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Tyre

Qƒ°U
Archaeological Promenade
ïjQÉàdG ôÑY QGƒ°ûe
2 1
The City Site Al-Bass Site
áæjóªdG ™bƒe ¢üÑdG ™bƒe
Qƒ°U
…òdG É¡FGôK ÉeG .Iô«¨°U IôjõL ≈∏Y ,QÉëÑdG áµ∏e ,á«q ≤«æ«ØdG Qƒ°U äÉjGóH âfÉc
,§°SƒàªdG AÉëfG ™«ªL »a äô°ûàfG »àdG É¡JGôª©à°ùe øe ¬à©ªL ó≤a ,¬à«°U ´GP
´ÉªWCG á∏Ñb âfɵa .±ÉØq °ûdG êÉLõdGh ¿GƒLQ’G áYÉæ°U øe É¡Jô¡°T äó°üM ɪ«a
Qóæµ°S’G »fhó≤ªdGh ô°üf ób ƒHÉf »∏HÉÑdG ∂∏ªdG ∫ÉãeCG øe ø«ëJÉØdG QÉÑc
.ø«fô≤dG …òH ±hô©ªdG ,ô«ÑµdG

Tyre
Phoenician Tyre was queen of the seas, an island city of
unprecedented splendor. She grew wealthy from her
far-reaching colonies and her industries of purple-dyed
textiles. But she also attracted the attention of
jealous conquerors, among them the Babylonian King
Nebuchadnezzar and Alexander the Great.

