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06/11/2015

Industrial Electrical Engineering


Electronics Engineering Polytechnic of Surabaya

POWER ELECTRONICS

Presented by:
Moh. Zaenal Efendi (ZEN)
zenefendi@gmail.com
PENS JOSS
1

PART-1

INTRODUCTION TO POWER ELECTRONICS


SINGLE PHASE UNCONTROLLED RECTIFIER
THREE PHASE UNCONTROLLED RECTIFIER
SINGLE PHASE CONTROLLED RECTIFIER
THREE PHASE CONTROLLED RECTIFIER
SINGLE PHASE AC-AC VOLTAGE
CONTROLLER

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Generally:
Electronics: Solid State Electronics Devices and
their Driving Circuits.
Power: Static and Dynamic Requirements for
Generation, Conversion and Transmission of
Power.
Control: The Steady State and Dynamic Stability
of the Closed Loop system.

POWER ELECTRONICS may be defined as the


application of Solid State Electronics for the
Control and conversion of Power.
3

Definition of Power Electronics

DEFINITION:
To convert, or to process and control the flow
of electric power by supplying voltages and
currents in a form that is optimally suited for
user loads.

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Detailed Block Diagram of Power


Electronics System
Power proc. stage

Pre-stage
Filter
&
Rectify

Form of
electrical
energy

PE Circuit

Mostly
unregulate
d dc
voltage

Mostly ac line
voltage (single
or three phase)

Filter
&
Rectify

Output
Load

Form of elec. or
mechan. energy
Electrical
Mechanical

Could generate
undesirable
waveforms

Switch
Drives

Input

Post stage

Control
Circuit

Electrical Variable
Feedback
Mechanical Variable
Feedback

Interface between
control and power
circuits

Process feedback
signals and decide
on control

Applications

Static applications
involves non-rotating or moving mechanical
components.
Examples:

DC Power supply
Un-interruptible power supply, Power generation
and transmission
(HVDC), Electroplating, Welding, Heating,
Cooling, Electronic ballast

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Applications

Drive applications
contains

moving or rotating components such


as motors.
Examples:
Electric trains, Electric vehicles, Air-conditioning
System, Pumps, Compressor,
Conveyer Belt (Factory automation).

Other Applications

Electroplating, Welding

Photovoltaic Systems.

Heating, cooling

eV (fuel cell, Solar)

Wind-electric systems.
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12VDC/220VAC
Power Inverter

12V/100W
Solar Panel

Charge Controller

12V Battery

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Power Electronics Converters


AC to DC: RECTIFIER

DC to DC: CHOPPER

DC to AC: INVERTER

AC to AC: CYCLOCONVERTER
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Types Of Power Conversion

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Superconducting Magnet Energy Storage System

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FUEL CELL DRIVER

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Power Electronics
AC TO DC CONVERSION (RECTIFIER)

Re-edited by : ZEN (ELIN-PENS)


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Overview

Single-phase, half wave


rectifier
Uncontrolled
R load
R-L load
R-C load
Free wheeling diode
Controlled

Single-phase, full wave


rectifier
R load
R-L load,
Continuous and
discontinuous current
mode
controlled
Three-phase rectifier
uncontrolled
controlled
21

Rectifiers

DEFINITION: Converting AC (from mains


or other AC source) to DC power by using
power diodes or by controlling the firing
angles of thyristors/controllable switches.

Basic block diagram

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Rectifiers

Input can be single or multi-phase (e.g. 3phase).

Output can be made fixed or variable

Applications:
DC

welder, DC motor drive, Battery charger,


DC power supply, HVDC
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Root-Mean-Squares (RMS)

(.) 2
1
2

. dt

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Root Mean Squares of f


1
Step 2:
2

( f ) 2 dt

Step 1:
Step 3:

1
2

(f)

2
2
(
f
)
d t
0

Concept of RMS
v2

Square root of the


average of v2

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Average of v2

t
v

Average
of v=0
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Performance parameters
Po ( dc ) Vo ( dc ) I o ( dc)

DC Output Power:

AC Output Power: Po ( ac ) Vo ( rms ) I o ( rms )

Effiency:

Form Factor :

FF

Ripple Factor :

RF

Po ( dc )
Po ( ac )
Vo ( rms )
Vo ( dc )

Vac
;
Vo ( dc )

Vac Vo2( rms ) Vo2( dc )


2

Vo ( rms )
1 FF 2 1
RF
Vo ( dc )

27

Performance parameters
Transformer Ratio: a

Vs ( primer )
Vs ( sekunder

Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF):


TUF

Po (dc )
Vs ( rms) I s ( rms)

Crest Factor:

CF

Vo (dc ) / R
Vs ( rms) Vo ( rms) / R

Vo (dc )

Vs ( rms) Vo (rms)

I s ( peak )
I s ( rms )

Power Factor :
2

Vo ( rms ) / R
Vo (rms ) / R
Vo ( rms )
P
pf

S V s ( rms ) I s ( rms ) V s ( rms ) Vo ( rms ) / R V s ( rms )


