POWER ELECTRONICS
Presented by:
Moh. Zaenal Efendi (ZEN)
zenefendi@gmail.com
PENS JOSS
1
PART1
by ZEN15
06/11/2015
Generally:
Electronics: Solid State Electronics Devices and
their Driving Circuits.
Power: Static and Dynamic Requirements for
Generation, Conversion and Transmission of
Power.
Control: The Steady State and Dynamic Stability
of the Closed Loop system.
DEFINITION:
To convert, or to process and control the flow
of electric power by supplying voltages and
currents in a form that is optimally suited for
user loads.
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06/11/2015
Prestage
Filter
&
Rectify
Form of
electrical
energy
PE Circuit
Mostly
unregulate
d dc
voltage
Mostly ac line
voltage (single
or three phase)
Filter
&
Rectify
Output
Load
Form of elec. or
mechan. energy
Electrical
Mechanical
Could generate
undesirable
waveforms
Switch
Drives
Input
Post stage
Control
Circuit
Electrical Variable
Feedback
Mechanical Variable
Feedback
Interface between
control and power
circuits
Process feedback
signals and decide
on control
Applications
Static applications
involves nonrotating or moving mechanical
components.
Examples:
DC Power supply
Uninterruptible power supply, Power generation
and transmission
(HVDC), Electroplating, Welding, Heating,
Cooling, Electronic ballast
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Applications
Drive applications
contains
Other Applications
Electroplating, Welding
Photovoltaic Systems.
Heating, cooling
Windelectric systems.
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12VDC/220VAC
Power Inverter
12V/100W
Solar Panel
Charge Controller
12V Battery
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DC to DC: CHOPPER
DC to AC: INVERTER
AC to AC: CYCLOCONVERTER
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15
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Power Electronics
AC TO DC CONVERSION (RECTIFIER)
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Overview
Rectifiers
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Rectifiers
Applications:
DC
RootMeanSquares (RMS)
(.) 2
1
2
. dt
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( f ) 2 dt
Step 1:
Step 3:
1
2
(f)
2
2
(
f
)
d t
0
Concept of RMS
v2
25
Average of v2
t
v
Average
of v=0
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Performance parameters
Po ( dc ) Vo ( dc ) I o ( dc)
DC Output Power:
Effiency:
Form Factor :
FF
Ripple Factor :
RF
Po ( dc )
Po ( ac )
Vo ( rms )
Vo ( dc )
Vac
;
Vo ( dc )
Vo ( rms )
1 FF 2 1
RF
Vo ( dc )
27
Performance parameters
Transformer Ratio: a
Vs ( primer )
Vs ( sekunder
Po (dc )
Vs ( rms) I s ( rms)
Crest Factor:
CF
Vo (dc ) / R
Vs ( rms) Vo ( rms) / R
Vo (dc )
Vs ( rms) Vo (rms)
I s ( peak )
I s ( rms )
Power Factor :
2
Vo ( rms ) / R
Vo (rms ) / R
Vo ( rms )
P
pf
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SinglePhase Uncontrolled
HalfWave Rectifier
Resistor Load
Considering the diode is ideal, the voltage at Rload during forward biased is the positive cycle
of voltage source, while for negative biased, the
voltage is zero.
29
Resistor Load
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Output Voltage
T
Vavg Vo(dc)
Vm sin( t ) dt
2 0
Vo(dc)
Vm
0.318Vm
Vo(dc)
Vo(dc)
Vo(dc)
Vo(dc)
Vo(dc)
1
v(t)dt
T 0
1
Vm Sin t dt 0 dt
2 0
Vm
2
Vm
2
Vm
2
Vm
2
Vm
Cos t 0
Cos  (Cos 0)
((1) (1)
2
31
1
2
V
0
Vo ( rms )
sin(t d (t )
2
Vm
2
2 1 cos 2 d (t )
0
Vo ( rms )
Vm
1
t sin 2t
4
2
Vo ( rms )
Vm
4
Vo ( rms )
Vm
4
Vo ( rms )
1
1
sin 2 0 sin 0
2
2
Vm
2
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2 Vm
Vo Vm
RC fRC
RF
Vac
;
Vdc
where: Vac
Vo
; Vdc Vo(dc)
2 2
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t 2
Tan 1 ( RC ) Tan 1 ( RC )
solved
numerically for
variation (ripple)
Vo Vm  Vm sin( 2 )  Vm (1 sin )
In
practical circuits
minimal
where
RC
( 2 ) /( RC )
2 2
Vm e 2 /(RC )
Vo Vm Vm e /(RC ) Vm 1 e /(RC )
2
Vm 1 1
RC
2 Vm
Vm
RC fRC
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t 2
v0 ( 2 ) Vm e
Taylor Theory
ex 1
x x 2 x3
...
