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M.

S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air


system of GEVO Locomotive engine
for bsfc improvement
M. Sc (Engg) Dissertation in Automotive Engineering

Submitted by:

Mr. Manoj Kumar P.

Academic Supervisor:

Mr. D. Vamsidhar

(Lecturer)

Industry Supervisor:

Mr. Ganesha K.

(Manager GE Infrastructure-Rail, Engine


Systems)

M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Postgraduate Engineering Programme
Coventry University (UK)
Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Gnanagangothri Campus, New BEL Road, MSR Nagar, Bangalore-560 054


Tel/Fax: 2360 5539/2360 1983/2360 4759. Website: http://www.msrsas.org

2004-2005

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

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M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

M.S.Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies


Postgraduate Engineering Degree Programme
Coventry University (UK)
Bangalore

Certificate
This is to certify that the M.Sc (Engg) Project
Dissertation titled Analysis of Intake and
Exhaust Air system of GEVO Locomotive engine
for bsfc improvement is a bonafide record of
the Project work carried out by Mr. Manoj
Kumar P. in partial fulfillment of requirements
for

the

award

of

M.Sc

(Engg)

Degree

of

Coventry University in Automotive Engineering


during the academic year 2004-2005.
Mr. D. Vamsidhar
Ganesha K.
Academic Supervisor
Industrial Supervisor
MSRSAS - Bangalore
Rail (Engine Systems)

Analysis of Intake
and Exhaust Air
of GEVO for bsfc reduction
Prof.
Ashok
C.System
Meti

Mr.

GE-Infrastructure

Dr. S.R

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M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Declaration

Project Title:

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air

system of GEVO Locomotive engine for sfc


improvement

The Project Dissertation is submitted in partial fulfillment of academic requirements


for M.Sc (Engg) Degree of Coventry University in AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING.
This dissertation is a result of my own investigation. All sections of the text and results,
which has been obtained from other sources, are fully referenced. I understand that
cheating and plagiarism constitute a breach of University regulations and will be dealt
with accordingly.

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

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M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Name of the Student:

Manoj Kumar P.

Signature:
Date:

28/9/2005

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

Acknowledgement
Foremost I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude and thanks to Mr. Salil
Kumar, Center Director, GE-Infrastructure- Rail and my manager at Erie Mr. Eric Dillen
for providing me the unique opportunity of completing my Masters Degree and the
Project simultaneous to my regular work.
My sincere thanks and gratitude to my manager at India, Mr. Ganesha, for his
valuable & timely, advice and suggestions as my guide. This project would not have been
a success without my technical mentor Mr. Doug Glenn at Erie, USA. He has supported
me with regular directions as well as the test data for model validation.
My sincere thanks, to my Academic Supervisor Vamsidhar, whose able guidance
helped me to complete the project on time.
I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to all my friends especially Ratheesh R
Nath from Automotive Engineering Centre, and the entire MSRSAS team for creating a
friendly and supportive environment during the entire course of my stay in MSRSAS.
Finally, my thanks to my wife Chithra and my daughter Indhulekkha, who have
supported and encouraged me immensely along the course of my programme.

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Abstract
Fuel consumption reduction is one of the major programs for any Automotive/
Locomotive Industry. This program is applicable to already existing engines as well as for
the new designs. For existing engines in the field, new kits or modification on designs are
incorporated to reduce fuel consumption. For newer designs this aspect is already thought
in the design stage itself. New materials, methods and technologies are driving the fuel
consumption reduction programs to maximize the fuel economy. The fuel economy
improvements also reduce the emissions simultaneously thereby making it more attractive
to the Companies to achieve respective emission norm targets.
Intake and exhaust system air paths are one of the major areas that contribute into
fuel consumption. Higher the pressure drops in the system higher the fuel consumption.
Other areas like intake ports as well as exhaust ports were not scoped in view of cost
effectiveness.
The objective of the project is to model the intake and exhaust air paths with the
use of GT Suite, engine simulation software, and analyse the major contributors for
pressure drop and evaluate the total opportunity available for bsfc improvement. The
model has to be validated with engine testing. The future work involves in carrying out
the study on individual contributors identified with simulation as well as with testing.