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Single-Phase Uncontrolled
Half-Wave Rectifier
Resistor Load

Considering the diode is ideal, the voltage at Rload during forward biased is the positive cycle
of voltage source, while for negative biased, the
voltage is zero.
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Resistor Load

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Output Voltage
T

Given Voltage Source , vs (t ) Vs sin( t ),

Vavg Vo(dc)

" DC " output voltage ,


Vo Vave V DC
Vo

Vm sin( t ) dt
2 0

Vo(dc)

Vm
0.318Vm

Vo(dc)
Vo(dc)
Vo(dc)
Vo(dc)
Vo(dc)

1
v(t)dt
T 0

1
Vm Sin t dt 0 dt

2 0

Vm
2
Vm
2
Vm
2
Vm
2
Vm

Cos t 0
Cos - (-Cos 0)
((1) (1)
2

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RMS OUTPUT VOLTAGE


Vo ( rms )

1
2

V
0

Vo ( rms )

sin(t d (t )
2

Vm
2

2 1 cos 2 d (t )
0

Vo ( rms )

Vm
1
t sin 2t
4
2

Vo ( rms )

Vm
4

Vo ( rms )

Vm
4

Vo ( rms )

1
1

sin 2 0 sin 0
2
2

Vm
2
32

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Half-wave with R-C load

In some applications in which a constant output


is desirable, a series inductor is replaced by a
parallel capacitor.

The purpose of capacitor is to


reduce the variation in the
output voltage, making it
more like dc.
The resistance may
represent an external load,
while the capacitor is a filter
of rectifier circuit.
33

Half-wave with R-C load

Assume the capacitor is


uncharged, and as source
positively increased, diode is
forward biased

Capacitor is charged to Vm as input


voltage reaches its positive peak at t
= /2.
As diode is on, the output voltage is
the same as source voltage, and
capacitor charges.
As source decreases after t = /2, the capacitor discharges into load
resistor. As diode is reversed biased, the load is isolated from source,
and the output voltage (capacitive charge) decaying exponentially with
time constant RC.
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Half-wave with R-C load


The effectiveness of capacitor filter is
determined by the variation in output
voltage, or expressed as maximum and
minimum output voltage, which is peakto-peak ripple voltage.

35

Half-wave with R-C load (Ripple Voltage)

The ripple can be approximated as:

2 Vm

Vo Vm

RC fRC

The average output voltage:


V
Vo(dc) Vm o
2
The ripple factor

RF

Vac
;
Vdc

where: Vac

Vo
; Vdc Vo(dc)
2 2
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Assuming ideal diodes

, one diode pair on


| Vm sin t |
v0 (t )
(t ) /(RC )
, diodes off
Vm sin e

the angle where the diodes become reverse biased,


which is the same as for
and is

the half-wave rectifier

t 2

Tan 1 ( RC ) Tan 1 ( RC )

Vm sin e ( ) /(RC ) Vm sin(2 )


(sin )e ( 2 ) /(RC ) sin 0
=
Peak-to-peak

solved

numerically for

variation (ripple)

Vo Vm | Vm sin( 2 ) | Vm (1 sin )

In

practical circuits

minimal

where

RC


( 2 ) /( RC )
2 2

Vm e 2 /(RC )

Vo Vm Vm e /(RC ) Vm 1 e /(RC )

2
Vm 1 1

RC
2 Vm
Vm

RC fRC

by ZEN-15

t 2

output voltage occurs at

v0 ( 2 ) Vm e

Taylor Theory
ex 1

x x 2 x3
...
1 2 3

2f

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Battery Charger

To supply a dc source
from an ac source

The diode will remain


off as long as the
voltage of ac source is
less than dc voltage.

Diode starts to conduct


at t=. Given by,

39

For Vs>E, diode D conducts. The angle whwn the diode


starts conducting can be found from condition:
Vm sin = E
and

= arcsin(E/Vm)

Diode will be tirned off when Vs<E, at = -


40

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The average charging current:

I dc

1 Vm sin t E
d (t )
2
R

I dc

1
2 Vm cos 2 E E
2R

The rms battery current:

2
I rms

1 Vm sin t E

d (t )
2
R

I rms

1
2R 2

Vm2

V2
E 2 2 m sin 2 4Vm E cos

2
I rms I rms

Eficiency:

Pdc
2
; Pdc E I dc ; PR I rms
R
Pdc PR
41

FULL WAVE RECTIFIER


The

objective of full wave rectifier is to


produce a voltage or current which is purely
dc or has some specified dc component.
While the purpose of full wave rectifier is
basically the same as that of half-wave
rectifier, full wave rectifier have some
fundamental advantages.
The output of the full wave rectifier has
inherently less ripple than half wave rectifier.
42

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FULL WAVE RECTIFIER


Can

be as
Bridge rectifier
Center-tapped transformer

Center-tapped

rectifier requires
center-tap transformer. Bridge
does not.