1 2 3
2f
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Battery Charger
To supply a dc source
from an ac source
39
= arcsin(E/Vm)
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I dc
1 Vm sin t E
d (t )
2
R
I dc
1
2 Vm cos 2 E E
2R
2
I rms
1 Vm sin t E
d (t )
2
R
I rms
1
2R 2
Vm2
V2
E 2 2 m sin 2 4Vm E cos
2
I rms I rms
Eficiency:
Pdc
2
; Pdc E I dc ; PR I rms
R
Pdc PR
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be as
Bridge rectifier
Centertapped transformer
Centertapped
rectifier requires
centertap transformer. Bridge
does not.
Bridge Rectifier
Center
1
2 Vm
V
sin
(
t
)
d
(
t
)
m
0
Vo ( dc ) 2 Vm
R
R
Vo ( dc )
I o ( dc)
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Bridge waveforms
45
Centertapped
waveforms
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Ripple can be
approximated as:
Vm
Vo Vm
RC 2 fRC
RF
Vac
;
Vdc
where: Vac
Vo
; Vdc Vo(dc)
2 2
47
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Key waveforms
49
I dc
2 Vm sin t E
d (t )
2
R
2
2 Vm cos 2 E E
2R
1
2 Vm cos 2 E E
I dc
R
I dc
I rms
2 Vm sin t E
d (t )
2
R
2
I rms
2 Vm2
V2
E 2 2 m sin 2 4Vm E cos
2R 2 2
2
2
I rms
1
R 2
Vm2
V2
E 2 2 m sin 2 4Vm E cos
2
2
2
I rms I rms
Eficiency:
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Pdc
2
; Pdc E I dc ; PR I rms
R
Pdc PR
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Star connection
Vline VL L 3 VL N 3 V ph
I line I L I ph
53
Delta connection
Vline VL L VL N V ph
I line I L 3 I ph
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DeltaStar Transformer
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DeltaDelta Transformer
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3 VL2 N
X
3 V ph2
X
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Vo ( dc )
Vo ( dc )
Vm ( L N )
2 / 3
Vm ( L N )
2 / 3
cos t dt
sin t
Vm ( L N )
sin sin
2 / 3
3
3
V
m ( L N ) 2 sin
2 / 3
3
Vo ( dc )
Vo ( dc )
sin
Vo ( dc ) Vm ( L N )
3
63
3
/3
sin
Vo ( dc ) Vm ( L N )
Vm ( L N )
Vo ( dc )
Vo ( dc )
Vo ( dc )
3
2
/3
3 3 Vs ,max( L N )
2
0.8274 Vs (max)( L N )
Vo ( dc ) 1.17 Vs ( rms )( L N )
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Vo ( rms )
2 /3 2
Vm cos 2 t d (t )
2 / 3 0
3 1
2
Vo ( rms ) Vm ( L N ) sin
3
2 3 2
Vo ( rms ) 0.841 Vs (max)( L N )
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I o ( rms )
Vo ( rms )
R
I s ( rms )
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I o ( rms )
Vo ( rms )
3
3R
1.189 Vs ( rms )( L N )
3 R
0.687 Vs ( rms )( L N )
R
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Performance parameters
DC Output Power:
Po ( dc ) Vo ( dc ) I o ( dc)
Effiency:
Form Factor :
FF
Ripple Factor :
RF
Po ( dc )
Po ( ac )
Vo ( rms )
Vo ( dc )
Vac
;
Vo ( dc )
Vo ( rms )
1 FF 2 1
RF
Vo ( dc )
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Power Factor
PF
PF
Po ( ac )
S
Vo2( rms) / R
3 Vs ,rms( L N ) I s ( rms )
where:
Vs ,rms ( L N )
I s ( rms )
Vs , max(L N )
2
I o ( rms )
3
Vo ( rms )
3R
1.189Vs ,rms ( L N )
3R
0.687 Vs ,rms ( L N )
R
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Po ( dc)
VA
Vo2( dc) / R
