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system of GEVO Locomotive engine

for bsfc improvement

M. Sc (Engg) Dissertation in Automotive Engineering

Submitted by:

Academic Supervisor:

Mr. D. Vamsidhar

(Lecturer)

Industry Supervisor:

Mr. Ganesha K.

Systems)

Postgraduate Engineering Programme

Coventry University (UK)

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

Tel/Fax: 2360 5539/2360 1983/2360 4759. Website: http://www.msrsas.org

2004-2005

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

ii

Postgraduate Engineering Degree Programme

Coventry University (UK)

Bangalore

Certificate

This is to certify that the M.Sc (Engg) Project

Dissertation titled Analysis of Intake and

Exhaust Air system of GEVO Locomotive engine

for bsfc improvement is a bonafide record of

the Project work carried out by Mr. Manoj

Kumar P. in partial fulfillment of requirements

for

the

award

of

M.Sc

(Engg)

Degree

of

during the academic year 2004-2005.

Mr. D. Vamsidhar

Ganesha K.

Academic Supervisor

Industrial Supervisor

MSRSAS - Bangalore

Rail (Engine Systems)

Analysis of Intake

and Exhaust Air

of GEVO for bsfc reduction

Prof.

Ashok

C.System

Meti

Mr.

GE-Infrastructure

Dr. S.R

iii

Declaration

Project Title:

improvement

for M.Sc (Engg) Degree of Coventry University in AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING.

This dissertation is a result of my own investigation. All sections of the text and results,

which has been obtained from other sources, are fully referenced. I understand that

cheating and plagiarism constitute a breach of University regulations and will be dealt

with accordingly.

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

iv

Manoj Kumar P.

Signature:

Date:

28/9/2005

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

Acknowledgement

Foremost I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude and thanks to Mr. Salil

Kumar, Center Director, GE-Infrastructure- Rail and my manager at Erie Mr. Eric Dillen

for providing me the unique opportunity of completing my Masters Degree and the

Project simultaneous to my regular work.

My sincere thanks and gratitude to my manager at India, Mr. Ganesha, for his

valuable & timely, advice and suggestions as my guide. This project would not have been

a success without my technical mentor Mr. Doug Glenn at Erie, USA. He has supported

me with regular directions as well as the test data for model validation.

My sincere thanks, to my Academic Supervisor Vamsidhar, whose able guidance

helped me to complete the project on time.

I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to all my friends especially Ratheesh R

Nath from Automotive Engineering Centre, and the entire MSRSAS team for creating a

friendly and supportive environment during the entire course of my stay in MSRSAS.

Finally, my thanks to my wife Chithra and my daughter Indhulekkha, who have

supported and encouraged me immensely along the course of my programme.

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

vi

Abstract

Fuel consumption reduction is one of the major programs for any Automotive/

Locomotive Industry. This program is applicable to already existing engines as well as for

the new designs. For existing engines in the field, new kits or modification on designs are

incorporated to reduce fuel consumption. For newer designs this aspect is already thought

in the design stage itself. New materials, methods and technologies are driving the fuel

consumption reduction programs to maximize the fuel economy. The fuel economy

improvements also reduce the emissions simultaneously thereby making it more attractive

to the Companies to achieve respective emission norm targets.

Intake and exhaust system air paths are one of the major areas that contribute into

fuel consumption. Higher the pressure drops in the system higher the fuel consumption.

Other areas like intake ports as well as exhaust ports were not scoped in view of cost

effectiveness.

The objective of the project is to model the intake and exhaust air paths with the

use of GT Suite, engine simulation software, and analyse the major contributors for

pressure drop and evaluate the total opportunity available for bsfc improvement. The

model has to be validated with engine testing. The future work involves in carrying out

the study on individual contributors identified with simulation as well as with testing.