Bridge Rectifier

Center

tap requires only two


diodes, compared to four for
bridge. Hence, per half-cycle only
one diode volt-drop is
experienced. Conduction losses is
half of bridge.
Center-tapped
Transformer Rectifier
43

The dc component of the output voltage is the


average value, and load current is simply
the resistor voltage divided by resistance.

1
2 Vm
V
sin
(

t
)
d
(

t
)

m
0

Vo ( dc ) 2 Vm

R
R

Vo ( dc )
I o ( dc)

44

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Bridge waveforms

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Center-tapped
waveforms

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Full-wave with R-C load (Ripple Voltage)

Ripple can be
approximated as:
Vm

Vo Vm

RC 2 fRC

the average output voltage:


V
Vo(dc) Vm o
2

The ripple factor:

RF

Vac
;
Vdc

where: Vac

Vo
; Vdc Vo(dc)
2 2
47

Fullwave Rectifier Battery Charger

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Key waveforms

49

The average charging current:

I dc

2 Vm sin t E
d (t )
2
R

2
2 Vm cos 2 E E
2R
1
2 Vm cos 2 E E
I dc
R
I dc

The rms battery current:

I rms

2 Vm sin t E

d (t )
2
R

2
I rms

2 Vm2
V2
E 2 2 m sin 2 4Vm E cos

2R 2 2
2

2
I rms

1
R 2

Vm2

V2
E 2 2 m sin 2 4Vm E cos

2
2

2
I rms I rms

Eficiency:

by ZEN-15

Pdc
2
; Pdc E I dc ; PR I rms
R
Pdc PR

50

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THREE PHASE UNCONTROLLED RECTIFIER

Edited by : M. Zaenal Efendi


51

THREE PHASE UNCONTROLLED RECTIFIER


Three phase rectifiers are commonly used in industry to
produce a dc voltage and current for large loads high
power levels output power in excess of 4 kW for a
220/380 AC system. They have several advantages to
offer compared with the single-phase diode rectifiers.
These include:
Lower output voltage ripple
No triple harmonics in a three-wire configuration
As already mentioned higher power handling capability
for a given supply-side voltage and current.
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Review on three phase voltage and current

Star connection

Vline VL L 3 VL N 3 V ph
I line I L I ph
53

Review on three phase voltage and current

Delta connection

Vline VL L VL N V ph
I line I L 3 I ph

54

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Delta-Star Transformer

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Delta-Delta Transformer

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POWER IN THREE PHASE SYSTEM

ACTIVE/TRUE POWER in LOAD


P 3 VL N I L Cos
P 3 VL L I L Cos
3 VL2 N
P
R
3 V ph2
P
R

57

POWER IN THREE PHASE SYSTEM

REACTIVE POWER in LOAD


Q 3 VL N I L Sin
Q 3 VL L I L Sin
Q
Q

3 VL2 N
X
3 V ph2
X

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POWER IN THREE PHASE SYSTEM

APPARENT POWER in LOAD


S 3 VL N I L
S 3 VL L I L
3 VL2 N
S
Z
3 V ph2
S
Z
59

3 Phase Half-wave Rectifier


This rectifier may be considered as 3
single phase halfwave rectifiers and can
be considered as a half-wave type. The kth diode will conduct during the period
when the voltage of k-th phase is higher
than other phases. The conduction period
of each diode is 2/3.

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61

Input and output voltage of 3 phase Half-wave Rectifier

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The average output voltage of 3 phase halfwave rectifier

Vo ( dc )

Vo ( dc )

Vm ( L N )
2 / 3
Vm ( L N )
2 / 3

cos t dt

sin t

Vm ( L N )

sin sin
2 / 3
3
3
V

m ( L N ) 2 sin
2 / 3
3

Vo ( dc )
Vo ( dc )

sin
Vo ( dc ) Vm ( L N )

3
63

The average output voltage of 3 phase halfwave rectifier

3
/3

sin
Vo ( dc ) Vm ( L N )
Vm ( L N )
Vo ( dc )
Vo ( dc )
Vo ( dc )

3
2

/3
3 3 Vs ,max( L N )

2
0.8274 Vs (max)( L N )

Vo ( dc ) 1.17 Vs ( rms )( L N )

64

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The rms output voltage of 3 phase halfwave rectifier

Vo ( rms )

2 /3 2

Vm cos 2 t d (t )

2 / 3 0

3 1
2
Vo ( rms ) Vm ( L N ) sin
3
2 3 2
Vo ( rms ) 0.841 Vs (max)( L N )

Vo ( rms ) 1.189 Vs ( rms )( L N )

65

The rms output current of 3 phase halfwave rectifier

I o ( rms )

Vo ( rms )
R

The rms input current of 3 phase halfwave rectifier

I s ( rms )

by ZEN-15

I o ( rms )

Vo ( rms )

3
3R
1.189 Vs ( rms )( L N )
3 R
0.687 Vs ( rms )( L N )
R

66

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Performance parameters
DC Output Power:

