative studies are concerned with standards of value
rather than with the simple apprehension and analyze of what exists or occurs.
Ethics Not a practical Study : - In view of the fact that Ethics is concerned with action. It has sometimes been
characterize as a practical science. After careful observation we can say that It is not true that it is an object of
Aesthetics to qualify students to be artist , Ethics to qualify them to be saints. So it can be said that the object of
those studies that are described as normative is to supply a knowledge of guiding principles rather than to explain
how they are to be applied.
In conclusion we can say that the Study of Ethics develop the students to know good things and good living.
Q 2. Write an essay about the need to respect elders in society
Ans: Discipline and good behavior should develop from within the child. Children should be encourage to develop
Self-discipline rather than to follow a set of imposed rules and should be allowed to learn what appropriate behavior
is and to take responsibility for their own choices. To support good behavior in colleges all classes should display a
list of Golden rules rewards and consequences. Time should be allocated to discuss issues related to conduct and
behavior. Children should be thought respect elders.
Respect for Elders : Respect your elders is one of the basic lessons of our childhood days. Humanity is the basic
reason to respect elders. We all share a bond as human beings. As a child we are helped at every stage by people
we know and dont know. Children cannot survive without the care and support of Adults. Just as we instinctively
protect children, in the same way it is our duty to take of our elders. When elders face health problems, younger
generations must take care of them. As experts have a wealth of knowledge and experience we should learn from
them and respect them. We have an amazing asset in the rich experience of our elders. So let us turn to them for
their invaluable advice and guidance.
Our elders love us. They want the best for us. We have to keep in mind the generation gap and meet them
half way to understand them. Indian weddings are conducted with rituals in which elders play a major role. These
rituals have deep meanings and without elders we would be lost. Traditions are best understood and implemented
by most experienced members of the society. Elders are the one who teach the youngsters. If we can instinctively
tell what is wrong and what is right we should thank our elders from whom we have learnt. Life becomes easier for
us when we have elders on our side during our struggle.
In these context to respect our elders we must attain the good values as follows :
1. Listen to the elders advices and suggestions.
2. Offer to help the elders in simple domestic activities.
3. Observe & Follow the manners & etiquettes designed by our Elders.
4. Entertain them with conversation on simple topics which they like. (Like food, films, T.V serials etc.,)
5. Show an interest in their life and Know more from their experiences.
6. Be as a friend ( Accompaign to them while taking food, coffee etc.,)
7. Be patient to learn good things from them.
8. Be polite towards the elders & speak politely ( Use terms like Thank you,Sorry,Welcome,Good morning etc,)
Q.3.
Write an essay on some of the good qualities that students should develop.
Ans:
Character is the comprehensive set of ethical and intellectual dispositions of a person. It is said Character
maketh a man. It is not enough for youngsters to receive an educational degree and get a good job. According to
World Health Organization (WHO), healthy people are those who are both mentally and physically good. Youth should
strive to create a healthy nation by being healthy and practicing good habits. A good character can help them to
achieve laurels in life.
EHV(E.M) Note:- Lecturers & Students may elaborate the Answers according to their convenience.

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EHV(E.M) Imp Questions & Notes @ SEWAA Page # 2

Every student must develop the following good qualities to become a worthy citizen :
1. Honesty : Honesty means being trustworthy, loyal, fair and sincere. Honesty is valued in many ethnic and
religious cultures. Integrity, Truthfulness and straight forwardness along with the absence of lying,cheating,theft
etc.,
2. Truthfulness : The word Satya(Truth) is derived from Sat(means being). Wherever there is Truth, there also
knowledge which is true. We know god as Sat-chit-ananda, one who combines in Himself Truth,Knowledge and
Bliss. The word satya in a wider sense. There should be Truth in though, Truth in speech and Truch in action.
Every page of Gandhijis autobiography testifies to the lore of truthfulness.
3. Humility : Humility cannot be learnt through formal training, but it grows by itself as one cultivates the spirit of
nonviolence. Outward humility of behavior can be learnt in a formal manner.
4. Punctuality & Discipline : Punctuality is the characteristic of being able to complete a required task or fulfill an
obligation before or at a previously designated time. Performing and finishing the work in the scheduled time
reflects good punctuality.
The highest form of freedom carries with the greatest measure of discipline. Every student must follow rigid
discipline before he can achieve anything great. Discipline is learn in the school of adversity. Discipline is the
compulsory acquiring quality of every citizen.
5. Responsibility : A responsibility is a duty or obligation to satisfactorily perform or complete a task ( assigned by
someone, or created by ones own promise of circumstances) that one must fulfill and which has consequent
penalty for failure.
6. Courtesy : Courtesy come from old French word courteous(means gentle or polite). Nobility and royalty were
expected to display courteous behavior. The concept was described by the sanksrit word dakshinya(which
meant kindness and consideration )
7. Kindness : Kindness is a behavior marked by a pleasant disposition and concern for others. Act of kindness not
only benefit receivers of the kind act, but also the giver. Kindness is defined as being helpful towards someone
in need, not in return for anything. Helping human is equivalent to serving god.(Manava seva..Madhava seva)
8. Courage : Courage is the quality of mind or spirit that enables a person to face difficulty, danger, pain etc.,
without fear. Physical courage is the courage in the face of physical pain, hardship, death or threat of death.
While moral courage is the ability to act rightly in the face of popular opposition,shame,scandal etc.,
9. Friendship : It is said that good people make friends by walking seven steps together. It is easy to make
friends, it is difficult to keep up friendship. A friendship with good, mediocre and bad people is like a line drawn
on a rock,sand and water respectively. Many students share their personal problems,feelings to their friends
rather than family members. Students must keep up friendship for better combined studies and discussions.