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Abbreviations

Bsfc Brake specific fuel consumption

CI - Compression Ignition

CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics

GEVO General Electric Evolution Series Locomotive

GT Gamma Technologies

HP Horse Power

IC Internal Combustion

IHP Indicated Horse Power

NOx Oxides of Nitrogen

NVH Noise Vibration and Harshness

P - Power

PSI Pounds per square inch

P-V: Pressure Volume

RPM (rpm) Rotation per minute

TDC Top dead center

T-s: Temperature Entropy

WOT Wide open Throttle

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Quantities and Units

Bsfc g/kW-hr

Density Kg/ m3

Displacement Volume m3

Engine Speed RPM

Fluid velocity m/s

HP kW

IMEP - Bar

Mass flow rate Kg/ Hr

Pressure drop m Bar

Speed of sound m/s

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Table of Contents
Title Page .i
Certificate ii
Declaration .iii
Acknowledgement...iv
Abstract....v
Abbreviation...vi
Quantities & unit

...vii

Table of contents...........viii
List of tables....x
List of figures...xi

1. INTRODUCTION..................................................................................1
1.1. MOTIVATION..........................................................................................................8
1.2. PROBLEM STATEMENT......................................................................................11
1.3. REVIEW OF PREVIOUS WORK..........................................................................11
1.4. PROPOSED WORK, AIM AND SCOPE...............................................................12

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

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2. INDUSTRY INVOLVED......................................................................13
2.1. COMPANY & PRODUCTS...................................................................................13
2.2. FEW FACTS ON LOCOMOTIVE.........................................................................13
2.3. LOCOMOTIVE AND ENGINE STUDIED FOR BSFC.......................................14

3. METHODOLOGY...............................................................................16
4. INTRODUCTION TO THE TOOL....................................................18
4.1. MODELING OF CYLINDER PORTS...................................................................21
4.2. IN CYLINDER FLOW...........................................................................................21
4.3. FUEL INJECTION..................................................................................................22
4.4. IN CYLINDER COMBUSTION............................................................................22
4.5. IN CYLINDER HEAT TRANSFER.......................................................................22
4.6. INTERCOOLER MODELING...............................................................................22
4.7. ENGINE FRICTION MODEL...............................................................................22
4.8. INTRODUCTION TO GEVO SYSTEM................................................................23

5. VALIDATION.......................................................................................25
6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION............................................................27
6.1. RESULTS................................................................................................................27
6.2. CONCLUSION.......................................................................................................29

7. DIRECTIONS TO FUTURE WORK.................................................32


8. REFERENCES.....................................................................................33
9. ANNEXURE..........................................................................................34

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List of Tables
Table 1: % contribution of different components in the air path........................................28

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

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List of Figures
Figure 1: Airflow Vs IHP per piston area.............................................................................1
Figure 2: Diesel/ Constant pressure Cycle (P-V & T-S diagrams) [2].................................3
Figure 3: Change in Volumetric efficiency (v) with speed due to different phenomena [1]
......................................................................................................................................5
Figure 4: Control Volume for Unsteady One dimensional flow analysis [4].......................7
Figure 5: bsfc (g/ kW-hr) Vs Engine size (Liter).................................................................9
Figure 6: Factors affecting the bsfc....................................................................................10
Figure 7: GEVO Locomotive.............................................................................................14
Figure 8: (GEVO 12 Cylinder 3355 kW @1050 RPM Engine)........................................15
Figure 9: (Air Air Intercooler).........................................................................................15
Figure 10: GEVO Locomotive Engine schematic..............................................................24
Figure 11: Engine Test schematic - Pressure and temperature measurement locations.....25
Figure 12: Normalized bsfc Vs Normalized Press. Drop (Test bed data Vs Simulation
Initial).........................................................................................................................26
Figure 13: Normalized bsfc Vs Normalized Pressure Drop (Test bed data Vs Simulation
Final model@ rated power)........................................................................................27
Figure 14: GT Power GEVO Engine Model...................................................................29
Figure 15: Pressure Distribution from compressor discharge to Turbine entry.................30
Figure 16: Temperature distribution from compressor discharge to Turbine.....................31
Figure 17: Turbine Map - Pressure ratio Vs Efficiency.....................................................34
Figure 18: Simulated P-V diagram.....................................................................................35
Figure 19: Simulated Burn rate with Crank angle..............................................................36

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CHAPTER-01
1. INTRODUCTION
Volumetric Efficiency of an engine is one of the main parameters that decide the out
put power for any engine for the given capacity. The more the engine can breath the more
it can burn and hence more power will be generated for the same cylinder volume. Fig 1
[8] indicates that higher the airflow, the power generated for unit piston area goes on
increasing.

Figure 1: Airflow Vs

IHP per piston area

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

M i = Mass of air Induced


N = Engine speed
Vd = Displacement Volume

I= Density of Inlet air.


o

2* M i
v
N *V d * i
The above figure (1) depicts that the volumetric efficiency is directly proportional
to the power that can be generated from unit area of piston. Typical airflow requirement at
an engine speed is dictated by the stroke, bore, speed and volumetric efficiency as
indicated by the relation ship mentioned below [2].