3 Vs ,rms( L N ) I s ( rms)
where:
Vs ,rms ( L N )
I s ( rms )
Vs , max( L N )
I o ( rms )
3
Vo ( rms )
3R
1.189 Vs ,rms ( L N )
3R
0.687 Vs ,rms ( L N )
R
69
Example
The 3 phase halfwave rectifier is operated
from 380 V 50 Hz supply at secondary side
and the load resistance is R=20 . If the
source inductance is negligible,
Determine
(a) Rectification efficiency,
(b) Form factor
(c) Ripple factor
(d) Power Factor
(e) TUF
70
by ZEN15
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Solution :
VS , rms( L N )
Vo ( dc )
380
219.63V 220V , Vs ,max, ( L N ) 220 * 2 311.1 V
3
3 3 Vs , max
0.827 Vs , max
2
Po ( dc)
Po ( ac)
FF
Vo ( rms)
Vo ( dc )
Vo ( dc) I o ( dc)
Vo ( rms ) I o ( rms )
I dc
2 R
R
I ( o ) rms
0.8407 Vs ,max
R
96.767 %
101.657 %
1 FF 2 1 18.28 %
Vdc
Vo ( dc )
Vo2( dc )
71
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Vlineline 3V ph
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75
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Vo ( dc)
1
/3
2 / 3
m ,L L
/3
3Vm, L L
sin t d t
cos t 2/ 3/ 3
3
Vm , L L
0.955Vm , L L
77
2 / 6
/6
m,L N
cos t d t
3 3
Vm , L N
1.654 Vm , L N or
3
Vm , L L
0.955Vm , L L
78
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Vo( rms )
2
Vm2,L N cos 2 t d t
2 / 6 0
3 9 3
1.6554 Vm ,L N
Vm, L N
2 4
3 9 3
0.95575 Vm ,L L
3
2 4
Vm ,L L
I o ( rms )
Vo ( rms )
Po ( dc )
Vo2( dc )
R
; Po ( ac )
Vo2( rms )
R
Po( dc )
Po( ac )
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Power Factor
PF
Po ( ac )
S
Vo2( rms ) / R
3Vs , rms ( L N ) I s
or
Vo2( rms ) / R
3 Vs ,rms ( L L ) I s ,rms
I s ( rms )
where:
Vs , rms( L N )
Vm ( L N )
2
and
Vs , rms( L L )
8 /6 2
2
I m cos t d (t )
2 1
2
I s ( rms ) I m sin
2
6 2
I s ( rms ) 0.7804 I m ;
Vm ( L L )
2
where :
Im
Im
by ZEN15
3 Vm ( L N )
R
; or
Vm ( L L )
R
80
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Po ( dc )
VA
Vo2( dc ) / R
3Vs , rms ( L N ) I s
or
Vo2( dc ) / R
3 Vs ,rms ( L L) I s ,rms
I s ( rms )
where:
Vs , rms( L N )
Vm ( L N )
2
and
Vs , rms( L L )
8 /6 2
2
I m cos t d (t )
2 1
2
I s ( rms ) I m sin
2
6 2
I s ( rms ) 0.7804 I m ;
Vm ( L L )
2
where :
Im
Im
3 Vm ( L N )
R
; or
Vm ( L L )
R
81
Example
The 3 phase fullwave rectifier is operated
from 380 V; 50 Hz supply and the load
resistance is R=20 . Determine
(a) The efficiency,
(b) Form factor
(c) Ripple factor
(d) Power factor
(e) TUF
82
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Solution :
Vo ( dc ) 0.955Vm, L L 513.14 V
I o ( dc )
Vo ( dc )
R
25.66 A
Po( dc )
Po( ac )
RF
Vo( rms )
R
25.68 A
Vo ( dc ) I o ( dc )
Vo( rms) I o ( rms)
99.83 %
FF
Vo ( rms)
Vo ( dc)
100.08 %
o (2rms ) 1 FF 2 1 4 %
Vdc
Vo ( dc )
Vo ( dc )
83
Homework
1.
2.
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Power Electronics
SINGLE PHASE CONTROLLED
AC TO DC RECTIFIER
Block Diagram
+
AC
Input
Voltage
Line
Commutated
Converter
DC Output
V0(dc)

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Applications of
Phase Controlled Rectifiers
87
Classification of Phase
Controlled Rectifiers
Single Phase Controlled Rectifiers.
Three Phase Controlled Rectifiers.