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

vii

Abbreviations

CI - Compression Ignition

GT Gamma Technologies

HP Horse Power

IC Internal Combustion

P - Power

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

viii

Bsfc g/kW-hr

Density Kg/ m3

Displacement Volume m3

HP kW

IMEP - Bar

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

ix

Table of Contents

Title Page .i

Certificate ii

Declaration .iii

Acknowledgement...iv

Abstract....v

Abbreviation...vi

Quantities & unit

...vii

Table of contents...........viii

List of tables....x

List of figures...xi

1. INTRODUCTION..................................................................................1

1.1. MOTIVATION..........................................................................................................8

1.2. PROBLEM STATEMENT......................................................................................11

1.3. REVIEW OF PREVIOUS WORK..........................................................................11

1.4. PROPOSED WORK, AIM AND SCOPE...............................................................12

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

2. INDUSTRY INVOLVED......................................................................13

2.1. COMPANY & PRODUCTS...................................................................................13

2.2. FEW FACTS ON LOCOMOTIVE.........................................................................13

2.3. LOCOMOTIVE AND ENGINE STUDIED FOR BSFC.......................................14

3. METHODOLOGY...............................................................................16

4. INTRODUCTION TO THE TOOL....................................................18

4.1. MODELING OF CYLINDER PORTS...................................................................21

4.2. IN CYLINDER FLOW...........................................................................................21

4.3. FUEL INJECTION..................................................................................................22

4.4. IN CYLINDER COMBUSTION............................................................................22

4.5. IN CYLINDER HEAT TRANSFER.......................................................................22

4.6. INTERCOOLER MODELING...............................................................................22

4.7. ENGINE FRICTION MODEL...............................................................................22

4.8. INTRODUCTION TO GEVO SYSTEM................................................................23

5. VALIDATION.......................................................................................25

6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION............................................................27

6.1. RESULTS................................................................................................................27

6.2. CONCLUSION.......................................................................................................29

8. REFERENCES.....................................................................................33

9. ANNEXURE..........................................................................................34

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

xi

List of Tables

Table 1: % contribution of different components in the air path........................................28

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

xii

List of Figures

Figure 1: Airflow Vs IHP per piston area.............................................................................1

Figure 2: Diesel/ Constant pressure Cycle (P-V & T-S diagrams) [2].................................3

Figure 3: Change in Volumetric efficiency (v) with speed due to different phenomena [1]

......................................................................................................................................5

Figure 4: Control Volume for Unsteady One dimensional flow analysis [4].......................7

Figure 5: bsfc (g/ kW-hr) Vs Engine size (Liter).................................................................9

Figure 6: Factors affecting the bsfc....................................................................................10

Figure 7: GEVO Locomotive.............................................................................................14

Figure 8: (GEVO 12 Cylinder 3355 kW @1050 RPM Engine)........................................15

Figure 9: (Air Air Intercooler).........................................................................................15

Figure 10: GEVO Locomotive Engine schematic..............................................................24

Figure 11: Engine Test schematic - Pressure and temperature measurement locations.....25

Figure 12: Normalized bsfc Vs Normalized Press. Drop (Test bed data Vs Simulation

Initial).........................................................................................................................26

Figure 13: Normalized bsfc Vs Normalized Pressure Drop (Test bed data Vs Simulation

Final model@ rated power)........................................................................................27

Figure 14: GT Power GEVO Engine Model...................................................................29

Figure 15: Pressure Distribution from compressor discharge to Turbine entry.................30

Figure 16: Temperature distribution from compressor discharge to Turbine.....................31

Figure 17: Turbine Map - Pressure ratio Vs Efficiency.....................................................34

Figure 18: Simulated P-V diagram.....................................................................................35

Figure 19: Simulated Burn rate with Crank angle..............................................................36

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

xiii

CHAPTER-01

1. INTRODUCTION

Volumetric Efficiency of an engine is one of the main parameters that decide the out

put power for any engine for the given capacity. The more the engine can breath the more

it can burn and hence more power will be generated for the same cylinder volume. Fig 1

[8] indicates that higher the airflow, the power generated for unit piston area goes on

increasing.

Figure 1: Airflow Vs

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

N = Engine speed

Vd = Displacement Volume

o

2* M i

v

N *V d * i

The above figure (1) depicts that the volumetric efficiency is directly proportional

to the power that can be generated from unit area of piston. Typical airflow requirement at

an engine speed is dictated by the stroke, bore, speed and volumetric efficiency as

indicated by the relation ship mentioned below [2].

RAF

V d * RPM * v

nR *C

RAF = Required air flow

v =Volumetric efficiency

Vd = Engine displacement

The working process of an actual engine differs from a theoretical cycle in many

respects. The working fluid is not ideal gas rather it is a mixture of fuel, gas &

combustion products, where the specific heats vary widely. There is no pure constant

volume process and compression and expansion are not adiabatic See figure 2 for a

typical Diesel cycle. See the simulated P-V Diagram in Annexure (Fig 18) to find the

difference from the theoretical cycle.