RAF

V d * RPM * v
nR *C

RPM = maximum design rpm


RAF = Required air flow
v =Volumetric efficiency
Vd = Engine displacement

nR = Engine stroke (2 for a four stroke engine)

The working process of an actual engine differs from a theoretical cycle in many
respects. The working fluid is not ideal gas rather it is a mixture of fuel, gas &
combustion products, where the specific heats vary widely. There is no pure constant
volume process and compression and expansion are not adiabatic See figure 2 for a
typical Diesel cycle. See the simulated P-V Diagram in Annexure (Fig 18) to find the
difference from the theoretical cycle.

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

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Figure 2: Diesel/ Constant pressure Cycle (P-V & T-S diagrams) [2]

The resistance in the intake & exhaust systems, ambient air conditions and fuel
conditions all change the composition of the actual intake air being sucked during
compression. Most of these parameters tend to reduce the thermal efficiency as well as
the power out put. If the mean indicative pressure of an engine is 7 bar then each 70 m bar
back pressure reduces the engine power by 1% whereas a 70 m bar reduction in suction
reduces 70/1013.25 * 100 = 6.9% percent reduction in power.
o

o
The power and bsfc is related by the equation bsfc m f where m f is mass flow
P

rate of fuel & P is the power. A reduction of 6.9% percent in power shows up an increase
of 1.07% on bsfc for the same fuel flow rate [2].

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

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The behavior of Intake system and exhaust system are important since these
systems govern the airflow into the engines cylinders. If the manifold flows are of focus
then the models that adequately describe the unsteady gas-flow phenomena, which
normally occur, are required.
Three types of models for calculating details of Intake and exhaust flows have
been developed and used [1].
Quasi Steady models for flow through the restrictions, which the valve and the
port (and other components) provided.
Filling and emptying models, which account for the finite volume of critical,
manifold components.
Gas dynamic models, which describe the spatial variations in, flow and pressure
through out the manifolds.
In a Quasi-static Flow model the manifolds are considered as a series of
interconnected components where each constitutes a significant flow restriction. The flow
restriction contributed by each of this component is defined by their respective geometry
and discharge coefficients. The flow is assumed to be quasi steady and the gas flow rates
are computed as steady one-dimensional flow equations. These components are connected
by the gas flow through them and the mass accumulation between each is neglected. This
approach is used extensively with engine cycle simulations, which predict engine
performance characteristics from a thermodynamic based analysis to calculate the mass
flow rates into and out of the cylinder.
Flow effects on volumetric efficiency depend on the velocity of the fluid in the
intake manifold, port and valve. Local velocities for quasi steady flow are equal to the

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

M.S Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies Postgraduate Engineering Programmes (PEPs)

volume flow rate divided by local cross-sectional area. Since the intake system and valve
dimensions scale approximately with the cylinder bore, mixture velocities in the intake
system will scale with piston speeds.
Hence volumetric efficiencies as a function of speed for different engines should
be compared at same piston speeds. The below figure 3 shows [1] how, different
phenomena varies with speed.
Non speed dependent effects (like fuel vapor pressure in the case of gasoline)
drops v below 100% to curve A. Charge heating in the manifold and cylinder drops the
curve A to B. Frictional flow losses increase as the square of engine speed and drops
curve B to C. At higher speeds the flow during intake stroke gets choked and the v drops
sharply to D from C. The induction ram effect at higher speeds however raises the curve
from D to E. Longer intake valve opening timings at higher speeds to take advantage of
increased charging will result in back flows at lower speeds. Curve F to G shows that the
Intake and Exhaust tuning can help to increase the v.

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

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Figure 3: Change in Volumetric efficiency ( v) with speed due to different phenomena [1]

In filling and emptying models finite volumes represent the manifolds/ sections
where mass of gas increases or decree
ases with time. The equations of Mass, Energy and Momentum conservations with
steady state equations defining the restrictions as well as mass flow rates in and out of the
finite volumes define the gas state at each control volume.
Many other design variables like length and diameter of runners and plenum,
junctions as well as the inlet and exit angles, engine dimensions, intake and exhaust port
designs etc. are beyond the capabilities of the models discussed above. Coupled with
pulsating nature of the flow into and out of the each cylinder these details create
significant gas dynamic effects on intake and exhaust flows. Gas Dynamic models use the
mass; momentum and energy conservation equations for the unsteady compressible flow

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

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in the intake and exhaust. Finite difference techniques are used to solve the gas dynamic
equations.
Mass conservation requires that the rate of change of mass within the control
volume (Fig- 4) equals the net flow into the control volume.
The Momentum conservation equation states that the net pressure forces plus the
wall shear forces acting on the control volume surface equal to the rate of change of
momentum within the control volume plus net flow of momentum. The first law of
thermodynamics for a control volume states that the energy within the control volume
changes due to heat and shear work transfer across the control volume surface and due to
the net efflux of stagnation enthalpy resulting form the flow across the control volume
surface.