88
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89
90
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91
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Control Characteristic
VO(dc)
Vdm
0.6Vdm
0.2 V dm
0
60
120
180
93
VO RMS
vO .d t
2 0
VO RMS
1
2
Vm2 sin 2 t.d t
2
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P I 2 rms R
V 2 rms
R
where , V o , rms
RMS Current
1
[V m sin( t )] 2 d ( t )
2 0
Vm
2
sin( 2 )
2
95
Performance Parameters
Pdc
Vm2
4 R
(1 cos ) 2
96
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Example 1
Design a circuit to produce an average voltage of
40V across 100 load resistor from a 120Vrms 50 Hz
ac source. Determine the power absorbed by the
resistor, efficiency, FF, RF and the power factor.
97
Example 1 (Cont)
Solution
In such that to achieved 40V
average voltage, the delay angle
must be
Vs
[1 cos ]
2
120 2
40
[1 cos ]
2
61.2o 1.07 rad
Vo
Vo , rms
Vm
sin( 2 )
1
2
120 2
1 .07 sin 2 (1.07 )
1
2
75 .6V
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P
pf
V 2 rms 75.62
57.1W
R
100
57.1
0.63
75.6
(120)
100
Vo
Vs
2 (120)
54V
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SINGLE PHASE:
FULL WAVE BRIDGE CONTROLLED
RECTIFIER
There are 2 types of FW Bridge Controlled Rectifiers:
1. Fully Controlled Bridge Converter
(Full Converter)
2. Half Controlled Bridge Converter
(SemiConverter)
99
100
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101
DC Output Voltage
VO dc Vdc
1
vO .d t
t0
VO dc Vdc
VO dc Vdc
1
Vm sin t.d t
Vm
cos t
Vm
cos cos ; cos 1
V
Vdc m 1 cos
VO dc Vdc
VO dc
102
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Vo ( rms )
1
Vm sin(t 2 d (t )
Vo ( rms )
Vm
2 1 cos 2 d (t )
1
t sin 2t
2
1
1
sin 2 sin 2
2
2
Vo ( rms )
Vm
2
Vo ( rms )
Vm
2
Vo( rms ) Vm
1
1 sin 2 1 sin 2
2
2
2
1
Vo( rms ) Vm
2 2
Vo( rms ) Vm
sin 2 sin 2
1 sin 2
sin 2
Vs ( rms ) 1
2 2
4
2
103
Power Electronics
THREE PHASE CONTROLLED
AC TO DC RECTIFIER
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105
105
Vector Diagram of 3
Phase Supply Voltages
106
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107
Waveformes
V bn
V an
V cn
=0
=0
Vs
0
30
60
90
120
150
180 210
240
270
300 330
360
390
420
V bn
V an
V cn
0
=15
=15
V0
0
30
60
90
120
150
180 210
240
270
300 330
360
390
420
108
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Van
Vcn
=300
V0
0
0
30
60
90
120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420
V bn
Van
Vcn
=600
V0
30
60
90
=300
120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 390 420
=600
t
109
T1 is triggered at t 300
6
T2 is triggered at t
1500
6
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180
3
Vdc vO.d t
2 300
180
3
Vdc Vm sint.d t
2 300
180
3Vm
Vdc
sin t.d t
2 300
111
Vo ( dc )
Vo ( dc )
Vo ( dc )
180 o
3Vm ( L N )
cos t 30o
2
3Vm ( L N )
1 cos( 30 o )
2
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Vo ( rms )
3
2
Vm2( L N ) sin 2 (t )d (t )
1
5
Vo ( rms ) 3 Vm ( L N )
sin 60o 2
24 4 8
113
I s ( rms )
I o ( rms )
3
Vo ( rms )
3R
Po ( ac )
TUF
S
Vo2( rms ) / R
3 Vs ,rms ( L N ) I s ( rms )
Po ( dc)
VA
Vo2( dc ) / R
3 Vs , rms( L N ) I s ( rms)
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Circuit Layout
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117
Waveforms
=0
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Waveforms
= 30
119
120
120
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121
122
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123
124
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DC output voltage
VO dc Vdc
6
2
vO .d t ;
125
125
Vo ( dc )
3 2
3 Vm ( L N ) sin(t ) d (t )
6
6
Vo ( dc )
3 3 Vm ( L N )
cos( )
or
Vo ( dc )
3Vm ( L L )
cos( )
Vo ( dc ) max
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3 3Vm ( L N )
3Vm ( L L )
126
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Vo ( rms )