10. Avoiding greed :
Everybody have their own desires. For happiness everyone want more and more comfort.
According to a Sanskrit saying : Learning gives modesty, Modesty leads to worthiness, worthiness brings
wealth, wealth leads to morality and morality brings happiness. Mahatma Gandhi said : There is enough in the
world for mans needs, but not enough for mans greed
The above qualities are to be adopted by all Students at all stages. To shape up the good citizen of a nation,
these moral points to be included in all stages as a compulsory syllabus. Then we can build an Ethical Country.
Q.4. Write an essay on the principles and activities of the NCC or NSS
Ans: National Service Scheme (NSS) :
National Service Scheme(NSS) was started during the Mahatma Gandhi Centenary Year 1969, who inspired
the Indian youth to participate the movement for Indian independence and for the social uplift of the downtrodden
masses of our nation. On 24.9.1969 the then Union Edn.Minister Dr.V.K.R.V Rao launched the programme in 37
Universities covering all states.
The basic principle of the program me is that it is organized by the students themselves and both students
and teachers, through their combined participation in social service, get a sense of involvement in the task of
national development. The students obtain work experience and social living.
The students who involved in this program me were called as Volunteers.The motto of NSS is NOT ME
BUT YOU this indicates that the volunteers must work for others & social activities.
NSS Symbol : The Symbol of the NSS is taken from the Rath wheel of Konark Sun Temple of Orissa. The wheel
signifies the progressive cycle of life. It stands for continuity as well as achange and implies on the part of the NSS
for continuous striving forward for social transformation and upliftment. 8 Spokes in the wheel refers to 8
Pahars(24 hours). Red colour in the badge indicates that volunteers are full of blood. They can scarify for nation.
The Navy Blue color indicates the readiness towards the human welfare.
Aims & Objective of NSS :
1.Development of the personality of students through community service.
2. To work among the people and voluntary/youth organizations.
3.To engage in creative and constructive social action.
4. To enhance his/her knowledge of himself/herself and the community.
5.To put his/ her scholarship to partical use in mitigating at least some of the problems.
6. To gain skill in the exercise of democratic leadership.
7. To gain skills in programme development to enable him/her for self-employment.
8. To bridge the gulf between the educated and the un-educated masses
9. To promote the will to serve the weaker section of the community
10.To practice National Integration and social harmony.
EHV(E.M) Note:- Lecturers & Students may elaborate the Answers according to their convenience.

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EHV(E.M) Imp Questions & Notes @ SEWAA Page # 3

Activities of NSS
1.Adopting Villages : Programme Officer / Volunteers decides to adopt a village for development activities. They
must involve the public representatives in the program me. Volunteers take up the work of laying / repairing
internal roads, drainages, Clean & Green, Swach Bharath , Water supply etc., as continous activity.
2.Adopting Sum areas : Most of the colleges and universities are located in urban areas. Then Urban college
Volunteers can adopt Slum areas for proper development.
3. Co-ordinate with Voluntary Organisations : The NSS P.O & Volunteers should plan activities in the adopted village/
slum in the nearby area. For sustainable growth NSS Units must take help of Volunatary Organisations / NGOs for
financial, social and moral co-ordination. Through frequent visits and Day camps with the co-ordination of NGOs
NSS Units perform many activities like Literacy, AIDS Awareness, Implementation of Govt. Schemes etc.,
4. Special Camping : Every year NSS P.O & Volunteers conduct Special Camping programme for 10/7 Days in a
village. Usually they take shelter at School/Govt. building. They conduct massive work & awareness plan. NSS Unit
prepare a development plan and suggest the villagers for better future.
Thus every students must participate in all kinds of NSS programmes to develop their personality skills,
group skills & Leadership skilss. To become a good citizen evey volunteer must re-dedicate himself to NSS.

Section B (Unit-2, 4, 9)
1(3) X 15=15
Q 5. What is a Constitution? Describe some of the values embedded in the Indian Constitution?
Ans: The constitution of a country is a document which contains the broad framework of fundamental principles
according to which the country will be governed. It lays down the structure,procedures, powers and duties of a
government and also the rights and duties of citizens. The Constitution of India is the worlds lengthiest written
constitution with 395 Articles and 8 Schedules. Under the Drafting committee,chairmanship of Dr.B.R Ambedkar our
constitution prepared, and came into force from 26th Jan 1950. We Celebrate the remarkable day as Republic Day.
PREAMBLE : The Preamble of the Constituion of India is a brief introductory statement. Through this our country was
defined as - Inida is a sovereign,socialist,secular,democratic,republic country.
The Constituent Assembly laid down some ideals in the Indian constitution. The ideals aim to promote
justice,liberty,equality and fraternity among all Indians in the following aspects :
Justice : Politicial,Economic and Social justice is guaranteed to all Indians.
Liberty : Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship is guaranteed to all citizens.
Equality : All Indians are assured of equality of status and opportunity
Fraternity : The Indian constitution enshrines the nation of fraternity.i.e a feeling of brotherhood amongst
all Indians.
Fundamental Rights : Fundamental Rights of citizens are the cornerstone of democracy. They are basic freedoms which all Indian
citizens have the right to enjoy such that they can lead a life of peace and harmony. The rights are protected by the
courts. The rights protect the interests of minorities and promote unity, justice and morality among people.
