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A SEMINAR REPORT

ON

APPLICATIONS OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS


IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
award of the degree of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
In

CIVIL ENGINEERING
Submitted by

N.KAVYA (12JN1A0136)
Under the guidance of
D. V. PURUSHOTHAM, M. Tech
Associate professor

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


SREE VENKATESWARA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
KODAVALURU -524 316
2015- 2016

SREE VENKATESWARA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


KODAVALURU 524316, NELLORE, A.P
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING.

CERTIFICATE
This is certified that seminar work entitled
APPLICATIONS OF REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING is a
bonafide work carried out in the IV-II semester by N.KAVYA (12JN1A0136) in partial
fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Technology in CIVIL ENGINEERING from JNTU
ANANTAPUR during the academic year 2012-2016. Who carried out the seminar work under the
guidance.

SEMINAR GUIDE
D.V.PURUSHOTHAM, M.Tech
Associate Professor

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT


D.V.PURUSHOTHAM, M.Tech
Associate Professor

Abstract
Remote Sensing and GIS techniques become potential and indispensable tools for
solving

many problems

of

civil

engineering

and

terrain.

Remote

sensing

observations provides data on earths resources in a spatial format, GIS co-relate


different kinds of spatial data and their attribute data, so as to use them in various
fields of civil engineering. Different themes namely, terrain, geology, hydrology
drainage, land use and so on can be extracted from remote sensing data. All the
above thematic information along with their attributes can be integrated to solve
many problems of civil engineering. Some current uses of GIS and Remote Sensing
in civil projects are housing, sanitation, power, water supply, disposal of effluents,
urban growth, irrigation project design and planning, new road alignment etc. For
this Remote sensing and GIS are used to generate development models by
integrating the information on natural resources, demographic and socio -economic
data in a GIS domain with satellite data. Landslides in mountainous areas causing
heavy loss can also be mapped and landslide prone zones can also be delineated.
Development of hydropower sites and irrigation project can also be formulated by
integrating terrain
(DEM) and thematic maps (land use, geology, DEM).All these can be derived from
high resolution stereo pair of remote sensing data. These techniques are also useful
in rehabilitation also. Other uses are Exploration and Management through
Rainwater Harvesting, Identification & Management of Drinking Water Potential,
Ground water Potential Zoning, Watershed Management and irrigational Network
Planning and tourism. These techniques are also vital tools for urban and rural
developing planning.

Contents
1) Abstract
2) Remote Sensing
Types of remote sensing
3) Geographic Information System
Working of GIS
Data capture
Relating information from different sources
Data structures
Data integration

4) Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Civil Engineering


Regional Planning and Site Investigations
Town Planning and Urban Development
Environment and Geology
Water Resources Engineering
Landslides
Least cost highway alignment

5) Conclusion
6) Reference

Remote Sensing
Remote Sensing is the science and art of acquiring information (spectral, spatial,
and

temporal) about material, objects, area, or phenomenon, without coming into


physical
contact with the objects, or area, or phenomenon under investigation. Without
direct
contact, some means of transferring information through space must be utilized. In
practice, remote sensing is the stand-off collection through the use of a variety of
devices for gathering information on a given object or area. . In remote sensing,
information transfer is accomplished by use of electromagnetic radiation (EMR).
EMR is a form of energy that reveals its presence by the observable effects it
produces when it strikes the matter. EMR is considered to span the spectrum of
wavelengths from 10-10mm to cosmic rays up to 1010nm, the broadcast
wavelengths, which extend from 0.30-15mm.
Remote sensing makes it possible to collect data on dangerous or inaccessible
areas. Remote sensing also replaces costly and slow data collection on the ground.
By satellite, aircraft, spacecraft, buoy, ship, and helicopter images, data is created
to analyze and compare things like vegetation rates, erosion, pollution, forestry,
weather, and land use. These things can be mapped, imaged, tracked and
observed. The process of remote sensing is also helpful for city planning,
archaeological investigations, military observation and geomorphological
surveying.

There are two main types of remote sensing:


1) Passive remote sensing
2) Active remote sensing
Passive sensors detect natural radiation that is emitted or reflected by the
object or surrounding area being observed. Reflected sunlight is the most common
source of radiation measured by passive sensors. Examples of passive remote
sensors include film photography, infrared, charge-coupled devices, and
radiometers.
Active remote sensing on the other hand emits energy in order to scan objects
and areas where upon a sensor then detects and measures the radiation that is
reflected or back scattered from the target. RADAR and LiDAR are examples of
active remote sensing.