Po ( dc ) Vo ( dc ) I o ( dc)

AC Output Power: Po ( ac ) Vo ( rms ) I o ( rms )

Effiency:

Form Factor :

FF

Ripple Factor :

RF

Po ( dc )
Po ( ac )
Vo ( rms )
Vo ( dc )

Vac
;
Vo ( dc )

Vac Vo2( rms ) Vo2( dc )


2

Vo ( rms )
1 FF 2 1
RF
Vo ( dc )

67

Power Factor
PF
PF

Po ( ac )
S
Vo2( rms) / R
3 Vs ,rms( L N ) I s ( rms )

where:
Vs ,rms ( L N )

I s ( rms )

Vs , max(L N )
2

I o ( rms )
3

Vo ( rms )
3R

1.189Vs ,rms ( L N )
3R

0.687 Vs ,rms ( L N )
R
68

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Transformer Utilization Factor


TUF

Po ( dc)
VA
Vo2( dc) / R
3 Vs ,rms( L N ) I s ( rms)

where:
Vs ,rms ( L N )

I s ( rms )

Vs , max( L N )

I o ( rms )
3

Vo ( rms )
3R

1.189 Vs ,rms ( L N )
3R

0.687 Vs ,rms ( L N )
R

69

Example
The 3 phase halfwave rectifier is operated
from 380 V 50 Hz supply at secondary side
and the load resistance is R=20 . If the
source inductance is negligible,
Determine
(a) Rectification efficiency,
(b) Form factor
(c) Ripple factor
(d) Power Factor
(e) TUF
70

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Solution :
VS , rms( L N )

Vo ( dc )

380
219.63V 220V , Vs ,max, ( L N ) 220 * 2 311.1 V
3

3 3 Vs , max
0.827 Vs , max
2

Vo ( rms ) 0.8407 Vs ,max

Po ( dc)
Po ( ac)

FF

Vo ( rms)
Vo ( dc )

Vo ( dc) I o ( dc)
Vo ( rms ) I o ( rms )

I dc

3 3 Vs ,max 0.827 Vs ,max

2 R
R

I ( o ) rms

0.8407 Vs ,max
R

96.767 %

101.657 %

Vo2( rms ) Vo2( dc )


Vo2( rms )
Vac
RF

1 FF 2 1 18.28 %
Vdc
Vo ( dc )
Vo2( dc )
71

3-phase Full-wave rectifiers


3-phase bridge rectifier is very common in high-power
applications. This is a full-wave rectifier. It can operate
with or without a transformer and gives 6-pulse ripple on
the output voltage.

72

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Two series diode are always conducting (one feeds into


the circuit, the other forms the return path). The diodes
are numbered in order of conduction and each diode
conducts for 120o. The conduction sequence for diodes is
D1D2; D2D3; D3D4; D4D5; D5D6 and D6D1. The pair of
diodes which are connected between that pair of supply
lines having the highest amount of line-line voltage will
conduct.

Vlineline 3V ph

There are 6 combinations of VL-L. Considering one period


of the source to be 360o, a transition of the highest lineline voltage must take place 360o/6=60o.
Because of six transition that occur for each period of the
source voltage, the circuit is called A SIX-PULSE
RECTIFIER
73

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Input and output voltage of 3 phase Full-wave Rectifier

75

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3 phase full-wave average voltage


Considers only one of the six segments. Obtain its average
over 60 degres

Vo ( dc)

1
/3

2 / 3

m ,L L

/3

3Vm, L L

sin t d t

cos t 2/ 3/ 3

3
Vm , L L

0.955Vm , L L

77

3 phase full-wave average voltage


Vo ( dc ) 2 Vdc ( half wave )
2

2 / 6

/6

m,L N

cos t d t

3 3
Vm , L N

1.654 Vm , L N or

3
Vm , L L

0.955Vm , L L

78

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3 phase full-wave rms output voltage


/6

Vo( rms )

2
Vm2,L N cos 2 t d t
2 / 6 0

3 9 3
1.6554 Vm ,L N
Vm, L N

2 4

3 9 3
0.95575 Vm ,L L

3
2 4

Vm ,L L

3 phase full-wave rms output current

I o ( rms )

Vo ( rms )

Efficiency of 3 phase full-wave rectifier

Po ( dc )

Vo2( dc )
R

; Po ( ac )

Vo2( rms )
R

Po( dc )
Po( ac )

79

Power Factor
PF

Po ( ac )
S
Vo2( rms ) / R
3Vs , rms ( L N ) I s

or

Vo2( rms ) / R
3 Vs ,rms ( L L ) I s ,rms
I s ( rms )

where:
Vs , rms( L N )

Vm ( L N )
2

and
Vs , rms( L L )

8 /6 2

2
I m cos t d (t )

2 1
2
I s ( rms ) I m sin

2
6 2
I s ( rms ) 0.7804 I m ;