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

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Figure 4: Control Volume for Unsteady One dimensional flow analysis [4]

Conservation Equations:

U U dA 0 --------------------------------------------------------Mass
t x
A dx
A

p
U2

dx
D dx
( UA dx )
( U 2 A ) dx ------------------Momentum
x
2
t
x

o.

p U2

p U2
{ ( A dx)(u
)}
{( UA )(u
)}dx q A dx 0 --- Energy
t

2
x

o.

p
U3
U
a2 (
U
) ( 1) ( q 2
) 0 -----------------Combined
t
x
t
x
D

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

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p = Pressure
U = Fluid velocity
u = Specific internal energy
= Density
x = unit length; t = unit time
= Specific heat ratio
o.

q = Heat transfer per unit mass of fluid per unit time within the control volume

A = Cross sectional area


= Frictional coefficient defined by wall friction, fluid density and velocity

a = Sound of speed
In the absence of friction and heat transfer effects the flow is isentropic (or often
named as homentropic flow)
The above equations can be solved using Finite difference methods. Once the
mass transfer during intake and exhaust, heat transfer between the in cylinder gases & the
in cylinder components, the rate of charge burning (Heat release) are known the above
conservation equations permits the cylinder pressure and work transfer to the piston to be
calculated. Engine models developed is been used to predict the performance as well as
the emissions. GT Power developed by Gamma Technologies is an engine model, which
follows the discussed principle.

1.1. MOTIVATION
Fuel Consumption reduction has very high significance in any Automotive
Industry and also at any industry, which uses fossil fuels to operate any type of IC,
engines as their prime mover. Fossil fuels are a fast depleting natural resource. In view of
the same it is been use to its best economy. During last 20 years the fuel efficiency of
internal combustion engines has been doubled more than twice due to different technical

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

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advancements in the industry. Diesel is the fuel, which is been commonly used to run the
Compression Ignition engines.
Compression Ignition engines are more thermal and fuel efficient than its
counterpart gasoline driven Spark Ignition engines. New generation CI engines also
produce lesser harmful emissions. With the advances made on the electronics and
software technology areas along with Common rail technology, the diesel engines are
getting more and more refined and advancing towards homogeneous combustion with
higher efficiencies and better NVH.
The GEVO engine, which develops 3355 kW @1050 rpm, being studied, is a very
efficient CI engine used as a prime mover for GE locomotives. Approximately 15.5 liter
of each cylinder of this engine generates 280 kW. The bsfc figure is near to the best in its
class. See Fig 5, which indicates the expected figures for this kind of engines. Since the
surface area increases with cylinder volume, the heat loss to walls from gas reduces and
as a result bsfc improves (reduced fuel consumption) with increased volumes.

Figure 5: bsfc (g/ kW-hr) Vs Engine size (Liter)

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The challenge of the project is to reduce the fuel consumption by 1% overall on


this already good air system. In this context it was decided to take up a project, which will
analyse the intake and exhaust air paths and provide a report on areas of opportunity for
improvement.
The different factors that contribute into the bsfc (as indicated in Fig 6) were
looked into. The focus is on air system including the intake and exhaust and all other
areas like valve timing and friction will be studied separately.

Figure 6: Factors affecting the bsfc

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Base software model of the engine was available for study. The methodology was
to understand the complicated CFD model where the air paths and Combustion are
modeled.
The intent of this project is to identify major components contributing to pressure
drop across the Compressor discharge to manifold length and with the validated model
analyze the total opportunity available for bsfc reduction.

1.2. PROBLEM STATEMENT


To analyze the air system of GEVO Locomotive Diesel engine and suggest
modifications for improving the specific fuel consumption.

1.3. REVIEW OF PREVIOUS WORK


A journal article by Steve Pierson & Steve Richardson of Jaguar Cars of Coventry,
UK provided the seed for initiation of this project. It discusses about the simulation of the
inlet port to provide improved fuel economy and emissions in the Jaguar models.
Previous to the computer model it took them to near one month to prototype the single
inlet port configuration and run a test that provided no flow patterns. Currently with the
new CFD software they are able to do the design in a weeks time with full data as well as
patterns of airflow. Optimizing the port flow provides a better mixture whereby
facilitating the engine to operate at leaner mixtures reducing the fuel consumption as well
as emissions. The design and analysis provides a clear understanding of the performance
and can be easily modified for any different customer requirements reducing the cycle
time, cost as well as provides readiness for addressing and solving any field issues.
A publication by PL Flynn, SM Gallagher, Eric Dillen (GE Transportation, Erie, PA)
named Development of Low emission GE-FDL High Power Medium speed Locomotive
Diesel Engine provided much insight into technical aspects of the engine. This paper