Geographic Information System


A Geographic Information System (GIS) integrates hardware, software, and data for
capturing, managing, analyzing, and displaying all forms of geographically
referenced information. GIS also allows the integration of these data sets for
deriving meaningful information and outputting the information derivatives in map
format or tabular format. The most common method of data creation is digitization,
where a hard copy map or survey plan is transferred into a digital medium through
the use of a computer-aided design (CAD) program.

Working of GIS
Relating information from different sources:
The power of a GIS comes from the ability to relate different information in a spatial
context and to reach a conclusion about this relationship. Most of the information
we have about our world contains a location reference, placing that information at
some point on the globe. When rainfall information is collected, it is important to
know where the rainfall is located. This is done by using a location reference
system, such as longitude and latitude, and perhaps elevation. A GIS, therefore,
can reveal important new information that leads to better decision making.

Geologic map

Data capture:
Various techniques are being used to capture the information. Maps can be digitized by hand-tracing
with a computer mouse on the screen or on a digitizing tablet to collect the coordinates of features.
Electronic scanners can also convert maps to digits. Coordinates from Global Positioning System
(GPS) receivers can also be uploaded into a GIS. Software tools that automatically extract features
from satellite images or aerial photographs are gradually replacing what has traditionally been a
time-consuming capture process.

Scanning paper maps for input into a GIS

Collecting co-ordinates with GPS

Data structures:
Traditionally, there are two broad methods used to store data in a GIS for both kinds of abstractions
mapping references: raster images and vector
Raster data files consist of rows of uniform cells coded according to data values. An example is land
cover classification.

Raster files can be manipulated quickly by the computer, but they are often less detailed and may be
less visually appealing than vector data files.

Example of the structure of a raster file


. Vector digital data can be captured as points, lines (a series of point coordinates), or areas (shapes
bounded by lines)

Example of the structure of a vector data file


Data integration
A GIS makes it possible to link, or integrate, information that is difficult to associate through any
other means. Thus, a GIS can use combinations of mapped variables to build and analyze new
variables

Data integration is the linking of information in different forms through a GIS

Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Civil Engineering


Remote sensing and GIS techniques become potential and indispensable tools for solving many
problems of civil engineering. Remote sensing observations provides data on earths resources in a
spatial format, GIS co-relates different kinds of spatial data and their attribute data, so as to use
them in various fields of civil engineering.
1) Regional Planning and Site Investigations:
Site investigations in general require topographic and geologic considerations.
Remote sensing data permits such an assessment. In case of dam site
investigation, information on topography is essential. Geological consideration
involves the different soil and rock types and physical properties. In selecting rivercrossing sites for bridges and pipelines, an important consideration is the stability
of slopes leading down to and up from the water crossing. Such slopes include
riverbanks, terrace faces and valley wall. History of river erosion and sedimentation
would give clues needed for locating the sites where scour is likely to occur. High
spatial resolution satellite data with stereo vision capability can facilitate
depth perception in the above said investigations and also for regional planning of
large commercial airports, harbors, industrial towns and recreational sites. The
hydro
geological and geomorphologic information along with geological structures
derived
from satellite data are very useful in sitting the ground water bore holes.
2) Town Planning and Urban Development:
To achieve the objectives of making metropolis more livable and of international
standard, a co-coordinated and integrated approach among the various agencies
involved in urban development and provision of services are needed including
participatory process in planning and implementation at local body levels. As well
as to have planned and organized disposal of population through growth centers,
which will acts as counter-magnets to the cities growth. This growth may not able
to withstand the existing infrastructure, traffic, road, drainage and utility networks
etc. Advance urban planning is required for a planned development of the area for
which up to date real time and accurate information are the vital important.
Geographical Information system & Remote Sensing is inevitable technology in the
development of national Infrastructure and planning and they provide solution
related to many environmental issue. It is very much important for urban planning
activities & environmental improvement. For sustainable development of urban
agglomeration, optimal urban land use plans and resources development models
need to be generated by integrating the information on natural resources,
demographic and socio economic data in a GIS domain with the currently
available satellite data.