The Fundamental Rights are as follows :
1. Right to Equality
2. Right to Freedom
3. Rights against Exploitation
4. Right to Freedom of Religion
5. Cultural and Educational Rights
6. Right to Constitutional Remedies.
7. Right to compulsory Primary Education for all children
Fundamental Duties : Fundamental rights and duties are like the two sides of a coin. Without performing duties, no citizen can
enjoy fundamental rights. Conversely there can be no duties without rights. Rights originated from the world of
duties. Unlike Fundamental Rights. Fundamental duties are not enforceable by law. It is left to the goodwill of
citizens to abide by the provisions. Citizens are required to observe the following :
1. To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and National
Anthem
2. To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom
3. To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India
4. To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so
5. To promote harmony and spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending
diversities, to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
6. To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture.
7.To value and preserve the natural environment including forests,lakes,rivers and wildlife.
8. To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform
9. To safeguard public property and abjure violence.
10.To accommodate educational facilities to all children from 6 to 14 years
Some people are of the opinion that fundamental duties are not justifiable. But rights without duties may lead
to an irresponsible attitude among people. Every Indian Citizen should lead a responsible and disciplined life by
performing the duties enshrined in the constitution. Thus both rights and duties are essential for the upliftment of
the nation.
Directive Principles :These policies are the direction give by the Constitution to the Govt. to bring about economic and social
justice by means of suitable policies and legislation. They act like a beacon to the government. These guidelines
have been inspired by
EHV(E.M) Note:- Lecturers & Students may elaborate the Answers according to their convenience.

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Q.6. What are Life Skills ? Discuss the benefits and ways to improve skills related to Goal Setting ,Problem Solving,
Decision making and Time management.
Ans: The term life skills refers to the skills usually associated with managing and leading a better quality of life.
They help us to accomplish our abilities and realize our full potential.There is no definitive list of life skills. Certain
skills may be more or less relevant to you depending upon your life circumstances, your culture,
belief,age,geographical location etc.,
Life skills are defined by the UNICEF as psychological abilities for adaptive and positive behavior that
enable inviduals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life. Students must improve the
following skills :
1. Goal Setting :
Goal Setting is a powerful process for planning ones ideal future and for motivating oneself to turn ones
vision of the future into reality. Make short-tem & long-term goals for better success. Positive affirmation
implants positive thoughts into your subconscious, which in turn prompt you to take right actions to achieve your
goals. Dont bother about problems you face. With the help of self-esteem and self-confidence we can succeed.
As Confucius said : A journey of thousand leagues begins with a single step.
2. Problem Solving :
Problem Solving consists of using methods in an orderly manner for finding solutions to the problems.
Everybody can benefit from having good problem solving skills as we all encounter problems on a daily basis.
Some of these problems are obviously more severe or complex than others. Planning and structuring will help
make the problem solving process more likely to be successful.
3. Decision Making :
People have to make decisions all the time, some more important than others, some decisions will not be the
best possible choice. Decision making is the act of choosing between two or more courses of action that may not
be the correct decision but may be a better decision according to information availability.
4. Time management :
Time Management is the act or process of planning and exercising conscious control over the amount of
time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity. Time
management is a designed combination of processes,tools,techniques,range of skills and methods. These are
used to manage time when accomplishing specific tasks, projects and goals complying with a due date. Without
time management we cannot accomplish our goals in time.
5. Stress Management :
Stress management refers to the wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies aimed at controlling a
Persons level of stress, especially chronic stress, usually for the purpose of improving everyday functioning.
Stress produces numerous problems which can vary according to persons, situations and severity. These can
include physical health decline as well as depression.
6. Positive Thinking :
Positive thinking is much more than just being happy or dislaying an upbeat attitude. Positive thoughts can
have real value in your life and help you build skills that last much longer than a smile. Positive thinking means
approaching an unpleasant situation in a positive and productive way.
7. Team work :
Team work is work done by several associates with each doing a part but all subordinating personal
prominence to the efficiency of the whole. The quality of team work can be measured by analyzing some
components like communication,coordination,balance of members,contributions,mutual support, effort and
cohesion.
With the help of the above life-skills everybody shape them self. High self-esteem leads to self-confidence.
So feeling good can build confidence within ourself. Our life and day to day task become more meaningful and
purposeful.
Q.7. What are some of the warning signs and causes of suicide ? How to prevent the suicides, suggest
a few remedies ?
Ans: Suicide i.e taking ones own life, is a tragic reaction to unsuccessful life situations. It is all the more tragic
because it can be prevented.
Suicidal Warning Signs :
If anybody wants to commit suicide, we can find him with his attitude and behavior. Some of the warning
signs to find the suicidal tendencies as :
1.Taking about suicide by making statement such as I am going to kill myself .
2.Withdrawing from social contact and wanting to be left alone.
3.Feeling trapped and hopeless about a situation.
4. Increasing use of alcohol and drugs, having mood swings.
5.Severly anxious or agitated
The above signs may vary from person to person. Some people make their intention clear, while other keep
them secret.
Reasons of Suicide : - There are many reasons to suicides. Common reasons as follows:
1. Not having hope about the future and thinking that suicide is the only solution.
2. Inability to face problems arising in daily life.
3. Experiencing a stressful life event such as loss of loved one, financial or legal problems etc.,
4. Having substance abuse problem
5. Failure in study courses or getting job etc.,
EHV(E.M) Note:- Lecturers & Students may elaborate the Answers according to their convenience.

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EHV(E.M) Imp Questions & Notes @ SEWAA Page # 5

Remedies : 1. Avoid substance abuse like drugs and alcohol


2. Form a strong support network including your family and friends.
3. Practicing religious prayer can reduce the risk of suicide.
4. Developing Positive and optimistic thinking.
5. Suicidal feelings are often temporary. So try to overcome the tendency by diverting the mind towards various
activities which gives us happiness.
