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1 COMMUNICABLE DISEASE (ESCALANTE-SAAC)

COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
Con-communicable disease
HIV, Malaria, TB. Measles,
Diarrhea, Acute respi infection
Diarrhea, bronchitis, pneumonia,
influenza, HPN, TB, Malaria, Heart
disease, Cancer, Accidents, COPD
and other respi diseases
1. prevention of disease
2. prevention of disability and
death from infection
3. prevention through
immunization
Communicable disease
Direct
3 feet
Indirect, vehicle-borne, vector
borne and break into the
skin integrity
Vehicle-borne
Vector-borne
Break into the skin integrity
through inoculation
Infectious disease
Contagious disease
infectious
Communicable
Contagious
Infection
Host
Carrier
Contact
Isolation
Quarantine

Primary cause of mortality gap between rich and poor countries.


Account 50% of all the deaths worldwide estimated from 28million in 1990 to 50million in
2020
About 60% of deaths caused by communicable disease can be attributed to:
10 leading causes of morbidity and mortality:

Goals of WHO:

Disease caused by pathogenic microorganisms w/c can be transmitted from an infected


person to susceptible person by direct or indirect means or break in the skin.
Meaning it comes in contact with infected person or person-person transmission.
Droplets where microorganisms remain in the surface with limitation of its distance of at least
_ feet; face to face encounter with an individual.
Meaning from the source of infection to a new host with intermediary object through_

Non-living things such as water and fomites


Living things but non-human such as insects
Example: sharp needle and blood transfusions
Invasion of host from disease producing organism
Invasion an multiplication of microorganisms
Disease that easily spreads directly from one person to another
All communicable disease are_ because they are caused by microorganisms (MO) but not all
are contagious because not all of them are easily transmitted.
All infectious diseases are_ butt NOT all are contagious
All_ diseases are both communicable and infectious
Is the implantation and successful replication of an organism in the tissue of the host resulting
to signs and symptoms as well as immunologic responses
Is a person, animal or plant on which a parasite for its survival
Is an individual who harbors the organism and is capable of transmitting it to a susceptible
host without showing manifestation of the disease.
Is any person or animal who is in dose association with an infected person, animal or freshly
soiled material
Is the separation from other persons of an individual suffering from communicable disease
Is the limitation of freedom of movement of persons or animal which have been exposed to
communicable disease for a period of time equivalent to the longest incubation period of that
disease
Time interval between initial infection and 1srt appearance of s/sx
The production of microorganisms affects the patient wither by:

Incubation period
1. competing with hosts
metabolism
2. cellular damage produced by
the microbes
3.intracellular multiplication
1. some bacteria develop
Why microbes that cause infectious disease are so difficult to overcome?
resistance to antibiotics
2. some microbes such as
influenza have so many different
strains that a single vaccine
cannot protect against them
3. most viruses resist antiviral
drugs.
4.new infectious agents
occasionally arise such as HIV
and corona virus
5.some microbes localize in areas
of the body that make treatment
difficult
6.opportunistic organism can
cause infection in
immunocompromised patients
7.most people have not received
immunization
8.increased air travel can cause
the spread of the virulent
organism to a heavily populated
area in hours
9.use of biologic warfare and
bioterrorism with organisms such
as Anthrax and plague
10.the expanded use of
immunosuppressive agents and
invasive procedures increases
rick of infection
CLASSIFICATION OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES
A. Based of Occurrence of Disease
1.Sporadic Disease
Disease that occurs only occasionally and irregularly with no specific pattern ex. Botulism,
tetanus
2. Endemic Disease
Constantly present in a population, country or community usually involves few people during
specific periods. ex. PTB, Malaria, Schisto

2 COMMUNICABLE DISEASE (ESCALANTE-SAAC)


3. Epidemic Disease

Pt. acquire the disease in short period of time :diseases that occur in a grater number than
what is expected in a specific area over a specific time
4. Pandemic Diseases
Is an epidemic that affects several countries or continents, based on severity suration of
disease ex. HIV, SARS, Influenza
B. Based on severity or Duration of disease
1. Acute Disorder
Develops rapidly but lasts only a short tome ex. ,measles, mumps, influenza
2. Chronic Disease
Develops more slowly(insidious onset) disease likely to be continued ofr recurrent for long
periods ex. TTB, leprosy
3.Subacute Disease
Intermediate between acute and chronic ex. Baxterial endocarditis
4.Latent disease
Causative agent remains inactive for a time but then becomes active to produce symptoms of
the disease ex. Chicken pox-shingles(zoster), amoebaiasis
C. Based on state of host resistance
1. Primary Infection
Acute infection that causes the initial illness
2. Secondary Infection
One caused by opportunistic pathogen after primary infection has weakened the bodys
defenses
3. Subclinical (inapparent
Does not cause noticeable illness
Infection)
MICROBES against HUMAN
Symptoms
Subjective evidence of disease that is experienced or perceived subjective changes in the
body function noted by patient but not apparent to an observer
Signs
Objective evidence of a disease the physician can observe and measure
Syndrome
A specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a particular disease
Incidence
The number of people in a population who develop a disease during a particular time period
Prevalence
The number of people in a population who develop a disease, regardless of when it appeared,
refers to both old and new cases
EPIDEMIOLOGIC TRIAD OF A DISEASE
Epidemiologic triad of a disease
Is a model that scientists have developed for studying health problems
1.Host
2.Agent
3.Environment
Host
A man or an animal where is susceptible (degree of resistance) is constructed
Patient, carrier, suspect, contact
4 types of hosts
Age, heredity, level of stress,
Host factors that increase risk of infection
nutritional status, current medical
therapy, pre-existing disease
process, immunization status
Agent
Cause of disease, pertains to MO that causes greatest but cant be seen to naked eye
1.Bacteria
Agents
2.Virus
3.Fungi
Bacteria
Single-celled organisms with double cll membranes that protect from harm. They reproduce
rapidly and are considered as the most cause of fatal infectious disease
Virus
Self-limiting, have time frame if not treated, complication ensues
Fungi
Like plants, made up of many cells, they thrive inside or outside the body and may be harmful
of and beneficial, cannot produce their ow food
Environment
Virulence
Strength and power of the MO to cause infection
Pathogenicity
Capable of the MO to cause infection
Infection
Virulence + pathogenicity=?
Environment
Should be conducive and favorable to growth and multiplication of MO
CHAIN OF INFECTION
1. Pathogenic MO
-the chain begins with the existence of a specific pathogenic microorganism
2. Reservoir
-2nd link, an environment where the pathogen can survive
3. Portal of escape
-3rd link
4. MOT
-4th link, from the reservoir to the host
5. Portal of entry
-5th link, into the host
6 Host Susceptibility
-last link
1. Pathogen or causative agent