Five Millennia of History


áæjóªdG ïjQÉJ
Qƒ°U âfÉc á∏MôªdG ∂∏J »Øa .Ω.¥ ådÉãdG ∞d’G äÉjGóH ≈dG Qƒ°U ¢ù«°SCÉJ Oƒ©j
Founded at the start of the third millennium B.C., Tyre originally ≈∏Y ôNB’G º°ù≤dG º«bG ɪ«a ,ÅWÉ°ûdG ≈∏Y É¡æe º°ùb º«bG áLhOõe ájôb øe ∞dq CÉàJ
consisted of a mainland settlement and a modest island city ºd Qƒ°U ¿Éa ,»ÑgòdG Égô°üY ÉeG .¬àdÉÑb Iô°ûàæªdG ájôî°üdG QõédG øe áYƒªée
that lay a short distance off shore. But it was not until the first .Ω.¥ ∫h’G ∞d’G ¿ƒ°†Z »a ’EG ¬¨∏ÑJ
millennium B.C. that the city experienced its golden age.
RÉéfÉH ΩGô«M É¡µ∏e ΩÉb ,.Ω.¥ ô°TÉ©dG ¿ô≤dG »dGƒM »a ,áÑ≤ëdG ∂∏J äÉjGóH »Øa
In the 10th century B.C., Hiram, King of Tyre, joined two islets ±ó¡H ôëÑdG øe Gk AõL ΩOQh É¡°†©ÑH QõédG π°Uƒa ,á«q fGôª©dG ™jQÉ°ûªdG øe OóY
by landfill. Later, he extended the city further by reclaiming a á≤«°†dG ÉgOhóM äRhÉéJ ¿G áæjóªdG âãÑd Ée ºKq .á«∏MÉ°ùdG áæjóªdG á©bQ ™«°SƒJ
considerable area from the sea. Phoenician expansion began πMGƒ°S ≈dG Gƒ∏°Uhh §°SƒàªdG
q ôëÑdG GƒHÉL øjòdG É¡JQÉëHh
q ÉgQÉéJ q ΩGóbEG π°†ØH
about 815 B.C., when traders from Tyre founded Carthage in ≈∏Y áLÉWôb É¡æ«H øeh ,ájQÉéàdG äÉ£ëªdGh äGôª©à°ùªdG º¡d Gƒ°ù°SCq Gh ,»°ù∏W’G
North Africa. Eventually, Phoenician colonies spread around the .Ω.¥ 815 ΩÉ©dG »dGƒM »a ÉghCÉ°ûfG »àdG »°ùfƒàdG ÅWÉ°ûdG
Mediterranean and Atlantic, bringing to the city a flourishing
maritime trade. äÉLƒàæe π°†ØH äôKCGh äôgORÉa ,»ÑgòdG Qƒ°U ô°üY πãq ªJ áÑ≤ëdG ∂∏J âfÉc
±ÉqØ°ûdG êÉLõdG áYÉæ°U É¡æ«H øe »àdG ,á«q ∏ëªdG É¡JÉYÉæ°U π°†ØH ɪc É¡JGôª©à°ùe
Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, laid siege to the walled city πH ,º¡©∏°Sh º¡©FÉ°†H ô°ûæH GƒØàµj ºd ø«jQƒ°üdG QÉéàdG
q ¿G ó«H .¿GƒLQ’G áYÉæ°Uh
for thirteen years. Tyre stood firm, but it is probable that at this q
≈dG á«≤«æ«ØdG ájóéH’G ∫É°üjEG »a π°†ØdG Oƒ©j º¡«dGh .º¡JQÉ°†M ô°ûf ≈dG Égƒ£îJ
time the residents of the mainland city abandoned it for the Qƒ°U ∂∏e øHEG ¢Sƒeób QÉÑNCG øjhóJ ∫ÓN øe π«ªédG º¡d Gƒ¶ØM øjòdG ≥jôZ’G
safety of the island. áahô©ªdG IQÉ≤dG ≈∏Y É¡ª°SG âcôJ »àdG ¬à≤«≤°T ÉHhQhCG QÉÑNCGh ájóéH’G º¡æq≤d …òdG
.É¡ª°SÉH
In 332 B.C., Alexander the Great set out to conquer this
strategic coastal base in the war between the Greeks and the ∫hÉM ,.Ω.¥ ¢SOÉ°ùdG ¿ô≤dG »Øa .ÖYÉàªdG É¡«dEG Ö∏L ¿G åÑ∏j ºd Qƒ°U QÉgORG øµd
Persians. Unable to storm the city, he blockaded Tyre for seven ,∂dP øe ¬à©æe á©«æªdG ÉgQGƒ°SG ¿G ô«Z ,áæjóªdG ∫ÓàMG ô°üf ób ƒHÉf »∏HÉÑdG ∂∏ªdG
months. Again Tyre held on. But the conqueror used the debris ∞MõdG ∞bƒj ºd ø««∏HÉÑdG ≈∏Y »°üY Ée ¿G ô«Z .áæ°S ô°ûY çÓK Ióe Égô°UÉëa
of the abandoned mainland city to build a causeway, and once ô¡°TCG á©Ñ°S Ióe Qƒ°U Iô°UÉëªH ô«ÑµdG Qóæµ°S’G ΩÉb .Ω.¥ 332 ΩÉ©dG »a .»fhó≤ªdG
within reach of the city walls, Alexander used his siege engines »fhó≤ªdG ¿Éc ɪq dh .iôN’G á«q ≤«æ«ØdG ¿óªdG QGôZ ≈∏Y ¬d É¡Yƒ°†N ΩóY ÖÑ°ùH
to batter and finally breach the fortifications. ∑ôàj ¿G ,á«é«JGôà°S’G á«MÉædG øe ,¬àYÉ£à°SÉH øµj ºdh ô°üe ∫ÓàMG »a ÖZôj
It is said that Alexander was so enraged at the Tyrians’ defense ,¢SôØdG ídÉ°üd á∏eÉ©dG á«q HôëdG ÅaGôªdG º¶YCG øe Gk óMGh ∂∏ªJ ,áehp É≤e áæjóe ¬Ø∏N
and the loss of his men that he destroyed half the city. The ≈dG óªY ó≤a ,¬°Tƒ«L øY ájq ôÑdGh ájq ôëÑdG äGOGóe’G ™£b ∫ÓN øe ¬Yhô°ûe Oqó¡J
town’s 30,000 residents were massacred or sold into slavery. ∂dòH Å°ûæ«o d ,…ôëÑdG É¡FõL øY É¡∏°üØj …òdG ≥«°†ªdG ΩOQh ájq ôÑdG áæjóªdG ô«eóJ
Tyre and the whole of ancient Syria fell under Roman rule in ΩÉeG Qóæµ°S’G ß«Z ¿G ihôjo h .É¡dÓàMGh Gk ôq H É¡«dG ∫ƒ°UƒdG øe ¬°Tƒ«L øµq ªj Ék NRôH
64 B.C. Nonetheless, for some time Tyre continued to mint ∞°üf ô«eóJ ≈dG »fhó≤ªdÉH ™aO ÉgóѵJ »àdG ôFÉ°ùîdG ΩÉeGh ájq Qƒ°üdG áehÉ≤ªdG
its own silver coins. The Romans built a great many important .É¡dÉØWCGh É¡FÉ°ùf »Ñ°Sh É¡dÉLQ πàbh ájq ôëÑdG áæjóªdG
monuments in the city, including an aqueduct, a triumphal arch
and the largest hippodrome in antiquity. ≈∏Y ,á«fÉehôdG Iô£«°ù∏d Qƒ°U â©°†N çóëdG ∂dP ≈∏Y ¿hôb áKÓK ƒëf »°†e q ó©H
øe A»°ûH ®ÉØàM’G øe ΩÉj’G ∂∏J »a âæµq ªJ É¡fG ô«Z .á«q ≤«æ«ØdG ¿óªdG ôFÉ°S QGôZ
Christianity figures in the history of Tyre, whose name is ô°ü©dG »a É¡«a º«bCGh .ájõfhôÑdGh á«q °†ØdG á∏ª©dG ∂°S ≥ëH ɪ«°S ’h ,á«JGòdG IQGO’G
mentioned in the New Testament. During the Byzantine era, ¥ÉÑ°S ¿Gó«eh ô°üædG ¢Sƒbh á≤∏q ©ªdG √É«ªdG IÉæ≤c ,áeÉ¡dG äBÉ°ûæªdG øe OóY »fÉehôdG
the Archbishop of Tyre was the Primate of all the bishops of .»fÉehôdG ºdÉ©dG øjOÉ«e ôÑcG øe ôÑà©jo …òdG ,π«îdG äÉHôY
Phoenicia. At this time the town witnessed a second golden
age, as can be seen from the remains of its buildings and the ¢Uƒ°üf »a Gk QGôe É¡ª°SG Oôj »àdG »gh ôµÑe âbh »a á«q ë«°ùªdG áfÉjódG Qƒ°U âaôYh
inscriptions in the necropolis. É¡«∏Y ó¡°ûJ ,QÉgOR’G øe Iôàa Qƒ°U âaôY »£fõ«ÑdG ô°ü©dG »ah .ójóédG ó¡©dG
äÉ«Ø≤°SG ø«H á°SÉFôdG õcôe É¡Ø≤°SC’ ¿Éc óbh ,É¡JÉHÉàch É¡æaGóeh É¡à«æHG QÉKBG
Taken by the Islamic armies in 634 A.D., the city offered no .á«q ≤«æ«ØdG ¿óªdG
resistance and continued to prosper under its new rulers,
exporting sugar as well as objects made of pearl and glass. â©HÉàa ,ôcòoJ áehÉ≤e ájq CG ¿hO øe áæjóªdG ø«ª∏°ùªdG ¢Tƒ«L â∏NO ,634 ΩÉY »ah
With the decline of the Abbasid caliphate, Tyre acquired some äCÓàeGh AɪdG πÑo °ùH
o âfGORÉa ,ø««q °SÉÑ©dGh ø«jƒeC’G AÉØ∏îdG πX »a ÉgQÉgORG Iô«°ùe
independence under the dynasty of the Banu ‘Aqil, vassals É¡«a ⣰ûfh á«q °†ØdGh á«q ÑgòdG ≈∏ëdG ≈dG OÉé°ùdG
q øe ™FÉ°†ÑdG ±Éæ°UÉH É¡bGƒ°SG
of the Egyptian Fatimids. This was a time when Tyre was ∫ƒ°Uhh á«°SÉÑ©dG áaÓîdG ∞©°V ¿CG ô«Z .á«q LÉLõdG äÉYƒæ°üªdGh ôµq °ùdG IQÉéJ
adorned with fountains, and its bazaars were full of all kinds of áæjóªdG øµq e πMÉ°ùdG ¿óe ≈∏Y á«q ∏©ØdG º¡Jô£«°Sh ô°üe »a ºµëdG ≈dG ø««ªWÉØdG
merchandise, including carpets and jewelry of gold and silver. .π«≤Y »æH Iô°SCG øe É¡JÉ°†b ºµM πX »a »JGòdG ∫Ó≤à°S’G øe A»°T ƃ∏H øe
Thanks to Tyre’s strong fortifications, it was able to resist the ºd øjòdG ø««Ñ«∏°üdG …ójG »a É¡Wƒ≤°S ô qNDƒj ¿G á©«æªdG Qƒ°U QGƒ°SG ¿CÉ°T øe ¿Éch
onslaught of the Crusaders until 1124. After about 167 years áæjóe ôNBG •ƒ≤°S øe äGƒæ°S ô°ûY ó©H …G ,1124 ΩÉY »a ’G É¡dÓàMG øe Gƒæµªàj
of Crusader rule, the Mamlukes retook the city in 1291, then ø«M 1291 ΩÉY ≈àM á«Ñ«∏°üdG Iô£«°ùdG âëJ áæjóªdG â∏q Xh .º¡à°†Ñb »a á«q ∏MÉ°S
it passed on to the Ottomans at the start of the 16th century. ¿óe ôFÉ°ùc ,Qƒ°U â∏NO ,ô°ûY ¢SOÉ°ùdG ¿ô≤dG äÉjGóH »ah .∂«dɪªdG É¡«∏Y ≈dƒà°SG
With the end of World War I, Tyre was integrated into the new øe Gk AõL âëÑ°UG ¿G ≈dG ∫ÉëdG √òg ≈∏Y â«≤Hh ,á«q fɪã©dG ádhódG ∂∏a »a á≤£æªdG
nation of Lebanon. .≈dh’G á«q fƒµdG ÜôëdG IGóZ ô«ÑµdG ¿ÉæÑd ádhO
Archaeological Tyre ájôK’G Qƒ°U ™bGƒe
For a period of nearly 50 years, the General Directorate of »a á©°SGh Ö«≤æJ äÓªëH Ωƒ≤J á«fÉæÑ∏dG QÉKB’G ájq ôjóeh áæ°S ø«°ùªN ƒëf òæe
Antiquities excavated in and around Tyre, concentrating on the ≈∏Y É¡JÉWÉ°ûf Iõcôe ,É¡îjQÉJh áæjóªdG QÉKBG øY Ék ãëH É¡£«ëe »ah Qƒ°U ¥É£f
two major archaeological sites in the town, which can be seen ¬æY äôØ°SCG Éeh äÉÑ«≤æàdG ∂∏J áé«àæHh .ᣫ°SƒdGh áªjó≤dG áæjóªdG øe ø«YÉ£b
today. Those sites are the City Site and Al-Bass area site. ™bGƒe áëF’ ≈∏Y Qƒ°U êGQOÉH 1984 ΩÉY ƒµ°ùfh’G ᪶æe q âeÉb ,áeÉg èFÉàf øe
.»ªdÉ©dG çGôàdG
The importance of this historical city and its monuments was
highlighted in 1984 when UNESCO declared Tyre a World
Heritage Site.