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discusses about developing the better emission Locomotive IC engine from the existing
lower emission version engine with minimal changes and with the desired effect.
Internal Combustion Fundamentals by John B Heywood is been considered as the one
of the esteemed books for most of the automotive engineers. Most of the theoretical
understanding on the subject problem evolved from this book. Other textbooks that
helped in framing the problem are Internal Combustion Engines by Maleev, Internal
Combustion Engines by Richard Stone Computational Fluid Dynamics with Basic
Applications by John D Anderson Jr. & Flow Resistance A Design Guide for Engineers
by Erwin Fried & I E Idelchik. The GT power user manual provided insight onto the
modeling approach used and the one applied to pipes are specifically mentioned in the
introduction.
Study of using Oxygen enriched combustion Air for Locomotive diesel engines by
DN Assanis (The University of Michigan), RB Poola, R, Sekar (Argonne National
laboratory), GR Cataldi (AAR) provided insight on to the thermodynamic simulation
studies with oxygen enriched intake air and how it affected the burn rates, delay as well as
how the thermal efficiencies improved with lower PM (Particulate Matter an engine
emission parameter).

1.4. PROPOSED WORK, AIM AND SCOPE


To simulate with simulation tool (like GT Suite), to study the bsfc performance of
engine at different pressure drops.
To analyze the intake and exhaust air system for pressure drop.
Based on above, identify critical areas for detailed analysis.

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CHAPTER-02
2. INDUSTRY INVOLVED
2.1. COMPANY & PRODUCTS
This chapter provides an overview of the General Electric Company, where the
project was carried out and the product on which the project was carried out.
GE Infrastructure Rail is global technology leader and supplier to the railroad,
transit, marine and mining industries. GE provides freight and passenger locomotives,
railway signaling and communications systems, information technology solutions, marine
engines, motorized drive systems for mining trucks and drills, high-quality replacement
parts and value added services. With sales in excess of $3 billion, GE Infrastructure-Rail
is headquartered in Erie, PA, and employs approximately 8,000 employees worldwide.
GE Infrastructure Rail is the market leader in diesel-electric locomotive production
with more than 10,000 freight and passenger locomotives operating around the world. GE
Transportation Rail also is the industry leader in providing maintenance and service

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programs for the installed base of GE and competitive brand locomotives with more than
30 service facilities worldwide and 7,000 locomotives under service agreements.

2.2. FEW FACTS ON LOCOMOTIVE


Fully serviced locomotives weigh up to 200,000 Kgs.
The longest locomotives are 22.5-23.2 meter.
Locomotives average 4.6 meter and 1.6 meter in height
Fully serviced locomotives carry up to 23,300 liters of fuel,
2,200 liters of lube oil and 2,000 liters of water.
The life expectancy for locomotives is approximately 20 years depending on its
service and maintenance schedule.
GE sells locomotives to the following major railroads in North America: Amtrak,
Burlington Northern Santa Fe, CSX, Norfolk Southern, Union Pacific, Canadian
National, Canadian Pacific, BC Rail, TFM, and Ferromex.
North American freight makes up 85-90% of the Erie-built locomotive business.

2.3. LOCOMOTIVE AND ENGINE STUDIED FOR BSFC


General Electric Transportation Systems invested more than $200 million and six
years of research and development in the new GE "Evolution Series" diesel locomotives
(GEVO).

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Figure 7: GEVO Locomotive

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Figure 8: (GEVO 12 Cylinder 3355 kW @1050 RPM Engine)

Figure 9: (Air Air Intercooler)

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CHAPTER-03
3. METHODOLOGY
The initial GT power model as obtained was run as the baseline data. Thereafter this
engine dynamic model was cleaned up with the current data for different component/ pipe
dimensions as well as different parameters (like surface roughness) and as well the air
leakage rates from intake system and recent turbo and compressor maps were modeled to
come up with the same restriction across Compressor discharge to Intake Manifold for
analysis.
The required inputs for the model are described below.
Engine Characteristics: Compression ratio, firing order, configuration (V/ inline),
stroke (2/4)
Cylinder geometry: Bore, Stroke, Connecting rod length, pin offset, piston TDC
clearance height, head bowl geometry, piston area & head area (for Heat Transfer
model)
Intake and Exhaust system: All geometry. Other parameters like discharge are
optional / can be forced.
Throttles: Throttle location with discharge coefficients. For part load applications.
WOT (Wide open Throttle) doesnt require this parameters.
Intake and exhaust valves: Valve diameter, lift profile, discharge coefficients,
valve lash, swirl coefficients (optional), tumble coefficients (optional)
Turbochargers: Turbine and compressor maps, turbine inertia (for transient
studies), turbo performance Vs engine speed maps.
Ambient state: pressure, temperature and humidity
Following WOT engine test bed data is required in validating the model
Power & Torque