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

Figure 2: Diesel/ Constant pressure Cycle (P-V & T-S diagrams) [2]

The resistance in the intake & exhaust systems, ambient air conditions and fuel

conditions all change the composition of the actual intake air being sucked during

compression. Most of these parameters tend to reduce the thermal efficiency as well as

the power out put. If the mean indicative pressure of an engine is 7 bar then each 70 m bar

back pressure reduces the engine power by 1% whereas a 70 m bar reduction in suction

reduces 70/1013.25 * 100 = 6.9% percent reduction in power.

o

o

The power and bsfc is related by the equation bsfc m f where m f is mass flow

P

rate of fuel & P is the power. A reduction of 6.9% percent in power shows up an increase

of 1.07% on bsfc for the same fuel flow rate [2].

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

The behavior of Intake system and exhaust system are important since these

systems govern the airflow into the engines cylinders. If the manifold flows are of focus

then the models that adequately describe the unsteady gas-flow phenomena, which

normally occur, are required.

Three types of models for calculating details of Intake and exhaust flows have

been developed and used [1].

Quasi Steady models for flow through the restrictions, which the valve and the

port (and other components) provided.

Filling and emptying models, which account for the finite volume of critical,

manifold components.

Gas dynamic models, which describe the spatial variations in, flow and pressure

through out the manifolds.

In a Quasi-static Flow model the manifolds are considered as a series of

interconnected components where each constitutes a significant flow restriction. The flow

restriction contributed by each of this component is defined by their respective geometry

and discharge coefficients. The flow is assumed to be quasi steady and the gas flow rates

are computed as steady one-dimensional flow equations. These components are connected

by the gas flow through them and the mass accumulation between each is neglected. This

approach is used extensively with engine cycle simulations, which predict engine

performance characteristics from a thermodynamic based analysis to calculate the mass

flow rates into and out of the cylinder.

Flow effects on volumetric efficiency depend on the velocity of the fluid in the

intake manifold, port and valve. Local velocities for quasi steady flow are equal to the

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

volume flow rate divided by local cross-sectional area. Since the intake system and valve

dimensions scale approximately with the cylinder bore, mixture velocities in the intake

system will scale with piston speeds.

Hence volumetric efficiencies as a function of speed for different engines should

be compared at same piston speeds. The below figure 3 shows [1] how, different

phenomena varies with speed.

Non speed dependent effects (like fuel vapor pressure in the case of gasoline)

drops v below 100% to curve A. Charge heating in the manifold and cylinder drops the

curve A to B. Frictional flow losses increase as the square of engine speed and drops

curve B to C. At higher speeds the flow during intake stroke gets choked and the v drops

sharply to D from C. The induction ram effect at higher speeds however raises the curve

from D to E. Longer intake valve opening timings at higher speeds to take advantage of

increased charging will result in back flows at lower speeds. Curve F to G shows that the

Intake and Exhaust tuning can help to increase the v.

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

Figure 3: Change in Volumetric efficiency ( v) with speed due to different phenomena [1]

In filling and emptying models finite volumes represent the manifolds/ sections

where mass of gas increases or decree

ases with time. The equations of Mass, Energy and Momentum conservations with

steady state equations defining the restrictions as well as mass flow rates in and out of the

finite volumes define the gas state at each control volume.

Many other design variables like length and diameter of runners and plenum,

junctions as well as the inlet and exit angles, engine dimensions, intake and exhaust port

designs etc. are beyond the capabilities of the models discussed above. Coupled with

pulsating nature of the flow into and out of the each cylinder these details create

significant gas dynamic effects on intake and exhaust flows. Gas Dynamic models use the

mass; momentum and energy conservation equations for the unsteady compressible flow

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

in the intake and exhaust. Finite difference techniques are used to solve the gas dynamic

equations.

Mass conservation requires that the rate of change of mass within the control

volume (Fig- 4) equals the net flow into the control volume.

The Momentum conservation equation states that the net pressure forces plus the

wall shear forces acting on the control volume surface equal to the rate of change of

momentum within the control volume plus net flow of momentum. The first law of

thermodynamics for a control volume states that the energy within the control volume

changes due to heat and shear work transfer across the control volume surface and due to

the net efflux of stagnation enthalpy resulting form the flow across the control volume

surface.