6. Dont hesitate to seek the professional advice of a counselor or psychiatrist if suicide feelings repeatedly occur.
Death is not an ultimate solution for any kind of Problem. Let us solve the suicidal problems with strong
support of our family members,friends & relatives.
Q.8. Describe some of the advantages and disadvantages of the internet.
Ans: The Internet is a global computer network providing a variety of information and communication facilities.
Learning and communicating have never been the same after the advent of the Internet. It would not be an
exaggeration to say that the Internet has altered our lives in way which would have seemed unimaginable a few
decades ago.
Advantages of Internet :
Given below are some of the benefits of the Internet :
1. Instant and Easy access to information : We can get & send Information within seconds with all types of
documents attached through e-mail. Through Websites we can provides lots of documents permanently and we
can share to millions of people.
2. Easy interaction with known / unknown people : We can interact with our known friends,relatives,officers etc.,
We can interact formal or informal methods. Social Networking sites like Facebook,Twitter, Whatsapp,Telegram
we can Interact/ share our feelings and update ourself with world wide web(www) technology. We can share our
feelings with Unknown people & make millions of new friends. Through Chatting we can make our likeminded
friends. We may not feel boredom or loneliness. Interacting with others we familiarize to others.
3. Source of Endless Entertainment : Internet is the rich source of Entertainment. We can see,download the
Audios, Videos online. Several types
of Cinemas, Patriotic, religious and all types of entertaining
channels/Websites are available. We can feel the endless entertainment by downloading,sharing, streaming the
videos and audios.
4. Easy transfer of Data : It is made easy to transfer of Data/Documents from one place to another place world wide
web. Science, Technology related data can be shared worldwide within minutes. Important data/ documents
sharing are very simple. Specially it is highly useful to share Education & related matters
5. Applications in Banking and Finance(E-commerce) : A variety of Banking & Finance matters are made simple
through Online system. Right from the Opening of Accounts to completion of all transactions are very easy.
Now a days people may know their bank account details at their personal computers and cell phones. Business
and Company transactions become very easy through Online Banking. People can transact lakhs of rupees
online. Currency-less transanction started through Credit Cards, ATM Cards etc.,
There are many Advantages of Internet of every fields of the society i.e Engineering,Medicine,Legal,Legislature,
Commerce etc.,
Dies-advantages of Internet :
1. Excessive depending on Internet addiction making youth lazy. Without Internet sharing become impossible.
2. After habituating with Internet people are disconnect with real world and connected to Internet.
3. Loss of personal skills : People losing their personal skills. Depending on readymade data available at Internet.
4. Brake-down of Family relations : Due to spending over time with Internet there is a possibility of human relations,
And Family relations.
5. Un-ethical usage of the Internet : Through Internet people can easily view the illegal / un-ethical movies,
pictures,videos. Intentionally or un-intentionally they are forced to learn un-ethical relations.
6. Habituate to Indecent Sites /Pornography : Though there are lakhs of Porn sites available in the Internet Youth
readily habituating to porn sites. Their concentration of studies and development may be stopped.
7. Lack of Physical activity : Too much spending on Internet/Computers people may loss the time for proper
physical activities. Due to the reason facing health problems like Obesity, Eyesight & Backbone, Diabetes etc.,in
the teenage itself.
Guidelines for good usage of Internet (Specially for Teens) :
1. Teenagers should spend only a limited amount of time on their own computer.
2. We should use the Internet mostly for information and partly for recreation.
3. Teenagers should agree to parental supervision and promise not to visit Porn sites.
4. Photos should NEVER be shared with strangers.
5. Be careful..think twice before giving E-mail User ids,Passwords & OTP to others
6.Teenagers should observe Netiquette. i.e net etiquette.

EHV(E.M) Note:- Lecturers & Students may elaborate the Answers according to their convenience.

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Section C (Unit-5,7)
1(2) X 15=15
Q 9. Discuss the importance of natural resources like land, trees, air, water and animals and why we should have
respect for the natural environment.
Ans: Environmental protection is more important for the survival of man. It is concerned with the natural world of
land,sea,air and animals. As the population increases, the need or demand for natural resources also increases.
Ultimately this results in a lot of pressure on the natural resources. Pollution of air,water and soil is further damaging
the natural environment and causing immeasurable harm.
Respect for Natural environment :
Indian culture and tradition has always stressed the need to protect the environment. According to the
tenets of ancient Indian Philosophy the universe is made of Panchabhutas (five elements) namely Bhumi(Earth),
Jala(Water),Agni(Fire),Vayu(Air), Akasha(Space). It is believed that the body of all animals and humans is composed
of these elements. The great epics and literacy texts such as the Ramayana,Mahabharatha,Vedas,Upanishads and
Smrithis contain the earliest messages for the preservation of environment and ecological balance. The
Bhagavadgita advises us not to tamper with the environment. We have to respect our natural resources. We hope to
maintain ecological balance and bio-diversity. Let us see the importance of a few natural resources :
a) Land :
In Indian tradition land is personified as the mother goddess and called Bhoomaatha. This implies that
we must take care of our land as we take care of our mother. Only if we actively protect environment will the
environment co-operate with us.
b) Trees:
Trees and animals form an integral part of the environment. Protection of these two major sources is vital
for maintaining eco-balance. Trees hold the soil in place to reduce erosion and improve water quality. Trees provide
us food,material for shelter and fuell.They replenish the air we breathe. Trees provide food for animals and are
habitat of wild life. As trees are very important natural resources, it is our duty to plant as many trees as we can.