3) Environment and Geology:


Whether for irrigation, power generation, drinking, manufacturing, or recreation,
water is one of our most critical resources. Image interpretation can be used in a
variety of ways to help monitor the quality, quantity of water resources. It is well
proven in exploring ground water prospect zones. One such example is Rajeev
Gandhi Drinking Water Mission with help of remote sensing and GIS. Sediment

pollution is often clearly depicted on aerial and space images. Materials that form
films on the water surface, such as oil films, can also be detected through the use
of aerial and satellite images. Normal colours or ultraviolet aerial photography is
often employed for the detection of oil films on water. Thick oil slicks have a
distinct brown or black colour. Thinner oil sheens and oil rainbows have a
characteristic silvery sheen or iridescent colour banding but do not have a distinct
brown or black colour. Knowledge of groundwater location is important for both
water supply and pollution control analysis. Remote sensing plays a vital role in
delineating potential areas of groundwater occurrence for detailed exploration, thus
reducing the cost and time involved in groundwater exploration. Potential
groundwater areas cannot be seen on satellite images directly. The clue to the
groundwater search is the fact that sub-surface geological elements forming
aquifers have almost invariable surface expressions, which can be detected by
remote sensing techniques. Satellite data provide information about geomorphic
features, structures, land uses and rock types indicating the presence of
groundwater. Some selected landforms and structural features that are indicators
for potential groundwater zones are valley fills, alluvial fans, dykes etc
4) Water Resources Engineering:
The water storage built in through reservoirs, tanks, etc., are often reduced due to
sedimentation. Remotely sensed data can be used to monitor the water bodies
over time and assess the silting condition. In case of gauged reservoirs of medium
to large sizes, RS data can provide an assessment of sediment volume and
reduction in the capacity of sediment volume and reduction in the capacity of the
reservoir. In case of small water bodies such as tanks, it is possible to come out
with a list of problematic tanks with symptoms of heavy siltation and loss of water
holding capacity. The condition of tank bunds, fore shore encroachment, etc., also
can be analyzed with the help of high spatial resolution RS data. Characterization of
water bodies in terms of geological, geomorphological, hydro geological, soil and
land use / land cover parameters carried out using RS data enables conservation of
land and water resources. The RS based input integrated with ground based
information through GIS is useful for broad reconnaissance level interpretation of
land capability, irrigation suitability, potential land use, water harvesting areas,
monitoring the effects of soil and water conservation measures, estimation of run
off and sediment yields and monitoring land use change including land
degradation. The commercial areas of irrigation projects are fed by different
sources of irrigation like reservoir, tanks, ponds and wells. Assessment of command
areas and crops would be highly useful in water release policy or conjunctive use of
water in the overall project command area. Satellite data has been advantageously
used to obtain such information on surface irrigation projects.

5) Landslides:
Landslide is the result of a wide variety of processes which include geological,
geomorphological and meteorological factors. The important terrain factors are
lithology, structure, drainage, slope, land use, geomorphology and road network. A
complete landslide hazard assessment requires an analysis of all these factors
leading to instability in the region. The feature extraction of some of these factors
can be done
from the interpretation of satellite images. With the increase in efficient digital

computing facilities, the digital remote sensing data and their analysis have gained
enormous importance. Then the spatial and temporal thematic informations
derived
from remote sensing and ground based information need to be integrated for data
analysis. This can be very well achieved using GIS which has the capabilities to
handle voluminous spatial data. With the help of GIS, it is possible to integrate the
spatial data of different layers to determine the influence of the parameters on
landslide occurrence.

6) Least cost highway alignment:


Highways are part of the infrastructure that makes up the spinal cord of modern
society. GIS provides a valuable tool in the process of planning and design of
highways. To obtain an optimum highway route alignment which is economical,
suitable and compatible with the environment, various types of data have to
consider simultaneously. Handling and managing this large amount of data
manually, is not easy. It is here GIS comes to help, because of its inherent property
of handling large bulk of spatial data, non spatial data and its analysis. Remote
sensing images of the study area were used as the source (spatial data). Various
collateral data from various offices was collected to be used as non spatial data.
These images were used to prepare the digitized formats required for the GIS
techniques. Using the Resistance concept (such as areas suitable for the new
alignment were assigned a low resistance value, whereas the areas not suitable for
the new alignment were assigned a high resistance value) the data was prepared
for analysis.
.

Conclusion
There are ample evidences of applying the recent advances in satellite based
remote
sensing and GIS technology in various fields of civil engineering. Indias space
programme ensuring continuous availability of RS data and launching of future
satellites carrying high spatial and spectral resolution sensors can go a long way in
providing useful information required for civil engineering applications.

Reference
www.GIS.com the guide to geographic information system.
Remote Sensing and GIS approach.
Sri rama, B. Bhatt, M.R. & Pathan, S.K., Least Cost Highway Alignment Using GIS
Technique.
http://egsc.usgs.gov/--- reference in working of GIS
www.wikipedia.com ---reference to remote sensing and types