Vm ( L L )
2

where :

Im
Im

by ZEN-15

3 Vm ( L N )
R

; or

Vm ( L L )
R

80

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Transformer Utilization Factor


TUF

Po ( dc )
VA
Vo2( dc ) / R
3Vs , rms ( L N ) I s

or

Vo2( dc ) / R
3 Vs ,rms ( L L) I s ,rms
I s ( rms )

where:
Vs , rms( L N )

Vm ( L N )
2

and
Vs , rms( L L )

8 /6 2

2
I m cos t d (t )

2 1
2
I s ( rms ) I m sin
2
6 2

I s ( rms ) 0.7804 I m ;

Vm ( L L )
2

where :

Im
Im

3 Vm ( L N )
R

; or

Vm ( L L )
R

81

Example
The 3 phase full-wave rectifier is operated
from 380 V; 50 Hz supply and the load
resistance is R=20 . Determine
(a) The efficiency,
(b) Form factor
(c) Ripple factor
(d) Power factor
(e) TUF

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Solution :
Vo ( dc ) 0.955Vm, L L 513.14 V

I o ( dc )

Vo ( dc )
R

25.66 A

Vo ( rms ) 0.95575 Vm , L L 513.544 V


I o( rms )

Po( dc )
Po( ac )

RF

Vo( rms )
R

25.68 A

Vo ( dc ) I o ( dc )
Vo( rms) I o ( rms)

99.83 %

FF

Vo ( rms)
Vo ( dc)

100.08 %

Vo2( rms ) Vo2( dc )


V2
Vac

o (2rms ) 1 FF 2 1 4 %
Vdc
Vo ( dc )
Vo ( dc )
83

Homework
1.

A three phase halfwave rectifier is supplied by 380V-rms, 50Hz.


The primary and secondary of input transformer are connected
delta-wye and has turns ratio of n=3:1. The load is a 100 ohm.
Determine:
a. The average load current; b. The rms load current;
c. The rms source current; d. The power factor; e. Efficiency;
f. Form factor; g. Ripple factor; h. TUF

2.

A three phase fullwave rectifier is supplied by 380V-rms, 50Hz.


The primary and secondary of input transformer are connected
delta-delta and has turns ratio of n=3:1. The load is a 100 ohm.
Determine :
a. The average load current; b. The rms load current;
c. The rms source current; d. The power factor; e. Efficiency;
f. Form factor; g. Ripple factor; h. TUF
84

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Power Electronics
SINGLE PHASE CONTROLLED
AC TO DC RECTIFIER

Presented by : M. Zaenal Efendi


85

Block Diagram

+
AC
Input
Voltage

Line
Commutated
Converter

DC Output
V0(dc)
-

Type of input: Fixed voltage, fixed frequency ac


power supply.

Type of output: Variable dc output voltage

Type of commutation: Natural / AC line commutation


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Applications of
Phase Controlled Rectifiers

DC motor control in steel mills, paper and textile mills


employing dc motor drives.

AC fed traction system using dc traction motor.

Electro-chemical and electro-metallurgical processes.

Magnet power supplies.

Portable hand tool drives.

87

Classification of Phase
Controlled Rectifiers
Single Phase Controlled Rectifiers.
Three Phase Controlled Rectifiers.

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Single Phase Half-Wave Thyristor


Converter with a Resistive Load

89

The Controlled Half-wave Rectifier

Previously discussed are classified as uncontrolled


rectifiers.

Once the source and load parameters are established,


the dc level of the output and power transferred to the
load are fixed quantities.

A way to control the output is to use SCR instead of


diode. Two condition must be met before SCR can
conduct:
The SCR must be forward biased (VSCR>0)
Current must be applied to the gate of SCR

90

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Controlled, Half-wave R load


A gate signal is applied at t = , where is
the delay/firing angle.

91

Average load Voltage (D.C. Voltage)


DC Voltage

Maximum average (dc) o/p


voltage is obtained when 0
and the maximum dc output voltage
V
Vdc max Vdm m 1 cos0 ; cos 0 1
2
V
Vdc max Vdm m

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Control Characteristic

VO(dc)
Vdm

0.6Vdm

0.2 V dm
0

60

120

180

Trigger angle in degrees

93

Root Mean Square Values


The RMS output voltage is given by
1 2 2

VO RMS
vO .d t

2 0

Output voltage vO Vm sin t ; for t to


1

VO RMS

1
2
Vm2 sin 2 t.d t
2

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Root Mean Square Values

Average power absorbed by resistor,

Note: for = 0 VRMS = 0.5 Vm

P I 2 rms R

V 2 rms
R

where , V o , rms

RMS Current

For a resistive load VRMS = IRMS R

1
[V m sin( t )] 2 d ( t )
2 0
Vm
2

sin( 2 )

2
95

Performance Parameters

Pdc

Vm2
4 R

(1 cos ) 2

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Example 1
Design a circuit to produce an average voltage of
40V across 100 load resistor from a 120Vrms 50 Hz
ac source. Determine the power absorbed by the
resistor, efficiency, FF, RF and the power factor.