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

Figure 4: Control Volume for Unsteady One dimensional flow analysis [4]

Conservation Equations:

U U dA 0 --------------------------------------------------------Mass

t x

A dx

A

p

U2

dx

D dx

( UA dx )

( U 2 A ) dx ------------------Momentum

x

2

t

x

o.

p U2

p U2

{ ( A dx)(u

)}

{( UA )(u

)}dx q A dx 0 --- Energy

t

2

x

o.

p

U3

U

a2 (

U

) ( 1) ( q 2

) 0 -----------------Combined

t

x

t

x

D

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

p = Pressure

U = Fluid velocity

u = Specific internal energy

= Density

x = unit length; t = unit time

= Specific heat ratio

o.

q = Heat transfer per unit mass of fluid per unit time within the control volume

= Frictional coefficient defined by wall friction, fluid density and velocity

a = Sound of speed

In the absence of friction and heat transfer effects the flow is isentropic (or often

named as homentropic flow)

The above equations can be solved using Finite difference methods. Once the

mass transfer during intake and exhaust, heat transfer between the in cylinder gases & the

in cylinder components, the rate of charge burning (Heat release) are known the above

conservation equations permits the cylinder pressure and work transfer to the piston to be

calculated. Engine models developed is been used to predict the performance as well as

the emissions. GT Power developed by Gamma Technologies is an engine model, which

follows the discussed principle.

1.1. MOTIVATION

Fuel Consumption reduction has very high significance in any Automotive

Industry and also at any industry, which uses fossil fuels to operate any type of IC,

engines as their prime mover. Fossil fuels are a fast depleting natural resource. In view of

the same it is been use to its best economy. During last 20 years the fuel efficiency of

internal combustion engines has been doubled more than twice due to different technical

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

advancements in the industry. Diesel is the fuel, which is been commonly used to run the

Compression Ignition engines.

Compression Ignition engines are more thermal and fuel efficient than its

counterpart gasoline driven Spark Ignition engines. New generation CI engines also

produce lesser harmful emissions. With the advances made on the electronics and

software technology areas along with Common rail technology, the diesel engines are

getting more and more refined and advancing towards homogeneous combustion with

higher efficiencies and better NVH.

The GEVO engine, which develops 3355 kW @1050 rpm, being studied, is a very

efficient CI engine used as a prime mover for GE locomotives. Approximately 15.5 liter

of each cylinder of this engine generates 280 kW. The bsfc figure is near to the best in its

class. See Fig 5, which indicates the expected figures for this kind of engines. Since the

surface area increases with cylinder volume, the heat loss to walls from gas reduces and

as a result bsfc improves (reduced fuel consumption) with increased volumes.

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

10

this already good air system. In this context it was decided to take up a project, which will

analyse the intake and exhaust air paths and provide a report on areas of opportunity for

improvement.

The different factors that contribute into the bsfc (as indicated in Fig 6) were

looked into. The focus is on air system including the intake and exhaust and all other

areas like valve timing and friction will be studied separately.

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

11

Base software model of the engine was available for study. The methodology was

to understand the complicated CFD model where the air paths and Combustion are

modeled.

The intent of this project is to identify major components contributing to pressure

drop across the Compressor discharge to manifold length and with the validated model

analyze the total opportunity available for bsfc reduction.

To analyze the air system of GEVO Locomotive Diesel engine and suggest

modifications for improving the specific fuel consumption.

A journal article by Steve Pierson & Steve Richardson of Jaguar Cars of Coventry,

UK provided the seed for initiation of this project. It discusses about the simulation of the

inlet port to provide improved fuel economy and emissions in the Jaguar models.

Previous to the computer model it took them to near one month to prototype the single

inlet port configuration and run a test that provided no flow patterns. Currently with the

new CFD software they are able to do the design in a weeks time with full data as well as

patterns of airflow. Optimizing the port flow provides a better mixture whereby

facilitating the engine to operate at leaner mixtures reducing the fuel consumption as well

as emissions. The design and analysis provides a clear understanding of the performance

and can be easily modified for any different customer requirements reducing the cycle

time, cost as well as provides readiness for addressing and solving any field issues.

A publication by PL Flynn, SM Gallagher, Eric Dillen (GE Transportation, Erie, PA)

named Development of Low emission GE-FDL High Power Medium speed Locomotive

Diesel Engine provided much insight into technical aspects of the engine. This paper

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

12

discusses about developing the better emission Locomotive IC engine from the existing

lower emission version engine with minimal changes and with the desired effect.