c) Animals:
Animals are also considered as natural resources as man depends on them for domestic and commercial
purpose. Domesticated animals such as livestock, provide us food,fibre and leather. Wild animals including
birds,fish and insects are important to support the web of activity in a functioning ecosystem. In Indian tradition we
worship animals & Birds as Gomatha(Cow),Naga(Snake),Garatmantha(Eagle),Hayagriva(Horse) etc.,
d) Water :
Water is essential for life. We have both surface and ground water. India has rich water bodies like rivers,
ponds,lakes etc., About 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. There are more than 326 million trillion
gallons of water on earth. Apart from domestic usage, the significant use of water is to produce hydropower. It is
impossible to imagine doing our routine chores like washing cloths and cleaning utensils without water. In our
culture we adore water as goddess Ganga Matha
e) Air :
Air is an important natural resource. It is vital for animals and paints. All creatures on the earth need air to
live. Air is thus a life sustaining factor. Air is also essential for fuel to burn and for many chemical reactions. We use
air in hot balloons. We use air bubbles to make mattresses light and fluffy. Air is an inexhaustible natural resource
which is essential for our survival. In Indian tradition we worship air as Vayudeva
We have to protect natural resources ourself. As per the Indian Old saying If we protect our nature.
Nature protects us ( prakruti rakshti..rakshitaha )
Q 10. Describe some measures to check soil erosion and deforestation.
Ans: Human beings are exploiting natural resources ruthlessly for their own benefit. They are not bothered about
the effects of the depletion of natural resources on future generations. Soil erosion and deforestation are the part of
deplation of natural resources.
Soil Erosion :- Erosion is the process by which soil and rocks are removed from the earths surface by exogamic
processes such as wind or water flow and then transported and deposited in other location. Erosion of soil occurs
due to rainfall, rivers and streams, coastal erosion, glaciers,flood, freezing, wing erosion and lighting strikes.
Preventive measures Soil Erosion :
Plants provide protective cover on the land and prevent soil erosion. Prevention of soil erosion requires
adoption of technological measure which includes
a. Use of contour ploughing and windbreaks
b. Weaving unploughed grass strips between ploughed lands
c. Avoiding overgrazing and over use of crop lands
d. Allowing indigenous plants to thrive along the river banks instead of ploughing and planting crops right
up to the waters edge.
e. Conservation of wet lands. Encouraging biological diversity.
f. Intensive cropping and use of proper drainage canals
g. Planting trees and sowing different kinds of grasses.
h. Carrying out extensive afforestation practices.
Deforestation :- Deforestation occurs when humans clear or remove large areas of forest lands and related eco
systems for non-forest use. These include clearing for farming purposes, ranching and urban use. In most cases
trees are never re-planted.
Control of Deforestation : - Deforestation should be curbed by taking proper steps as follows :
a. If all deforestation is inevitable, elsewhere reforestation should be taken up.
b. If one tree is two should be planted.
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c. New methods of cultivation towards high-yields in small areas should be developed.


d. Good forest management techniques should be incorporated.
e. Rewares should be announced to those who take measures to conserve trees.
f. Forests should be kept under the care of strict and non-corrupt officers
In modern age pollution and degradation of natural resources should be avoided. Industrial wastage should
be disposed of in a manner that does not harm the environment. Today vast areas of forest land and water bodies
have disappeared because of the unethical practices of industries.
Q11. Enumerate some ethical norms that should be followed by teachers and doctors.
Ans: The word profession is closely used to anyone who hold a job, it is generally used in a more restrictive sense.
It refers to well-educated workers who possess specialized skill and knowledge. Maintaining ethical practices in any
profession is very essential. Let us enumerate some Ethical norms to be followed by teachers and doctors:
Ethical norms for Teachers :
Teachers play a very important role in society. They provide instruction which equips students with
knowledge and skills that enable them to stand on their own feet. They inculcate in students the spirit of enquiry and
creative thinking. Ancient scripture venerate the teacher as a personification of God. Guru Brahma, guru Vishnu,
guru devo maheshwara so goes the incanatation.
In the rapidly changing scenario of modern times, the image of the teacher has undergone a
metamorphosis. Schools and colleges have been reduced to coaching centres and the emphasis is on providing
intensive training in certain subject only. The importance given to all-round personality training and the inculcation
of morals is diminishing. Teachers are expected to maintain high standards of morality. Besides good at their
subject knowledge they should observe certain ethical norms such as :
a. A true teacher is a lifelong learner. He should never feel that he knows everything or that he is so
experienced that he can go without preparation to the class.
b. A teacher should be sensitive to the needs and feelings of students. A good teacher draws out the best
from each child.
c. The teacher should never insult a student or demean him calling him stupid dumb etc.,
d. The teacher should resort to positive reinforcement and try to avoid punishment as far as possible.
Punishment can be in the form of imposition.
e. The teacher should be a role model who inspire the respect of the students. If teacher frequently uses
his mobile phone in class he loses the moral authority to reprimand students when they do the same.
f. The teacher should strive to be a friend,philosopher and guide to students. The relationship with
students continues beyond the classroom.
Teachers can play a stabilizing role in the life of students by showing tolerance,sympathy and
compassion. As per A.P.J Abdul Kalam - There are three societal members who can make a difference. They are
the Father, the Mother and the Teacher. Teacher are the social builders.
Ethical norms for Doctors :
Doctors in India have been accorded the highest status and reverence in India since time immemorial.