To obtain Vo=25% of Vdm, determine firing angle, FF,


RF, pF and TUF

97

Example 1 (Cont)

Solution
In such that to achieved 40V
average voltage, the delay angle
must be

Vs
[1 cos ]
2
120 2
40
[1 cos ]
2
61.2o 1.07 rad

Vo

Vo , rms

Vm
sin( 2 )
1
2

120 2
1 .07 sin 2 (1.07 )
1

2
75 .6V

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P
pf

V 2 rms 75.62

57.1W
R
100
57.1
0.63
75.6
(120)

100

If an uncontrolled diode is used,


the average voltage would be

Vo

Vs
2 (120)

54V

That means, some reducing


average resistor to the design must
be made. A series resistor or
inductor could be added to an
uncontrolled rectifier, while
controlled rectifier has advantage
of not altering the load or
introducing the losses
98

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06/11/2015

SINGLE PHASE:
FULL WAVE BRIDGE CONTROLLED
RECTIFIER
There are 2 types of FW Bridge Controlled Rectifiers:
1. Fully Controlled Bridge Converter
(Full Converter)
2. Half Controlled Bridge Converter
(Semi-Converter)

99

Single Phase Full Wave Controlled


Rectifier With R Load

100

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101

DC Output Voltage

VO dc Vdc

1
vO .d t
t0

VO dc Vdc
VO dc Vdc

1
Vm sin t.d t

Vm

cos t

Vm
cos cos ; cos 1

V
Vdc m 1 cos

VO dc Vdc
VO dc

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RMS Output Voltage

Vo ( rms )

1
Vm sin(t 2 d (t )

Vo ( rms )

Vm

2 1 cos 2 d (t )

1
t sin 2t
2

1
1

sin 2 sin 2
2
2

Vo ( rms )

Vm
2

Vo ( rms )

Vm
2

Vo( rms ) Vm

1
1 sin 2 1 sin 2
2
2
2

1
Vo( rms ) Vm
2 2
Vo( rms ) Vm

sin 2 sin 2

1 sin 2
sin 2

Vs ( rms ) 1
2 2
4

2
103

Power Electronics
THREE PHASE CONTROLLED
AC TO DC RECTIFIER

Presented by : M. Zaenal Efendi


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3 Phase Controlled Rectifiers

Operate from 3 phase ac supply voltage.

They provide higher dc output voltage.

Higher dc output power.

Higher output voltage ripple frequency.

Filtering requirements are simplified for smoothing out


load voltage and load current.

Extensively used in high power variable speed industrial


dc drives.

Three single phase half-wave converters can be


connected together to form a three phase half-wave
converter.

105
105

Vector Diagram of 3
Phase Supply Voltages

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3-pulse (Half Wave) Controlled Rectifier


With Resistive Load

107

Waveformes
V bn

V an

V cn

=0
=0

Vs
0
30

60

90

120

150

180 210

240

270

300 330

360

390

420

For R- Loads the current waveform is similar


to the voltage waveforms.
The FWD has no effect for small values of .

V bn

V an

For >30 the FWD sets the load voltage at 0

V cn

0
=15
=15

leading to higher DC output voltage.

V0

0
30

60

90

120

150

180 210

240

270

300 330

360

390

420

108

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Waveforms for different


V bn

Van

Vcn

=300
V0

0
0

30

60

90

120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420

V bn

Van

Vcn

=600
V0

30

60

90

=300

120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420

=600
t

109

Average Voltage (DC Voltage) >30

T1 is triggered at t 300
6

T1 conducts from 300 to 1800 ;


vO van Vm sin t
5

T2 is triggered at t
1500
6

T2 conducts from 1500 to 3000 ;


vO vbn Vm sin t 1200
110

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Average Voltage (DC Voltage)


0

180

3
Vdc vO.d t
2 300

vO van Vm sint; for t 300 to 1800


0

180

3
Vdc Vm sint.d t
2 300

180

3Vm
Vdc
sin t.d t
2 300

111

DC Output Voltage of 3-pulse (Half Wave) Controlled Rectifier

With Resistive Load

Vo ( dc )
Vo ( dc )
Vo ( dc )

180 o
3Vm ( L N )

cos t 30o
2
3Vm ( L N )

cos 180 o cos( 30o )


2
3Vm ( L N )

1 cos( 30 o )
2

112

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RMS Output Voltage of 3-pulse (HWR) Controlled Rectifier

With Resistive Load

Vo ( rms )

3
2

Vm2( L N ) sin 2 (t )d (t )

1
5

Vo ( rms ) 3 Vm ( L N )

sin 60o 2
24 4 8

113

The RMS input current of Half Wave Controlled Rectifier

I s ( rms )

I o ( rms )
3

Vo ( rms )
3R

So, we can calculate the power factor dan TUF of Half


Wave Controlled Rectifier
PF
PF

Po ( ac )
TUF

S
Vo2( rms ) / R
3 Vs ,rms ( L N ) I s ( rms )

Po ( dc)
VA
Vo2( dc ) / R
3 Vs , rms( L N ) I s ( rms)

114

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Three Phase Full Converter


(Full Wave Controlled Rectifier)

3 Phase Fully Controlled Full Wave Bridge


Converter.

