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Chapter 13 M echanical Waves

F I G U R E
1
3 .
1
A pulse traveling down

a stretched rope. The shape of the puls e

is approximately unchanged as it travel s along the rope .

P
P
P
P
F IGUR E 13. 2
A pulse traveling on a

stretched rope is a transverse distur-

bance. That is, any element of the

rope, such

as that

at

P,

moves (blue

-

arrows) in a direction perpendicular to

the propagation of the pulse (red arrows).

Compressed

F IGUR E 13. 3 A longitudinal pulse along a stretched spring. The displacement of the coils is in the direction of the wave motion. The compressed region moves to the right along the spring.

y

v
A
P
x
O
(a) Pulse at t = 0
y
vt
v
P
x
O
(b) Pulse at time t

F IGUR E

13. 4

A one-dimensional pulse traveling to the right with a speed v. (a) At t

0, the shape of the pulse is given by

y

f (x). (b) At some later time t, the shape remains unchanged and the vertical position of any element of the medium is

given by y

f (x

vt ).

y (cm)

2.0
1.5
3.0 cm/s
t = 0
1.0
y(x, 0)
0.5
0
1 2
3
4
5
6
x
(cm)
(a)
y (cm)
2.0
1.5
3.0 cm/s
t = 1.0 s
1.0
y(x, 1.0)
0.5
0
1 2
3
4
5
6
7
x
(cm)
(b)
y (cm)
3.0 cm/s
2.0
t = 2.0 s
1.5
1.0
y(x, 2.0)
0.5
0
1 2
3
4
5
6
7
8
x
(cm)
(c)

F IGUR E 13. 5

(Example 13.1) Graphs of the function

 y(x, t) 2.0/[(x 3.0t) 2 1] at (a) t 0, (b) t 1.0 s, and (c) t 2.0 s.
y
A

x

(a)
y
T
A
T
(b)

t

Figure 13.6

(a) A graph of the y position of elements of a medium versus x position, measured along the length of the medium. The wavelength of a wave is the distance between adjacent crests or adjacent troughs. (b) A graph of the y position of one element of the medium as a function of time. The period T of the wave is the same as the time inter val required for the element to complete one oscillation.

y
A
P
P
Vibrating
(a)
(b)
P
P
(c)
(d)

Figure 13.7

One method for producing a sinusoidal wave on a continuous

string. The left end of the string is

connected to a blade that is set

into vibration. Ever y element of

the string, such as the one at

point P, oscillates with simple

harmonic motion in the vertical

direction.

y

vt
v
t = 0
t

x

Figure 13.8

A one-dimensional sinusoidal

wave traveling to the right with a speed v.

The

brown

cur ve

represents

a

snapshot of the wave at t 0, and the

blue cur ve represents a snapshot at some later time t.

∆s
R
O
(a)
v
∆s
θ
θ
T
T
R
θ
O
(b)
F IGUR E
13.1 0
(a)
To obtain
the
speed v
of
a
wave
on
a
stretched
string, it is convenient to describe the
motion of
a
small
element of
the

string in a moving frame of reference.

 (b) The horizontal components of : the force T on a small element of length s cancel. The radial components add, so there is a net

5.00 m
1.00 m
2.00 kg
F IGUR E
13.1 1
(Example 13.4) The
tension T in the cord is maintained by the
suspended object. The wave speed is given
by the expression v
√T/ .

Incident

pulse
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Reflected
pulse
F IGUR E
13.1 2
The reﬂection of a

traveling pulse at the ﬁxed end of a

stretched string. The reﬂected pulse

is inverted, but its shape remains the

same.

Incident
pulse
(a)
(b)
(c)
Reflected
pulse
(d)
F IGUR E 13.1 3
The reﬂection of a

traveling pulse at the free end of a

stretched string. In this case, the

reﬂected pulse is not inverted.

• Incident

pulse
 (a) Transmitted pulse Reflected pulse (b)
• Incident

pulse
(a)
Reflected
Transmitted
pulse
pulse
(b)

Figure 13.14

(a) A pulse traveling to the right on a light string attached

to a heavier string. (b) Part of the incident pulse is

reﬂected (and inverted), and part is transmitted to the

heavier string.

Figure 13.15

(a)

A

pulse traveling

to

the

right on

a heavy string

attached to a lighter string. (b) The incident pulse is

partially reﬂected and partially transmitted. In this case,

the reﬂected pulse is not inverted.

∆m

F IGUR E 13.1 7 A sinusoidal wave traveling along the x axis

on a stretched string. Ever y element, such as the one labeled

with its mass m, moves vertically, and each element has the

same total energy. The average power transmitted by the

wave equals the energy contained in one wavelength divided

by the period of the wave.

m
(a)
m
(b)
F IGUR E 13.1 6
(a) A pulse traveling

to the right on a stretched string on

which an object has been suspended.

(b) Energy is transmitted to the

suspended object when the pulse

arrives.

Undisturbed gas
(a)
Compressed region
(b)
v
(c)
v
(d)
F IGUR E
13.1 8
A longitudinal wave

propagating along a tube ﬁlled with a

compressible gas. The source of the

wave is a vibrating piston at the left.

The high- and low-pressure regions are

dark and light, respectively.

3L/4
L/2
L/2
m

Figure P13.16

m
k

x

Figure P13.36