In the meantime, government efforts have stopped much


of the wartime pillaging that Tyre’s archaeological treasures
suffered due to economic stress in the area and international
demand for antiquities. Grassroots campaigns have also drawn
attention to the importance of the city’s antiquities.

Al-Bass Area Site ¢üÑdG Qƒ°U ™bƒe


The site consists of an extensive necropolis, a three-bay áæjóªdG π°üjh Üô¨dG ≈dG ¥ô°ûdG øe ¬éàj »°ù«FQ ´QÉ°T øe ™bƒªdG Gòg ∞dCÉàj
monumental arch and one of the largest Roman hippodromes ever º«¶Y ô°üf ¢Sƒb ¬©£≤jh ábhQ’G ´QÉ°ûdG Gòg »ÑfÉéH §«ëJh .á«bô°ûdG É¡à«MÉ°†H
found. All date from the 2nd century A.D. to the 6th century A.D. ôéd Iqó©e âfÉc ôWÉæb ≈∏Y á≤∏q ©e IÉæb »HƒæédG ¬ÑfÉL ≈∏Y …ôéJh ,πNGóe áKÓK …P
.π«îdG ¥ÉÑ°S ¿Gó«e Ωƒ≤j á«HƒæédG á¡édG ≈dGh .áæjóªdG ≈dG ø«©dG ¢SCGQ ™Ñf √É«e