Known as a 6-pulse converter.

Used in industrial applications up to 120kW


output power.

Two quadrant operation is possible.


115
115

Circuit Layout

116

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Circuit of Three Phase Full Converter

117

Waveforms

=0
118

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06/11/2015

Waveforms

= 30

119

Operation of the circuit

The thyristors are triggered at an interval of / 3.

The frequency of output ripple voltage is 6fS.

T1 is triggered at t = (/6 + ), T6 is already conducting


when T1 is turned ON.

During the interval (/6 + ) to (/2 + ), T1 and T6 conduct


together & the output load voltage is equal to vab = (van
vbn)

120
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Operation of the circuit

T2 is triggered at t = (/2 + ), T6 turns off naturally as it


is reverse biased as soon as T2 is triggered.

During the interval (/2 + ) to (5/6 + ), T1 and T2


conduct together & the output load voltage vO = vac = (van
vcn)

Thyristors are numbered in the order in which they are


triggered.

The thyristor triggering sequence is 12, 23, 34, 45, 56,


61, 12, 23, 34,

121

Sequence of Gate Pulses of Thyristor

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Table of the thyristor pair in conduction at any instant.

123

Three phase line voltages

The corresponding line-to-line


supply voltages are

vRY vab van vbn 3Vm sin t


6

vYB vbc vbn vcn 3Vm sin t


2

vBR vca vcn van 3Vm sin t


2

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DC output voltage

The output load voltage consists of 6 voltage pulses


over a period of 2 radians, Hence the average output
voltage is calculated as

VO dc Vdc

6
2

vO .d t ;

vO vab 3Vm sin t


6

125
125

DC Output Voltage of FULL WAVE Controlled Rectifier


With Resistive Load

Vo ( dc )

3 2


3 Vm ( L N ) sin(t ) d (t )
6
6

Vo ( dc )

3 3 Vm ( L N )

cos( )

or
Vo ( dc )

3Vm ( L L )

cos( )

The maximum dc voltage is given by

Vo ( dc ) max

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3 3Vm ( L N )

3Vm ( L L )

126

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RMS Output Voltage of Full Wave Controlled Rectifier


With Resistive Load

Vo ( rms )

3 2

3 Vm2( L N ) sin 2 (t ) d (t )

6
6

1 3 3

Vo ( rms ) 3 Vm ( L N )
cos 2
2 4

or
1 3 3

Vo ( rms ) Vm ( L L )
cos 2
2 4

127
127

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The RMS input current of Full Wave Controlled Rectifier

I s ( rms )

4
I o ( rms )
6

So, we can calculate the power factor dan TUF of


Full Wave Controlled Rectifier
PF

Po ( ac)

TUF

S
Vo2( rms ) / R
3Vs ,rms ( L N ) I s

or

Vo2( rms ) / R

3 Vs ,rms ( L L ) I s,rms

Po ( dc )
VA
Vo2( dc ) / R
3V s , rms ( L N ) I s

or

Vo2( dc ) / R
3 V s , rms ( L L ) I s , rms
129

Power Electronics

AC-AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER

RE-EDITED BY ZEN
ELIN
130

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06/11/2015

AC Voltage Controller
(RMS Voltage Controllers)
V0(RMS)
AC
Input
Voltage
fs

Vs
fs

AC
Voltage
Controller

Variable AC
RMS O/P Voltage
fS

131
131Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

Applications

Lighting / Illumination control in ac power circuits.


Induction heating.
Industrial heating & Domestic heating.
Transformer tap changing (on load transformer
tap changing).
Speed control of induction motors (single phase
and poly phase ac induction motor control).
AC magnet controls.
132

132Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

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Principle of AC Phase Control


Single Phase Full Wave AC Voltage Controller

133
133Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

Single Phase Full Wave


AC Voltage Controller using Triac

134
134Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

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135
135Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

The principle of operation for a single-phase ac voltage


controller using phase control is similar to the controlled
half-wave rectifier.
An analysis identical to that done for the controlled halfwave rectifier can be done on a half cycle for the voltage
controller. Then, by symmetry, the result can be
extrapolated to describe the operation for the entire period.
Some basic observations about cycloconverters are as
follows:
The SCRs cannot conduct simultaneously.
The load voltage is the same as the source voltage when either SCR is
on.
The load voltage is zero when both SCRs are off.