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Motoring friction power


Airflow, Fuel flow & A/F ratio
IMEP, BSFC, Volumetric Efficiency
Turbocharger speed
Cylinder pressure or Combustion rate
Dynamic intake pressure (Inside Runners)
Dynamic exhaust pressure (Inside pipe/ catalyst)
Intake and Exhaust Manifold temperature and pressure (Time averaged)
Mean temperatures at exhaust ports, entrance of take down pipe
Exhaust wall temperature
This model on which measured cylinder pressure data from engine test data,
Woschni heat transfer model, friction data as per Chen-Flynn Model are modeled along
with injection profile and the flow model together was used to predict the heat release
rate, bsfc, airflow, pressures and temperatures at the required engine speed and power.
The different factors and multipliers are judicially tweaked to match the bsfc,
temperature and pressure values at different critical locations. The same model was
checked at different pressure drops by inducing pressure drop by modeling an orifice
plate after the compressor discharge point and varying the coefficient of discharge similar
to varying the valve for inducing the pressure drop across the system as explained above
during the engine testing.

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CHAPTER-04
4. INTRODUCTION TO THE TOOL
The software used for the project is G.T Suite. It is an engine simulation model
developed by Gamma Technologies, Chicago that is been used extensively by the
automotive industry through out the world.
The GT Suite (Power) flow solution is been carried out by time integration of the
conservation equations [4]. The integration is explicit, volume-by-volume and boundaryby-boundary. This requires small time steps limited by the Courant condition (optimizer;
also see the equation below), which restricts the time step to a value smaller than the time
required by pressure and flow to propagate across any volume.
t
( u c) 0.8 * m
x

t = Time step
x = Minimum discretized element length

u = fluid velocity
c = speed of sound
m = time step multiplier specified by user in the Run Setup (less than equal to one)
Implicit solver can also be used where there is minimal wave dynamics in the system
and maximum Mach number in the system is less than 0.3. .

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Several pipe templates are available to accommodate a variety of geometries. The friction
multiplier, heat transfer multiplier and the pressure loss coefficients can be adjusted to get
the required results. Flow losses due to friction are automatically calculated by the code
taking into account the Reynolds number and the surface roughness of the walls. The
friction factors are given as below.
Cf

Cf

16
----------For laminar region Re D < 2000
Re D

0.08
Re D

0.25

----------For Turbulent region Re D > 4000

With transitional region in between


When the wall is rough the flow is not laminar and the value of friction multiplier
is given by Nikuradses formula below.
C frough

0.25

1D
2 * log 10

2 h 1.74

Re D = Reynolds number based on pipe diameter

D = Pipe diameter
h = roughness height

[5]

The pressure loss co-efficient C p is defined as


Cp

p1 p 2
1
2
V1
2

p2 = Total pressure at inlet

= inlet density

p1 = Total pressure outlet

V1 = inlet velocity

Heat transfer from fluids inside of pipes and flow split to their walls is calculated
using a heat transfer coefficient. This is calculated at each time step from the fluid

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velocity, thermo physical properties and the wall surface finish. Heat transfer is calculated
using the Colburn analogy
2

( )
1
C f U eff C p Pr 3
2

hg

[5]

Cf = friction coefficient
= density
Ueff = effective velocity outside boundary layer
Cp = Specific heat
Pr = Prandtl number
Discharge coefficients are required when valves, throttles, orifices etc. are
modeled. For gases the discharge coefficients may be calculated using the following
formulae.
1

is o Pr

m Aeff isU is C D AR isU is

[5]
1
2

U g RT0
1

P
r

m = Mass flow rate


Aeff

= Effective flow area

is = Density at the throat


U is = Isentropic velocity at the throat

C D = Discharge coefficient
AR = Reference flow area

PR = absolute pressure ratio (static outlet pressure / total inlet pressure)

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R = Gas constant
T0 = upstream stagnation temperature
= specific heat ratio (1.4 for air at 300 K)

At critical flow (choked flow) where the pressure ratio

choked flow become

U is

RT0

Pr

& the formula for

[5]

As a consequence of momentum equation used at connection is that there is a


pressure recovery downstream of any orifice. The pressure recovery follows the BordaCarnot formula

Cp

dp
1
u 2
2

A1
A1
1

A2
A2

[5]

Cp = Pressure recovery coefficient


dp = Pressure recovery
= density
u = upstream velocity
A1 = upstream area
A2 = down stream area

4.1. MODELING OF CYLINDER PORTS


The intake and exhaust ports into an engine cylinder can be modeled
geometrically with pipes with special considerations on flow coefficients and also

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considering the Heat conduction objects (which simulates the temperatures) to ignore
since this is more of determined by the cooling system.

4.2. IN CYLINDER FLOW


Different objects (models) are available in selection depending on the choice for
calculating/ simulating the in cylinder flow velocity and turbulent intensity. The results of
this model are further used in the heat transfer and Heat release models. The in cylinder
flow model breaks the cylinder into multiple regions: the central core region, the squish
region, the head recess region, and the piston cup region. At each time step in each region
the mean radial velocity, axial velocity and swirl velocity are calculated taking into
account the cylinder chamber geometry, the piston motion, and flow rate/ swirl/ tumble of
incoming and exiting gases through the valves.