Al-Bass Area Site


¢üÑdG Qƒ°U ™bƒe

1
Al-Bass Site
1 ¢üÑdG ™bƒe
1a The Byzantine Road »£fõ«ÑdG ´QÉ°ûdG

1b The Necropolis áfÉÑédG


7
8 6
10
9 2 Church with Garden á≤jóM ™e á°ù«æc
1b

3
11
12
4 1a
The Arcade Tomb ôWÉæ≤dÉH øjõªdG øaóªdG
5 3
2

15 4 The Columbarium IóeôªdG


MAIN
DGA T ENTRANCE
13
P 5 Tomb with Elevated Structures »æaóªdG êôÑdG

6 Funerary Chapel ájõFÉæL á°ù«æc

7 The Mosaic Tomb AÉ°ùØ«°ùØdG øaóe

8 The Monumental Arch ô°üædG ¢Sƒb

9 The Roman Road »fÉehôdG ´QÉ°ûdG

14 10 Sideway Pedestrian Road IÉ°ûªdG ≥jôW

11 The Sepulchral Fountain »æaóªdG π«Ñ°ùdG

12 Aqueduct á≤∏©ªdG IÉæ≤dG

10m 50m 100m


13 The Hippodrome π«îdG ¥ÉÑ°S ¿Gó«e

14 Crusader Church á«Ñ«∏°üdG á°ù«æµdG

15 The Blue Team Structure ¥QRC’G ≥jôØdG ìô°U

1- The Byzantine Road & Necropolis áfÉÑédGh »£fõ«ÑdG ´QÉ°ûdG -1


The Byzantine Road (1a) was uncovered for a distance of á«£fõ«ÑdG IôàØdG »a ¬ª«eôJ ó«YGh á«fÉehôdG áÑ≤ëdG »a »æHo …òdG ´QÉ°ûdG Gòg óàªj
more than 300 meters, reaching the foot of the Roman Arch áaƒ°Uôe á«°ù∏c IQÉéM øe ∞dDƒe ƒgh .ô°üædG ¢Sƒb ≈àM Gk ôàe 300 øe ôãcG ≈dG
(8). Paved with well-preserved limestone slabs, this road is áfÉÑq L óàªJ ´QÉ°ûdG »ÑfÉL ≈∏Yh .á«∏°U’G É¡àdÉM ≈∏Y á¶aÉëe âdGR Ée º¶àæe πµ°ûH
delimited on both sides by the Necropolis. äGP á«q àdGRÉÑdGh á«q °ù∏µdGh á«q eÉNôdG â«HGƒàdGh ájõFÉæédG ôFɪ©dG É¡«a πNGóàJ á©°SGh
7 Necropolis (1b) consists of a large number of sarcophagi
The áfÉÑq édG √òg ΩGóîà°SG Iôàa âeGO óbh .áØ∏àîªdG äÉJƒëæªdGh ±QÉNõdGh ∫ɵ°T’G
8 6
and constructed tombs dating back to the Roman period. .Ω.Ü ¢SOÉ°ùdG ¿ô≤dG ≈dG »fÉãdG ¿ô≤dG øe
They were reused many times after that date throughout the
Byzantine period.

1b
11

4 3 1a
5 2

Accessible Structures

MAIN
DGA T ENTRANCE
P
Al-Bass Site
1 ¢üÑdG ™bƒe

2- Church with Garden


7 á≤jóM ™e á°ù«æc -2
8 6
10
This complex has a main semi-circular room with marble á≤jóM ≈dG áaÉ°V’ÉH ΩÉNôdÉH áaƒ°Uôe á«°VQGh …ôFGO ∞°üf ÜGôëe AÉæÑdG Gò¡d
9 floors, in addition to .øaGóªdG øe OóYh
a garden and many ΩɶæH ™àªàjh ɪc
tombs. It has a complex 1b π°üj ó≤©e …Q
11 water supply system to IÉæ≤dG øe √É«ªdG
12 irrigate the garden. It πNGO ≈dG á≤∏q ©ªdG
was probably built in the øe .á≤jóëdG
3rd century A.D. and 4 3 ºJ ¬fG íLôªdG 1a
reused throughout the
5 2 ìô°üdG Gòg AÉæH
Byzantine period. ådÉãdG ¿ô≤dG »a
ó«YGh …OÓ«e
15 ∫ÓN ¬dɪ©à°SG
.á«£fõ«ÑdG IôàØdG

T
3- The Arcade Tomb
7P DGA ôWÉæ≤dÉH øjõªdG øaóªdG -3
8 6
13 10 This tomb is decorated øaóªdG Gò¡d
9 with arcades and rect- ôWÉæ≤dÉH øjõªdG
angular structures, in ¬«ah π«£à°ùe πµ°T
front of which were 1b ó«eGƒ©d AGõLG
11 placed fragments of âfÉc Iô«¨°U
12 small columns which ¢ù«fGƒa É¡«∏Y ™°VƒJ
served to hold oil lamps ø«HGô≤dGh âjõdG
and offerings during the 4 3 ∫ÓN ájõFÉæédG
Byzantine period.
5 2 .á«£fõ«ÑdG IôàØdG

15

4- The Columbarium IóeôªdG -4


P this structureDGA
Built in three levels with four burial cells each, »a óLƒjh .…OÓ«e »fÉãdG ¿ô≤dG ≈dG äÉ≤ÑW çÓK øe á«æѪdG I nóen ôr ªdG √òg Oƒ©J
dates back
13 to the 2nd century A.D. and was7used until the É¡«∏W ó©H É¡à¡LGh âaôNR óbh á«æaóe (Iô«¨°U ±ôZ) äGƒq c á©HQG á≤ÑW πc
∫ÓN ¢ù∏µdÉH
8 façades were 6covered
4th century A.D. The
10
.á«£fõ«ÑdG IôàØdG
with lime plaster ∂∏J ¢†©H ∫GõJ ’
9 colored with reddish- IôgÉX äÉaôNõdG
brown paint during »gh Ωƒ«dG ≈àM
the Byzantine era. º°SG1bÉk fÉ«MG πªëJ
11
Decoration with crosses ≈dG áaÉ°VEG ⫪dG
14 12 and names of the .iôNG äÉeƒ°SQ
deceased can still be
seen on some of the 4 3
5 2
painted plaster.