Vaidyo narayano hari goes the saying, an affirmation that doctors are living forms of gods. The Charaka Sastra
stresses the importance of direct observation and avers that successful medical treatment depends on four factors
the physician, Medicine/Diet and the Patient.
Hippocrates was an ancient Greek physician and is considered the father of modern medicine. He
emphasized the clinical study of disease and laid down the Hippocratic Oath, a set of principles that doctors should
follow. Important duties of physicians include :
a. Treating patients to the best ones ability and judgement and offering the best standards of treatment.
b. Refraining from causing harm to the patient
c. Refraining from performing or aiding abortion and euthanasia(mercy killing)
d. Refraining from any form of corruption or impropriety with patients, particulary women
e. Maintaining confidentiality about the problems and diseases of patients
f. Placing the interest of the patient above ones own interest
g. Leaving surgeries and specialized care to those who are trained in those fields.
While the basic code is still reverted, abortion is legal today in many countries, particularly under certain
Circumstances and eusthansia too is slowly gaining acceptance worldwide. Unfortunately, as in other spheres of
life, commercialization has become rampant even in medicine. Many doctors today charge exorbitant fees,
prescribe unnecessary test or refer patients to several specialist and super specialist doctors even for simple
ailments. These unethical practices should be curbed.
To conclude a conscientious doctor realizes the Patients dont care how much you know before they know
how much you care. Every doctor must remember that God gives birth..Doctor gives re-birth in danger.
Q.12. What are some of the ethical practices that should be adopted by politicians and the police ?
Ans: The word profession is closely used to anyone who hold a job, it is generally used in a more restrictive sense.
It refers to well-educated workers who possess specialized skill and knowledge. Maintaining ethical practices in any
profession is very essential. Let us enumerate some Ethical norms to be followed by politicians and police:
Ethical practices for Politicians : The word politics comes from the Greek word polis which means the community
or the state. Greek political thinkers like Plato and Aristotle describe their concept of an ideal state and the means
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to achieve it. Mahatma Gandhi suggested that politics should be a branch of ethics. He was himself a man of the
highest standards of probity and simplicity and did not ever deviate from his conviction that the end does not justify
the means. At the time of Independence the general expectation was that politicians would work ceaselessly and
selflessly for the sake of the country. But unfortunately this did not happen. Today politics has become a cesspool of
corruption, criminalization and sloth.
Some of the ethical practices for good politicians are :
a. Personal integrity and impeccable standards of morality
b. Commitment to the welfare of the people
c. Thorough grasp of the problems and issues that concern the people
d. Prioritization of problems and not resorting to populist promises.
e. Efficient allocation an utilization of funds and resources
f. Speedy implementation of welfare and developmental schemes
g. Courage to withstand external influences and internal party pressures.
h. Innovative thinking and problem solving
i. Shunning corruption nepotism and misuse of power.
j. Compassion for people, particularly the under-privileged and weak sections of society and women
Let us recollect the Mohammeds saying :
Nations are born in the hearts of poets, they prosper and die in the hands of politicians
Ethical practices for Police :
The core functions of the police include enforcing the law, maintaining peace and protecting the life,
prosperity and rights of all citizens. The Ministry of Home Affairs, India laid down a model code of conduct for the
police in 1985. The Police are expected to observe the following guiding principles while discharging their duties:
a. Affirm allegiance to the Constitution of India and respect the rights of all citizens.
b. Be ready to lay down life in the line of duty.
c. Enforce all laws without questioning their propriety or need.
d. Enforce the law strictly without fear or favor, malice or vindictiveness.
e. Function within their limits and not usurp the powers of the judiciary be meting out punishment to the guilty
f. Strive to prevent crime in the first place, rather than solve it.
g. Earn the confidence and respect of the members of the public, without whose co-operation it would be
difficult to discharge the various duties.
h. Be courteous and pleasant in dealings with the public.
i. Be always in a state of preparedness for action by constant training
j. Rise above personal prejudices and promote a spirit of harmony and brotherhood which cuts across
differences in caste, creed and religion.
Corruption in the police force is a major concern today. It is a specific form of misconduct aimed at extracting
financial benefits or favors in exchange for not pursuing or selectively pursuing the investigation of a crime or
offence. So much so that many people prefer not to lodge a complaint for less serious crimes than step into a
police station. Police should equally treat the persons who are rich or poor.
All Citizens are policemen in civil dress..All Policemen are Citizens in uniform

Section D (Unit-6,8)
1(2) X 15=15
Q 13. Write an essay on the tenets and ethical values in Hinduism (or) Islam
Ans: A religion is defined as a particular system of faith and worship. It often involves the belief in and worship of a
superhuman controlling power especially a personal God or gods. All religions stress the importance of good
thoughts.
Values embedded in Hinduism :
According to Supreme court of India Unlike other religions in the world, The Hindu religion does not claim
anyone Prophet, it does not worship any one God, it does not believe in any one philosophic conceptin fact, it does
not satisfy the traditional features for a religion or creed. It is a way of life and nothing more.
Followers refere to Hinduism as Sanatana Dharma, the eternal law or the eternal way.
Some Core Beliefs of Hinduism :According to scholars , while there is a wide variation in the beliefs and practices of different sects of
Hinduism, there are certain core beliefs shared by all Hindus, These are :
a. Belief in the divinity of the Vedas
b. The universe is an endless cycle of creation,preservation and dissolution. Brahma,Vishnu,Maheshwaras
together form the Trinity. They create & re-crate the creatures in the universe.
c. An individual creates his own destiny by his thoughts, words and deeds. This law of cause and effect is
called Karma
d. Every soul evolves through a series of births and deaths(Janma and punarjanma) until all karmas have been
resolved.
e. A master or a guru is essential to follow the right path.
f. All forms of life are sacred and should be loved and revered. All must follow the practice of ahimsa
g. Belief in the existence of divine beings in unseen worlds. Temple worship, rituals,chanting of mantras such
as Gayatri mantra and personal devotion are ways to create communication with God.