4.3. FUEL INJECTION


Different models are again available to the choice of the user. The model used for
modeling is the InjProfileConn, which prompts the user to input the profile and quantity
of injection. This model is generally used where the injection is directly on to the cylinder
like in the case of Diesel or in the case of direct injection gasoline

4.4. IN CYLINDER COMBUSTION


Five models are available for modeling the In Cylinder Combustion. The model
used for the study is an imposed combustion profile. This allows the user to impose a
measured burn curve. The cylinder pressure measured input into the model EngHeatRel
will provide the Heat Release rates, which will impose as the burn rate curve. There are
other sophisticated models like EngCylCombDIWiebe for imposing the combustion rate
using a three term Wiebe function or Direct Injection Diesel jet model which are used to
predict the NOx and soot [6], [7]

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4.5. IN CYLINDER HEAT TRANSFER


This is modeled using the object EngCylHeatTr and EngCylTWall which allows
the user to choose different models like Woschni and user models.

4.6. INTERCOOLER MODELING


There are different ways of modeling the intercooler. Either the outlet temperature can
be imposed by considering the intercooler as an infinite sink of heat or by using the GTCool package to model it.

4.7. ENGINE FRICTION MODEL


GT power uses the Chen-Flynn model to calculate the engine friction, where, FMEP =
C + PF * Pmax + MPSF * Speedmp + MPSSF * Speed2mp with C= Constant factor, PF =
peak cylinder pressure factor, MPSF = Mean Piston speed factor and MPSSF = Mean
piston speed square factors [5]

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4.8. INTRODUCTION TO GEVO SYSTEM


The GEVO engine has an air induction system (See Figure 10 below) with two airfiltering systems named the initial V filters and a fine filtering system named Baggy
filters. The clean air discharged out through the final baggy filter is been sucked into the
turbocharger compressor and this is compressed to more than three times to the initial
pressure. The heated (almost 10 times the initial temperature) air due to compression is
been flown through a water based intercooler where the heat is been considerably reduced
and this is again fed into an Air to Air based intercooler (Figure9) where the air is again
cooled down.
From the Air-to-Air Intercooler through two return pipes the flow enters into the
integrated front end (IFE). From here the flow feeds the manifolds (one on each side of
the row) to feed the 6 cylinders on each side through intake pipe and through the ports.
The exhaust after combustion is been pushed out through the exhaust ports to exhaust
manifold and pipes. The exhaust manifolds from both sides of the engine are connected to
turbo with a cast transition connection and the muffler connected to the turbine sends out
the exhaust into the atmosphere through the stack.

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Figure 10: GEVO Locomotive Engine schematic

Since the intake system have lot of bend connections (flow separation and vortices),
rough pipes (friction and pressure drop) and length it was thought of to study the system
in detail to analyze the individual contributions and judge with the bsfc reduction
opportunity existing with reducing the intake pressure drop. It was also thought that the
exhaust pipes been looked up simultaneously to analyse the opportunity together.
Also it was decided to study the opportunity between the Compressor discharge and
up to manifold region where the high pressure and flows are operating.

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CHAPTER-05
5. VALIDATION
Engine tests were conducted at rated power and speed (3355 kW @1050 rpm) with
the standard configuration on Locomotive as well as on the engine test beds. All the
required temperatures and pressures (at locations 1 to 12, see fig 11 below) as indicated in
the fig below were measured and used to simulate in the model. Also the cylinder
pressures and temperatures are measured. A valve indicated as V was used to vary the
pressure drop across the compressor discharge to manifold (location 3 to 8). The tests
were repeated at different pressure drops by varying the valve position and the parameters
were captured and recorded.

Figure 11: Engine Test schematic - Pressure and temperature measurement locations

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The simulation bsfc values as well as the test data bsfc figures are normalized with
the base as the bsfc figure at zero induced pressure drops.

Figure 12: Normalized bsfc Vs Normalized Press. Drop (Test bed data Vs Simulation Initial)

The figure (fig 12) above indicates the model accuracy at initial stages is matching up
to near 20% increase in pressure drop compared to the engine test data.
For the air system study the existing model was considered not sufficient. Therefore
the model was studied in detail and required updates from drawings as well as from the
recent performance parameters like turbo maps as well as compressor maps were studied
in detail. The inputs are explained earlier.

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CHAPTER-06
6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
6.1. RESULTS
The model was tweaked and the accuracy was observed to be better than 2% at all the
locations as indicated in the figure 13 below.
The model was also fine tuned to the level that it simulates the test data till 3-4 times
the initial pressure drop (zero induced restriction point).

