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Physics Formula List_as at 6 Jul 2011 (Normal)

LIST OF EQUATIONS
NO.
EQUATION
GENERAL PHYSICS
1
=m/V
2
v = s / t (constant v)
3
a = (v u) / t
(constant acceleration)

6
7
9

10

Av. Vel. = (u + v)
s = area under v-t graph
v = gradient of s-t graph
a = gradient of v-t graph
average v = (u + v)
or = total s / total t
W = mg
F = ma
[F = applied force frictional/opposing force ]
Moment = F d

13

W = F s
[use if F is constant]
P = W / t or E / t
P = Fv (if object moves at
constant v)
G.P.E. = mgh

14

K.E. = mv2

16

P = F/A

17

P = h g

11
12

LIGHT, WAVES and SOUND

26
n = sin i / sin r

29

n=c/v

33

v=f

MEANING OF SYMBOLS
= density in kg/m3 ; m = mass in kg ; V = volume in m3
v = velocity in m/s ; s = displacement in m ; t = time in s
a = acceleration in m/s2 ; v = final velocity ; u = initial
velocity ; t = time in s

W = weight in N ; m = mass in kg ;
g = gravitational field strength in N/kg
F = resultant force in N ; m = mass in kg ;
a = acceleration in m/s2
F = force in N ; d = perpendicular distance of line of action
of F from pivot in m
W = work done in J ; F = force in N ; s = distance moved in
the direction of F in m
P = power in W ; W = work done in J ; t = time in s ; E =
energy converted
v = speed in m/s
G.P.E. = gravitational potential energy in J ; g = 10 N/kg ;
h = vertical distance in m
K.E. = kinetic energy in J ; m = mass in kg ; v = speed in
m/s
P = pressure in Pa (or N/m2) ; F = normal force in N ;
A = area in m2
P = pressure in Pa ; h = height of column of liquid/ gas in
m;
3
2
= density of gas/liquid in kg/m ; g = 10 m/s
n = refractive index (from vacuum to medium) ;
i = angle of incidence (in vacuum) ; r = angle of refraction
(in medium)
c = velocity of light in vacuum (3 108 m/s);
v = velocity of light in second medium
v = speed of wave in m/s ; f = frequency in Hz ;
= wavelength in m
f = frequency in Hz ; T = period in s

34
f=1/T
ELECTRICITY and MAGNETISM
35
I=Q/t
I = electric current in A ; Q = electric charge in C ; t= time in
s
36
V or = W / Q
V = potential difference or = e.m.f. in V ; W = energy in J ;
37
R = resistance of a wire in ; l = length of wire in m ;
R= l/A
= resistivity of material in m ; A = cross-sectional area
in m2
38
R=V/I
R = resistance in ; V = p.d. in V ; I = current in A

40

(for ohmic conductors)

P = VI ; P = V2/R

41

P = I2R

42

E = Pt

43

RT = R1 + R2 (series)

46

1
1
(parallel)
RT =
+
R2
R1
RT = ( R1 R2 ) / (R1 + R2)
1/RT = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + ...

LIST OF DEFINITIONS
NO.
PHYSICAL
QUANTITY
1
Acceleration
2
Velocity
3
Speed
4
Displacement
5
Mass
6

Weight

7
8

Density
Inertia

10
11

Moment of a force
OR turning effect of a
force
Centre of mass
Centre of gravity

12

Stability

13

16
17

Work done (by a

constant force)
Kinetic energy
Gravitational potential
energy
Energy
Power

18
20
27

Pressure
Internal energy
Conduction

28

Convection

14
15

P = electrical power in W ; V = voltage in V ; I = current in

A
P = power losses in electrical wires (due to heating effect of
current) in W ; R = resistance in
E = electrical energy converted to in J (or kWh) ; P = power
in W (or kW) ; t = time in s (or h)
RT = combined/effective resistance
R1 ; R2 = resistance in

combined resistance of 3 or more parallel resistors

DEFINTION / MEANING
is the rate of change of velocity.
is the rate of change in displacement.
is the rate of change of distance.
is the distance moved in a specified direction.
is the amount of matter in the body.
is a measure of the amount of substance in a body.
is the amount of gravitational pull of the Earth (or planet) on an
object.
is the mass per unit volume.
Is the reluctance of an object to change its state of rest or uniform
motion.
is the product of the force and its perpendicular distance from the line
of action of the force to the pivot.