Ethical and Moral Teachings in the Upanishads and the Bhagavadgita :
The term Upanishad means sitting near a teacher to receive sacred teachings. Of the 108 Upanishads that
are extant , 12 are considered the principal one, including the Katha Upanishad, Kena, Prasna etc., All the
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Upanishads are associated with one of the four Vedas Rigveda,Samaveda,Yajurveda, Adharvanaveda and form
the last part of a Veda.
Ethical and Moral values in Ramayana and Mahabharata :
The Ramayana is one of the most sacred epics of Hinduism. Written by Valmiki, it consists 24000 verses in
seven books. It is the story of Lord Ramas exile and the abduction of Sita by the demon king, Ravana. Ramayana
deals with values like friendship,mercy and benevolence. Rama is the role model for Hindus as Ideal Son, Ideal
King, Ideal husband. People memorise his ruling as Ramarajyam, an Ideal kingdom of ideal ruler.
The Mahabharatha is the longest epic in the world. Written by Vyasa, it consists of 1,00,000 slokas. It
centres on the struggle for sovereignty between the Pandavas and tha Kauravas, who were cousins, and the
ensuing battle of Kurukshetra. The epic is a treatise on Dharma and contains myriads of small stories within stories.
Mahabharatha contains an elaborate exposition of the social code. The aims or ends that are sought by man are
described as Purushartha. The four purusharthas are Dharma,Artha,Kama,Moksha. Once man overcomes avidya
or ignorance, he will attain the highest knowledge and his soul becomes liberated.
Q 14. Write an essay about the important teaching and values in Buddism (or) Jainism
Ans: Budhism is a religion which originated in India and in the 6th Century B.C. It is based on the teachings of
Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha or Enlightened one. It is estimated that there are about 500
million Buddhists worldwide today.
Gautama was born in a princely family in 563 B.C in Lumina, a town in modern day Nepal to Suddhodana and
Mayadevi. It was prophesied that he would become either a great king or a monk. At the age of 29 Gautama went
beyond the palace walls and came face to face with suffering people. He saw an old man, a sick man, a corpse and
finally an ascetic. Moved by the experience, Gautama abandoned his kingly life and also left his wife, Yashodhara
and son, Rahul to seek enlightenment. In his spiritual quest he met many renowned teachers and subjected himself
to severe penance, almost starving himself to death. At the age of 35 he sat under Bodhi tree in Gaya and
meditated for several days. It was there that he became enlightened and was thereafter, called the Buddha. He
delivered sermons and taught the path of awakening.
Teaching of Buddhism :The Four Noble Truths are central to the beliefs of Buddhism they are :
1. Dukha : There is Dukha or Suffering
2. Dukha Samudhaya ( Origin of Suffering) : There is a cause for suffering. Wants and desires are the reasons for
suffering. In larger sense, Ignorance is the root of all suffereing.
3. Dukh Nirodha ( Cessation of suffering): Suffering can be stopped.
4. Dukha Nirodha Marga (Path to stop suffering): There is a way to stop Suffering.
In Buddhism Samsara is defined as the continual repretitive cyle of birth and death. Samsara is fraught with
suffering . This suffering and cycle of rebirth can be broken by the following the Ashtanga Marga(Eightfold path).
This includes - Samyak Drushti(Right Understanding), Samyak Sankalpa(Right Aspiration), Samyak Vakku(Right
Speech), Samyak Karma(Right Action), Samyak Jeevan(Right Livelihood), Samyak Vyayama(Right Effort), Samyak
Smruthi(Right Mindfulness) and Samyak Samadhi(Right Meditation).
Buddhists believe in the Middle Path or the path of moderation between self indulgence and self
mortification. They seek refuge in the Three Jewels Buddha, Dharma and Sangha.
Buddhism advocates the adhrernce to Five precepts(Pancha sheela): These are not in the nature of
commandments with the threat of punishment if violated. Rather, they are meant to be guiding principles for
attaining tranquility and peace of mind. Buddhist are expected to :
1. Avoid taking the life of beings : Not to kill animals
2. Avoid taking things not given : A person should not steal or take anything not intended for him
3. Avoid sensual misconduct : Any overindulgence of the flesh should be avoided.
4. Refrain from false speech : One should avoid telling lies or saying things that may harm another
5. Abstain from substances that cayuse intoxication and heedlessness.
Buddhism lays importance on meditation and development of mindfulness. A person who is seeking the
state of Buddha or enlightenment is called Bodhisatva.
Q.15. Write a short essay about the important nutrients that are needed for good health during adolescence,
including important sources and effects of deficiency.
Ans: Adolescence is a period of stress and stains. During this period every teens must take rich nutritious food for
better physical growth. Nutrients can be classified as Macronutrients and Micronutrients. Macronutrients are
needed in large amounts while micronutrients are needed in small amounts.
Macronutrients are - Carbohydrates, Fats and Proteins
Micronutrients are - Vitamins and Minerals
Carbohydrates :Carbohydrates are the major source of energy. They provide more than 60% of the energy needed by the
body. They can be classified into two types, Simple and complex. Simple carbohydrates include soft drinks, corn
syrup and refined products simply digestible. Whereas Complex carbohydrates consist of three or more sugars.