15
Al-Bass Site
1 ¢üÑdG ™bƒe
7
6
5- Tomb with Elevated Structures
8
10 »æaóªdG êôÑdG -5
9
In the same style as Gòg á°Sóæg ¿G
some of Palmyra’s á¡«Ñ°T øaóªdG
tombs in Syria, this
11 ôeóJ øaGóe ¢†©ÑH
12 consists of a
structure êôH πµ°T ≈∏Y ƒgh
tower-like shape with a äÉ°SÉ°SG ¥ƒa ™ØJôe
vaulted lower section. 4 3 Gòg Oƒ©j .á°Sƒq ≤e
The structure dates back
5 2 ≈dG AÉæÑdG
¿ô≤dG
to the 2nd century A.D., ɪæ«H …OÓ«e »fÉãdG
while the sarcophagus OƒLƒªdG ¢ShhÉædG
15belongs to a later
inside Iôàa ≈dG ¬«a
period. .á≤M’ á«îjQÉJ

6- Funerary Chapel P DGA ájõFÉæL á°ù«æc -6


13
Overlapping the right edge of the road, this funerary chapel .AÉe ácôH É¡«a Iô«¨°U áMÉH É¡dh …OÓ«e ¢SOÉ°ùdG ¿ô≤dG ≈dG á°ù«æµdG ∂∏J Oƒ©J
dates back to the 6th century A.D. It has a small courtyard ΩÉNôdG Gòg øe AGõL’G ¢†©H ∫GõJ ’ .ΩÉNôdÉH É¡fGQóLh É¡°VQG ∞°UQ ºJ óbh
furnished with a small Ωƒ«dG ≈àM IOƒLƒe
fountain. The threshold 7 πNóªdG áÑàY ≈∏Y
at its entrance and the 8 6 .ÜGôëªdG πNGOh
10
apse floor are paved
with multicolored 9
marble. The threshold
has a star-like pattern
inscribed in a square.
The inside walls 12
and 11
floors of the whole
structure were once 4 3
covered with marble. 5 2

7- The Mosaic Tomb


15
AÉ°ùØ«°ùØdG øaóe -7
This structure has Gòg ¢VQG âØ°UQ
AÉ°ùØ«°ùØdÉH øaóªdG
mosaic covered floors
representing Christian P DGA É¡æ«jõJ âªJ »àdG
symbols. It was built
13
øe á°ùÑà≤e ∫ɵ°TCÉH
around the 6th century .»ë«°ùªdG ¢ù≤£dG
A.D. 7 øaóªdG Gòg AÉæH ºJ
14 8 6 ¢SOÉ°ùdG ¿ô≤dG »a
10 .…OÓ«e
9

11
12
4 3
5
Al-Bass Site
1 ¢üÑdG ™bƒe

8- The Monumental Arch ô°üædG ¢Sƒb -8


Destroyed by an earthquake around the 6th century A.D., ∫ÓN ∫GõdõH ôeq Oh .Ω.Ü »fÉãdG ¿ô≤dG »a á«∏eôdG IQÉéëdÉH ¢Sƒ≤dG Gòg AÉæH ºJ
this Arch was constructed with cut sandstone blocks during .áfƒ∏ªdG ∫ɵ°T’ÉH áaôNõeh ¢ù∏µdÉH á«∏£e ¬JÉ¡LGh âfÉc .Ω.Ü ¢SOÉ°ùdG ¿ô≤dG
the 2nd century A.D. AõédG º«eôJ ó«YG
It was covered with ≠dÉÑdG »£°SƒdG
decorated lime plaster øe Gk ôàe 20 ¬dƒW
which is still showing áeÉ©dG ájôjóªdG πÑb
on some of its stones. .QÉKBÓd
The 20 meter high cen-
tral section has been 7
reconstructed; it was 8 6
preserved to its middle 10
height when it was first 9
discovered.

11
12
9- The Roman Road »fÉehôdG 4 ûdG3-9
´QÉ°
5
This Roman Road was uncovered by removing the upper ∞°UQ ºJ .¬bƒa øe »£fõ«ÑdG ´QÉ°ûdG IQÉéM âdGRG ó©H ´QÉ°ûdG Gòg øY ∞°ûµdG ºJ
layer containing the
15 »fÉehôdG ´QÉ°ûdG Gòg
Byzantine Road (1a). It Iô«Ñc á«°ù∏c IQÉéëH
is paved with large lime- 7 πªëJ ∫GõJ ’ »gh
stone blocks on which 6 äÉHô©dG Qhôe QÉKBG
the impressions of 8 »ÑfÉL ≈∏Yh .É¡«∏Y
10
chariot wheels can still
be seen. It is bordered 9 P DGA óàªJ ´QÉ°ûdG Gòg
IóªY’G øe á∏°ù∏°S
on both sides with a 13 øe ¬∏°üØJ »àdG
Doric colonnade. Part øY á«dɪ°ûdG ¬à¡L
of the necropolis (1b) 11 ¬à¡L øeh áfÉÑédG
extends to the northern 12 ≥jôW øY á«HƒæédG
side of the road. .IÉ°ûªdG
4 3
5

10- The Sideway - Pedestrian Road 15 IÉ°ûªdG ≥jôW -10


On the southern side √òg ßaÉëJ ∫GõJ ’
of the Roman Road (9), 7 É¡àdÉM ≈∏Y ≥jô£dG
the pedestrian sideway 8 6 »àdGh á«∏°U’G
still preserves the 10
P DGAÉgóëJ
IôàØdG ≈dG Oƒ©J
Byzantine paving. This 9 .á«£fõ«ÑdG
pedestrian road gave 13 á«HƒæédG á¡édG øe
access to several shops Iô«¨°U ábhQG
on its southern part. ºJ ájQÉéJ ∫Éëeh
Remains of these shops 11 ∫ÓN É¡æY ∞°ûµdG
12
were discovered under .ájôK’G äÉjôØëdG
the arches of the aque-
duct (12).