is the point on the body where its whole mass is concentrated.

is the point on the body where its whole weight appears to act for any
orientation.
refers to the ability of an object to return to its original position after
it has been tilted slightly.
(a measure of a bodys ability to maintain its original position.)
is the product of the force and the distance moved in the direction of
force.
is the energy possessed by an object because of its motion.
is the energy which a body possesses because of its raised height
relative to the Earth.
is the capacity to do work.
is the rate of work done.
is the rate of change of energy/ energy conversion.
is the force acting normally per unit area
is the sum of potential and kinetic energies of molecules.
is the transfer/passing on of thermal energy through a medium from
one molecule to another due to molecular vibrations and collisions.
is the transfer of thermal energy due to movement of fluid from the
hotter region which is less dense to the cooler region which is denser
by means of convection currents.

Physics Formula List_as at 6 Jul 2011 (Normal)

29

30

Melting point

31

Boiling point

32

Refractive index

33

Critical angle

40
41

Electric current
Electric p.d.

42

Electromotive force
(e.m.f.)

43

Electrical resistance

44
45

Amplitude of
oscillation
Wavelength

46

Frequency of wave

47
48

Period
Wavefront

49

Transverse wave

50

Longitudinal wave

LAWS AND PRINCIPLES

NO.
NAME OF LAW
1
Newtons First Law of
Motion
2
Newtons Second Law
of Motion

3
4

Newtons Third Law of

Motion
Principle of moments

Principle of
Conservation of Energy

Laws of reflection

is the transfer of thermal energy by means of electromagnetic waves

without the aid of a medium.
is the continual emission of infrared waves from the surface of all
bodies, transmitted without the aid of a medium.
of a substance is fixed temperature at which the substance changes
from the solid to liquid state.
of a substance is a fixed temperature at which the substance changes
from the liquid to gaseous state.
is the ratio of velocity of light in vacuum to the velocity of light in
medium.
is the angle of incidence in the optically denser medium such that the
angle of refraction in the optically less dense medium is 90 .
is the rate of flow of electrons.
is the electrical energy converted to other forms of energy when a
coulomb of electric charges flow from one point of a circuit to
another.
is the work done in moving a unit charge around a complete circuit.
is the chemical potential energy converted to electrical energy in the
electrical source when one coulomb of electric charges flow around
the whole circuit.
is the ratio of potential difference. across a conductor to the current
flowing through it.
is the maximum displacement of oscillating particles from its rest/
equilibrium position.
is the distance between two successive crests or troughs.
is the distance between 2 successive points on the wave which are in
phase and at the same point of their path.
is the number of wave crests passing a point per second.
is the number of waves generated in one second.
is the time taken for a particle to complete one oscillation.
is the imaginary line joining all particles on the wave that are in
phase/ joining the crests of the wave.
is a wave whereby the vibration of its particles is perpendicular to the
direction to its wave motion.
is wave whereby the vibration of particles is parallel to the direction
of its wave motion.

STATEMENT
Every object will continue in its state of rest or uniform motion in a
straight line unless a resultant force acts to change its state.
When a resultant force acts on an object of constant mass, the object
will accelerate and move in the direction of the resultant force. The
product of the mass and acceleration of the object is equal to the
resultant force.
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction, and these
forces act on mutually opposite bodies.
When an object is in equilibrium, the sum of clockwise moments
about any point (or pivot) is equal to the sum of anti-clockwise
moments about the same point (or same pivot).
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed in any process. It can
be converted from one form to another or transferred from one body
to another, but the total amount remains constant.
1. The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal at the point of

Physics Formula List_as at 6 Jul 2011 (Normal)

10

Laws of refraction

14
15

Laws of electrostatics
Laws of magnetism

incidence all lie in the same plane.

2. The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.
1. The incident ray, the refracted ray and the normal all lie in the
same plane.
2. For two particular media, the ratio of the sine of the angle of
incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is a constant.
Like charges repel; unlike charges attract.
Like magnetic poles repel ; unlike poles attract.