Internal Combustion Fundamentals by John B Heywood is been considered as the one

of the esteemed books for most of the automotive engineers. Most of the theoretical

understanding on the subject problem evolved from this book. Other textbooks that

helped in framing the problem are Internal Combustion Engines by Maleev, Internal

Combustion Engines by Richard Stone Computational Fluid Dynamics with Basic

Applications by John D Anderson Jr. & Flow Resistance A Design Guide for Engineers

by Erwin Fried & I E Idelchik. The GT power user manual provided insight onto the

modeling approach used and the one applied to pipes are specifically mentioned in the

introduction.

Study of using Oxygen enriched combustion Air for Locomotive diesel engines by

DN Assanis (The University of Michigan), RB Poola, R, Sekar (Argonne National

laboratory), GR Cataldi (AAR) provided insight on to the thermodynamic simulation

studies with oxygen enriched intake air and how it affected the burn rates, delay as well as

how the thermal efficiencies improved with lower PM (Particulate Matter an engine

emission parameter).

To simulate with simulation tool (like GT Suite), to study the bsfc performance of

engine at different pressure drops.

To analyze the intake and exhaust air system for pressure drop.

Based on above, identify critical areas for detailed analysis.

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

13

CHAPTER-02

2. INDUSTRY INVOLVED

2.1. COMPANY & PRODUCTS

This chapter provides an overview of the General Electric Company, where the

project was carried out and the product on which the project was carried out.

GE Infrastructure Rail is global technology leader and supplier to the railroad,

transit, marine and mining industries. GE provides freight and passenger locomotives,

railway signaling and communications systems, information technology solutions, marine

engines, motorized drive systems for mining trucks and drills, high-quality replacement

parts and value added services. With sales in excess of $3 billion, GE Infrastructure-Rail

is headquartered in Erie, PA, and employs approximately 8,000 employees worldwide.

GE Infrastructure Rail is the market leader in diesel-electric locomotive production

with more than 10,000 freight and passenger locomotives operating around the world. GE

Transportation Rail also is the industry leader in providing maintenance and service

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

14

programs for the installed base of GE and competitive brand locomotives with more than

30 service facilities worldwide and 7,000 locomotives under service agreements.

Fully serviced locomotives weigh up to 200,000 Kgs.

The longest locomotives are 22.5-23.2 meter.

Locomotives average 4.6 meter and 1.6 meter in height

Fully serviced locomotives carry up to 23,300 liters of fuel,

2,200 liters of lube oil and 2,000 liters of water.

The life expectancy for locomotives is approximately 20 years depending on its

service and maintenance schedule.

GE sells locomotives to the following major railroads in North America: Amtrak,

Burlington Northern Santa Fe, CSX, Norfolk Southern, Union Pacific, Canadian

National, Canadian Pacific, BC Rail, TFM, and Ferromex.

North American freight makes up 85-90% of the Erie-built locomotive business.

General Electric Transportation Systems invested more than $200 million and six

years of research and development in the new GE "Evolution Series" diesel locomotives

(GEVO).

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

15

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

16

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

17

CHAPTER-03

3. METHODOLOGY

The initial GT power model as obtained was run as the baseline data. Thereafter this

engine dynamic model was cleaned up with the current data for different component/ pipe

dimensions as well as different parameters (like surface roughness) and as well the air

leakage rates from intake system and recent turbo and compressor maps were modeled to

come up with the same restriction across Compressor discharge to Intake Manifold for

analysis.

The required inputs for the model are described below.

Engine Characteristics: Compression ratio, firing order, configuration (V/ inline),

stroke (2/4)

Cylinder geometry: Bore, Stroke, Connecting rod length, pin offset, piston TDC

clearance height, head bowl geometry, piston area & head area (for Heat Transfer

model)

Intake and Exhaust system: All geometry. Other parameters like discharge are

optional / can be forced.

Throttles: Throttle location with discharge coefficients. For part load applications.

WOT (Wide open Throttle) doesnt require this parameters.

Intake and exhaust valves: Valve diameter, lift profile, discharge coefficients,

valve lash, swirl coefficients (optional), tumble coefficients (optional)

Turbochargers: Turbine and compressor maps, turbine inertia (for transient

studies), turbo performance Vs engine speed maps.