15
Al-Bass Site
1 ¢üÑdG ™bƒe

11- The Sepulchral Fountain 7 »æaóªdG π«Ñ°ùdG -11


8 6
This monumental foun-
10 AõL ƒg π«Ñ°ùdG Gòg
tain is part of a funerary
9 »æaóe ìô°U øe
complex. It is decorated øe Oó©H ±ôNõe
with niches and various .AɪdG ∑ôHh äGƒq µdG
basins. The deceased øaO ºàj ¿Éch
were buried in loculi 11 äGƒq µdG »a ⫪dG
behind the fountain. In 12 IOƒLƒªdG á«æaóªdG
front of the fountain a óLƒJ ¬eÉeGh .¬Ø∏N
small courtyard is paved É¡«a Iô«¨°U áMÉH 5
with a mosaic made of AÉ°†«H AÉ°ùØ«°ùa
small pieces of white IQÉéëH É¡Ø°UQ ºJ
limestone. 15 .Iô«¨°U á«°ù∏c

12- The Aqueduct á≤∏©ªdG IÉæ≤dG -12


DGA
P ∫ƒW ≈∏Y IÉæ≤dG √òg óàªJ
This Aqueduct runs along the left side of the Roman Road øe √É«ªdG π≤æJ âfÉch .»£fõ«ÑdGh »fÉehôdG ≥jô£dG
(9). It carried water from the springs of Ras el-‘Ain, 6km south áæjóªdG k
13 πNGO ≈dG ’ƒ°Uh Qƒ°U ܃æL º∏c 6 ƒëf ≈∏Y IOƒLƒªdG ø«©dG ¢SGQ ∑ôH
of Tyre. It continued 7 ºJ .áªjó≤dG
∞°ûµdG
further to the east to 8 ∂∏J óYGƒb6 ≈∏Y
irrigate the city. The 10 ™bƒªdG πNGO IÉæ≤dG
foundations of the 9 OGóàeG ≈∏Y ∂dPh
aqueduct are preserved ó≤d .Ék Ñjô≤J Ω 200
to a length of almost 7 º¶©e ΩGóîà°SG ºJ
200 meters. Most of 8 âfÉc »àdG 6 IQÉéëdG
the stones of the upper 10 12 11
…ƒ∏©dG AõédG ∞dDƒJ
aqueduct structure were 9 OGƒªc IÉæ≤dG øe
robbed in later periods. äGôàØdG »a AÉæÑ∏d
.á≤MÓdG á«îjQÉàdG
11
12 15

13- The Hippodrome π«îdG ¥ÉÑ°S ¿Gó«e -13


Gk ôàe 160 ¬°VôYh Gk ôàe 480 ¬FGõLG ¢†©H º«eôJ ºJ …òdG ¿Gó«ªdG Gòg ∫ƒW ≠∏Ñj
Dating back to the 2nd century A.D., the Hippodrome of Tyre
is one of the best preserved in the world. Built in a U shape, ¿Éc óbh .ø«jQÉÑàªdG ≈∏Y ¬«a 15¿ƒægGôj GƒfÉc ógÉ°ûe ∞dG ø«KÓK ƒëæd ™°ùàjP¿Éch D
it measures 480 meters by 160 meters and used to accom- ¿ÉH ∫É≤jh .¬£°SƒàJ »àdG13ácƒ°ûdG ∫ƒM äGôe ™Ñ°S º¡JÉHô©H GhQhój ¿G A’Dƒg ≈∏Y
modate around thirty âfÉc äÉjQÉѪdG
thousand spectators. In ΩÉjG äóY ΩhóJ
É¡dÓN …ôéJ
the center of the arena
stretches the spina that 30 P
πc äÉbÉÑ°ùdG DG
divides the area into .á≤«bO
two runs. It is said that 14 13
chariot races used to
last several days and
were held every 30
minutes.
Al-Bass Site
1 ¢üÑdG ™bƒe

14- The Crusader Church á«Ñ«∏°üdG á°ù«æµdG -14


This chapel was first built during the Byzantine period when øe É¡eGóîà°SG Iôàa âeGO óbh .Ω.Ü ¢SOÉ°ùdG ¿ô≤dG »a á°ù«æµdG √òg AÉæH ºJ
the Hippodrome was ≈àM ¢SOÉ°ùdG ¿ô≤dG
abandoned. The chapel .á«Ñ«∏°üdG IôàØdG
continued to be used É¡∏ª©à°SG ób ¿Éch
during the Crusader ∂∏J »a êÉéëdG
period as a pilgrimage ø«cQÉJ IôàØdG
place, and its walls øe ójó©dG
were then covered with ≈∏Y äÉeƒ°SôdG
paintings and inscrip- 14 ¿ÉÑ∏°üdÉc É¡fGQóL
tions (shields, horses, ´hQódGh øØ°ùdGh
boats, etc…). ≈dG áaÉ°V’ÉH
7 .iôNG äÉHÉàc
8 6
10
9
15- The Blue Team Structure ¥QR’G ≥jôØdG ìô°U -15
This structure consists 11 Gòg º°ù≤j
of a small bath with a 12 IóY ≈dG ìô°üdG
mosaic on its entrance ΩɪM ¬«ah ±ôZ
on which is written óbh .ô«¨°U …QÉîH
“Victory for Tyre and its ¬∏Nóe ≈∏Y âØ°ûàcG
blue team.” É¡«∏Y Öàc AÉ°ùØ«°ùa
15 Qƒ°üd ô°üædG{
.z¥QR’G É¡≤jôØdh 10m

P DGA
13
The City Site
áæjóªdG ™bƒe

áæjóªdG ™bƒe
á©°SGh äÉ©ªq ée ≈∏Y πªà°ûjh ,áªjó≤dG áæjóªdG øe AõL øY ájÉæc ƒg ™bƒªdG Gòg
ábhQ’G äGP ´QGƒ°ûdGh á«°VÉjôdG äÉ©ªq éªdGh áeÉ©dG äÉeɪëdGh á«æµ°ùdG AÉ«M’G øe
.AÉ°ùØ«°ùØdÉH ±ƒ°UôªdG á«°VQ’G äGPh

The City Site

Located on what was originally the Phoenician island city, this


area is a vast district of civic buildings, colonnades, public
baths, mosaics, streets and a rectangular arena.
The City Site
2 áæjóªdG ™bƒe