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Equations
Input supply voltage
vS Vm sin t 2VS sin t
Output voltage across the load resistor
vO vL Vm sin t ;
for t to & t to 2
137
137Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

Thyristor T1 is triggered at t
T2 is triggered at t
Output load current
v
V sin t
iO O m
I m sin t ;
RL
RL
for t to & t to 2
138
138Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

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To Derive an Expression for


the RMS Value of Output Voltage
The RMS value of output voltage
2
O RMS

2
L RMS

2
L

d t

For a FW ac voltage controller, we can see that two


half cycles of o/p voltage w.f. are symmetrical & o/p
pulse time period is radians. We can also calculate
the RMS o/p voltage by using the expression
139
139Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

VL2 RMS
2
L RMS

1
Vm 2 sin 2 t d t
0
1

2
2
v
L d t ;
0

vL vO Vm sin t ;
For t to & t to 2
140
140Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

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Hence VL2 RMS

1
2
2

V
sin

t
d

V
sin

t
d

m
m
2

2
2 2

2
2
V
sin

t
.
d

V
sin

t
.
d

Vm 2 1 cos 2 t
1 cos 2 t

2
2
2

141
141Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

2
2

Vm2

cos2

t
.
d

cos2

t
.
d

2 2

V2
m t
4

2
sin2t sin2t

2
2

2
m

V
4

1
1

sin2 sin2 sin4 sin2


2
2

V2
1
1

m 2 0 sin2 0 sin2
4
2
2

142
142Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

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Vm 2
4

Vm 2

4
Vm 2

sin 2 sin 2

2
2

sin 2 sin 2 2
2

2
2

sin 2 1

2 2 2 sin 2 .cos 2 cos 2 .sin 2


sin 2 0 & cos 2 1;
143

143Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

Therefore,
2
L RMS

VL2 RMS

Vm 2

sin 2 sin 2

2
2

Vm 2

2 sin 2
4
Vm 2

2 2 sin 2
4
144

144Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

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Taking the square root, we get


Vm

VL RMS

2
Vm

VL RMS

2 2 sin 2

2 2
Vm

VL RMS

2 2 sin 2

1
2 2 sin 2
2

145
145Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

VL RMS
VL RMS

Vm
2
Vm
2

1
2

1
sin 2

VL RMS Vi RMS
VL RMS V S


sin 2
2 2

1
sin 2

1
sin 2


2
146

146Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

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M axim um R M S voltage w ill be applied


to the load w hen 0, in that case the
full sine w ave appears across the load.
R M S load voltage w ill be the same as
the R M S supply voltage

Vm

2
W hen is increased th e R M S load
voltage decreases.
147
147Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

VL RMS
0

VL RMS

Vm

Vm

VL RMS
0

Vm 1
sin 2 0

2
2
1
0

2
2
2

Vi RMS VS
148

148Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

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Control Characteristic of Single Phase FW AC


Voltage Controller With Resistive Load

1
sin 2


2
V
Where VS m RMS value of
2
input supply voltage

VO RMS VS

149
149Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

150
150Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

by ZEN-15

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VO(RMS)
VS

0.6VS

0.2 VS
0

60

120

180

Trigger angle in degrees


151
151Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

Need for Isolation


G1
Gate
Trigger
Pulse
Generator

K1
G2
K2

Pulse Transformer
Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

by ZEN-15

152
152

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Problems in AC
Voltage Controllers

Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

153

A single phase full wave controller has an


input voltage of 120 V (RMS) and a load
resistance of 6 ohm. The firing angle of
thyristor is 90o. Find
RMS output voltage
Power output
Input power factor
If the output power decreases to 20%
of the maximum power, determine :
firing angle and Vo
154

154Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT

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90 0 , V S 120 V ,
R 6
2
R M S V alue of O utput V oltage

1
sin 2
VO V S
2

1
2

1
sin 180
V O 120

2
2


V O 84.85 V olts

1
2

155

RMS Output Current


VO 84.85

14.14 A
R
6
Load Power PO I O2 R
IO

PO 14.14 6 1200 watts


I/P Current is same as Load Current
I S I O 14.14 Amps
Input Supply Volt-Amp
VS I S 120 14.14 1696.8 VA
156

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Question
220 V and 2.2 kW heater is fed by a
phase AC chopper which is connected
AC grid.
a) Calculate the resistance of the heater
b) For =90, find load voltage and power
c) To obtain the output volatge 15
maximum voltage, determine the
angle.

by ZEN-15

single
220 V

% of
delay

79

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Find the RMS and average current flowing through the


heater shown in figure. The delay angle of both the
SCRs is 450.

io

SCR1
+

1-
220V
ac

SCR2

1 kW, 220V
heater

159

References
1.

2.

3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

Muh. H. Rashid, Power Electronics, Circuit, Devices and


Applications, Prentice Hall, 1993
Daniel W. Hart, Introduction to Power Electronics, Prentice
Hall, 1997
William Shepherd, Power Converter Circuits, Taylor&Francis,
2004
Mohd Shawal Jadin, Hand-out of Power Electronics
Yasser. G. Hegazy, Hand-out of Power Electronics
M. Madhusudhan Rao, , Hand-out of Power Electronics
Univ of Central Florida, Hand-out of Power Electronics

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