Ambient state: pressure, temperature and humidity

Following WOT engine test bed data is required in validating the model

Power & Torque

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

18

Airflow, Fuel flow & A/F ratio

IMEP, BSFC, Volumetric Efficiency

Turbocharger speed

Cylinder pressure or Combustion rate

Dynamic intake pressure (Inside Runners)

Dynamic exhaust pressure (Inside pipe/ catalyst)

Intake and Exhaust Manifold temperature and pressure (Time averaged)

Mean temperatures at exhaust ports, entrance of take down pipe

Exhaust wall temperature

This model on which measured cylinder pressure data from engine test data,

Woschni heat transfer model, friction data as per Chen-Flynn Model are modeled along

with injection profile and the flow model together was used to predict the heat release

rate, bsfc, airflow, pressures and temperatures at the required engine speed and power.

The different factors and multipliers are judicially tweaked to match the bsfc,

temperature and pressure values at different critical locations. The same model was

checked at different pressure drops by inducing pressure drop by modeling an orifice

plate after the compressor discharge point and varying the coefficient of discharge similar

to varying the valve for inducing the pressure drop across the system as explained above

during the engine testing.

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

19

CHAPTER-04

4. INTRODUCTION TO THE TOOL

The software used for the project is G.T Suite. It is an engine simulation model

developed by Gamma Technologies, Chicago that is been used extensively by the

automotive industry through out the world.

The GT Suite (Power) flow solution is been carried out by time integration of the

conservation equations [4]. The integration is explicit, volume-by-volume and boundaryby-boundary. This requires small time steps limited by the Courant condition (optimizer;

also see the equation below), which restricts the time step to a value smaller than the time

required by pressure and flow to propagate across any volume.

t

( u c) 0.8 * m

x

t = Time step

x = Minimum discretized element length

u = fluid velocity

c = speed of sound

m = time step multiplier specified by user in the Run Setup (less than equal to one)

Implicit solver can also be used where there is minimal wave dynamics in the system

and maximum Mach number in the system is less than 0.3. .

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

20

Several pipe templates are available to accommodate a variety of geometries. The friction

multiplier, heat transfer multiplier and the pressure loss coefficients can be adjusted to get

the required results. Flow losses due to friction are automatically calculated by the code

taking into account the Reynolds number and the surface roughness of the walls. The

friction factors are given as below.

Cf

Cf

16

----------For laminar region Re D < 2000

Re D

0.08

Re D

0.25

When the wall is rough the flow is not laminar and the value of friction multiplier

is given by Nikuradses formula below.

C frough

0.25

1D

2 * log 10

2 h 1.74

D = Pipe diameter

h = roughness height

[5]

Cp

p1 p 2

1

2

V1

2

= inlet density

V1 = inlet velocity

Heat transfer from fluids inside of pipes and flow split to their walls is calculated

using a heat transfer coefficient. This is calculated at each time step from the fluid

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

21

velocity, thermo physical properties and the wall surface finish. Heat transfer is calculated

using the Colburn analogy

2

( )

1

C f U eff C p Pr 3

2

hg

[5]

Cf = friction coefficient

= density

Ueff = effective velocity outside boundary layer

Cp = Specific heat

Pr = Prandtl number

Discharge coefficients are required when valves, throttles, orifices etc. are

modeled. For gases the discharge coefficients may be calculated using the following

formulae.

1

is o Pr

[5]

1

2

U g RT0

1

P

r

Aeff

U is = Isentropic velocity at the throat

C D = Discharge coefficient

AR = Reference flow area

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

22

R = Gas constant

T0 = upstream stagnation temperature

= specific heat ratio (1.4 for air at 300 K)

U is

RT0

Pr

[5]

pressure recovery downstream of any orifice. The pressure recovery follows the BordaCarnot formula

Cp

dp

1

u 2

2

A1

A1

1

A2

A2

[5]

dp = Pressure recovery

= density

u = upstream velocity

A1 = upstream area

A2 = down stream area

The intake and exhaust ports into an engine cylinder can be modeled

geometrically with pipes with special considerations on flow coefficients and also

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

23

considering the Heat conduction objects (which simulates the temperatures) to ignore

since this is more of determined by the cooling system.

Different objects (models) are available in selection depending on the choice for

calculating/ simulating the in cylinder flow velocity and turbulent intensity. The results of

this model are further used in the heat transfer and Heat release models. The in cylinder

flow model breaks the cylinder into multiple regions: the central core region, the squish

region, the head recess region, and the piston cup region. At each time step in each region

the mean radial velocity, axial velocity and swirl velocity are calculated taking into

account the cylinder chamber geometry, the piston motion, and flow rate/ swirl/ tumble of

incoming and exiting gases through the valves.