Figure 13: Normalized bsfc Vs Normalized Pressure Drop (Test bed data Vs Simulation Final
model@ rated power)

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It can be observed that the model correlates at 300% change in pressure drop
applied across the engine manifold to compressor discharge. Also it will be interesting to
note that the model indicates that with reducing all the existing restriction in the intake
between compressor and manifold, the maximum advantage expected is near 0.25% only.
Test data (studied with different ambient temperature) also suggests the same
indicating the accuracy of the model.
Table 1: % contribution of different components in the air path

The pressure drops across individual components are evaluated using the model
and the percentage contribution by each is shown as above (Table 1). It can be observed
that by concentrating on improving the design of 2 to 3 Components (# 3, #5 & #7) there
is a scope of more than 60% pressure drop to work with. A reduction opportunity of 25
30% on the said component will provide near 20% reduction on the overhaul pressure
drop.

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Also combining this opportunity with improving the pressure drops of Intercoolers
by another 10% each can provide near 0.1% improvement in bsfc just by incorporating
minimal changes.
1% of bsfc equates to approximately 10000 liters of yearly fuel saving to the railroad.
Since every drop counts even 0.1% savings is reasonably a good saving.
The major impact of this study is that this GT model template will facilitate the
improvements on the huge chunk of other families of locomotive engines in field as well
as for the locomotives, which are to be built in the years to come.

6.2. CONCLUSION
The GT model as shown in Fig 14 below is now robust enough to predict the
performance parameters within 2% accuracy and within 300% change in pressure drop
across the manifold and compressor discharge.

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Figure 14: GT Power GEVO Engine Model

Three major contributors other than the intercoolers, contributing to 60+ % to the
pressure drop identified. The Water based Cooler to Air Cooler connection, Air Cooler
connection to Integrated Front End & Intake Manifold pipe are the three major
components. Simultaneously reducing the exhaust pressure will also have to be looked
into considering the intake pressures & compression ratios.
One component (Integrated Front End) exhibits negative pressure drop. This has
to be studied in detail and validated with testing. This will be carried out while studying
the valve timing and intake pulsation dynamics. Figure 15 and Figure 16 (simulated cycle
time variation) below indicates on how the pressure and temperature varies (average in
red and real time values in blue) during cycle across the different components in the
air path. The animation (real time) along with valve timings has to be studied in detail to

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analyze any possibility of increasing the already good air trapping ratios to increase the
volumetric efficiency. It can be observed that there is a huge pressure drop during the
intake. This will be another area of study in future. However this is not considered right
now in view of high cost involved in working on modifications on the Head assembly.

Figure 15: Pressure Distribution from compressor discharge to Turbine entry


(X axis = Components in air flow path; Y axis = pressure, values not shown)

Even though there is an opportunity with few of the components as mentioned in


the table, only a percentage of this will be able to be reduced. This indicates that the
project has to look into the dynamics/ pulsation part as well as other components in the
system to achieve the 1% bsfc reduction.

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Figure 16: Temperature distribution from compressor discharge to Turbine


(X axis = Components in air flow path; Y axis = temperature, values not shown)

Annexure indicates few more simulated results (Fig 17, 18, 19), using the GT
models developed, which are within expected range (observed during testing) for the
engine. The values are not shown to avoid any violations.

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CHAPTER-07
7. DIRECTIONS TO FUTURE WORK
Further work on the components identified with higher-pressure drops to evaluate
the reduction possible with individual CFD modeling and testing.
Improve the GT power model to Emission prediction and analyze the gas
dynamics with the same.
Extend the model to other engine families and new engine models
Create transfer functions for Engine Prognostics

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8. REFERENCES
[1] John B Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals
[2] S.L. Maleev, Internal Combustion Engine
[3] Erwin Fried & I E Idelchik, Flow Resistance: A Design Guide for Engineers
[4] John D Anderson Jr, Computational Fluid Dynamics
[5] GT Power, Users manual
[6] Yoshizaki, Nishida & Hiroyasu, SAE930612
[7] Morel T and Wahiduzzaman, FISITA 1996
[8] Livengood & Stanitz

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9. ANNEXURE

Figure 17: Turbine Map - Pressure ratio Vs Efficiency

(Efficiencies at different RPMs are indicated with different colors)

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Figure 18: Simulated P-V diagram

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Figure 19: Simulated Burn rate with Crank angle

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

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POSTGRADUATE ENGINEERING PROGRAMMES

M. S. Ramaiah School Of Advanced Studies


Postgraduate Engineering Programme
Coventry University (UK)
Gnanagangothri Campus, New BEL Road, MSR Nagar, Bangalore-560 054
Tel/Fax: 2360 5539/2360 1983/2360 4759. Website: http://www.msrsas.org

2004-2005