9
1 The Grande Allée ô«ÑµdG •ô°ùdG

2 Glass Making Area êÉLõdG áYÉæ°üd ¢ü°üîªdG RƒëdG


8

9 3 Bath äÉeɪëdG

4 Palestra ºjó≤dG ¥ƒ°ùdG


MAIN
ENTRANCE
6
T 5 Residential Quarters á«æµ°ùdG AÉ«MC’G
7

DGA 6 Arena áYQÉ°üªdG áÑ∏M

7 The Petite Allée 8 »fÉehôdG ´QÉ°ûdG

5 1
8 The Octagonal Fountain ™∏°VC’G øªãªdG AÉæÑdG

9 The Crusader Cathedral á«Ñ«∏°üdG á«FGQóJɵdG

4
6

D
1- The Grande Allée ô«ÑµdG •ô°ùdG -1
Measuring eleven meters in width and extending over 170 ¿Éé«àdG äGP ô°†N’G ΩÉNôdG øe IóªYG ô«ÑµdG ´QÉ°ûdG Gòg »ÑfÉéH §«ëj
meters in length, this thoroughfare was delimited by a colon- Ω 170 øe ôãc’ óàªj ƒgh .AÉ°ùØ°ù«°ùØdÉH áaƒ°Uôe ábhQG ≈dG áaÉ°V’ÉH á«ãfQƒµdG
nade and a five meter wide pathway. The columns standing on ΩÉNôdÉH ¬Ø°UQ ó«YGh .Ω.Ü ™HGôdG ¿ô≤dG »a AÉ°ùØ«°ùØdÉH ∞°UQ óbh Ω11 ¢Vô©H
both sides of the Allée á«îjQÉJ Iôàa »a
are of cipolino marble .á≤M’
with Corinthian capitals.
5 1
During the 4th century
A.D., this thoroughfare
was paved with mosa-
ics. The mosaics were
covered by marble
slabs in a later period.
7
The City Site
6
2 áæjóªdG ™bƒe 1
5 DGA
2- Glass Making Area êÉLõdG áYÉæ°üd ¢ü°üîªdG RƒëdG -2
Remains of large glass Gòg »a âØ°ûàcG
making ovens are still ¿Gôa’ ÉjÉ≤H RƒëdG
visible in this area. Öjhòàd á°ü°üîe
They date back to ≈dG Oƒ©J êÉLõdG
the beginning of the .á«eÓ°S’G IôàØdG
Islamic period (7th cen- πàc ¬«a óLƒJh ɪc
5 tury A.D.). Big blocks of 1 áªî°V á«LÉLR
green glass are still vis- ÉjÉ≤H øY ájÉæc »gh
ible near this workshop. 2 ÖjhòJ äÉ«∏ª©d
»a π°ûØdÉH äAÉH
.»°VɪdG
5

3- The Bath
3
äÉeɪëdG -3
The structure of this monument is divided into two symmetri- Iõ«côc â∏ª©à°SG á°Sƒq ≤e äÉ°ù°SÉ°SG øe ∞dDƒe »∏Ø°S ,ø«FõL ≈dG AÉæÑdG Gòg º°ù≤j
cal parts. The lower part consists of arched vaults giving Üô°ùàj øNÉ°ùdG AGƒ¡dG ¿Éch .É¡«∏Y á«æѪdG á«eÉNôdG á«°VQ’Gh ájQÉîØdG IóªYÓd
considerable strength to the whole structure. The upper part Gòg AGõLG πªée »dÉàdÉHh á«eÉNôdG á«°VQ’G áÄaóàd ájQÉîØdG IóªY’G ∂∏J ø«H
consists of large hypo- .ìô°üdG
caust bricks covered 2
with marble pavement.
The hot air used to
circulate between these
superimposed baked 3
clay disks, diffusing the
heat into the different
parts of the bath.

4- The Palestra ºjó≤dG ¥ƒ°ùdG -4


Built during the Roman period, this marketplace was .á«£fõ«ÑdG IôàØdG »a Ék «q ∏c ôeOh á«fÉehôdG IôàØdG ∫ÓN ¥ƒ°ùdG Gòg AÉæH ºJ ó≤d
destroyed in the ™Hôe øY ájÉæc ƒgh
Byzantine period. •Éëe Ω30 √ô£b
It consists of a 30 øe óeq ƒ©e ¥GhôH
meter wide square area .á©HQ’G ¬JÉ¡L
enclosed inside a gran- IôàØdG ∫ÓN
4
ite colonnade. âÄ°ûfG á«£fõ«ÑdG
During the Byzantine Gòg ¿Éµe »a
period, this monument √É«e äÉfõN ìô°üdG
was covered with deep âfÉc ɪHQ Iô«Ñc
reservoirs, which may áYÉæ°U »a πª©à°ùJ
have been used in the 4 .¿GƒLQ’G
purple dye industry.
The City Site
2 áæjóªdG ™bƒe

5- The Residential Quarters á«æµ°ùdG AÉ«M’G -5


This area consists of houses paved with marble and mosaic âfÉch .áæjóªdG ™bƒe øe ´É£≤dG Gòg »a á«æµ°ùdG 䃫ÑdG øe ójó©dG ±É°ûàcG ºJ
floors from the Roman 9 ∂∏J äÉ«°VQG
period. Its roads were áaƒ°Uôe 䃫ÑdG
narrowed during the 5 AÉ°ùØ«°ùØdÉH
Byzantine period, and it .Ék fÉ«MG ΩÉNôdGh
was still in use during á«∏NGódG É¡bôW ÉeG
the Medieval period. á≤«°V âfɵa
ΩGO óbh áLôq ©àeh
á≤£æªdG ∂∏J øµ°S 8
IôàØdG ≈àM
.á«Ñ«∏°üdG