Different models are again available to the choice of the user. The model used for

modeling is the InjProfileConn, which prompts the user to input the profile and quantity

of injection. This model is generally used where the injection is directly on to the cylinder

like in the case of Diesel or in the case of direct injection gasoline

Five models are available for modeling the In Cylinder Combustion. The model

used for the study is an imposed combustion profile. This allows the user to impose a

measured burn curve. The cylinder pressure measured input into the model EngHeatRel

will provide the Heat Release rates, which will impose as the burn rate curve. There are

other sophisticated models like EngCylCombDIWiebe for imposing the combustion rate

using a three term Wiebe function or Direct Injection Diesel jet model which are used to

predict the NOx and soot [6], [7]

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

24

This is modeled using the object EngCylHeatTr and EngCylTWall which allows

the user to choose different models like Woschni and user models.

There are different ways of modeling the intercooler. Either the outlet temperature can

be imposed by considering the intercooler as an infinite sink of heat or by using the GTCool package to model it.

GT power uses the Chen-Flynn model to calculate the engine friction, where, FMEP =

C + PF * Pmax + MPSF * Speedmp + MPSSF * Speed2mp with C= Constant factor, PF =

peak cylinder pressure factor, MPSF = Mean Piston speed factor and MPSSF = Mean

piston speed square factors [5]

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

25

The GEVO engine has an air induction system (See Figure 10 below) with two airfiltering systems named the initial V filters and a fine filtering system named Baggy

filters. The clean air discharged out through the final baggy filter is been sucked into the

turbocharger compressor and this is compressed to more than three times to the initial

pressure. The heated (almost 10 times the initial temperature) air due to compression is

been flown through a water based intercooler where the heat is been considerably reduced

and this is again fed into an Air to Air based intercooler (Figure9) where the air is again

cooled down.

From the Air-to-Air Intercooler through two return pipes the flow enters into the

integrated front end (IFE). From here the flow feeds the manifolds (one on each side of

the row) to feed the 6 cylinders on each side through intake pipe and through the ports.

The exhaust after combustion is been pushed out through the exhaust ports to exhaust

manifold and pipes. The exhaust manifolds from both sides of the engine are connected to

turbo with a cast transition connection and the muffler connected to the turbine sends out

the exhaust into the atmosphere through the stack.

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

26

Since the intake system have lot of bend connections (flow separation and vortices),

rough pipes (friction and pressure drop) and length it was thought of to study the system

in detail to analyze the individual contributions and judge with the bsfc reduction

opportunity existing with reducing the intake pressure drop. It was also thought that the

exhaust pipes been looked up simultaneously to analyse the opportunity together.

Also it was decided to study the opportunity between the Compressor discharge and

up to manifold region where the high pressure and flows are operating.

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

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CHAPTER-05

5. VALIDATION

Engine tests were conducted at rated power and speed (3355 kW @1050 rpm) with

the standard configuration on Locomotive as well as on the engine test beds. All the

required temperatures and pressures (at locations 1 to 12, see fig 11 below) as indicated in

the fig below were measured and used to simulate in the model. Also the cylinder

pressures and temperatures are measured. A valve indicated as V was used to vary the

pressure drop across the compressor discharge to manifold (location 3 to 8). The tests

were repeated at different pressure drops by varying the valve position and the parameters

were captured and recorded.

Figure 11: Engine Test schematic - Pressure and temperature measurement locations

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

28

The simulation bsfc values as well as the test data bsfc figures are normalized with

the base as the bsfc figure at zero induced pressure drops.

Figure 12: Normalized bsfc Vs Normalized Press. Drop (Test bed data Vs Simulation Initial)

The figure (fig 12) above indicates the model accuracy at initial stages is matching up

to near 20% increase in pressure drop compared to the engine test data.

For the air system study the existing model was considered not sufficient. Therefore

the model was studied in detail and required updates from drawings as well as from the

recent performance parameters like turbo maps as well as compressor maps were studied

in detail. The inputs are explained earlier.

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

29

CHAPTER-06

6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

6.1. RESULTS

The model was tweaked and the accuracy was observed to be better than 2% at all the

locations as indicated in the figure 13 below.