These sugars are rich in vitamins and minerals. They take a longer time to be digested. They include the starches in
cereals(rice,wheatoats,barley), Millets(ragi,bajra or jonnalu). In India 70-80% of total dietary calories are derived
from carbohydrates present in plant foods such as cereals,pulses and millets.
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Proteins :Proteins are necessary for building and repairing body tissue and are also a source of energy. They are
made of amino acids. The amount of protein required depends on the body weight and composition, rate of growth
of the individual, physical activity level and presence of illness or injury. Sportsmen need greater amounts of
protein. Requirements are also greater during childhood and adolescence for growth and development as also
during pregnancy or when the body needs to recover from an illness. Adolescents need 45 55 gms of proteins a
day. Animal source such as meats, milk, fish and eggs are rich in protein. Plant proteins are found in whole
grains,pulses,legumes,nuts and seeds. Soyabean,chickpea(chole),Kidneybean(rajma)cashews,walnuts,quinoa,
sunflower seeds are examples of foods which contains proteins. Protein deficiency can lead to various ailments
including mental retardation and kwashiorkor.
Fats :Fats are a source of essential fatty acids, an important dietary requirement. They may be visible or invisible.
Visible fats include cooking oils and fats such as butter, ghee and vanaspathi. While invisible fats are present in
plant(pea nut, coconut, sesame, soya bean etc.,). Fats may be saturated or unsaturated. Both types are needed by
the body. Saturated fats tends to solidify at room temperature and their intake should be restricted. Unsaturated
fats are liquids and healthier than saturated fats. Olive oil, canola oil are peanut oil are examples of monounsaturated fats while corn oil, safflower and sunflower oils are examples of poly-unsatureted fats. Adults should
avoid taking large quantities of fats as it could lead to diseases like hypertension, heart disease, diabetes and
cancer. We have to change the cooking oils frequently.
Vitamins :Vitamins are organic nutrients. This means that like carbohydrates, proteins and fat, they are not made in
the body and are mainly obtained through food. Insufficient intake of vitamins lead to deficiency disorders. There are
13 known vitamins. They include Vitamin-A, B, B1,B2,B6,B12, C,D,E,K, beta-carotene,biotin,folic acid,niacin and
pantothenic acid. Every vitamin have its own importance.
Minerals :Minerals include macro-elements like calcium, magnesium,potassium and sodium, needed in relatively
large quantities and micro-elements like iron, iodine, zinc, selenium, chromium, cobalt and manganese.
Good food habits during Adolescence :During adolescene body needs more food to grow. Nutritionist adviced to take rich proteins and have good
dietary habits as follows :
a. Fresh vegetable and Fruits should be consumed daily. 300 gms of vegetables, 100gms fruit necessary.
b. A wide variety of vegetables and fruits should be eaten. Which have Vitamin C. like amla,guava,banana
c. Food which contains Protein, Fats, Iron should be consumed regularly.
d. It is essential to drink 3-4 litres of water every day.
e. Intake of heavy sugar, salt and oils should be restricted. Avoid Masalas and Junk food / processed food.
f. Breakfast, Meals should be had at regular timings.
g. Apart from diet exercise too plays a vital role in maintaining health. Regular physical activity prevents
arious disese3s and contributes to well-being. Walking 30 Mins. Cycling for 1 hour is essential. Vigorous
exercise for at least 45 minutes on five days of a week is recommended by most doctors.
Q.16. Discuss the effects of substance abuse. How can substance abuse be prevented
Ans: Substance abuse or drug abuse is a disorder characterized by the deliberate use of a substance for a nonmedical purpose, which causes significant physiological harm. Such substances include nicotine(in cigarettes,
alcohol and illegal recreational drugs like marijuana(bhang, charas, hashish), Ecstacy and LSD.
Effects of Substance Abuse :Substance abuse can cause neurological, respiratory and cardio-vascular damage, depending on the type
of drug,dosage,frequency and individual factors. It can also lead to frightening psychological effects like
hallucinations. Often multiple drugs are combined and used with alcohol. This is far more dangerous than taking a
single drug. Sudden stopping of the abused substance gives rise to withdrawal symptoms which may be unbearable
such as tremors, severe depression, seizures and in extreme cases, even death.
Risk behavior increases when drugs are taken and may result in fatal injuries. It is common for example, for
accidents to take place when people drive under the influence of alcohol or cannabis as reflexes and concentration
are affected. Drug addicts may have several sexual partners and this increases the likelihood of contacting STDs.
Substance abuse creates Poor academic and work performance. Ironically, many western Rock Stars and actors in
the entertainment industry or show-biz openly acknowledge taking heavy doses of recreational drugs and
sedatives.
Prevention of Substance Abuse among Teens :The earlier person indulges in substance abuse the greater is the chance of becoming an addict. It is
important, therefore, to prevent substance abuse from childhood itself. Substance abuse prevention generally
focuses on alcohol, tobacco. At the primary level the aim is to reduce incidence, at the secondary level the aim is to
reduce prevalence while at the tertiary level the focus is on treatment and rehabilitation.
The Family, school, community and neighborhood can play a crucial role in inculcating good values in
adolescents and ensuring that teens are sensitized to the dangers of substance abuse. The individual should
develop enough self-worth and self-confidence to be able to refuse drugs even if pressurized by friends. Legislation
is an effective tool which can be used by the govt. to curb the growth and sale of narcotic substances and other
drugs.
NGO(Non Government Organizations) too play a supportive role. They conduct campaigns highlighting the
dangers of substance abuse and also run counseling centres and de-addiction centres.
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