3 2
3 Vm2( L N ) sin 2 (t ) d (t )
6
6
1 3 3
Vo ( rms ) 3 Vm ( L N )
cos 2
2 4
or
1 3 3
Vo ( rms ) Vm ( L L )
cos 2
2 4
127
127
128
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I s ( rms )
4
I o ( rms )
6
Po ( ac)
TUF
S
Vo2( rms ) / R
3Vs ,rms ( L N ) I s
or
Vo2( rms ) / R
3 Vs ,rms ( L L ) I s,rms
Po ( dc )
VA
Vo2( dc ) / R
3V s , rms ( L N ) I s
or
Vo2( dc ) / R
3 V s , rms ( L L ) I s , rms
129
Power Electronics
REEDITED BY ZEN
ELIN
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AC Voltage Controller
(RMS Voltage Controllers)
V0(RMS)
AC
Input
Voltage
fs
Vs
fs
AC
Voltage
Controller
Variable AC
RMS O/P Voltage
fS
131
131Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT
Applications
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133
133Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT
134
134Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT
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135
135Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT
136
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Equations
Input supply voltage
vS Vm sin t 2VS sin t
Output voltage across the load resistor
vO vL Vm sin t ;
for t to & t to 2
137
137Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT
Thyristor T1 is triggered at t
T2 is triggered at t
Output load current
v
V sin t
iO O m
I m sin t ;
RL
RL
for t to & t to 2
138
138Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT
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2
L RMS
2
L
d t
VL2 RMS
2
L RMS
1
Vm 2 sin 2 t d t
0
1
2
2
v
L d t ;
0
vL vO Vm sin t ;
For t to & t to 2
140
140Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT
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1
2
2
V
sin
t
d
V
sin
t
d
m
m
2
2
2 2
2
2
V
sin
t
.
d
V
sin
t
.
d
Vm 2 1 cos 2 t
1 cos 2 t
2
2
2
141
141Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT
2
2
Vm2
cos2
t
.
d
cos2
t
.
d
2 2
V2
m t
4
2
sin2t sin2t
2
2
2
m
V
4
1
1
V2
1
1
m 2 0 sin2 0 sin2
4
2
2
142
142Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT
by ZEN15
71
06/11/2015
Vm 2
4
Vm 2
4
Vm 2
sin 2 sin 2
2
2
sin 2 sin 2 2
2
2
2
sin 2 1
Therefore,
2
L RMS
VL2 RMS
Vm 2
sin 2 sin 2
2
2
Vm 2
2 sin 2
4
Vm 2
2 2 sin 2
4
144
by ZEN15
72
06/11/2015
VL RMS
2
Vm
VL RMS
2 2 sin 2
2 2
Vm
VL RMS
2 2 sin 2
1
2 2 sin 2
2
145
145Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT
VL RMS
VL RMS
Vm
2
Vm
2
1
2
1
sin 2
VL RMS Vi RMS
VL RMS V S
sin 2
2 2
1
sin 2
1
sin 2
2
146
by ZEN15
73
06/11/2015
Vm
2
W hen is increased th e R M S load
voltage decreases.
147
147Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT
VL RMS
0
VL RMS
Vm
Vm
VL RMS
0
Vm 1
sin 2 0
2
2
1
0
2
2
2
Vi RMS VS
148
by ZEN15
74
06/11/2015
1
sin 2
2
V
Where VS m RMS value of
2
input supply voltage
VO RMS VS
149
149Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT
150
150Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT
by ZEN15
75
06/11/2015
VO(RMS)
VS
0.6VS
0.2 VS
0
60
120
180
K1
G2
K2
Pulse Transformer
Prof. M. Madhusudhan Rao, E&C Dept., MSRIT
by ZEN15
152
152
76
06/11/2015
Problems in AC
Voltage Controllers
153
by ZEN15
77
06/11/2015
90 0 , V S 120 V ,
R 6
2
R M S V alue of O utput V oltage
1
sin 2
VO V S
2
1
2
1
sin 180
V O 120
2
2
V O 84.85 V olts
1
2
155
14.14 A
R
6
Load Power PO I O2 R
IO
by ZEN15
78
06/11/2015
Question
220 V and 2.2 kW heater is fed by a
phase AC chopper which is connected
AC grid.
a) Calculate the resistance of the heater
b) For =90, find load voltage and power
c) To obtain the output volatge 15
maximum voltage, determine the
angle.
by ZEN15
single
220 V
% of
delay
79
06/11/2015
io
SCR1
+
1
220V
ac
SCR2
1 kW, 220V
heater
159
References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
160
by ZEN15
80
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