The model was also fine tuned to the level that it simulates the test data till 3-4 times

the initial pressure drop (zero induced restriction point).

Figure 13: Normalized bsfc Vs Normalized Pressure Drop (Test bed data Vs Simulation Final

model@ rated power)

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

30

It can be observed that the model correlates at 300% change in pressure drop

applied across the engine manifold to compressor discharge. Also it will be interesting to

note that the model indicates that with reducing all the existing restriction in the intake

between compressor and manifold, the maximum advantage expected is near 0.25% only.

Test data (studied with different ambient temperature) also suggests the same

indicating the accuracy of the model.

Table 1: % contribution of different components in the air path

The pressure drops across individual components are evaluated using the model

and the percentage contribution by each is shown as above (Table 1). It can be observed

that by concentrating on improving the design of 2 to 3 Components (# 3, #5 & #7) there

is a scope of more than 60% pressure drop to work with. A reduction opportunity of 25

30% on the said component will provide near 20% reduction on the overhaul pressure

drop.

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

31

Also combining this opportunity with improving the pressure drops of Intercoolers

by another 10% each can provide near 0.1% improvement in bsfc just by incorporating

minimal changes.

1% of bsfc equates to approximately 10000 liters of yearly fuel saving to the railroad.

Since every drop counts even 0.1% savings is reasonably a good saving.

The major impact of this study is that this GT model template will facilitate the

improvements on the huge chunk of other families of locomotive engines in field as well

as for the locomotives, which are to be built in the years to come.

6.2. CONCLUSION

The GT model as shown in Fig 14 below is now robust enough to predict the

performance parameters within 2% accuracy and within 300% change in pressure drop

across the manifold and compressor discharge.

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

32

Three major contributors other than the intercoolers, contributing to 60+ % to the

pressure drop identified. The Water based Cooler to Air Cooler connection, Air Cooler

connection to Integrated Front End & Intake Manifold pipe are the three major

components. Simultaneously reducing the exhaust pressure will also have to be looked

into considering the intake pressures & compression ratios.

One component (Integrated Front End) exhibits negative pressure drop. This has

to be studied in detail and validated with testing. This will be carried out while studying

the valve timing and intake pulsation dynamics. Figure 15 and Figure 16 (simulated cycle

time variation) below indicates on how the pressure and temperature varies (average in

red and real time values in blue) during cycle across the different components in the

air path. The animation (real time) along with valve timings has to be studied in detail to

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

33

analyze any possibility of increasing the already good air trapping ratios to increase the

volumetric efficiency. It can be observed that there is a huge pressure drop during the

intake. This will be another area of study in future. However this is not considered right

now in view of high cost involved in working on modifications on the Head assembly.

(X axis = Components in air flow path; Y axis = pressure, values not shown)

the table, only a percentage of this will be able to be reduced. This indicates that the

project has to look into the dynamics/ pulsation part as well as other components in the

system to achieve the 1% bsfc reduction.

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

34

(X axis = Components in air flow path; Y axis = temperature, values not shown)

Annexure indicates few more simulated results (Fig 17, 18, 19), using the GT

models developed, which are within expected range (observed during testing) for the

engine. The values are not shown to avoid any violations.

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

35

CHAPTER-07

7. DIRECTIONS TO FUTURE WORK

Further work on the components identified with higher-pressure drops to evaluate

the reduction possible with individual CFD modeling and testing.

Improve the GT power model to Emission prediction and analyze the gas

dynamics with the same.

Extend the model to other engine families and new engine models

Create transfer functions for Engine Prognostics

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

36

8. REFERENCES

[1] John B Heywood, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals

[2] S.L. Maleev, Internal Combustion Engine

[3] Erwin Fried & I E Idelchik, Flow Resistance: A Design Guide for Engineers

[4] John D Anderson Jr, Computational Fluid Dynamics

[5] GT Power, Users manual

[6] Yoshizaki, Nishida & Hiroyasu, SAE930612

[7] Morel T and Wahiduzzaman, FISITA 1996

[8] Livengood & Stanitz

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

37

9. ANNEXURE

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

38

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

39

Analysis of Intake and Exhaust Air System of GEVO for bsfc reduction

40

Postgraduate Engineering Programme

Coventry University (UK)

Gnanagangothri Campus, New BEL Road, MSR Nagar, Bangalore-560 054

Tel/Fax: 2360 5539/2360 1983/2360 4759. Website: http://www.msrsas.org

2004-2005

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