6- The Arena áYQÉ°üªdG áÑ∏M -6


Built in the first century A.D., this major monument is the øe Ió«MƒdG .Ω.Ü ∫h’G ¿ô≤dG ∫ÓN â«æH »àdGh á∏«£à°ùªdG áÑ∏ëdG √òg ôÑà©J
only rectangular arena in the world. It was used for practicing IôàØdG ≈àM áªcÓªdGh áYQÉ°üªdG äÉ≤HÉ°ùe É¡«a ΩÉ≤J âfÉch .ºdÉ©dG »a É¡Yƒf
sports like wrestling ’ .á«£fõ«ÑdG
and boxing and was Ωƒ«dG ≈àM ±ô©f
still in use during 6 áÑ∏ëdG ∂∏J ábÓY
9 the Byzantine period. √É«ªdG äÉfGõîH
Around it, rectangular ≈∏Y á«æѪdG
vaulted cisterns were .É¡ÑfGƒL7
laid out in two rows, but
their relationship with
the arena is still not
clearly established.

7- The Petite Allée »fÉehôdG ´QÉ°ûdG -7


This paved Roman-Byzantine road extends to the North under âëJ Üô¨dG á«MÉf øeh áãjóëdG áæjóªdG âëJ ∫ɪ°ûdG ≈dG ´QÉ°ûdG Gòg óàªj
the new city and to á«FGQóJɵdG
the West under the ôÑà©jh .á«Ñ«∏°üdG 14
5
Crusader Cathedral Gk óMGh ´QÉ°ûdG Gòg
(9). One of the major ´QGƒ°T ºgG øe
roads during the Roman IôàØdG »a áæjóªdG
period, this Petite Allée
was bordered by small 6
å«M á«fÉehôdG
¬H §«ëJ âfÉc E
shops that continue ájQÉéàdG ∫ÉëªdG
further to the south äóપdGh Iô«¨°üdG
under the Grand Allée •ô°ùdG âëJ
(1). 7 .ô«ÑµdG

DGA
The City Site
2 áæjóªdG ™bƒe
9

8- The Octagonal Fountain ™∏°V’G øªãªdG AÉæÑdG -8


This building consists of an octagonal fountain surrounded by ™∏°V’G ¢Sqó°ùe ìô°U πNGO AÉ°ùØ«°ùØdG É¡H §«ëJ AÉe ácôH øY ájÉæc ƒg AÉæÑdG Gòg
mosaics. It is located IôàØdG »a »æn Ho
inside a hexagonal óbh .á«fÉehôdG
shaped building sur- 8 Gòg ∫ɪ©à°SG ΩGO
rounded on four sides IôàØdG ≈àM ìô°üdG
by a colonnade. This .á«£fõ«ÑdG
structure was probably
built in the Roman peri-
od and remained in use
during the Byzantine
period.

9- The Crusader Cathedral 6 á«Ñ«∏°üdG á«FGQóJɵdG -9 EN


This structure consists of the remains of a 12th century â«fGô¨dG øe IóªYG ô°ûY »fÉãdG ¿ô≤dG ∫ÓN á«FGQóJɵdG √òg IQɪY »a âeóîà°SG
cathedral that was the ºJ QÉéMGh ôªM’G
site of the coronation of 7 »a É¡LGôîà°SG
the Kings of Jerusalem 9 äBÉ°ûæªdG øe ¬æ«M
during the 13th century. ¬fG ∫É≤jh .á«fÉehôdG
It is said that the
body of Frederick
DGA
∑ƒ∏e èjƒàJ É¡«a ºJ
¿ô≤dG ∫ÓN ¢Só≤dG
Barbarossa, the ¿Gh ô°ûY ådÉãdG
German Emperor, is QƒWGôÑeG ∂jQójôa
buried there, but his »a øaO É«fɪdG
body was never found .¬JGP ¿ÉµªdG
during the excavations.

5 1

The information in the text was taken from: : øe ôNB’G É¡°†©H »Mƒà°SGh ¢Uƒ°üædG ¢†©H äòNG
● The pamphlet “TYRE,” text: Elian Larwood, Marilyn Raschka, .áMÉ«°ùdG IQGRh äGQƒ°ûæe ,¢ù«cô°S áeÓ°S ¿É°ùMq 2 QƒàcódG ¢üf ,zQƒ°U{ ¢SGôq c ●
Dr. Hassan Salamé-Sarkis, © The Ministry of Tourism.
● The booklet “TYRE” written by Emir Maurice Chéhab.
.ÜÉ¡°T ¢ùjQƒe ô«eÓd zQƒ°U{ Ö«q àc ●
Maps & text compilation: Assaad Seif. .∞«°S ó©°SCG :¢Uƒ°üædG ™«ªéJ h §FGôîdG OGóYEG
Glossary
Aqueduct: A conduit used to convey water over
a long distance.

Arena: An enclosure or platform, usually surrounded


by seats, in which sports events,
entertainment, etc., take place.

Capital: The top part of a column.

Cistern: Water reservoir.

Colonnade: A set of evenly spaced columns.

Corinthian Style: One of the five classical orders of


architecture, characterized by a slender, fluted
column and bell-shaped capital with carved
ornaments based on acanthus leaves.

Doric Style: One of the five classical orders of


architecture, characterized by a heavy, fluted
column and a simple capital.

Hippodrome: A long rectangular open air arena with


a semi circular end, surrounded by tiers
of seats, used for horse and chariot races.

Hypocaust: Part of the heating system in a Roman bath,


in which hot air circulated under the floor and
between double walls.

Loculus: A small cavity or chamber.

Mosaic: A design or decoration made up of small


pieces of colored glass, stone, or tile
(tesserae) inlaid in mortar.

Necropolis: Burial site, cemetery.

Niche: A recess in a wall, often containing a statue,


bust, or vase.

Sarcophagus: A stone or marble coffin or tomb.

Spina: Long construction in the middle of the


hippodrome dividing it into two equal parts.

Tessera: A small piece of stone, glass, tile, etc.


used to make a mosaic.